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Sample records for susceptibility region auts5

  1. Differential susceptibility of brain regions to tributyltin chloride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Siddiqui, Waseem A; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is an omnipresent environmental pollutant and is explicitly used in many industrial applications. Previously we have shown its neurotoxic potential on cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats. As the effect of TBT on other brain regions is not known, we planned this study to evaluate its effect on four brain regions (cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and striatum). Four-week-old male Wistar rats were gavaged with a single dose of TBT-chloride (TBTC) (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) and sacrificed on days 3 and 7, respectively. Effect of TBTC on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and tin (Sn) accumulation were measured. Oxidative stress indexes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation were analyzed as they play an imperative role in various neuropathological conditions. Since metal catalyzed reactions are a major source of oxidant generation, levels of essential metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and calcium (Ca) were estimated. We found that TBTC disrupted BBB and increased Sn accumulation, both of which appear significantly correlated. Altered metal homeostasis and ROS generation accompanied by elevated lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation indicated oxidative damage which appeared more pronounced in the striatum than in cerebellum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. This could be associated to the depleted GSH levels in striatum. These results suggest that striatum is more susceptible to TBTC induced oxidative damage as compared with other brain regions under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

  3. Landslide susceptibility zonation in part of Tehri reservoir region ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Validation of the model was performed by using cumulative ..... thrusts, folds and joints of varying shape and size ...... Lee S, Choi J and Min K 2002 Landslide susceptibility analy- ... cross-validation in three test areas using a frequency.

  4. Landslide susceptibility zonation in part of Tehri reservoir region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuzzy logic; landslide susceptibility; frequency ratio. ... zones using landslide frequency ratio and fuzzy logic in GIS environment is presented for Tehri ... Temporal remote sensing data was used to prepare important landslide causative factor ...

  5. GIS Supported Landslide Susceptibility Modeling at Regional Scale: An Expert-Based Fuzzy Weighting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is landslide susceptibility assessment using fuzzy expert-based modeling. Factors that influence landslide occurrence, such as elevation, slope, aspect, lithology, land cover, precipitation and seismicity were considered. Expert-based fuzzy weighting (EFW approach was used to combine these factors for landslide susceptibility mapping (Peloponnese, Greece. This method produced a landslide susceptibility map of the investigated area. The landslides under investigation have more or less same characteristics: lateral based and downslope shallow movement of soils or rocks. The validation of the model reveals, that predicted susceptibility levels are found to be in good agreement with the past landslide occurrences. Hence, the obtained landslide susceptibility map could be acceptable, for landslide hazard prevention and mitigation at regional scale.

  6. A preliminary regional assessment of earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for Vrancea Seismic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Mihai; Balteanu, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Havenith, Hans; Radulian, Mircea; van Westen, Cees; Damen, Michiel; Jurchescu, Marta

    2015-04-01

    ) with head scarps near mountain tops and close to faults is similar to the one of large mass movements for which a seismic origin is proved (such as in the Tien Shan, Pamir, Longmenshan, etc.). Thus, correlations between landslide occurrence and combined seismotectonic and climatic factors are needed to support a regional multi-hazard risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to harmonize for the first time at a regional scale the landslide predisposing factors and seismotectonic triggers and to present a first qualitative insight into the earthquake-induced landslide susceptibility for the Vrancea Seismic Region in terms of a GIS-based analysis of Newmark displacement (ND). In this way, it aims at better defining spatial and temporal distribution patterns of earthquake-triggered landslides. Arias Intensity calculation involved in the assessment considers both regional seismic hazard aspects and singular earthquake scenarios (adjusted by topography amplification factors). The known distribution of landslides mapped through digital stereographic interpretation of high-resolution aerial photos is compared with digital active fault maps and the computed ND maps to statistically outline the seismotectonic influence on slope stability in the study area. The importance of this approach resides in two main outputs. The fist one, of a fundamental nature, by providing the first regional insight into the seismic landslides triggering framework, is allowing us to understand if deep-focus earthquakes may trigger massive slope failures in an area with a relatively smooth relief (compared to the high mountain regions in Central Asia, the Himalayas), considering possible geologic and topographic site effects. The second one, more applied, will allow a better accelerometer instrumentation and monitoring of slopes and also will provide a first correlation of different levels of seismic shaking with precipitation recurrences, an important relationship within a multi-hazard risk

  7. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken

    2010-02-01

    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  8. Integrating Expert Knowledge with Statistical Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Chalkias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integration landslide susceptibility model by combining expert-based and bivariate statistical analysis (Landslide Susceptibility Index—LSI approaches is presented. Factors related with the occurrence of landslides—such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, land cover, Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA—were analyzed within a GIS environment. This integrated model produced a landslide susceptibility map which categorized the study area according to the probability level of landslide occurrence. The accuracy of the final map was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis depending on an independent (validation dataset of landslide events. The prediction ability was found to be 76% revealing that the integration of statistical analysis with human expertise can provide an acceptable landslide susceptibility assessment at regional scale.

  9. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  10. Novel non-HLA-susceptible regions determined by meta-analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We identified novel non-HLA-susceptible regions for ankylosing spondylitis (AS) by applying the genome-search-meta-analysis (GSMA) method to combine the previous four AS genomewide scan studies including 479 families with 1175 affected individuals. Three original genomescans were mainly analysed for Caucasian ...

  11. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C. M.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  12. Background field removal using a region adaptive kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jinsheng; Bao, Lijun; Li, Xu; van Zijl, Peter C M; Chen, Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Background field removal is an important MR phase preprocessing step for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). It separates the local field induced by tissue magnetic susceptibility sources from the background field generated by sources outside a region of interest, e.g. brain, such as air-tissue interface. In the vicinity of air-tissue boundary, e.g. skull and paranasal sinuses, where large susceptibility variations exist, present background field removal methods are usually insufficient and these regions often need to be excluded by brain mask erosion at the expense of losing information of local field and thus susceptibility measures in these regions. In this paper, we propose an extension to the variable-kernel sophisticated harmonic artifact reduction for phase data (V-SHARP) background field removal method using a region adaptive kernel (R-SHARP), in which a scalable spherical Gaussian kernel (SGK) is employed with its kernel radius and weights adjustable according to an energy "functional" reflecting the magnitude of field variation. Such an energy functional is defined in terms of a contour and two fitting functions incorporating regularization terms, from which a curve evolution model in level set formation is derived for energy minimization. We utilize it to detect regions of with a large field gradient caused by strong susceptibility variation. In such regions, the SGK will have a small radius and high weight at the sphere center in a manner adaptive to the voxel energy of the field perturbation. Using the proposed method, the background field generated from external sources can be effectively removed to get a more accurate estimation of the local field and thus of the QSM dipole inversion to map local tissue susceptibility sources. Numerical simulation, phantom and in vivo human brain data demonstrate improved performance of R-SHARP compared to V-SHARP and RESHARP (regularization enabled SHARP) methods, even when the whole paranasal sinus regions

  13. Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Liu, Saifeng; Fan, Linlin; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinping; Zuo, Chao; Qian, Tianyi; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing . 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO 2 , clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO 2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 did not correlate with MMSE scores (P = 0.630). In summary, the decreased deep regional cerebral SvO 2 occurred in hemodialysis patients and dialysis duration, parathyroid hormone, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell may be clinical risk factors.

  14. Susceptibility and triggering scenarios at a regional scale for shallow landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullà, G.; Antronico, L.; Iaquinta, P.; Terranova, O.

    2008-07-01

    The work aims at identifying susceptible areas and pluviometric triggering scenarios at a regional scale in Calabria (Italy), with reference to shallow landsliding events. The proposed methodology follows a statistical approach and uses a database linked to a GIS that has been created to support the various steps of spatial data management and manipulation. The shallow landslide predisposing factors taken into account are derived from (i) the 40-m digital terrain model of the region, an ˜ 15,075 km 2 extension; (ii) outcropping lithology; (iii) soils; and (iv) land use. More precisely, a map of the slopes has been drawn from the digital terrain model. Two kinds of covers [prevalently coarse-grained (CG cover) or fine-grained (FG cover)] were identified, referring to the geotechnical characteristics of geomaterial covers and to the lithology map; soilscapes were drawn from soil maps; and finally, the land use map was employed without any prior processing. Subsequently, the inventory maps of some shallow landsliding events, totaling more than 30,000 instabilities of the past and detected by field surveys and photo aerial restitution, were employed to calibrate the relative importance of these predisposing factors. The use of single factors (first level analysis) therefore provides three different susceptibility maps. Second level analysis, however, enables better location of areas susceptible to shallow landsliding events by crossing the single susceptibility maps. On the basis of the susceptibility map obtained by the second level analysis, five different classes of susceptibility to shallow landsliding events have been outlined over the regional territory: 8.9% of the regional territory shows very high susceptibility, 14.3% high susceptibility, 15% moderate susceptibility, 3.6% low susceptibility, and finally, about 58% very low susceptibility. Finally, the maps of two significant shallow landsliding events of the past and their related rainfalls have been

  15. Circuit-wide Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Brain Region-Specific Gene Networks Regulating Depression Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Cates, Hannah M; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Lorsch, Zachary S; Walker, Deena M; Wang, Junshi; Huang, Xiaojie; Schlüter, Oliver M; Maze, Ian; Peña, Catherine J; Heller, Elizabeth A; Issler, Orna; Wang, Minghui; Song, Won-Min; Stein, Jason L; Liu, Xiaochuan; Doyle, Marie A; Scobie, Kimberly N; Sun, Hao Sheng; Neve, Rachael L; Geschwind, Daniel; Dong, Yan; Shen, Li; Zhang, Bin; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Depression is a complex, heterogeneous disorder and a leading contributor to the global burden of disease. Most previous research has focused on individual brain regions and genes contributing to depression. However, emerging evidence in humans and animal models suggests that dysregulated circuit function and gene expression across multiple brain regions drive depressive phenotypes. Here, we performed RNA sequencing on four brain regions from control animals and those susceptible or resilient to chronic social defeat stress at multiple time points. We employed an integrative network biology approach to identify transcriptional networks and key driver genes that regulate susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms. Further, we validated in vivo several key drivers and their associated transcriptional networks that regulate depression susceptibility and confirmed their functional significance at the levels of gene transcription, synaptic regulation, and behavior. Our study reveals novel transcriptional networks that control stress susceptibility and offers fundamentally new leads for antidepressant drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  17. Landslide susceptibility assessment of SE Bartin (West Black Sea region, Turkey by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ercanoglu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are significant natural hazards in Turkey, second only to earthquakes with respect to economic losses and casualties. The West Black Sea region of Turkey is known as one of the most landslide-prone regions in the country. The work presented in this paper is aimed at evaluating landslide susceptibility in a selected area in the West Black Sea region using Artificial Neural Network (ANN method. A total of 317 landslides were identified and mapped in the area by extensive field work and by use of air photo interpretations to build a landslide inventory map. A landslide database was then derived automatically from the landslide inventory map. To evaluate landslide susceptibility, six input parameters (slope angle, slope aspect, topographical elevation, topographical shape, wetness index, and vegetation index were used. To obtain maps of these parameters, Digital Elevation Model (DEM and ASTER satellite imagery of the study area were used. At the first stage, all data were normalized in [0, 1] interval, and parameter effects on landslide occurrence were expressed using Statistical Index values (Wi. Then, landslide susceptibility analyses were performed using an ANN. Finally, performance of the resulting map and the applied methodology is discussed relative to performance indicators, such as predicted areal extent of landslides and the strength of relation (rij value. Much of the areal extents of the landslides (87.2% were classified as susceptible to landsliding, and rij value of 0.85 showed a high degree of similarity. In addition to these, at the final stage, an independent validation strategy was followed by dividing the landslide data set into two parts and 82.5% of the validation data set was found to be correctly classified as landslide susceptible areas. According to these results, it is concluded that the map produced by the ANN is reliable and methodology applied in the study produced high performance, and satisfactory results.

  18. Identification of a herpes simplex labialis susceptibility region on human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Maurine R; Jones, Brandt B; Otterud, Brith E; Leppert, Mark; Kriesel, John D

    2008-02-01

    Most of the United States population is infected with either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, or both. Reactivations of HSV-1 infection cause herpes simplex labialis (HSL; cold sores or fever blisters), which is the most common recurring viral infection in humans. To investigate the possibility of a human genetic component conferring resistance or susceptibility to cold sores (i.e., a HSL susceptibility gene), we conducted a genetic linkage analysis that included serotyping and phenotyping 421 individuals from 39 families enrolled in the Utah Genetic Reference Project. Linkage analysis identified a 2.5-Mb nonrecombinant region of interest on the long arm of human chromosome 21, with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 3.9 noted near marker abmc65 (D21S409). Nonparametric linkage analysis of the data also provided strong evidence for linkage (P = .0005). This region of human chromosome 21 contains 6 candidate genes for herpes susceptibility. The development of frequent cold sores is associated with a region on the long arm of human chromosome 21. This region contains several candidate genes that could influence the frequency of outbreaks of HSL.

  19. GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for the 2005 Kashmir earthquake region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Ulrich; Growley, Benjamin J.; Khattak, Ghazanfar A.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2008-11-01

    The Mw 7.6 October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake triggered several thousand landslides throughout the Himalaya of northern Pakistan and India. These were concentrated in six different geomorphic-geologic-anthropogenic settings. A spatial database, which included 2252 landslides, was developed and analyzed using ASTER satellite imagery and geographical information system (GIS) technology. A multi-criterion evaluation was applied to determine the significance of event-controlling parameters in triggering the landslides. The parameters included lithology, faults, slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, land cover, rivers and roads. The results showed four classes of landslide susceptibility. Furthermore, they indicated that lithology had the strongest influence on landsliding, particularly when the rock is highly fractured, such as in shale, slate, clastic sediments, and limestone and dolomite. Moreover, the proximity of the landslides to faults, rivers, and roads was also an important factor in helping to initiate failures. In addition, landslides occurred particularly in moderate elevations on south facing slopes. Shrub land, grassland, and also agricultural land were highly susceptible to failures, while forested slopes had few landslides. One-third of the study area was highly or very highly susceptible to future landsliding and requires immediate mitigation action. The rest of the region had a low or moderate susceptibility to landsliding and remains relatively stable. This study supports the view that (1) earthquake-triggered landslides are concentrated in specific zones associated with event-controlling parameters; and (2) in the western Himalaya deforestation and road construction contributed significantly to landsliding during and shortly after earthquakes.

  20. Debris flow susceptibility assessment based on an empirical approach in the central region of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinhang; Lee, Seung-Rae

    2018-05-01

    Many debris flow spreading analyses have been conducted during recent decades to prevent damage from debris flows. An empirical approach that has been used in various studies on debris flow spreading has advantages such as simple data acquisition and good applicability for large areas. In this study, a GIS-based empirical model that was developed at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) is used to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Study sites are classified based on the types of soil texture or geological conditions, which can indirectly consider geotechnical or rheological properties, to supplement the weaknesses of Flow-R which neglects local controlling factors. The mean travel angle for each classification is calculated from a debris flow inventory map. The debris flow susceptibility is assessed based on changes in the flow-direction algorithm, an inertial function with a 5-m DEM resolution. A simplified friction-limited model was applied to the runout distance analysis by using the appropriate travel angle for the corresponding classification with a velocity limit of 28 m/s. The most appropriate algorithm combinations that derived the highest average of efficiency and sensitivity for each classification are finally determined by applying a confusion matrix with the efficiency and the sensitivity to the results of the susceptibility assessment. The proposed schemes can be useful for debris flow susceptibility assessment in both the study area and the central region of Korea, which has similar environmental factors such as geological conditions, topography and rainfall characteristics to the study area.

  1. Polarized dependence of nonlinear susceptibility in a single layer graphene system in infrared region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solookinejad, G., E-mail: ghsolooki@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of a single-layer graphene nanostructure driven by a weak probe light and an elliptical polarized coupling field is discussed theoretically. The Landau levels of graphene can be separated in infrared or terahertz regions under the strong magnetic field. Therefore, by using the density matrix formalism in quantum optic, the linear and nonlinear susceptibility of the medium can be derived. It is demonstrated that by adjusting the elliptical parameter, one can manipulate the linear and nonlinear absorption as well as Kerr nonlinearity of the medium. It is realized that the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity can be possible with zero linear absorption and nonlinear amplification at some values of elliptical parameter. Our results may be having potential applications in quantum information science based on Nano scales devices.

  2. Identification of chromosome 7 inversion breakpoints in an autistic family narrows candidate region for autism susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Holly N; Skaar, David A; Rayner-Evans, Melissa Y; Konidari, Ioanna; Whitehead, Patrice L; Jaworski, James M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Gilbert, John R

    2009-10-01

    Chromosomal breaks and rearrangements have been observed in conjunction with autism and autistic spectrum disorders. A chromosomal inversion has been previously reported in autistic siblings, spanning the region from approximately 7q22.1 to 7q31. This family is distinguished by having multiple individuals with autism and associated disabilities. The region containing the inversion has been strongly implicated in autism by multiple linkage studies, and has been particularly associated with language defects in autism as well as in other disorders with language components. Mapping of the inversion breakpoints by FISH has localized the inversion to the region spanning approximately 99-108.75 Mb of chromosome 7. The proximal breakpoint has the potential to disrupt either the coding sequence or regulatory regions of a number of cytochrome P450 genes while the distal region falls in a relative gene desert. Copy number variant analysis of the breakpoint regions detected no duplication or deletion that could clearly be associated with disease status. Association analysis in our autism data set using single nucleotide polymorphisms located near the breakpoints showed no significant association with proximal breakpoint markers, but has identified markers near the distal breakpoint ( approximately 108-110 Mb) with significant associations to autism. The chromosomal abnormality in this family strengthens the case for an autism susceptibility gene in the chromosome 7q22-31 region and targets a candidate region for further investigation.

  3. Landslide susceptibility mapping in the coastal region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvala, R. C.; Camarinha, P. I.; Canavesi, V.

    2013-05-01

    The exposure of populations in risk areas is a matter of global concern, because it is a determining factor for the natural disasters occurrences. Furthermore, it has also been observed an intensification of extreme hydrometeorological events that has triggered disasters in various parts of the globe, further increasing the need for monitoring and alerting for natural disasters, aiming the safeguarding of life and minimize economic losses. Accordingly, different methodologies for risk assessment have been proposed, focusing on the specific natural hazards. Particularly for Brazil, which has economic axis of development in the regions near the coast, it is common to observe the process of urbanization advancing on steep slopes of the mountain regions. This characteristic causes the population exposure to the natural hazards related to the mass movements, which the landslides stood out as the cause of many deaths and economic losses every year. Thus, prior to risk analysis (when human occupation intersect with natural hazard), it is essential to analyze the susceptibility, which reflects the physical and environmental conditions that trigger for such phenomena. However, this task becomes a major challenge due to the difficulty of finding databases with good quality. In this context, this paper presents a methodology based only on spatial information in the public domain, integrated into a Geographic Information System free, in order to analyze the landslides susceptibility. In a first effort, we evaluated four counties of Southeastern Brazil - Santos, Cubatão, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba - located in a region that includes the rugged reliefs of Serra do Mar and the transition to the coastal region, that have historic of disasters related. It is noteworthy that the methodology takes into account many variables that was weighted and crossed by Fuzzy Gamma technique, such as: topography (horizontal and vertical curvature of the slopes), geology, geomorphology, slope

  4. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Floris

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy. Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated.

    After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probabilistic approach that compared landslide distribution and influencing factors. The input factors used in the analysis depended on available data and included landslides, morphometric data (elevation, slope, curvature, profile and plan Curvature and non-morphometric data (land use, distance to roads and distance to rivers. Great attention was paid to the pre-processing step, in particular the re-classification of continuous data that was performed following objective, geologic and geomorphologic criteria.

    The results of the study show that the simple probabilistic approach used for the susceptibility evaluation showed quite good accuracy and precision (repeatability. However, heuristic, statistical or deterministic methods could be applied to the online data to improve the prediction.

    The data available online for the Italian territory allows susceptibility assessment at medium and large scales. Morphometric factors, such as elevation and slope angle, are important because they implicitly include information that is not available, such as lithologic and structural data. The main drawback of the Italian online databases is the lack of information on the frequency of landslides; thus, a complete hazard analysis is not possible.

    Despite the good results achieved to date, collection and sharing of data on natural risks must be improved in Italy and around the world. The creation of spatial data infrastructure and more WebGIS portals is desirable.

  5. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms at 3'-untranslated region are associated with susceptibility to preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Chen, Ying; Dai, Jianrong; Wang, Benjing; Liu, Minjuan; Wang, Yun; Tao, Jianying; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Etiology and mechanism of preterm birth (PTB) is complicated. Genetic susceptibility is one of the key factors involved in the pathogenic mechanism underlying PTB. A subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by bioinformatics approach from 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were subjected to SNaPshot analysis in a case-control study. Three SNPs (rs45451599, rs1537515, rs1537516) were simultaneously tested in one tube, among 1,135 DNA samples including 480 PTBs and 655 term controls. Two perfectly correlated (r(2)=1) SNPs, rs1537515 and rs1537516, were found significantly associated with PTB susceptibility [P=0.012; OR: 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.91]. The frequencies of the minor alleles were lower in PTB cases than in controls, which the frequencies were 0.066 in PTB cases and 0.095 in controls. G and T allele frequencies of rs1537515 were the same with rs1537516 (P=0.011; OR: 0.666; 95% CI, 0.49-0.91). Rs45451599 was not found associated with PTB (P=0.52; OR: 0.76; 95% CI, 0.33-1.74). The 18-25 nucleotides in length of microRNAs (miRNAs) which can regulate gene expressions are involved in binding partial complementary sequences within 3'-UTR. The two loci are at 3'-UTR of MTHFR mRNA. Rs1537516 is a potential target of miR-1304-3p, while rs1537515 is miR-1224-3p and miR-3150-5p. In conclusion, rs1537515 and rs1537516 within the 3'-UTR of the MTHFR gene may be associated with susceptibility to PTB.

  6. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  7. Landslide susceptibility mapping in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq: a comparison of different statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A. A.; Gloaguen, R.; Andreani, L.; Rahnama, M.

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, expansion of settlements into areas prone to landslides in Iraq has increased the importance of accurate hazard assessment. Susceptibility mapping provides information about hazardous locations and thus helps to potentially prevent infrastructure damage due to mass wasting. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare frequency ratio (FR), weight of evidence (WOE), logistic regression (LR) and probit regression (PR) approaches in combination with new geomorphological indices to determine the landslide susceptibility index (LSI). We tested these four methods in Mawat area, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq, where landslides occur frequently. For this purpose, we evaluated 16 geomorphological, geological and environmental predicting factors mainly derived from the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite. The available reference inventory includes 351 landslides representing a cumulative surface of 3.127 km2. This reference inventory was mapped from QuickBird data by manual delineation and partly verified by field survey. The areas under curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and relative landslide density (R index) show that all models perform similarly and that focus should be put on the careful selection of proxies. The results indicate that the lithology and the slope aspects play major roles for landslide occurrences. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates that using hypsometric integral as a prediction factor instead of slope curvature gives better results and increases the accuracy of the LSI.

  8. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  9. Miltefosine and antimonial drug susceptibility of Leishmania Viannia species and populations in regions of high transmission in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Fernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pentavalent antimonials have been the first line treatment for dermal leishmaniasis in Colombia for over 30 years. Miltefosine is administered as second line treatment since 2005. The susceptibility of circulating populations of Leishmania to these drugs is unknown despite clinical evidence supporting the emergence of resistance.In vitro susceptibility was determined for intracellular amastigotes of 245 clinical strains of the most prevalent Leishmania Viannia species in Colombia to miltefosine (HePC and/or meglumine antimoniate (Sb(V; 163, (80% were evaluated for both drugs. Additionally, susceptibility to Sb(V was examined in two cohorts of 85 L. V. panamensis strains isolated between 1980-1989 and 2000-2009 in the municipality of Tumaco. Susceptibility to each drug differed among strains of the same species and between species. Whereas 68% of L. V. braziliensis strains presented in vitro resistance to HePC, 69% were sensitive to Sb(V. Resistance to HePC and Sb(V occurred respectively, in 20% y 21% of L. panamensis strains. Only 3% of L. V. guyanensis were resistant to HePC, and none to Sb(V. Drug susceptibility differed between geographic regions and time periods. Subpopulations having disparate susceptibility to Sb(V were discerned among L. V. panamensis strains isolated during 1980-1990 in Tumaco where resistant strains belonged to zymodeme 2.3, and sensitive strains to zymodeme 2.2.Large scale evaluation of clinical strains of Leishmania Viannia species demonstrated species, population, geographic, and epidemiologic differences in susceptibility to meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine, and provided baseline information for monitoring susceptibility to these drugs. Sensitive and resistant clinical strains within each species, and zymodeme as a proxy marker of antimony susceptibility for L. V. panamensis, will be useful in deciphering factors involved in susceptibility and the distribution of sensitive and resistant populations.

  10. Observation of unusual critical region behavior in the magnetic susceptibility of EuSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovetz, N.; Klein, J.; Lin, C. L.

    2018-05-01

    The Europium Chalcogenides (EuCh: EuO, EuS, EuSe, and EuTe) have been regarded as model examples of simple, cubic, Heisenberg exchange coupled magnetic systems, with a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange constant J1 and an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor constant J2. Unlike the other EuCh, EuSe exhibits a range of complex magnetic behaviors, the latter being attributed to EuSe being near the point where J2=-J1, where its magnetism appears to consist of nearly de-coupled 2D ferromagnetic sheets. Analysis of precision SQUID measurements of the magnetic susceptibility χ in EuSe showed that in the region from ˜Tc to ˜2Tc, a fit of the data to the critical equation χ = χ2Tc(T/Tc-1)-γ gives γ=2.0, an exponent not predicted by any current theory. Additionally, this fit predicts that Tc should be ˜0K. We tentatively interpret this by saying that in the paramagnetic region the system "thinks" EuSe should not order above T=0. Tc=0K is predicted by the Mermin-Wagner theorem (MW) for Heisenberg-coupled 2D magnetic systems, and we can show that when J2=-J1, MW can also be applied to the J1, J2 exchange model of the EuCh to give a rigorous Tc=0 prediction. Under 10 kbar applied pressure EuSe exhibits a different γ and fitted Tc. An additional, and rather strange, critical-region effect was discovered. The EuSe sample was found to exhibit a relaxation effect in a small range of temperatures, just above and just below the actual Tc of 4.7K, with time constants of up to 5 minutes. We cannot yet fully explain this observed macroscopic effect.

  11. The third order nonlinear susceptibility of InAs at infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musayev, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear susceptibilities of the third order and coefficient of nonlinear absorption in InAs n-type with a different degree of a doping have been measured. The values of the third order nonlinear susceptibilities have derived from these measurements essentially exceed the values calculated on the basis of model featuring nonlinear susceptibility of electrons, being in conduction-band nonparabolicity. It has been shown that the observable discrepancy has been eliminated, if in calculation a dissipation of energy of electrons has been considered. Growth of efficiency at four-wave mixingin narrow-gap semiconductors has been restricted to nonlinear absorption of interacting waves

  12. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Haley, E-mail: hdclark@phas.ubc.ca; Reinsberg, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Oral Oncology/Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Thomas, Steven [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  13. A proposed cell model for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events: Implications for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    Multiple-occurrence regional landslide events (MORLEs) consist of hundreds to thousands of shallow landslides occurring more or less simultaneously within defined areas, ranging from tens to thousands of square kilometres. While MORLEs can be triggered by rainstorms and earthquakes, this paper is confined to those landslide events triggered by rainstorms. Globally, MORLEs occur in a range of geological settings in areas of moderate to steep slopes subject to intense rainstorms. Individual landslides in rainstorm-triggered events are dominantly small, shallow debris and earth flows, and debris and earth slides involving regolith or weathered bedrock. The model used to characterise these events assumes that energy distribution within the event area is represented on the land surface by a cell structure; with maximum energy expenditure within an identifiable core and rapid dissipation concentrically away from the centre. The version of the model presented here has been developed for rainfall-triggered landslide events. It proposes that rainfall intensity can be used to determine different critical landslide response zones within the cell (referred to as core, middle, and periphery zones). These zones are most readily distinguished by two conditions: the proportion of the slope that fails and the particular type of the slope stability factor that assumes dominance in determining specific sites of landslide occurrence. The latter condition means that the power of any slope stability factor to distinguish between stable and unstable sites varies throughout the affected area in accordance with the landslide response zones within the cell; certain factors critical for determining the location of landslide sites in one part of the event area have little influence in other parts of the event area. The implication is that landslide susceptibility maps (and subsequently derived mitigation measures) based on conventional slope stability factors may have only limited validity

  14. [Frequency and in vitro susceptibility antiparasitic of Blastocystis hominis from patients admitted to the Hospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Díaz, Heber; Flores-Esqueche, Lorena; Llatas-Cancino, Dunalia; Guevara Vásquez, Génesis; Silva-García, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To describe the frequency and antiparasitic in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis in patients admitted to theHospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2015 at 313 patients of all ages. B. hominis detection was performed on serial fecal samples by direct microscopic examination and microculture in modified Locke solution. The in vitro susceptibility testing against the drug metronidazole, nitazoxanide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was performed in 24 strains of B. hominis, which grew up (microculture method) in 10 double concentrations of each antimicrobial (from 256 ug/ml to 0.5 ug/mL) plus a control. 46.3% (145/313) of the sample had B. hominis, also the age between 12 to 17 years and 60 years was associated with higher frequency of parasites (OR: 2.93 and 2.62). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 of metronidazole and nitazoxanide was 3.19 ug/mL and 11.19 ug/ml, respectively, whereas the MIC 90 of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin were above 256 ug/mL. B. hominis occurs in high frequency in patients admitted to the Hospital Regional in Lambayeque, proving to be an important problem of public health in the region. Also B. hominis isolated from these patients were shown to be susceptible in vitro to low concentrations of metronidazole and nitazoxanide so they could be chosen for treatment of this parasite.

  15. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Five Susceptibility Loci for Follicular Lymphoma outside the HLA Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibola, Christine F.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Vijai, Joseph; Conde, Lucia; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Foo, Jia-Nee; Bracci, Paige M.; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Slager, Susan L.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Wang, Sophia S.; Linet, Martha S.; Salles, Gilles; Lan, Qing; Severi, Gianluca; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Lightfoot, Tracy; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Ghesquieres, Herve; Link, Brian K.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Alex; Tinker, Lesley F.; Teras, Lauren R.; Kricker, Anne; Becker, Nikolaus; Purdue, Mark P.; Spinelli, John J.; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Vineis, Paolo; Monnereau, Alain; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Gabbas, Attilio; Chung, Charles C.; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Liang, Liming; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Liu, Jianjun; Adami, Hans-Olov; Glimelius, Bengt; Ye, Yuanqing; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Dogan, Ahmet; Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Novak, Anne J.; Liebow, Mark; Witzig, Thomas E.; Weiner, George J.; Schenk, Maryjean; Hartge, Patricia; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cozen, Wendy; Zhi, Degui; Akers, Nicholas K.; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T.; Lacher, Mortimer; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Roman, Eve; Kane, Eleanor; Jackson, Rebecca D.; North, Kari E.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Jenny; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; McKay, James; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Chamosa, Saioa; Kaaks, Rudolph; Kelly, Rachel S.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Travis, Ruth C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Clave, Jacqueline; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Virtamo, Jarmo; Mazza, Patrizio; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Chiu, Brian C. H.; Fraumeni, Joseph R.; Nieters, Alexandra; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; Cerhan, James R.; Smedby, Karin E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of follicular lymphoma (FL) have previously identified human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene variants. To identify additional FL susceptibility loci, we conducted a large-scale two-stage GWAS in 4,523 case subjects and 13,344 control subjects of European

  16. Flow-R, a model for susceptibility mapping of debris flows and other gravitational hazards at a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of susceptibility maps for debris flows is of primary importance due to population pressure in hazardous zones. However, hazard assessment by process-based modelling at a regional scale is difficult due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, the variability of local controlling factors, and the uncertainty in modelling parameters. A regional assessment must consider a simplified approach that is not highly parameter dependant and that can provide zonation with minimum data requirements. A distributed empirical model has thus been developed for regional susceptibility assessments using essentially a digital elevation model (DEM. The model is called Flow-R for Flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a Regional scale (available free of charge under http://www.flow-r.org and has been successfully applied to different case studies in various countries with variable data quality. It provides a substantial basis for a preliminary susceptibility assessment at a regional scale. The model was also found relevant to assess other natural hazards such as rockfall, snow avalanches and floods. The model allows for automatic source area delineation, given user criteria, and for the assessment of the propagation extent based on various spreading algorithms and simple frictional laws. We developed a new spreading algorithm, an improved version of Holmgren's direction algorithm, that is less sensitive to small variations of the DEM and that is avoiding over-channelization, and so produces more realistic extents. The choices of the datasets and the algorithms are open to the user, which makes it compliant for various applications and dataset availability. Amongst the possible datasets, the DEM is the only one that is really needed for both the source area delineation and the propagation assessment; its quality is of major importance for the results accuracy. We consider a 10 m DEM resolution as a good compromise between processing time

  17. Mapping erosion susceptibility by a multivariate statistical method: A case study from the Ayvalık region, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Aykut; Türk, Necdet

    2011-09-01

    Erosion is one of the most important natural hazard phenomena in the world, and it poses a significant threat to Turkey in terms of land degredation and desertification. To cope with this problem, we must determine which areas are erosion-prone. Many studies have been carried out and different models and methods have been used to this end. In this study, we used a logistic regression to prepare an erosion susceptibility map for the Ayvalık region in Balıkesir (NW Turkey). The following were our assessment parameters: weathering grades of rocks, slope gradient, structural lineament density, drainage density, land cover, stream power index (SPI) and profile curvature. These were processed by Idrisi Kilimanjaro GIS software. We used logistic regression analysis to relate predictor variables to the occurrence or non-occurrence of gully erosion sites within geographic cells, and then we used this relationship to produce a probability map for future erosion sites. The results indicate that lineament density, weathering grades of rocks and drainage density are the most important variables governing erosion susceptibility. Other variables, such as land cover and slope gradient, were revealed as secondary important variables. Highly weathered basalt, andesite, basaltic andesite and lacustrine sediments were the units most susceptible to erosion. In order to calculate the prediction accuracy of the erosion susceptibility map generated, we compared it with the map showing the gully erosion areas. On the basis of this comparison, the area under curvature (AUC) value was found to be 0.81. This result suggests that the erosion susceptibility map we generated is accurate.

  18. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  19. Regional landslide susceptibility assessment using multi-stage remote sensing data along the coastal range highway in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Fang; Huang, Wei-Kai; Chang, Yu-Lin; Chi, Shu-Yeong; Liao, Wu-Chang

    2018-01-01

    Typhoons Megi (2010) and Saola (2012) brought torrential rainfall which triggered regional landslides and flooding hazards along Provincial Highway No. 9 in northeastern Taiwan. To reduce property loss and saving lives, this study combines multi-hazard susceptibility assessment with environmental geology map a rock mass rating system (RMR), remote sensing analysis, and micro-topography interpretation to develop an integrated landslide hazard assessment approach and reflect the intrinsic state of slopeland from the past toward the future. First, the degree of hazard as indicated by historical landslides was used to determine many landslide regions in the past. Secondly, geo-mechanical classification of rock outcroppings was performed by in-situ investigation along the vulnerable road sections. Finally, a high-resolution digital elevation model was extracted from airborne LiDAR and multi-temporal remote sensing images which was analyzed to discover possible catastrophic landslide hotspot shortly. The results of the analysis showed that 37% of the road sections in the study area were highly susceptible to landslide hazards. The spatial distribution of the road sections revealed that those characterized by high susceptibility were located near the boundaries of fault zones and in areas of lithologic dissimilarity. Headward erosion of gullies and concave-shaped topographic features had an adverse effect and was the dominant factor triggering landslides. Regional landslide reactivation on this coastal highway are almost related to the past landslide region based on hazard statistics. The final results of field validation demonstrated that an accuracy of 91% could be achieved for forecasting geohazard followed by intense rainfall events and typhoons.

  20. Magnetic susceptibility to identify landscape segments on a detailed scale in the region of Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana dos Reis Barrios

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural potential is generally assessed and managed based on a one-dimensional vision of the soil profile, however, the increased appreciation of sustainable production has stimulated studies on faster and more accurate evaluation techniques and methods of the agricultural potential on detailed scales. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of using soil magnetic susceptibility for the identification of landscape segments on a detailed scale in the region of Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The studied area has two slope curvatures: linear and concave, subdivided into three landscape segments: upper slope (US, concave, middle slope (MS, linear and lower slope (LS, linear. In each of these segments, 20 points were randomly sampled from a database with 207 samples forming a regular grid installed in each landscape segment. The soil physical and chemical properties, CO2 emissions (FCO2 and magnetic susceptibility (MS of the samples were evaluated represented by: magnetic susceptibility of air-dried fine earth (MS ADFE, magnetic susceptibility of the total sand fraction (MS TS and magnetic susceptibility of the clay fraction (MS Cl in the 0.00 - 0.15 m layer. The principal component analysis showed that MS is an important property that can be used to identify landscape segments, because the correlation of this property within the first principal component was high. The hierarchical cluster analysis method identified two groups based on the variables selected by principal component analysis; of the six selected variables, three were related to magnetic susceptibility. The landscape segments were differentiated similarly by the principal component analysis and by the cluster analysis using only the properties with higher discriminatory power. The cluster analysis of MS ADFE, MS TS and MS Cl allowed the formation of three groups that agree with the segment division established in the field. The grouping by cluster

  1. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti from Brazil and the Swiss-Italian border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Tobias; Crespo, Mônica Maria; de Oliveira, Mariana Francelino; de Oliveira, Thaynan Sama Alves; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; Ayres, Constância Flávia Junqueira; Barbosa, Rosângela Maria Rodrigues; Araújo, Ana Paula; Regis, Lêda Narcisa; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Müller, Pie; Silva-Filha, Maria Helena Neves Lobo

    2017-09-19

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are two highly invasive mosquito species, both vectors of several viruses, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. While Ae. aegypti is the primary vector in the tropics and sub-tropics, Ae. albopictus is increasingly under the public health watch as it has been implicated in arbovirus-transmission in more temperate regions, including continental Europe. Vector control using insecticides is the pillar of most control programmes; hence development of insecticide resistance is of great concern. As part of a Brazilian-Swiss Joint Research Programme we set out to assess whether there are any signs of existing or incipient insecticide resistance primarily against the larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis svar. israelensis (Bti), but also against currently applied and potentially alternative insecticides in our areas, Recife (Brazil) and the Swiss-Italian border region. Following World Health Organization guidelines, dose-response curves for a range of insecticides were established for both colonized and field caught Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicides included Bti, two of its toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Vectomax CG®, a formulated combination of Bti and L. sphaericus, and diflubenzuron. In addition to the larvicides, the Swiss-Italian Ae. albopictus populations were also tested against five adulticides (bendiocarb, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, malathion, permethrin and λ-cyhalothrin). Showing a similar dose-response, all mosquito populations were fully susceptible to the larvicides tested and, in particular, to Bti which is currently used both in Brazil and Switzerland. In addition, there were no signs of incipient resistance against Bti as larvae were equally susceptible to the individual toxins, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba. The field-caught Swiss-Italian populations were susceptible to the adulticides tested but DDT mortality rates showed signs of reduced susceptibility. The insecticides currently used for

  2. Genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in African Americans: The cross BETRNet admixture study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Sun

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC are far more prevalent in European Americans than in African Americans. Hypothesizing that this racial disparity in prevalence might represent a genetic susceptibility, we used an admixture mapping approach to interrogate disease association with genomic differences between European and African ancestry.Formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples were identified from 54 African Americans with BE or EAC through review of surgical pathology databases at participating Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet institutions. DNA was extracted from normal tissue, and genotyped on the Illumina OmniQuad SNP chip. Case-only admixture mapping analysis was performed on the data from both all 54 cases and also on a subset of 28 cases with high genotyping quality. Haplotype phases were inferred with Beagle 3.3.2, and local African and European ancestries were inferred with SABER plus. Disease association was tested by estimating and testing excess European ancestry and contrasting it to excess African ancestry.Both datasets, the 54 cases and the 28 cases, identified two admixture regions. An association of excess European ancestry on chromosome 11p reached a 5% genome-wide significance threshold, corresponding to -log10(P = 4.28. A second peak on chromosome 8q reached -log10(P = 2.73. The converse analysis examining excess African ancestry found no genetic regions with significant excess African ancestry associated with BE and EAC. On average, the regions on chromosomes 8q and 11p showed excess European ancestry of 15% and 20%, respectively.Chromosomal regions on 11p15 and 8q22-24 are associated with excess European ancestry in African Americans with BE and EAC. Because GWAS have not reported any variants in these two regions, low frequency and/or rare disease associated variants that confer susceptibility to developing BE and EAC may be driving the observed European ancestry

  3. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    capability of the watershed to transport debris flows. The combination of the morphometric and land use indicators resulted in a susceptibility indicator that was compared with the available records of past floods in the area. This showed that the use of the land use indicator significantly improves the susceptibility assessment. Vulnerability was assessed in terms of indicators representing physical exposure, fragility of the socio-economic system and lack of resilience to cope and recover. Principal component analysis was subsequently applied to reduce variables and provide a representation of each of their facets by a component. This resulted in a composite indicator of susceptibility and vulnerability for each of the 106 watersheds. The indicator was compared with the history of flash flood damage in the watersheds. Results show that the indicator is useful in applications at regional scales for preliminary assessment to differentiate at spatial level the degree of flood susceptibility and vulnerability. This provides an initial and qualitative risk outlook in the study area and can be used for planning and prioritization of further more detailed studies.

  4. Genome-wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, ovine lentivirus (OvLV is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelong infection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for infected animals. However, breed differences in prevalence and proviral concentration have indicated a genetic basis for susceptibility to OvLV. A recent study identified TMEM154 variants in OvLV susceptibility. The objective here was to identify additional loci associated with odds and/or control of OvLV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS included 964 sheep from Rambouillet, Polypay, and Columbia breeds with serological status and proviral concentration phenotypes. Analytic models accounted for breed and age, as well as genotype. This approach identified TMEM154 (nominal P=9.2×10(-7; empirical P=0.13, provided 12 additional genomic regions associated with odds of infection, and provided 13 regions associated with control of infection (all nominal P<1 × 10(-5. Rapid decline of linkage disequilibrium with distance suggested many regions included few genes each. Genes in regions associated with odds of infection included DPPA2/DPPA4 (empirical P=0.006, and SYTL3 (P=0.051. Genes in regions associated with control of infection included a zinc finger cluster (ZNF192, ZSCAN16, ZNF389, and ZNF165; P=0.001, C19orf42/TMEM38A (P=0.047, and DLGAP1 (P=0.092. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These associations provide targets for mutation discovery in sheep susceptibility to OvLV. Aside from TMEM154, these genes have not been associated previously with lentiviral infection in any species, to our knowledge. Further, data from other species suggest functional hypotheses for future testing of these genes in OvLV and other lentiviral infections. Specifically, SYTL3 binds and may regulate RAB27A, which is required for enveloped

  5. Susceptibility assessment of landslides: A comparison of two GIS-based methods in the region of Al Hoceima (Eastern Rif, Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Fahchouch A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the degree of susceptibility to landslides has become a major concern in mountainous areas, it is a key component of manager policies efforts in disaster prevention, mitigate risk and manage the consequences. The region of Al Hoceima is one of most mountain regions in Morocco, and is highly exposed landslides events. For this reason, the area was selected in order to determine its susceptibility to landslides using two methods. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and to compare the results of multivariate (logical regression and bivariate (landslide susceptibility methods in Geographical Information System (GIS based landslide susceptibility assessment procedures. In order to achieve this goal, the selected methods were compared by the Seed Cell Area Indexes (SCAI and by the spatial locations of the resultant susceptibility pixels. We found that both of the methods converge in 80% of the area; however, the weighting algorithm in the bivariate technique (landslide susceptibility method had some severe deficiencies, as the resultant hazard classes in overweighed areas did not converge with the factual landslide inventory map. The result of the multivariate technique (logical regression was more sensitive to the different local features of the test zone and it resulted in more accurate and homogeneous susceptibility maps. This information may have direct applications in landslides susceptibility research programs and can assist decision-makers in the implementation of preventive management strategies in the most sensitive areas.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goode, Ellen L; Clyde, Merlise A

    2009-01-01

    The p53 protein is critical for multiple cellular functions including cell growth and DNA repair. We assessed whether polymorphisms in the region encoding TP53 were associated with risk of invasive ovarian cancer. The study population includes a total of 5,206 invasive ovarian cancer cases (2,829...

  7. Regional differences of physiological functions and cancer susceptibility in the human large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, A; DeVries, EGE; Mulder, NH; Kleibeuker, JH

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in function, metabolism and morphology between proximal colon, distal colon and rectum may be important in the pathogenesis and biologic behaviour of tumours originating from these segments. Thus, the effect of primary prevention of colorectal cancer may also differ from one

  8. Comparison of Insecticide Susceptibilities of Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Three Main Tea-Growing Regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Yu, Hua-Yang; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yao, Rong; Wu, Shun-Fan; Chen, Zhuo; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-06-01

    Empoasca vitis (Göthe) is an important insect pest in tea-growing areas of China, and chemical control is the main tactic for the management of this pest. Due to the pressure of increasing insecticide resistance and more stringent food safety regulations, development of sound IPM strategies for E. vitis is an urgent matter. This study comparatively evaluated four field populations of E. vitis from three different tea-growing regions in China for their susceptibilities to eight insecticides using a simple leaf-dip methodology. E. vitis was found to be most sensitive to indoxacarb (LC505 mg/liter) and sophocarpidine (LC50>95 mg/liter, a botanical pesticide) regardless of populations. Population (geographical) variations were higher for indoxacarb and imidacloprid than other compounds. Judging by the 95% fiducial limits of LC50 values, all populations had similar susceptibilities to chlorfenapyr, bifenthrin, and acetamiprid or imidacloprid. Correlation analysis suggested that chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb or isoprocarb may have a high risk of cross resistance. Considering potency (LC50) and maximum residual levels, chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin are good insecticide options followed by acetamiprid and indoxacarb. These results provide valuable information to intelligently select insecticides for IPM programs that are efficacious against E. vitis while also managing insecticide resistance and maximum residual levels for tea production in China. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Analysis of regional brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and susceptibility to mitochondrial inhibition utilizing a microplate based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerbeck, Andrew; Pandya, Jignesh; Singh, Indrapal; Bittman, Kevin; Readnower, Ryan; Bing, Guoying; Sullivan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetic function typically has required 50–100 μg of protein per sample and at least 15 min per run when utilizing a Clark-type oxygen electrode. In the present work we describe a method utilizing the Seahorse Biosciences XF24 Flux Analyzer for measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption simultaneously from multiple samples and utilizing only 5 μg of protein per sample. Utilizing this method we have investigated whether regionally based differences exist in mitochondria isolated from the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Analysis of basal mitochondrial bioenergetics revealed that minimal differences exist between the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. However, the cerebellum exhibited significantly slower basal rates of Complex I and Complex II dependent oxygen consumption (p < 0.05). Mitochondrial inhibitors affected enzyme activity proportionally across all samples tested and only small differences existed in the effect of inhibitors on oxygen consumption. Investigation of the effect of rotenone administration on Complex I dependent oxygen consumption revealed that exposure to 10 pM rotenone led to a clear time dependent decrease in oxygen consumption beginning 12 min after administration (p < 0.05). These studies show that the utilization of this microplate based method for analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics is effective at quantifying oxygen consumption simultaneously from multiple samples. Additionally, these studies indicate that minimal regional differences exist in mitochondria isolated from the cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Furthermore, utilization of the mitochondrial inhibitors suggests that previous work indicating regionally specific deficits following systemic mitochondrial toxin exposure may not be the result of differences in the individual mitochondria from the affected regions. PMID:21402103

  10. Contribution of susceptibility locus at HLA class I region and environmental factors to occurrence of nasopharyngeal cancer in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhanpal, Meena; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Rahman, Tashnin; Sharma, Jagnnath; Singh, M Madhumangal; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Verma, Saurabh; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Singh, Y Mohan; Wajid, Saima; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been reported from China, Southeast Asia and Northeast (NE) region of India. Populations at geographic regions having higher incidence of NPC display human leukocyte antigen (HLA) distribution patterns different from areas having low incidence. The current study has investigated the contribution of environmental risk factors and ethnic variation of microsatellite markers in HLA region for the high incidence of NPC in NE India. Genotyping of HLA region using 33 microsatellite markers by fragment length analysis was done in 220 study subjects (120 NPC patients and 100 healthy controls). Association analysis showed two adjacent microsatellite markers HL003 (allele 121) and D6S2704 (allele 218) in the HLA class I region having association with high risk of NPC while allele 127 of HL003 and allele 255 of D6S2678 conferred a protective effect. The environmental factors mainly use of firewood (odds ratio (OR) = 3.797385, confidence interval (CI) = 1.97-7.30, P < 0), living in mud house (OR = 3.46, CI = 1.19-10.08, P = 0.022) and consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.11, CI = 1.02-4.37, P = 0.043) were found as major risk factors for NPC. Higher-order interaction showed combination of smoked food consumption and firewood use for cooking in multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis and interaction of non-firewood users, non-ventilated houses and residence in mud houses in classification and regression tree (CART) analysis as the significant risk factors for NPC. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA was found in 92% (23/25) of NPC cases suggesting its significant role in NPC aetiopathogenesis. This study identified association of NPC with a susceptibility locus in the HLA class I region which has complex interaction with viral DNA and environmental factors.

  11. Genetic analysis of autoimmune sialadenitis in nonobese diabetic mice: a major susceptibility region on chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Olivier; Fluteau, Guy; Eloy, Laure; Damotte, Diane; Bedossa, Pierre; Garchon, Henri-Jean

    2002-04-15

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain provides a good study model for Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The genetic control of SS was investigated in this model using different matings, including a (NOD x C57BL/6 (B6))F(2) cross, a (NOD x NZW)F(2) cross, and ((NOD x B6) x NOD) backcross. Multiple and different loci were detected depending on parent strain combination and sex. Despite significant complexity, two main features were prominent. First, the middle region of chromosome 1 (chr.1) was detected in all crosses. Its effect was most visible in the (NOD x B6)F(2) cross and dominated over that of other loci, including those mapping on chr.8, 9, 10, and 16; the effect of these minor loci was observed only in the absence of the NOD haplotype on chr.1. Most critically, the chr.1 region was sufficient to trigger an SS-like inflammatory infiltrate of salivary glands as shown by the study of a new C57BL/6 congenic strain carrying a restricted segment derived from NOD chr.1. Second, several chromosomal regions were previously associated with NOD autoimmune phenotypes, including Iddm (chr.1, 2, 3, 9, and 17, corresponding to Idd5, Idd13, Idd3, Idd2, and Idd1, respectively), accounting for the strong linkage previously reported between insulitis and sialitis, and autoantibody production (chr.10 and 16, corresponding to Bana2 and Bah2, respectively). Interestingly, only two loci were detected in the (NOD x NZW)F(2) cross, on chr.1 in females and on chr.7 in males, probably because of the latent autoimmune predisposition of the NZW strain. Altogether these findings reflect the complexity and heterogeneity of human SS.

  12. Mass movement susceptibility mapping - A comparison of logistic regression and Weight of evidence methods in Taounate-Ain Aicha region (Central Rif, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEMMAH A I

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taounate region is known by a high density of mass movements which cause several human and economic losses. The goal of this paper is to assess the landslide susceptibility of Taounate using the Weight of Evidence method (WofE and the Logistic Regression method (LR. Seven conditioning factors were used in this study: lithology, fault, drainage, slope, elevation, exposure and land use. Over the years, this site and its surroundings have experienced repeated landslides. For this reason, landslide susceptibility mapping is mandatory for risk prevention and land-use management. In this study, we have focused on recent large-scale mass movements. Finally, the ROC curves were established to evaluate the degree of fit of the model and to choose the best landslide susceptibility zonation. A total mass movements location were detected; 50% were randomly selected as input data for the entire process using the Spatial Data Model (SDM and the remaining locations were used for validation purposes. The obtained WofE’s landslide susceptibility map shows that high to very high susceptibility zones contain 62% of the total of inventoried landslides, while the same zones contain only 47% of landslides in the map obtained by the LR method. This landslide susceptibility map obtained is a major contribution to various urban and regional development plans under the Taounate Region National Development Program.

  13. Using online database for landslide susceptibility assessment with an example from the Veneto Region (north-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Mario; Squarzoni, Cristina; Zorzi, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Iafelice, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps describe landslide-prone areas by the spatial correlation between landslides and related factors, derived from different kinds of datasets: geological, geotechnical and geomechanical maps, hydrogeological maps, landslides maps, vector and raster terrain data, real-time inclinometer and pore pressure data. In the last decade, thanks to the increasing use of web-based tools for management, sharing and communication of territorial information, many Web-based Geographical Information Systems (WebGIS) were created by local governments or nations, University and Research Centres. Nowadays there is a strong proliferation of geological WebGIS or GeoBrowser, allowing free download of spatial information. There are global Cartographical Portals that provide a free download of DTM and other vector data related to the whole planet (http://www.webgis.com). At major scale, there are WebGIS regarding entire nation (http://www.agiweb.org), or specific region of a country (http://www.mrt.tas.gov.au), or single municipality (http://sitn.ne.ch/). Moreover, portals managed by local government and academic government (http://turtle.ags.gov.ab.ca/Peace_River/Site/) or by a private agency (http://www.bbt-se.com) are noteworthy. In Italy, the first national projects for the creation of WebGIS and web-based databases begun during the 1980s, and evolved, through years, to the present number of different WebGIS, which have different territorial extensions: national (Italian National Cartographical Portal, http://www.pcn.minambiente.it; E-GEO Project, http://www.egeo.unisi.it), interregional (River Tiber Basin Authority, www.abtevere.it ), and regional (Veneto Region, www.regione.veneto.it). In this way we investigated most of the Italian WebGIS in order to verify their geographic range and the availability and quality of data useful for landslide hazard analyses. We noticed a large variability of the accessing information among the different browsers. In

  14. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS and type 1 diabetes (T1D associations in the IL-2RA (CD25 gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ≃ 0:3 and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data.

  15. Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow and volume with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempp, K A; Brix, G; Wenz, F; Becker, C R; Gückel, F; Lorenz, W J

    1994-12-01

    Quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV) with dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. After bolus administration of a paramagnetic contrast medium, rapid T2*-weighted gradient-echo images of two sections were acquired for the simultaneous creation of concentration-time curves in the brain-feeding arteries and in brain tissue. Absolute rCBF and rCBV values were determined for gray and white brain matter in 12 subjects with use of principles of the indicator dilution theory. The mean rCBF value in gray matter was 69.7 mL/min +/- 29.7 per 100 g tissue and in white matter, 33.6 mL/min +/- 11.5 per 100 g tissue; the average rCBV was 8.0 mL +/- 3.1 per 100 g tissue and 4.2 mL +/- 1.0 per 100 g tissue, respectively. An age-related decrease in rCBF and rCBV for gray and white matter was observed. Preliminary data demonstrate that the proposed technique allows the quantification of rCBF and rCBV. Although the results are in good agreement with data from positron emission tomography studies, further evaluation is needed to establish the validity of method.

  16. Regional Susceptibility to Domoic Acid in Primary Astrocyte Cells Cultured from the Brain Stem and Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Pulido

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid is a marine biotoxin associated with harmful algal blooms and is the causative agent of amnesic shellfish poisoning in marine animals and humans. It is also an excitatory amino acid analog to glutamate and kainic acid which acts through glutamate receptors eliciting a very rapid and potent neurotoxic response. The hippocampus, among other brain regions, has been identified as a specific target site having high sensitivity to DOM toxicity. Histopathology evidence indicates that in addition to neurons, the astrocytes were also injured. Electron microscopy data reported in this study further supports the light microscopy findings. Furthermore, the effect of DOM was confirmed by culturing primary astrocytes from the hippocampus and the brain stem and subsequently exposing them to domoic acid. The RNA was extracted and used for biomarker analysis. The biomarker analysis was done for the early response genes including c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Hsp-72; specific marker for the astrocytes- GFAP and the glutamate receptors including GluR 2, NMDAR 1, NMDAR 2A and B. Although, the astrocyte-GFAP and c-fos were not affected, c-jun and GluR 2 were down-regulated. The microarray analysis revealed that the chemokines / cytokines, tyrosine kinases (Trk, and apoptotic genes were altered. The chemokines that were up-regulated included - IL1-a, IL-1B, IL-6, the small inducible cytokine, interferon protein IP-10, CXC chemokine LIX, and IGF binding proteins. The Bax, Bcl-2, Trk A and Trk B were all downregulated. Interestingly, only the hippocampal astrocytes were affected. Our findings suggest that astrocytes may present a possible target for pharmacological interventions for the prevention and treatment of amnesic shellfish poisoning and for other brain pathologies involving excitotoxicity

  17. Spatiotemporal Change Detection in Forest Cover Dynamics Along Landslide Susceptible Region of Karakoram Highway, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barira; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-04-01

    Forest Cover dynamics and its understanding is essential for a country's social, environmental, and political engagements. This research provides a methodical approach for the assessment of forest cover along Karakoram Highway. It has great ecological and economic significance because it's a part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI imagery for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016 respectively were subjected to supervised classification in ArcMap 10.5 to identify forest change. The study area was categorized into five major land use land cover classes i.e., Forest, vegetation, urban, open land and snow cover. Results from post classification forest cover change maps illustrated notable decrease of almost 26 % forest cover over the time period of 26 years. The accuracy assessment revealed the kappa coefficients 083, 0.78, 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. Major reason for this change is an observed replacement of native forest cover with urban areas (12.5 %) and vegetation (18.6 %) However, there is no significant change in the reserved forests along the study area that contributes only 2.97 % of the total forest cover. The extensive forest degradation and risk prone topography of the region has increased the environmental risk of landslides. Hence, effective policies and forest management is needed to protect not only the environmental and aesthetic benefits of the forest cover but also to manage the disaster risks. Apart from the forest assessment, this research gives an insight of land cover dynamics, along with causes and consequences, thereby showing the forest degradation hotspots.

  18. Association between the length of the MUC8-minisatellite 5 region and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Ra; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Nam; Nam, Jong Kil; Kim, Woo Jin; Leem, Sun-Hee

    2018-01-01

    In asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), mucins display disease-related alterations caused by airway mucus obstruction. MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC8 are known as the major secretory mucins in human airway epithelial cells. Analysis of mucin genes has identified the presence of several features with a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; minisatellites) in the central region of each mucin. In our previous study, six minisatellites in the region of the MUC8 gene were identified, and the MUC8-MS5 minisatellite showed the highest heterozygosity among them. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between MUC8-MS5 and susceptibility to asthma and COPD. A case-control study was performed with 229 controls, 123 COPD cases and 77 asthma cases. A significant association (OR 3.96) between short alleles (2/2 repeats) and the occurrence of COPD was observed [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-11.88; p = 0.008]. Hence, the increased frequency of 2/2 homo-short alleles were also found in asthma cases (3.11; CI 0.88-11.05; p = 0.066), though this association was not statistically significant. These results revealed a genetic association between MUC8 and COPD, and that the specific short minisatellite alleles (2/2) of MUC8-MS5 may be a risk factor for COPD.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms within tumor necrosis factor gene promoter region: a role for susceptibility to ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsaki, Antigoni; Raftogiannis, Maria; Routsi, Christina; Baziaka, Fotini; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutoukas, Pantelis; Plachouras, Diamantis; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2012-08-01

    Debatable findings exist among various studies regarding the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene for susceptibility to infections. Their impact was investigated in a cohort of mechanically ventilated patients who developed ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Two-hundred and thirteen mechanically ventilated patients who developed VAP were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted and SNPs at the -376, -308 and -238 position of the promoter region of the TNF gene were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Monocytes were isolated from 47 patients when they developed sepsis and stimulated by bacterial endotoxin for the production of TNFα and of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Patients were divided into two groups; 166 patients bearing only wild-type alleles of all three studied polymorphisms; and 47 patients carrying at least one A allele of the three studied SNPs. Time between start of mechanical ventilation and advent of VAP was significantly shorter in the second group than in the first group (log-rank: 4.416, p: 0.041). When VAP supervened, disease severity did not differ between groups. Stimulation of TNFα and of IL-6 was much greater by monocytes for patients carrying A alleles. Carriage of at least one A allele of the three studied SNPs at the promoter region of the TNF-gene is associated with shorter time to development of VAP but it is not associated with disease severity. Findings may be related with a role of the studied SNPs in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Kracht, Steffen Skaarup; Esteso, G.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility....../resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used...... for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markes. By a targeted approach, the candidate...

  1. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  2. Simwe model application on susceptibility analysis to linear erosion: a case study in Alto Douro wine region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Joana; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura; Faria, Ana; Moura, Rui; Gonçalves, José

    2016-04-01

    The wine production in Alto Douro Wine Region - one of the world's oldest regulated and demarcated wine region - is based on a slope system organized in agricultural terraces once supported exclusively by dry stone walls. It has been undergoing the necessary changes for the introduction of technological innovations partially associated to the mechanization of vineyards work. In this sense, different forms of terrain framing have been implemented, namely the substitution of stone walls by earth embankments. This evolution raises a group of problems related to the hydric soil erosion and landscape preservation, since Alto Douro Wine Region is classified as UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2001. The study area is mostly occupied by vineyards planted in the agriculture terraces without continuous vegetation, the flow proceeds superficially influenced by the weak infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, because of this conditioning factor the erosive features present non-significant depth, and the length thereof is limited essentially by the slope of the land, where was registered 64 gullies and 78 rills This paper focuses on the evaluation of susceptibility to linear erosion, through the application of SIMWE (SIMulated Water Erosion), (Mitas and Mitasova, 1998), using a digital elevation model, with pixel of one square meter of spatial resolution, created through detail aerial photographs, (side pixel of 50 cm), submitted to automatic stereo-correlation procedures in Agisoft PhotoScan software. The results provided by the model are compared with hydrological characteristics of the soil, (infiltration capacity, and hydraulic conductivity), soil texture, and soil structure parameters (identified by electrical resistivity measurement) where obtained from field monitoring. This approach demonstrates an association between the spatial distribution of erosive features with high values of soil saturation, and reduced water discharge (10-110 cm3/s), that are

  3. Regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility among Escherichia coli bloodstream infections within the Veterans Healthcare Administration

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    Daniel J. Livorsi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA in the United States. Methods We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were classified based on US Census Divisions, and regional variations in FQ-NS were analyzed. Results Twenty-four thousand five hundred twenty-three unique E.coli bloodstream infections (BSIs were identified between 2003 and 2013. 53.9 % of these were community-acquired, 30.7 % were healthcare-associated, and 15.4 % were hospital-onset BSIs. The proportion of E.coli BSIs with FQ-NS significantly varied across US Census Divisions (p < 0.001. During 2003–2013, the proportion of E.coli BSIs with FQ-NS was highest in the West South-Central Division (32.7 % and lowest in the Mountain Division (20.0 %. Multivariable analysis showed that there were universal secular trends towards higher FQ-NS rates (p < 0.001 with significant variability of slopes across US Census Divisions (p < 0.001. Conclusion There has been a universal increase in FQ-NS among E.coli BSIs within VHA, but the rate of increase has significantly varied across Census Divisions. The reasons for this variability are unclear. These findings reinforce the importance of using local data to develop and update local antibiograms and antibiotic-prescribing guidelines.

  4. Mapping basin-wide subaquatic slope failure susceptibility as a tool to assess regional seismic and tsunami hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Michael; Hilbe, Michael; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2010-05-01

    With increasing awareness of oceanic geohazards, submarine landslides are gaining wide attention because of their catastrophic impacts on both offshore infrastructures (e.g. pipelines, cables and platforms) and coastal areas (e.g. landslide-induced tsunamis). They also are of great interest because they can be directly related to primary trigger mechanisms including earthquakes, rapid sedimentation, gas release, glacial and tidal loading, wave action, or clathrate dissociation, many of which represent potential geohazards themselves. In active tectonic environments, for instance, subaquatic landslide deposits can be used to make inferences regarding the hazard derived from seismic activity. Enormous scientific and economic efforts are thus being undertaken to better determine and quantify causes and effects of natural hazards related to subaquatic landslides. In order to achieve this fundamental goal, the detailed study of past events, the assessment of their recurrence intervals and the quantitative reconstruction of magnitudes and intensities of both causal and subsequent processes and impacts are key requirements. Here we present data and results from a study using fjord-type Lake Lucerne in central Switzerland as a "model ocean" to test a new concept for the assessment of regional seismic and tsunami hazard by basin-wide mapping of critical slope stability conditions for subaquatic landslide initiation. Previously acquired high-resolution bathymetry and reflection seismic data as well as sedimentological and in situ geotechnical data, provide a comprehensive data base to investigate subaquatic landslides and related geohazards. Available data are implemented into a basin-wide slope model. In a Geographic Information System (GIS)-framework, a pseudo-static limit equilibrium infinite slope stability equation is solved for each model point representing reconstructed slope conditions at different times in the past, during which earthquake-triggered landslides

  5. Leishmaniasis in the major endemic region of Plurinational State of Bolivia: Species identification, phylogeography and drug susceptibility implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo; Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora; Cardenas-Alegría, Oscar; Salamanca, Efraín; Santalla-Vargas, José Antonio; Benito, Cesar; Flores, Ninoska; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    The Plurinational State of Bolivia is one of the Latin American countries with the highest prevalence of leishmaniasis, highlighting the lowlands of the Department of La Paz where about 50% of the total cases were reported. The control of the disease can be seriously compromised by the intrinsic variability of the circulating species that may limit the efficacy of treatment while favoring the emergence of resistance. Fifty-five isolates of Leishmania from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions from patients living in different provinces of the Department of La Paz were tested. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out by 3 classical markers: the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt-b). These markers were amplified by PCR and their products digested by the restriction endonuclease enzymes AseI and HaeIII followed by subsequent sequencing of Cyt-b gene and ITS-1 region for subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The combined use of these 3 markers allowed us to assign 36 isolates (65.5%) to the complex Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, 4 isolates (7, 27%) to L. (Viannia) lainsoni. and the remaining 15 isolates (23.7%) to a local variant of L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Concerning in vitro drug susceptibility the amastigotes from all isolates where highly sensitive to Fungizone ® (mean IC 50 between 0.23 and 0.5μg/mL) whereas against Glucantime ® the sensitivity was moderate (mean IC 50 ranging from 50.84μg/mL for L. (V.) braziliensis to 18.23μg/mL for L. (L.) mexicana. L. (V.) lainsoni was not sensitive to Glucantime ® . The susceptibility to miltefosine was highly variable among species isolates, being L. (L.) mexicana the most sensitive, followed by L. (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) lainsoni (mean IC 50 of 8.24μg/mL, 17.85μg/mL and 23.28μg/mL, respectively). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to various antibiotics among strains isolated from patients and healthy carriers in different regions of Brazil (1999-2000

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    F. Rossi

    Full Text Available Resistance of microbes to commonly used antibiotics became a major concern at the end of the last century. Because Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen in respiratory infections, we conducted microbiological assessment of drug susceptibility patterns among strains collected from two different population groups: 1 adult and pediatric patients (375 isolates with different infections, and 2 healthy children in day care centers (< 5 years old; 350 isolates. High level resistance to penicillin was not identified in either group. Intermediate resistance levels were similar in both groups (adults: 9.9%; children: 9.2%. The Central West region of Brazil tended to have lower susceptibility of S.pneumoniae from infected adults and children to penicillin (81% vs. 93% in the South and 90% in the Southeast, tetracycline (64% vs. 80% and 76%, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (14% vs. 34%. Susceptibility was similar among strains from nasal cultures of healthy children tested in each of 4 regions of Brazil. All isolates were susceptible to cefaclor, cefotaxime and amoxacillin/clavulanate. This study, in two distinct populations, allowed characterization of local microbiological resistance patterns. This data is expected to be of use in guiding empiric therapy in the different regions of Brazil.

  7. IkappaBalpha polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408) influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyan; Tian, Linwei; Zeng, Zhirong; Zhang, Mingdong; Wu, Kaichun; Chen, Minhu; Fan, Daiming; Hu, Pinjin; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yu, Jun

    2010-02-05

    Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (I kappaB alpha) protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of I kappaB alpha to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in I kappaB alpha were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT) and T heterozygotes (TC and TT) had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037), compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC). rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014), but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40) (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02). rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006), but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. I kappaB alpha rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  8. Reprint of "A proposed cell model for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events: Implications for landslide susceptibility mapping"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Multiple-occurrence regional landslide events (MORLEs) consist of hundreds to thousands of shallow landslides occurring more or less simultaneously within defined areas, ranging from tens to thousands of square kilometres. While MORLEs can be triggered by rainstorms and earthquakes, this paper is confined to those landslide events triggered by rainstorms. Globally, MORLEs occur in a range of geological settings in areas of moderate to steep slopes subject to intense rainstorms. Individual landslides in rainstorm-triggered events are dominantly small, shallow debris and earth flows, and debris and earth slides involving regolith or weathered bedrock. The model used to characterise these events assumes that energy distribution within the event area is represented on the land surface by a cell structure; with maximum energy expenditure within an identifiable core and rapid dissipation concentrically away from the centre. The version of the model presented here has been developed for rainfall-triggered landslide events. It proposes that rainfall intensity can be used to determine different critical landslide response zones within the cell (referred to as core, middle, and periphery zones). These zones are most readily distinguished by two conditions: the proportion of the slope that fails and the particular type of the slope stability factor that assumes dominance in determining specific sites of landslide occurrence. The latter condition means that the power of any slope stability factor to distinguish between stable and unstable sites varies throughout the affected area in accordance with the landslide response zones within the cell; certain factors critical for determining the location of landslide sites in one part of the event area have little influence in other parts of the event area. The implication is that landslide susceptibility maps (and subsequently derived mitigation measures) based on conventional slope stability factors may have only limited validity

  9. IκBα polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408 influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese

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    Sung Joseph JY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of IκBα to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in IκBα were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT and T heterozygotes (TC and TT had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037, compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC. rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014, but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40 (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02. rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006, but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions IκBα rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  10. Genetic Predictions of Prion Disease Susceptibility in Carnivore Species Based on Variability of the Prion Gene Coding Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paula; Campbell, Lauren; Skogtvedt, Susan; Griffin, Karen A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Tryland, Morten; Girling, Simon; Miller, Michael W.; Tranulis, Michael A.; Goldmann, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE) during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD) remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC) largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrPC protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo) and pine marten (Martes martes) were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter. PMID:23236380

  11. Genetic predictions of prion disease susceptibility in carnivore species based on variability of the prion gene coding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Stewart

    Full Text Available Mammalian species vary widely in their apparent susceptibility to prion diseases. For example, several felid species developed prion disease (feline spongiform encephalopathy or FSE during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas no canine BSE cases were detected. Whether either of these or other groups of carnivore species can contract other prion diseases (e.g. chronic wasting disease or CWD remains an open question. Variation in the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C largely explains observed disease susceptibility patterns within ruminant species, and may explain interspecies differences in susceptibility as well. We sequenced and compared the open reading frame of the PRNP gene encoding PrP(C protein from 609 animal samples comprising 29 species from 22 genera of the Order Carnivora; amongst these samples were 15 FSE cases. Our analysis revealed that FSE cases did not encode an identifiable disease-associated PrP polymorphism. However, all canid PrPs contained aspartic acid or glutamic acid at codon 163 which we propose provides a genetic basis for observed susceptibility differences between canids and felids. Among other carnivores studied, wolverine (Gulo gulo and pine marten (Martes martes were the only non-canid species to also express PrP-Asp163, which may impact on their prion diseases susceptibility. Populations of black bear (Ursus americanus and mountain lion (Puma concolor from Colorado showed little genetic variation in the PrP protein and no variants likely to be highly resistant to prions in general, suggesting that strain differences between BSE and CWD prions also may contribute to the limited apparent host range of the latter.

  12. Regional and temporal variation in susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in onion fields in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Nault, B A; Plate, J; Zhao, J Z

    2003-12-01

    Populations of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, from commercial onion fields in New York were evaluated for their susceptibility to the commonly used pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior T), using a novel system called the Thrips Insecticide Bioassay System (TIBS). To use TIBS, thrips are collected directly from the plant into an insecticide-treated 0.5-ml microcentrifuge tube that has a flexible plastic cap with a small well into which 0.08 ml of a 10% sugar-water solution with food colorant is deposited. The solution is sealed into the well with a small piece of stretched parafilm through which the thrips can feed on the solution. Thrips mortality is assessed after 24 h with the help of a dissecting stereoscope. In 2001, onion thrips populations were collected from 16 different sites and resistance ratios were >1,000 in five populations. Percent mortality at 100 ppm, a recommended field rate, varied from 9 to 100%, indicating high levels of variation in susceptibility. Particular instances of resistance appeared to be the result of practices within an individual field rather than a regional phenomenon. In 2002, we also observed large differences in onion thrips susceptibility, not only between individual fields but also between thrips collected in a single field at mid season and late season, again suggesting that insecticide-use practices within an individual field caused differences in susceptibility. Additional tests indicated no differences in susceptibility between adult and larval onion thrips populations and only relatively minor differences between populations collected from different parts of the same field. Using TIBS, several populations of onion thrips with different susceptibilities to lambda-cyhalothrin were identified and then subjected to lambda-cyhalothrin-treated onion plants. There was a highly significant positive relationship between percent mortality of thrips from TIBS and percent mortality from the treated onion plants, indicating

  13. New Sequence Variants in HLA Class II/III Region Associated with Susceptibility to Knee Osteoarthritis Identified by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kou, Ikuyo; Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Dai, Jin; Sudo, Akihiro; Uchida, Atsumasa; Fukui, Naoshi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Tsezou, Aspasia; Gonzalez, Antonio; Nakamura, Yusuke; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that has a definite genetic component. Only a few OA susceptibility genes that have definite functional evidence and replication of association have been reported, however. Through a genome-wide association study and a replication using a total of ∼4,800 Japanese subjects, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with susceptibility to knee OA. The two SNPs were in a region containing HLA class II/III genes and their association reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 2.43×10−8 for rs7775228 and 6.73×10−8 for rs10947262). Our results suggest that immunologic mechanism is implicated in the etiology of OA. PMID:20305777

  14. Relationships between magnetic susceptibility and heavy metals in urban topsoils in the arid region of Isfahan, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Rezvan; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Jalalian, Ahmad; Sheikh-Hosseini, Ahmad Reza; Afyuni, Majid

    2011-05-01

    Recently methods dealing with magnetometry have been proposed as a proper proxy for assessing the heavy metal pollution of soils. A total of 113 topsoil samples were collected from public parks and green strips along the rim of roads with high-density traffic within the city of Isfahan, central Iran. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the collected soil samples was measured at both low and high frequency (χlf and χhf) using the Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor. As, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Sr and V concentrations were measured in the all collected soil samples. Significant correlations were found between Zn and Cu (0.85) and between Zn and Pb (0.84). The χfd value of urban topsoil varied from 0.45% to 7.7%. Low mean value of χfd indicated that the magnetic properties of the samples are predominately contributed by multi-domain grains, rather than by super-paramagnetic particles. Lead, Cu, Zn, and Ba showed positive significant correlations with magnetic susceptibility, but As, Sr, Cd, Mn, Cr and V, had no significant correlation with the magnetic susceptibility. There was a significant correlation between pollution load index (PLI) and χlf. PLI was computed to evaluate the soil environmental quality of selected heavy metals. Moreover, the results of multiple regression analysis between χlf and heavy metal concentrations indicated the LnPb, V and LnCu could explain approximately 54% of the total variability of χlf in the study area. These results indicate the potential of the magnetometric methods to evaluate the heavy metal pollution of soils.

  15. APPLICATION OF LiDAR DATE TO ASSESS THE LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY MAP USING WEIGHTS OF EVIDENCE METHOD – AN EXAMPLE FROM PODHALE REGION (SOUTHERN POLAND

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    M. Kamiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  16. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  17. Slope and Land Use Changing Effects on Soil Properties and Magnetic Susceptibility in Hilly Lands, Yasouj Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rouhollaah vafaeezadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land use changes are the most reasons which affect natural ecosystem protection. Forest soils have high organic matter and suitable structure, but their land use management change usually affects soil properties and decreases soil quality. There are several outcomes of such land use changes and intensification: accelerated soil erosion and decline of soil nutrient conditions, change of hydrological regimes and sedimentation and loss of primary forests and their biodiversity. Establishing effects of land use and land cover changes on soil properties have implications for devising management strategies for sustainable use. Forest land use change in Yasouj caused soil losses and decreased soil quality. The objectives of this study were to assess some soil physical and chemical properties and soil magnetic susceptibility changes in different land uses and slope position. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were taken from natural forest, degraded forest and dryland farm from different slops (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 percent in sout east of Yasouj. They were from 0–10 cm depth in a completely randomized design with five replications. Soil moisture and temperature regimes in the study area are xeric and mesic, respectively. Particle size distribution was determined by the hydrometer method and soil organic matter, CaCO3 equivalent and bulk density was determined using standard procedures described in Methods of Soil Analysis book. Magnetic susceptibility was measured at low and high frequency of 0.46 kHz (χlf and 4.6 kHz (χHf respectively with a Bartington MS2D meter using approximately 20 g of soil held in a four-dram clear plastic vial. Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd is expressed as the difference between the high and the low frequency measurements as a percentage of χ at low frequency. Results and Discussion: Soil texture was affected by land use change from silty clay loam in forest to silty loam in dry land farm

  18. Variants in the CDKN2B and RTEL1 regions are associated with high-grade glioma susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrensch, Margaret; Jenkins, Robert B; Chang, Jeffrey S; Yeh, Ru-Fang; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Decker, Paul A; Ballman, Karla V; Berger, Mitchel; Buckner, Jan C; Chang, Susan; Giannini, Caterina; Halder, Chandralekha; Kollmeyer, Thomas M; Kosel, Matthew L; LaChance, Daniel H; McCoy, Lucie; O'Neill, Brian P; Patoka, Joe; Pico, Alexander R; Prados, Michael; Quesenberry, Charles; Rice, Terri; Rynearson, Amanda L; Smirnov, Ivan; Tihan, Tarik; Wiemels, Joe; Yang, Ping; Wiencke, John K

    2009-08-01

    The causes of glioblastoma and other gliomas remain obscure. To discover new candidate genes influencing glioma susceptibility, we conducted a principal component-adjusted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 275,895 autosomal variants among 692 adult high-grade glioma cases (622 from the San Francisco Adult Glioma Study (AGS) and 70 from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)) and 3,992 controls (602 from AGS and 3,390 from Illumina iControlDB (iControls)). For replication, we analyzed the 13 SNPs with P RTEL1 had discovery P = 1.5 x 10(-7), replication P = 0.00035 and combined P = 3.40 x 10(-9). For both SNPs, the direction of association was the same in discovery and replication phases.

  19. Human growth hormone-related latrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Search for a genetic susceptibility by analysis of the PRNP coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaegly, A.; Boussin, F.; Deslys, J.P. [CEA/CRSSA/DSV/DPTE, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)] [and others

    1995-05-20

    The human PRNP gene encoding PrP is located on chromosome 20 and consists of two exons and a single intron. The open reading frame is entirely fitted into the second exon. Genetic studies indicate that all of the familial and several sporadic forms of TSSEs are associated with mutations in the PRNP 759-bp coding region. Moreover, homozygosity at codon 129, a locus harboring a polymorphism among the general population, was proposed as a genetic susceptibility marker for both sporadic and iatrogenic CJD. To assess whether additional genetic predisposition markers exist in the PRNP gene, the authors sequenced the PRNP coding region of 17 of the 32 French patients who developed a hGH-related CJD.

  20. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Ibiapina, Hiochelson Najibe Santos; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Xábregas, Lilyane Amorim; Brasil, Larissa Wanderley; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Almeida, Anne Cristine Gomes; Kuehn, Andrea; Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães; Malheiro, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria) is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon) and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T) genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively). Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001) and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014) were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria. Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C/T variants

  1. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs. The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools.A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively. Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001 and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014 were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria.Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C

  2. Identification of T1D susceptibility genes within the MHC region by combining protein interaction networks and SNP genotyping data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsson, C.; Hansen, Niclas Tue; Hansen, Kasper Lage

    2009-01-01

    genes. We have developed a novel method that combines single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping data with protein-protein interaction (ppi) networks to identify disease-associated network modules enriched for proteins encoded from the MHC region. Approximately 2500 SNPs located in the 4 Mb MHC......To develop novel methods for identifying new genes that contribute to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region on chromosome 6, independently of the known linkage disequilibrium (LD) between human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1...... region were analysed in 1000 affected offspring trios generated by the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). The most associated SNP in each gene was chosen and genes were mapped to ppi networks for identification of interaction partners. The association testing and resulting interacting protein...

  3. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  4. Towards a real-time susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced shallow landslides on a regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Montrasio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of landslide risk management, it appears relevant to assess, both in space and in time, the triggering of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, in order to prevent damages due to these kind of disasters. In this context, the use of real-time landslide early warning systems has been attracting more and more attention from the scientific community. This paper deals with the application, on a regional scale, of two physically-based stability models: SLIP (Shallow Landslides Instability Prediction and TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Regional Slope-stability analysis. A back analysis of some recent case-histories of soil slips which occurred in the territory of the central Emilian Apennine, Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy is carried out and the main results are shown. The study area is described from geological and climatic viewpoints. The acquisition of geospatial information regarding the topography, the soil properties and the local landslide inventory is also explained.

    The paper outlines the main features of the SLIP model and the basic assumptions of TRIGRS. Particular attention is devoted to the discussion of the input data, which have been stored and managed through a Geographic Information System (GIS platform. Results of the SLIP model on a regional scale, over a one year time interval, are finally presented. The results predicted by the SLIP model are analysed both in terms of safety factor (Fs maps, corresponding to particular rainfall events, and in terms of time-varying percentage of unstable areas over the considered time interval. The paper compares observed landslide localizations with those predicted by the SLIP model. A further quantitative comparison between SLIP and TRIGRS, both applied to the most important event occurred during the analysed period, is presented. The limits of the SLIP model, mainly due to some restrictions of simplifying the physically

  5. Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure identifies the GLCCI1/ICA1 region as a glaucoma susceptibility locus

    OpenAIRE

    Strange, Amy; Bellenguez, Céline; Sim, Xueling; Luben, Robert; Hysi, Pirro G.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M.E.; Freeman, Colin; Pirinen, Matti; Su, Zhan; Band, Gavin; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos

    2013-01-01

    To discover quantitative trait loci for intraocular pressure, a major risk factor for glaucoma and the only modifiable one, we performed a genome-wide association study on a discovery cohort of 2175 individuals from Sydney, Australia. We found a novel association between intraocular pressure and a common variant at 7p21 near to GLCCI1 and ICA1. The findings in this region were confirmed through two UK replication cohorts totalling 4866 individuals (rs59072263, P(combined) = 1.10 × 10(-8)). A ...

  6. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ke Zhao

    Full Text Available Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population.A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival.Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02, rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04, rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04 and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04. All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage

  7. Shared susceptibility loci at 2q33 region for lung and esophageal cancers in high-incidence areas of esophageal cancer in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Ke; Mao, Yi Min; Meng, Hui; Song, Xin; Hu, Shou Jia; Lv, Shuang; Cheng, Rang; Zhang, Tang Juan; Han, Xue Na; Ren, Jing Li; Qi, Yi Jun; Wang, Li Dong

    2017-01-01

    Cancers from lung and esophagus are the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in China and share many similarities in terms of histological type, risk factors and genetic variants. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Chinese esophageal cancer patients have demonstrated six high-risk candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, the present study aimed to determine the risk of these SNPs predisposing to lung cancer in Chinese population. A total of 1170 lung cancer patients and 1530 normal subjects were enrolled in this study from high-incidence areas for esophageal cancer in Henan, northern China. Five milliliters of blood were collected from all subjects for genotyping. Genotyping of 20 high-risk SNP loci identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on esophageal, lung and gastric cancers was performed using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Polymorphisms were examined for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) using Х2 test. Bonferroni correction was performed to correct the statistical significance of 20 SNPs with the risk of lung cancer. The Pearson's Х2 test was used to compare the distributions of gender, TNM stage, histopathological type, smoking and family history by lung susceptibility genotypes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associations between genetic variants and overall survival. Four of the 20 SNPs identified as high-risk SNPs in Chinese esophageal cancer showed increased risk for Chinese lung cancer, which included rs3769823 (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.107-1.509; P = 0.02), rs10931936 (OR = 1.283; 95% CI = 1.100-1.495; P = 0.04), rs2244438 (OR = 1.294; 95% CI = 1.098-1.525; P = 0.04) and rs13016963 (OR = 1.268; 95% CI = 1.089-1.447; P = 0.04). All these SNPs were located at 2q33 region harboringgenes of CASP8, ALS2CR12 and TRAK2. However, none of these susceptibility SNPs was observed to be significantly associated with gender, TNM stage, histopathological type

  8. A large-scale genetic analysis reveals a strong contribution of the HLA class II region to giant cell arteritis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, F David; Mackie, Sarah L; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J; Hoffman, Gary S; Khalidi, Nader A; Koening, Curry L; Langford, Carol A; McAlear, Carol A; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G; Warrington, Kenneth J; Ytterberg, Steven R; Gregersen, Peter K; Pease, Colin T; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P C; de Bakker, Paul I W; Barrett, Jennifer H; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A; González-Gay, Miguel A; Morgan, Ann W; Martín, Javier

    2015-04-02

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10(-40), OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1(∗)04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10(-43)) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10(-46)), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10(-45)) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10(-6), OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10(-6), OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10(-5), OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sequencing the GRHL3 Coding Region Reveals Rare Truncating Mutations and a Common Susceptibility Variant for Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Elisabeth; Böhmer, Anne C.; Ishorst, Nina; Hoebel, Ann-Kathrin; Gültepe, Pinar; Schuenke, Hannah; Klamt, Johanna; Hofmann, Andrea; Gölz, Lina; Raff, Ruth; Tessmann, Peter; Nowak, Stefanie; Reutter, Heiko; Hemprich, Alexander; Kreusch, Thomas; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Braumann, Bert; Reich, Rudolf; Schmidt, Gül; Jäger, Andreas; Reiter, Rudolf; Brosch, Sibylle; Stavusis, Janis; Ishida, Miho; Seselgyte, Rimante; Moore, Gudrun E.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Borck, Guntram; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Lace, Baiba; Stanier, Philip; Knapp, Michael; Ludwig, Kerstin U.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) are the most frequent subphenotypes of orofacial clefts. A common syndromic form of orofacial clefting is Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) where individuals have CL/P or CPO, often but not always associated with lower lip pits. Recently, ∼5% of VWS-affected individuals were identified with mutations in the grainy head-like 3 gene (GRHL3). To investigate GRHL3 in nonsyndromic clefting, we sequenced its coding region in 576 Europeans with nsCL/P and 96 with nsCPO. Most strikingly, nsCPO-affected individuals had a higher minor allele frequency for rs41268753 (0.099) than control subjects (0.049; p = 1.24 × 10−2). This association was replicated in nsCPO/control cohorts from Latvia, Yemen, and the UK (pcombined = 2.63 × 10−5; ORallelic = 2.46 [95% CI 1.6–3.7]) and reached genome-wide significance in combination with imputed data from a GWAS in nsCPO triads (p = 2.73 × 10−9). Notably, rs41268753 is not associated with nsCL/P (p = 0.45). rs41268753 encodes the highly conserved p.Thr454Met (c.1361C>T) (GERP = 5.3), which prediction programs denote as deleterious, has a CADD score of 29.6, and increases protein binding capacity in silico. Sequencing also revealed four novel truncating GRHL3 mutations including two that were de novo in four families, where all nine individuals harboring mutations had nsCPO. This is important for genetic counseling: given that VWS is rare compared to nsCPO, our data suggest that dominant GRHL3 mutations are more likely to cause nonsyndromic than syndromic CPO. Thus, with rare dominant mutations and a common risk variant in the coding region, we have identified an important contribution for GRHL3 in nsCPO. PMID:27018475

  10. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  11. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes on antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactivity, protein carbonyl levels, and malondialdehyde formation, a marker for lipid peroxidation, in the hippocampus. For this study, streptozotocin (75 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected into adult rats to induce type 1 diabetes. The three experimental parameters were determined at 2, 3, 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment. Fasting blood glucose levels significantly increased by 20.7-21.9 mM after streptozotocin treatment. The number of antioxidant-like protein-1 immunoreactive neurons significantly decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, 3 weeks after streptozotocin treatment compared to the control group. Malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, which are modified by oxidative stress, significantly increased with a peak at 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment, and then decreased 4 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment. These results suggest that neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region, but not the dentate gyrus, are susceptible to oxidative stress 3 weeks after malondialdehyde treatment.

  13. Radiation susceptibility of the mouse smalleye mutants, Del(2)Sey3Hpax6 and Del(2)Sey4Hpax6, which delete the chromosome 2 middle regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Y.; Hoshi, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yamate, J.; Peters, J.; Cattanach, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: LOH at the chromosome 2 middle regions is common in the radiation-induced mouse acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To identify the suppressor or the modifier gene of AML at this region, the mouse deletion mutants, Del(2)Sey3H pax6 and Del(2)Sey3H pax6 could be the good models, as they deleted the chromosome 2 middle regions hemizygously. The allele of the partially deleted chromosome 2 was paternally generated and maintained hemizygously. The exact deleted regions of the two mutants were mapped by the PCR-based detection of polymorphism of the STS markers. The length of the deletions was 3.01Mb and 10.11MB for Del(2)Sey3H pax6 and Del(2)Sey3H pax6 , respectively. For the induction of tumors, a radiation, 3.0Gy of Co-60 and a chemical carcinogen, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea were applied to the mutants. Their tumorigenicity was compared with those of control as well as normal sibs by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. Both mutants were found to predispose to small intestinal tumors. Intestinal tumors developed spontaneously with the incidence of 30%. The radiation and the chemical accelerated the malignancy and increased the incidence of the intestinal tumors. Radiation shortened the latency of AML development in the Del(2)Sey3H pax6 mutant but not in the Del(2)Sey3H pax6 . Spontaneous AML has not been observed, nor any increase in the incidence of induced AMLs. The commonly deleted region of the two mutants, the 3.01Mb region, must be critical for the development of tumors and the high susceptibility to radiation. The role of Pax6 gene should be considered in the intestinal tumorigenesis, as the Pax6 gene plays an important role in the pancreas development during the embryogenesis. The Wt1, a tumor suppressor gene, which is deleted hemizygously in these mutants as well. The screening of homozygous deletion has been started using the induced as well as spontaneously developed tumors

  14. Extraction of the predisposition parameters for mapping the susceptibility of slides lands, in the region of EL Quola, province of Larache (Nothern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hamdouni Ikram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Slide lands (Lands mass movements are among the natural risks that Morocco faces in the Rifaines regions in particular. They generally constitute small-scale, punctual phenomena. But their diversity and frequency are nevertheless responsible for significant and costly damages and injuries. To deal with this problem, the study of field instabilities must take into account that: ithe ground movements must be taken in a context of the overall dynamics of the watershed, ii-the choice of more objective methods, which is not based on the very subjective opinion of the expert; iii-the choice of an adapted approach to the scale of work. In this article, we used the evidence theory "WofE" to evaluate the sensibility of landslide in the El Quola area. This method is based on the analysis of the relationships between landslides that occurred in the past (the so-called modelable variable Vm and the spatial distribution of some predictive parameters of instability (Vp. The result obtained is a landslide susceptibility map that is the result of multi-disciplinary and multi-temporal data. This method has been described as one of the most performing by several authors; however, it requires a conditional independence between the different predictive factors. The quality of the performances was evaluated with success curves.

  15. Comparison of MR imaging after administration of dysprosium-based magnetic-susceptibility contrast media with diffusion-weighted MR imaging in evaluation of regional cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseley, M.E.; Kucharczyk, J.; Kurhanewicz, J.; Mintorovitch, J.; Cohen, Y.; Rocklage, S.; Quay, S.C.; Norman, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study to establish whether a nonionic T2-shortening contrast agent, Dy-DTPA-bis(methylamide) (Dy-DTPA-BMA), would facilitate early detection of stroke-induced cerebral perfusion deficits. The sensitivity of susceptibility-enhanced MR imaging was compared with that of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the same cats subjected to unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). A 2-T unit, equipped with self-shielded gradient coils (± 20 G/cm, 15-cm bore size), was used in conjunction with an 8.5-cm inner diameter low-pass bird cage proton imaging coil. Diffusion-weighted images displayed increased signal intensity in the ischemic MCA territory less than 1 hour after occlusion, whereas T2-weighted MR images without contrast enhancement usually failed to depict injury for 2--3 hours after toke. With contrast administration (0.5 mmoles/kg of Dy-DTPA-BMA), however, T2-weighted images revealed perfusion deficits (hyperintensity) within 1 hour after MCA occlusion, and these corresponded to the anatomic regions of ischemic injury shown on diffusion-weighted MR images

  16. Microdeletion/microduplication of proximal 15q11.2 between BP1 and BP2: a susceptibility region for neurological dysfunction including developmental and language delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Rachel D; Pasion, Romela; Mikhail, Fady M; Carroll, Andrew J; Robin, Nathaniel H; Youngs, Erin L; Gadi, Inder K; Keitges, Elizabeth; Jaswaney, Vikram L; Papenhausen, Peter R; Potluri, Venkateswara R; Risheg, Hiba; Rush, Brooke; Smith, Janice L; Schwartz, Stuart; Tepperberg, James H; Butler, Merlin G

    2011-10-01

    The proximal long arm of chromosome 15 has segmental duplications located at breakpoints BP1-BP5 that mediate the generation of NAHR-related microdeletions and microduplications. The classical Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome deletion is flanked by either of the proximal BP1 or BP2 breakpoints and the distal BP3 breakpoint. The larger Type I deletions are flanked by BP1 and BP3 in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome subjects. Those with this deletion are reported to have a more severe phenotype than individuals with either Type II deletions (BP2-BP3) or uniparental disomy 15. The BP1-BP2 region spans approximately 500 kb and contains four evolutionarily conserved genes that are not imprinted. Reports of mutations or disturbed expression of these genes appear to impact behavioral and neurological function in affected individuals. Recently, reports of deletions and duplications flanked by BP1 and BP2 suggest an association with speech and motor delays, behavioral problems, seizures, and autism. We present a large cohort of subjects with copy number alteration of BP1 to BP2 with common phenotypic features. These include autism, developmental delay, motor and language delays, and behavioral problems, which were present in both cytogenetic groups. Parental studies demonstrated phenotypically normal carriers in several instances, and mildly affected carriers in others, complicating phenotypic association and/or causality. Possible explanations for these results include reduced penetrance, altered gene dosage on a particular genetic background, or a susceptibility region as reported for other areas of the genome implicated in autism and behavior disturbances.

  17. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species from bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds in the central region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspanti, Claudia G; Bonetto, Cesar C; Vissio, Claudina; Pellegrino, Matías S; Reinoso, Elina B; Dieser, Silvana A; Bogni, Cristina I; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Odierno, Liliana M

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of bovine subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of CNS species causing SCM identified by genotyping varies among countries. Overall, the antimicrobial resistance in this group of organisms is increasing worldwide; however, little information exists about a CNS species resistant to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to genotypically characterize CNS at species level and to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of CNS species isolated from bovine SCM in 51 dairy herds located in the central region of the province of Cordoba, Argentina. In this study, we identified 219 CNS isolates at species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the groEL gene. Staphylococcus chromogenes (46.6%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (32%) were the most prevalent species. A minimum of three different CNS species were present in 41.2% of the herds. S. chromogenes was isolated from most of the herds (86.3%), whereas S. haemolyticus was isolated from 66.7% of them. The broth microdilution method was used to test in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Resistance to a single compound or two related compounds was expressed in 43.8% of the isolates. S. chromogenes and S. haemolyticus showed a very high proportion of isolates resistant to penicillin. Resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials was found in 30.6% of all CNS. S. haemolyticus exhibited a higher frequency of resistance to two or more non-related antimicrobials than S. chromogenes. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility of agricultural soils in the Northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil; Gamaespectrometria, resistividade eletrica e susceptibilidade magnetica de solos agricolas no noroeste do estado do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becegato, Valter Antonio [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina-UDESC, Centro de Ciencias Agroveterinarias, Lages, SC (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: becegato@cav.udesc.br, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Universidade Federal do Parana (LPGA/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada

    2005-10-15

    Gamma-ray spectrometry, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were taken from agricultural areas near the City of Maringa, in the Northwest region of the Parana state, south Brazil, in order to characterize the spatial distribution of radionuclides (K, eU, and eTh), the apparent resistivity, and the magnetic susceptibility determined for soils. Three different types of soils are present in this agricultural area: Alfisoil, clayey texture Oxisoil, both deriving from Lower Cretaceous basalts of the Serra Geral Formation; and medium texture Oxisoil from reworked Serra Geral and Goio-Ere formations, the latter deriving from sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Caiua Group. It could be observed that in more clayey soils both concentration of radionuclides and susceptibility values are higher than in more sandy soils, especially due to the higher adsorption in the former and to the higher availability of magnetic minerals in the latter. The average ppm and Bq Kg{sup -1} grades for K, eU, and eTh in the areas under anthropic activity are of 1766-54.75, 0.83-10.22, and 1.78-7.27, respectively. These grades are significantly higher than those of non-occupied or non-fertilized areas (1101-34.15 K, 0.14-1.69 eU, and 1.31-5.36 eTh in ppm and Bq Kg-1, respectively.) Correlations were observed between uranium and clay, uranium and magnetic susceptibility, uranium and organic matter, and between electric resistivity and clay grades. Varied concentrations of radionuclides were also observed in different fertilizer formulations applied to soy and wheat cultures. Apparent electric resistivity values between 25 and 647 Ohm.m and magnetic susceptibility values between 0.28 e 1.10 x 10-3 SI due to clay and magnetic minerals represented important soil discrimination factors in the study area that can be incorporated as easy, low-cost soil mapping tools. (author)

  20. In vitro atovaquone/proguanil susceptibility and characterization of the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum from different endemic regions of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungthin Mathirut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to most currently used antimalarial drugs is the major problem in malaria control along the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders. Although artemisinin-based combination therapy has been recommended for the treatment of multidrug-resistant falciparum malaria, these combinations are not available for some people, such as travelers from North America. A fixed-dose combination of atovaquone and proguanil (Malarone has been proved to be effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria which is already approved by countries in North America and Europe. Determination of the phenotypes and genotypes related to atovaquone/proguanil response in Thai isolates of P. falciparum will be useful for rationale drug use. The main purpose of this study was to explore the in vitro atovaquone/proguanil susceptibility of recently adapted Thai isolates of P. falciparum. Genotypic characterization of the cytb gene of these isolates was also determined since it has been reported that point mutations, particularly codon 268 in the cytochrome b gene (cytb have been linked to atovaquone/proguanil treatment failure. Methods Eighty three P. falciparum isolates collected during 1998 to 2005 from four different multidrug resistance areas of Thailand were determined for the in vitro atovaquone/proguanil susceptibilities using radioisotopic assay. Mutations in the cytb gene were determined by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis. Results The mean atovaquone and proguanil IC50 was 3.4 nM and 36.5 μM, respectively. All 83 Thai isolates were atovaquone sensitive. None of the 83 isolates contained the mutations at codon 268 of the cytb gene. DNA sequencing of the cytb gene of 20 parasite isolates showed no other mutations. Conclusion In agreement with a recent efficacy study of atovaquone/proguanil, the present information indicates that atovaquone/proguanil can be one of the drugs of choice for the treatment

  1. [Single nucleotide polymorphism of STAT4 rs7574865 is associated with the susceptibility of primary biliary cirrhosis in Han population of partial regions of Jiangsu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liming; Zhou, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) rs7574865 gene with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in Han population of Jiangsu province. Methods The peripheral blood samples were collected from 138 inpatients with PBC and 116 unrelated healthy donors in the Third People's Hospital of Changzhou City in Jiangsu province. The STAT4 rs7574865 SNP was determined by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) assay. The distributions of genotype and allele frequencies in the two groups were analyzed by the Chi-squared test in order to identify whether rs7574865 was the susceptible locus of PBC. Then, the associations between rs7574865 and the serum levels of anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 (AMA-M2), anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-Cenp B antibody, anti-GP210 antibody, anti-SP100 antibody in PBC were investigated. Results Three genotypes, GG, GT and TT, were found at position rs7574865 of STAT4. The TT genotype frequency in the PBC group (20.3%) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (6.9%) and the odds rations (OR) value was 3.436. The T allele frequencies were 42.4% and 31.9% in the PBC group and healthy controls, respectively, and OR value was 1.571. There were no statistically differences between rs7574865 and the levels of serum autoantibodies in the patients with PBC. Conclusion STAT4 rs7574865 gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility of PBC in the Han population of Jiangsu province.

  2. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  3. Original Paper Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multicenter study on antibiotic susceptibility/resistance trends in the western region of Cameroon ... antibiotic era, IDs used to be serious threats because of lack or insufficient ...... antimicrobial use in livestock; AMR. Control., 116-122. Vandini ...

  4. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  5. High-resolution melting analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism hot-spot region in the rpoB gene as an indicator of reduced susceptibility to rifaximin in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecavar, Verena; Blaschitz, Marion; Hufnagl, Peter; Zeinzinger, Josef; Fiedler, Anita; Allerberger, Franz; Maass, Matthias; Indra, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Clostridium difficile, a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium, is the main causative agent of hospital-acquired diarrhoea worldwide. In addition to metronidazole and vancomycin, rifaximin, a rifamycin derivative, is a promising antibiotic for the treatment of recurring C. difficile infections (CDI). However, exposure of C. difficile to this antibiotic has led to the development of rifaximin-resistance due to point mutations in the β-subunit of the RNA polymerase (rpoB) gene. In the present study, 348 C. difficile strains with known PCR-ribotypes were investigated for respective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the proposed rpoB hot-spot region by using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. This method allows the detection of SNPs by comparing the altered melting behaviour of dsDNA with that of wild-type DNA. Discrimination between wild-type and mutant strains was enhanced by creating heteroduplexes by mixing sample DNA with wild-type DNA, leading to characteristic melting curve shapes from samples containing SNPs in the respective rpoB section. In the present study, we were able to identify 16 different rpoB sequence-types (ST) by sequencing analysis of a 325 bp fragment. The 16 PCR STs displayed a total of 24 different SNPs. Fifteen of these 24 SNPs were located within the proposed 151 bp SNP hot-spot region, resulting in 11 different HRM curve profiles (CP). Eleven SNPs (seven of which were within the proposed hot-spot region) led to amino acid substitutions associated with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and 13 SNPs (eight of which were within the hot-spot region) were synonymous. This investigation clearly demonstrates that HRM analysis of the proposed SNP hot-spot region in the rpoB gene of C. difficile is a fast and cost-effective method for the identification of C. difficile samples with reduced susceptibility to rifaximin and even allows simultaneous SNP subtyping of the respective C. difficile isolates.

  6. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  7. Capture Hi-C identifies a novel causal gene, IL20RA, in the pan-autoimmune genetic susceptibility region 6q23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Amanda; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Martin, Paul; Massey, Jonathan; Duffus, Kate; Plant, Darren; Yarwood, Annie; Pratt, Arthur G; Anderson, Amy E; Isaacs, John D; Diboll, Julie; Thalayasingam, Nishanthi; Ospelt, Caroline; Barton, Anne; Worthington, Jane; Fraser, Peter; Eyre, Stephen; Orozco, Gisela

    2016-11-01

    The identification of causal genes from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is the next important step for the translation of genetic findings into biologically meaningful mechanisms of disease and potential therapeutic targets. Using novel chromatin interaction detection techniques and allele specific assays in T and B cell lines, we provide compelling evidence that redefines causal genes at the 6q23 locus, one of the most important loci that confers autoimmunity risk. Although the function of disease-associated non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q23 is unknown, the association is generally assigned to TNFAIP3, the closest gene. However, the DNA fragment containing the associated SNPs interacts through chromatin looping not only with TNFAIP3, but also with IL20RA, located 680 kb upstream. The risk allele of the most likely causal SNP, rs6927172, is correlated with both a higher frequency of interactions and increased expression of IL20RA, along with a stronger binding of both the NFκB transcription factor and chromatin marks characteristic of active enhancers in T-cells. Our results highlight the importance of gene assignment for translating GWAS findings into biologically meaningful mechanisms of disease and potential therapeutic targets; indeed, monoclonal antibody therapy targeting IL-20 is effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, both with strong GWAS associations to this region.

  8. Susceptibility to gastric cancer and polymorphisms of insertion/deletion at the intron 3 of the XRCC4 and VNTR at the promoter region of the XRCC5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Pashaei, Samira; Amerizade, Foroozan

    2015-07-01

    The genes encoding X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4; OMIM: 194363) and 5 (XRCC5; OMIM: 194364) are involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks. To investigating the associations between polymorphisms of Insertion/Deletion (I/D, rs28360071) in the intron 3 of the XRCC4 and VNTR in the promoter region of the XRCC5 and risk of gastric cancer, the present study was carried out. We included 159 (56 females, 103 males) with gastric cancer and 242 (75 females, 167 males) healthy blood donors frequency matched for age and gender. Using PCR-based methods, the genotypes of the study polymorphisms were determined. The alleles of VNTR XRCC5 polymorphism divided into two groups: L (0 and 1 repeats) and H (2 and 3 repeats) alleles. For the I/D XRCC4 polymorphism, after stratification of the subjects according to their family history (FH) of cancer, either the ID (OR = 3.19, 95%CI: 1.35-7.50, P = 0.008) or the DD genotypes (OR = 4.62, 95%CI: 1.63-13.0, P = 0.004) among positive FH persons, increased the risk of gastric cancer compared with the reference group (persons who have negative FH and II genotype). For the VNTR XRCC5 polymorphism, the LH + HH genotypes among positive FH persons, increased the risk of gastric cancer compared with the reference group (persons who have negative FH and LL genotype) (OR = 2.88, 95%CI: 1.34-6.18, P = 0.006). Sensitivity analysis showed that the above mentioned associations were not occurred due to the maldistribution of the genotypes among missing data. The present study suggests that both polymorphisms of the XRCC4 and XRCC5 might be risk factors for gastric cancer development especially among persons with positive FH.

  9. Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina

    2014-05-01

    Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained

  10. A meta-analysis of the effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked promoter region polymorphism on susceptibility to lifelong premature ejaculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Premature ejaculation (PE has been reported as the most common male sexual dysfunction with global prevalence rates estimated at approximately 30%. The neurobiogenesis of ejaculation is very complex and involves the serotoninergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT system. Recently, genetic polymorphisms located on SLC6A4 gene codifying for 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, the major regulator of serotonic neurotransmission, have been linked with the pathogenesis and risk of PE. Apparently studies of this type of polymorphism in PE have show conflicting results. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed that are available in relation with 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the risk of lifelong PE (LPE in men to clarify this relationship. We searched Pubmed and Embase (last search updated on Aug 2012 using 'premature ejaculation', 'polymorphism or variant', 'genotype', 'ejaculatory function', and 'rapid ejaculation' as keywords and reference lists of studies corresponded to the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. These studies involved the total number of 481 LPE men and 466 health control men subjects. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. RESULTS: In the overall analysis, significant associations between LPE risk and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were found (L-allele vs. S-allele OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79-0.95, P = 0.002; LL vs. SS: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.68-0.95, P = 0.009; LS vs. SS: OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.76-0.97, P = 0.012 and LL+LS vs. SS: OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95, P = 0.002. Moreover, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, similar significant associations were detected. The Egger's test did not reveal presence of a publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations demonstrate that 5-HTTLPR (L>S polymorphism might protect men against LPE risk. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should

  11. Magnetic susceptibility of transition metal alloys with a hcp structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkenshtejn, N.V.; Galoshina, Eh.V.; Gorina, N.B.; Korenovskij, N.L.; Polyakova, V.P.; Savitskij, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The angular dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals of Ru-Nb, Re-W and Os-Re alloys is investigated in the region of the hexagonal closely packed structure. The spin susceptibility is estimated on the basis of available data on the electron specific heat. The principal values of the orbital component of the susceptibility are determined under the assumption of isotopy of the spin contribution to the susceptibility. In Ru-Nb alloys the magnitudes of the orbital contributions and the susceptibility anisotropy are found to increase; in Re-W the spin contribution is noticeably greater whereas the orbital susceptibility is smaller, as is the anistropy. In the Os-Re alloy the orbital contributions increase and the susceptibility anisotropy is constant. It is suggested that the addition of the second component changes the overlapping of the d-electron wave functions

  12. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  13. Landslide inventory and susceptibility modelling using geospatial tools, in Hunza-Nagar valley, northern Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacha, Alam Sher; Shafique, Muhammad; van der Werff, H.M.A.

    2018-01-01

    A comprehensive landslide inventory and susceptibility maps are prerequisite for developing and implementing landslide mitigation strategies. Landslide susceptibility maps for the landslides prone regions in northern Pakistan are rarely available. The Hunza-Nagar valley in northern Pakistan is known

  14. Magnetic susceptibilities of integrable quantum ladders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo A; Lee, K.

    2001-01-01

    As an extension of previous studies, we consider the magnetic susceptibilities of a coupled spin chain model at low temperature and of a more realistic model at low temperature and of a more realistic model having a t-J ladder structure at zero temperature. The magnetic susceptibilities for both models are obtained numerically when the coupling constant is greater than its critical value. In this region, the ladders behave as a single chain for H c and as two independent chains for H>H c , showing a divergence at H c . This divergence is expected to smear out at a finite temperature

  15. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juling, Katrin; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Williams, John L; Fries, Ruedi

    2006-01-01

    Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively). The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent. PMID:17014722

  16. A major genetic component of BSE susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams John L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coding variants of the prion protein gene (PRNP have been shown to be major determinants for the susceptibility to transmitted prion diseases in humans, mice and sheep. However, to date, the effects of polymorphisms in the coding and regulatory regions of bovine PRNP on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE susceptibility have been considered marginal or non-existent. Here we analysed two insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP in BSE affected animals and controls of four independent cattle populations from UK and Germany. Results In the present report, we show that two previously reported 23- and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms in the regulatory region of bovine PRNP are strongly associated with BSE incidence in cattle. Genotyping of BSE-affected and control animals of UK Holstein, German Holstein, German Brown and German Fleckvieh breeds revealed a significant overrepresentation of the deletion alleles at both polymorphic sites in diseased animals (P = 2.01 × 10-3 and P = 8.66 × 10-5, respectively. The main effect on susceptibility is associated with the 12-bp indel polymorphism. Compared with non-carriers, heterozygous and homozygous carriers of the 12-bp deletion allele possess relatively higher risks of having BSE, ranging from 1.32 to 4.01 and 1.74 to 3.65 in the different breeds. These values correspond to population attributable risks ranging from 35% to 53%. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a substantial genetic PRNP associated component for BSE susceptibility in cattle. Although the BSE risk conferred by the deletion allele of the 12-bp indel in the regulatory region of PRNP is substantial, the main risk factor for BSE in cattle is environmental, i.e. exposure to feedstuffs contaminated with the infectious agent.

  17. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  18. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  19. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  20. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  1. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Geographically Diverse Clinical Human Isolates of Leptospira▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ressner, Roseanne A.; Griffith, Matthew E.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Miller, R. Scott; Mende, Katrin; Fraser, Susan L.; Galloway, Renee L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2008-01-01

    Although antimicrobial therapy of leptospirosis has been studied in a few randomized controlled clinical studies, those studies were limited to specific regions of the world and few have characterized infecting strains. A broth microdilution technique for the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility has been developed at Brooke Army Medical Center. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibilities of 13 Leptospira isolates (including recent clinical isolates) from Egypt, Thailand, Nicarag...

  4. Effects of Inventory Bias on Landslide Susceptibility Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, T. A.; Kirschbaum, D. B.

    2017-01-01

    Many landslide inventories are known to be biased, especially inventories for large regions such as Oregon's SLIDO or NASA's Global Landslide Catalog. These biases must affect the results of empirically derived susceptibility models to some degree. We evaluated the strength of the susceptibility model distortion from postulated biases by truncating an unbiased inventory. We generated a synthetic inventory from an existing landslide susceptibility map of Oregon, then removed landslides from this inventory to simulate the effects of reporting biases likely to affect inventories in this region, namely population and infrastructure effects. Logistic regression models were fitted to the modified inventories. Then the process of biasing a susceptibility model was repeated with SLIDO data. We evaluated each susceptibility model with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results suggest that the effects of landslide inventory bias on empirical models should not be ignored, even if those models are, in some cases, useful. We suggest fitting models in well-documented areas and extrapolating across the study region as a possible approach to modeling landslide susceptibility with heavily biased inventories.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility of free charge carriers in bismuth tellurides (Bi2Te3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, S.R.; Dutta, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Principal magnetic susceptibilities of both p- and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 crystals have been measured over the range of temperature 90 deg K to 650 deg K. The observed susceptibilities are diamagnetic and temperature dependent. This temperature dependence has been attributed to the contribution of the free charge carriers to the susceptibilities. From the observed susceptibilities the carrier-susceptibilities have been separately obtained which are found to be paramagnetic. From the total carrier-susceptibilities, the susceptibilities of the carriers which are thermally liberated in the intrinsic region have been separated. From an analysis of the carrier-susceptibilities the band gap and its temperature coefficient have been found out and these compare favourably with those obtained from electrical measurements. (author)

  6. Suscetibilidade de oito cultivares de bananeira à sigatoka-amarela na região de Marília (SP Susceptibility to sigatoka of eight banana cultivars in the region of Marília, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade de oito cultivares de bananeira à sigatoka-amarela (Mycosphaerella musicola foi avaliada em um experimento de campo, na região de Marília (SP. Três cultivares pertenciam ao Grupo AAA ('Nanicão', 'Nanicão Jangada' e 'Grande Naine' e cinco, ao AAB ('Prata', 'Enxerto', 'Maçã', 'Mysore' e 'Prata Zulu'. O experimento foi implantado em fevereiro de 1992 e, durante os três primeiros anos, não foi feito controle de sigatoka. A suscetibilidade dos materiais foi estimada mediante avaliações em três épocas: março de 93, abril e julho de 94. Na primeira avaliação, foi contado o número de manchas na segunda folha e, nas outras, foram atribuídas notas de acordo com a intensidade dos sintomas. Os cultivares foram agrupados em três classes: altamente suscetível (AS, suscetível (S ou parcialmente resistente (PR. Nenhum dos cultivares pôde ser considerado imune, pois todos apresentaram lesões foliares. Os cultivares mais suscetíveis foram os do Grupo AAA, Subgrupo Cavendish ('Nanicão', 'Grande Naine' e 'Nanicão Jangada' e 'Enxerto' (AAB. 'Mysore' (AAB e 'Prata Zulu' (AAB foram classificados como parcialmente resistentes. 'Prata' (AAB e 'Maçã' (AAB mostraram-se medianamente suscetíveis.Susceptibility of eight banana cultivars to sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella musicola was assessed in a field experiment in the region of Marília, State of São Paulo. Three cultivars were members of AAA Group ('Nanicão', 'Nanicão Jangada' and 'Grande Naine' and five belonged to AAB Group ('Prata', 'Enxerto', 'Maçã', 'Mysore' and 'Prata Zulu'. The experiment was established in February, 1992, and during the first three years, sigatoka disease was not controlled. Susceptibility was assessed in three occasions: March, 1993, April and July, 1994. In the first, it was counted the number of spots on the second leaf, and in the others, the plants were graded according to the amount of leaf scorch due to sigatoka. The cultivars were

  7. Novel susceptibility locus at 22q11 for diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maija; Forsblom, Carol; Kaunisto, Mari A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) affects about 30% of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and contributes to serious morbidity and mortality. So far only the 3q21-q25 region has repeatedly been indicated as a susceptibility region for DN. The aim of this study was to search for new DN susceptibility loci...

  8. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  9. Discussion of Various Susceptibilities within Thermal and Dense Quantum Chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shu-Sheng; Shi Yuan-Mei; Yang You-Chang; Cui Zhu-Fang; Zong Hong-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the system undergoes a crossover at high temperature and low chemical potential beyond the chiral limit case, and the properties of the crossover region are important for researchers to understand the nature of strong interacting matters of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Since at present there is no exact order of parameters of the phase transitions beyond the chiral limit, QCD susceptibilities are widely used as indicators. In this work various susceptibilities are discussed in the framework of Dyson–Schwinger equations. The results show that different kinds of susceptibilities give the same critical end point, which is the bifurcation point of the crossover region and the first order phase transition line of QCD. Nevertheless, different pseudocritical points are found in the temperature axis. We think that defining a critical band is more suitable in the crossover region. (paper)

  10. [Susceptibility and resistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero Delgado, M C; García-Mayorgas, A D; Rodríguez, F; Ibarra, A; Casal, M

    2007-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism that is frequently the cause of nosocomial infections. Multiple mechanisms are involved in its natural and acquired resistance to many of the antimicrobial agents commonly used in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to assess the susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa strains isolated in Hospital Reina Sofia between 2000 and 2005, as well as to analyze the differences between intrahospital and extrahospital isolates in 2005 and to compare the results with those obtained in other studies. A total of 3,019 strains of P. aeruginosa from different hospitals and nonhospital settings were evaluated, taking into consideration their degree of sensitivity to different antibiotics. The MICs were determined by means of the Wider I automated system (Soria Melguizo), taking into consideration the criteria of susceptibility and resistance recommended by MENSURA. Results of the analysis showed that P. aeruginosa maintained similar levels of antimicrobial susceptibility during the period 2000-2005, with increased susceptibility to amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. There were also important differences in the degree of susceptibility between intrahospital and extrahospital strains, except for imipenem and fosfomycin. The intrahospital difference in susceptibility was also evaluated, emphasizing the importance of periodically studying susceptibility and resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa in each setting in order to evaluate different therapeutic guidelines, as it is not always advisable to extrapolate data from different regions. These differences can be explained by the different use of antibiotics in each center and the geographic variations of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa.

  11. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  12. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  13. Features of magnetic susceptibility and inhomogeneous magnetic state in La-Sr manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgij, V.T.; Linnik, A.I.; Kamenev, V.I.; Prokopenko, V.K.; Mikhajlov, V.I.; Khokhlov, V.A.; Kadontseva, A.M.; Linnik, T.A.; Davydejko, N.V.; Turchenko, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous magnetic susceptibility has been observed in mono- and polycrystalline (ceramic) samples of La-Sr manganites. The oscillations of the magnetic susceptibility observed for monocrystal samples in the vicinity of the Curie temperature (and in the paramagnetic region) are explained by the existence of magnetic clusters. The appearance of susceptibility oscillations in ceramic samples is attributed to the formation of magnetic clusters, which may occur both in grains (at the interface between ferro- and antiferromagnetic phases) and at the grain boundaries [ru

  14. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  15. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  16. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge....... Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study...

  17. Slope failure susceptibility zonation using integrated remote sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    In view of the above, hazard assessment was necessary to identify area with ... Singrauli coalfield and surrounding regions comprise of two distinct .... highwall slope failure susceptibility zonation was done using multi-layered ... iii) generation of false colour composites (band combinations and ratioing) iv) generation of.

  18. Profiles of antibiotic susceptibilities of bacterial isolates and physico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Venda region of South Africa is predominantly rural and residents rely on untreated water sources for daily water needs. The physico-chemical quality of these water sources including antibiotic susceptibilities of enteric bacterial isolates which would guide clinicians in the empiric management of diarrhoea have ...

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  20. Prion protein and scrapie susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Bossers, A.; Schreuder, B.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents briefly current views on the role of prion protein (PrP) in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies or prion diseases and the effect of PrP polymoryhisms on the susceptibility to these diseases, with special emphasis on sheep scrapie. The PrP genotype of sheep apears to be a

  1. Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lennox K; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Kazembe, Peter N; Tansuphasawadikul, Somsit; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Chaovavanich, Achara; Reller, L Barth; Jarvis, William R; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility profiles of medically important fungi in less-developed countries remain uncharacterized. We measured the MICs of amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from Thailand, Malawi, and the United States and found no evidence of resistance or MIC profile differences among the countries.

  2. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. India, Genomic diversity & Disease susceptibility · India, a paradise for Genetic Studies · Involved in earlier stages of Immune response protecting us from Diseases, Responsible for kidney and other transplant rejections Inherited from our parents · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7.

  3. A method of mapping sinkhole susceptibility using a geographic information system : a case study for interstates in the karst counties of Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to create a susceptibility map, pinpointing : regions in the karst counties of Virginia, in particular, along interstates, most susceptible to future sinkhole : development, determi...

  4. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B

    2017-07-01

    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duylinh; Gose, Severin; Castro, Lina; Chung, Kathleen; Bernstein, Kyle; Samuel, Micheal; Bauer, Heidi; Pandori, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is an increasing public health threat. Using Etest and multiantigen sequence typing, we detected sequence type 1407, which is associated with reduced susceptibilities to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, in 4 major populated regions in California, USA, in 2012.

  6. Degree of susceptibility of industrial gases of tree and shrub species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovoljskii, I A

    1952-01-01

    The trees and shrubs of the iron smelting region of Krivoi Rog, in the Ukraine, were surveyed to determine susceptibility to air pollution damage. Most of the observations were made in parks and green belts in industrial areas. A classification of tree and shrub species is presented; they are separated into three classes according to their susceptibility to air pollutant injury.

  7. Quantitative susceptibility mapping of human brain at 3T: a multisite reproducibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P-Y; Chao, T-C; Wu, M-L

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping of the human brain has demonstrated strong potential in examining iron deposition, which may help in investigating possible brain pathology. This study assesses the reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping across different imaging sites. In this study, the susceptibility values of 5 regions of interest in the human brain were measured on 9 healthy subjects following calibration by using phantom experiments. Each of the subjects was imaged 5 times on 1 scanner with the same procedure repeated on 3 different 3T systems so that both within-site and cross-site quantitative susceptibility mapping precision levels could be assessed. Two quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithms, similar in principle, one by using iterative regularization (iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping) and the other with analytic optimal solutions (deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping), were implemented, and their performances were compared. Results show that while deterministic quantitative susceptibility mapping had nearly 700 times faster computation speed, residual streaking artifacts seem to be more prominent compared with iterative quantitative susceptibility mapping. With quantitative susceptibility mapping, the putamen, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus showed smaller imprecision on the order of 0.005 ppm, whereas the red nucleus and substantia nigra, closer to the skull base, had a somewhat larger imprecision of approximately 0.01 ppm. Cross-site errors were not significantly larger than within-site errors. Possible sources of estimation errors are discussed. The reproducibility of quantitative susceptibility mapping in the human brain in vivo is regionally dependent, and the precision levels achieved with quantitative susceptibility mapping should allow longitudinal and multisite studies such as aging-related changes in brain tissue magnetic susceptibility. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  9. Susceptible-infected-recovered and susceptible-exposed-infected models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Tania; De Oliveira, Mario J

    2011-01-01

    Two stochastic epidemic lattice models, the susceptible-infected-recovered and the susceptible-exposed-infected models, are studied on a Cayley tree of coordination number k. The spreading of the disease in the former is found to occur when the infection probability b is larger than b c = k/2(k - 1). In the latter, which is equivalent to a dynamic site percolation model, the spreading occurs when the infection probability p is greater than p c = 1/(k - 1). We set up and solve the time evolution equations for both models and determine the final and time-dependent properties, including the epidemic curve. We show that the two models are closely related by revealing that their relevant properties are exactly mapped into each other when p = b/[k - (k - 1)b]. These include the cluster size distribution and the density of individuals of each type, quantities that have been determined in closed forms.

  10. Nonlinear electromagnetic susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    Fully electromagnetic nonlinear susceptibilities of unmagnetized plasmas are analyzed in detail. Concrete expressions of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility are found in various forms in the literature, usually in connection with the discussions of various three-wave decay processes, but the third-order susceptibilities are rarely discussed. The second-order susceptibility is pertinent to nonlinear wave-wave interactions (i.e., the decay/coalescence), whereas the third-order susceptibilities affect nonlinear wave-particle interactions (i.e., the induced scattering). In the present article useful approximate analytical expressions of these nonlinear susceptibilities that can be readily utilized in various situations are derived

  11. A landslide susceptibility map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Jente; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Duchateau, Rica; Poesen, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Studies on landslide risks and fatalities indicate that landslides are a global threat to humans, infrastructure and the environment, certainly in Africa. Nonetheless our understanding of the spatial patterns of landslides and rockfalls on this continent is very limited. Also in global landslide susceptibility maps, Africa is mostly underrepresented in the inventories used to construct these maps. As a result, predicted landslide susceptibilities remain subject to very large uncertainties. This research aims to produce a first continent-wide landslide susceptibility map for Africa, calibrated with a well-distributed landslide dataset. As a first step, we compiled all available landslide inventories for Africa. This data was supplemented by additional landslide mapping with Google Earth in underrepresented regions. This way, we compiled 60 landslide inventories from the literature (ca. 11000 landslides) and an additional 6500 landslides through mapping in Google Earth (including 1500 rockfalls). Various environmental variables such as slope, lithology, soil characteristics, land use, precipitation and seismic activity, were investigated for their significance in explaining the observed spatial patterns of landslides. To account for potential mapping biases in our dataset, we used Monte Carlo simulations that selected different subsets of mapped landslides, tested the significance of the considered environmental variables and evaluated the performance of the fitted multiple logistic regression model against another subset of mapped landslides. Based on these analyses, we constructed two landslide susceptibility maps for Africa: one for all landslide types and one excluding rockfalls. In both maps, topography, lithology and seismic activity were the most significant variables. The latter factor may be surprising, given the overall limited degree of seismicity in Africa. However, its significance indicates that frequent seismic events may serve as in important

  12. Probing white-matter microstructure with higher-order diffusion tensors and susceptibility tensor MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Murphy, Nicole E.; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion MRI has become an invaluable tool for studying white matter microstructure and brain connectivity. The emergence of quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) has provided another unique tool for assessing the structure of white matter. In the highly ordered white matter structure, diffusion MRI measures hindered water mobility induced by various tissue and cell membranes, while susceptibility sensitizes to the molecular composition and axonal arrangement. Integrating these two methods may produce new insights into the complex physiology of white matter. In this study, we investigated the relationship between diffusion and magnetic susceptibility in the white matter. Experiments were conducted on phantoms and human brains in vivo. Diffusion properties were quantified with the diffusion tensor model and also with the higher order tensor model based on the cumulant expansion. Frequency shift and susceptibility tensor were measured with quantitative susceptibility mapping and susceptibility tensor imaging. These diffusion and susceptibility quantities were compared and correlated in regions of single fiber bundles and regions of multiple fiber orientations. Relationships were established with similarities and differences identified. It is believed that diffusion MRI and susceptibility MRI provide complementary information of the microstructure of white matter. Together, they allow a more complete assessment of healthy and diseased brains. PMID:23507987

  13. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolated in Israel from local and imported cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchman, Irena; Levisohn, Sharon; Mikula, Inna; Lysnyansky, Inna

    2009-06-12

    Monitoring of susceptibility to antibiotics in field isolates of pathogenic bovine mycoplasmas is important for appropriate choice of treatment. Our study compared in vitro susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma bovis clinical strains, isolated during 2005-2007 from Israeli and imported calves. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for macrolides by the microbroth dilution test, for aminoglycosides by commercial Etest, and for fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines by both methods. Notably, although correlation between the methods was generally good, it was not possible to determine the MIC endpoint for enrofloxacin-resistant strains (MIC > or =2.5 microg/ml in the microtest) by Etest. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility profiles between local and imported M. bovis strains revealed that local strains were significantly more resistant to macrolides than most isolates from imported animals, with MIC(50) of 128 microg/ml vs. 2 microg/ml for tilmicosin and 8 microg/ml vs. 1 microg/ml for tylosin, respectively. However, local strains were more susceptible than most imported strains to fluoroquinolones and spectinomycin. Difference in susceptibility to tetracycline, doxycycline and oxytetracycline between local and imported strains was expressed in MIC(90) values for imported strains in the susceptible range compared to intermediate susceptibility for local strains. The marked difference in susceptibility profiles of M. bovis strains isolated from different geographical regions seen in this study emphasizes the necessity for performing of the antimicrobial susceptibility testing periodically and on a regional basis.

  14. Effect of Chemical Composition on Susceptibility to Weld Solidification Cracking in Austenitic Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoi, Kota; Shinozaki, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the chemical composition, especially the niobium content, chromium equivalent Creq, and nickel equivalent Nieq, on the weld solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region in the Schaeffler diagram was investigated. Specimens were fabricated using the hot-wire laser welding process with widely different compositions of Creq, Nieq, and niobium in the region. The distributions of the susceptibility, such as the crack length and brittle temperature range (BTR), in the Schaeffler diagram revealed a region with high susceptibility to solidification cracking. Addition of niobium enhanced the susceptibility and changed the distribution of the susceptibility in the diagram. The BTR distribution was in good agreement with the distribution of the temperature range of solidification (Δ T) calculated by solidification simulation based on Scheil model. Δ T increased with increasing content of alloying elements such as niobium. The distribution of Δ T was dependent on the type of alloying element owing to the change of the partitioning behavior. Thus, the solidification cracking susceptibility in the austenite single-phase region depends on whether the alloy contains elements. The distribution of the susceptibility in the region is controlled by the change in Δ T and the segregation behavior of niobium with the chemical composition.

  15. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2018-06-01

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  16. Genetic susceptibility to Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Qiuying

    2013-06-01

    The variety of clinical presentations of eye changes in patients with Graves' disease (GD) suggests that complex interactions between genetic, environmental, endogenous and local factors influence the severity of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). It is thought that the development of GO might be influenced by genetic factors and environmental factors, such as cigarette smoking. At present, however, the role of genetic factors in the development of GO is not known. On the basis of studies with candidate genes and other genetic approaches, several susceptibility loci in GO have been proposed, including immunological genes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), regulatory T-cell genes and thyroid-specific genes. This review gives a brief overview of the current range of major susceptibility genes found for GD.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschraegen Gerda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns Of Salmonella Species In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % susceptible to cefepime and carbapenem, 91% to azithromycin, 82.1% to cefixime and 73% to quinolones. Also susceptibility to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, augmentin and amikacin ...

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles for mastitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, L S; Benson, R H; Post, J E; DeCloux, J C

    1985-10-01

    Susceptibility tests were performed on milk samples representing prevalent mastitis infections in certain herds. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from several mastitis infections in the same herd were consistent. The herd antibiotic susceptibility profiles were used as a basis for selecting antibiotics for treatment of all such mastitis cases in that herd. A high degree of correlation was seen between the susceptibility test results and treatment results. Susceptibility patterns of the same bacterial species from mastitis infections in different herds varied greatly, which indicated that any one antibiotic would not work equally well against the same bacterial infection in every herd. Therefore, treatment should be selected on the basis of susceptibility test results. When both Streptococcus and Staphylococcus mastitis occurred in the same herd, the susceptibility patterns for the 2 bacterial species varied widely. Therefore, for herds that experienced both streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis, antibiotics to which both bacterial species were susceptible were used for treatment.

  20. Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q; van Zijl, Peter C M; Li, Xu

    2017-04-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging, STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of the susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of the susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in the myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Susceptibility Tensor Imaging (STI) of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Chunlei; Duong, Timothy Q.; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Li, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) is a recently developed MRI technique that allows quantitative determination of orientation-independent magnetic susceptibility parameters from the dependence of gradient echo signal phase on the orientation of biological tissues with respect to the main magnetic field. By modeling the magnetic susceptibility of each voxel as a symmetric rank-2 tensor, individual magnetic susceptibility tensor elements as well as the mean magnetic susceptibility (MMS) and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy (MSA) can be determined for brain tissues that would still show orientation dependence after conventional scalar-based quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to remove such dependence. Similar to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), STI allows mapping of brain white matter fiber orientations and reconstruction of 3D white matter pathways using the principal eigenvectors of the susceptibility tensor. In contrast to diffusion anisotropy, the main determinant factor of susceptibility anisotropy in brain white matter is myelin. Another unique feature of susceptibility anisotropy of white matter is its sensitivity to gadolinium-based contrast agents. Mechanistically, MRI-observed susceptibility anisotropy is mainly attributed to the highly ordered lipid molecules in myelin sheath. STI provides a consistent interpretation of the dependence of phase and susceptibility on orientation at multiple scales. This article reviews the key experimental findings and physical theories that led to the development of STI, its practical implementations, and its applications for brain research. PMID:27120169

  2. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  3. Genetic architecture for susceptibility to gout in the KARE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jimin; Kim, Younyoung; Kong, Minyoung; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify functional associations of cis-regulatory regions with gout susceptibility using data resulted from a genome-wide association study (GWAS), and to show a genetic architecture for gout with interaction effects among genes within each of the identified functions. The GWAS was conducted with 8314 control subjects and 520 patients with gout in the Korea Association REsource cohort. However, genetic associations with any individual nucleotide variants were not discovered by Bonferroni multiple testing in the GWAS (P>1.42 × 10(-7)). Genomic regions enrichment analysis was employed to identify functional associations of cis-regulatory regions. This analysis revealed several biological processes associated with gout susceptibility, and they were quite different from those with serum uric acid level. Epistasis for susceptibility to gout was estimated using entropy decomposition with selected genes within each biological process identified by the genomic regions enrichment analysis. Some epistases among nucleotide sequence variants for gout susceptibility were found to be larger than their individual effects. This study provided the first evidence that genetic factors for gout susceptibility greatly differed from those for serum uric acid level, which may suggest that research endeavors for identifying genetic factors for gout susceptibility should not be heavily dependent on pathogenesis of uric acid. Interaction effects between genes should be examined to explain a large portion of phenotypic variability for gout susceptibility.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Ferraro, M.B.; Contreras, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Proceeding with a series of works where new criteria are applied to the the calculation of the contribution of molecular fragments to certain properties, results are presented for a group of 1-X-benzenes and 1-X-naphtalenes for the magnetic susceptibility constant. Both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic parts are taken into account. To reduce the problems associated with the Gauge dependence originated in the approximations made, Gauge independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) orbitals are used in the atomic orbital basis. Results are discussed in terms of functional groups. (Author). 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, S.E.; Huray, P.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Damien, D.A.; Haire, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of 248 CmP and 248 CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.2 to 340 K and in the applied magnetic field range of 0.45 to 1600 G. The fcc (NaCl-type) samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and 162 K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms

  6. Polygenic susceptibility to testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchfield, Kevin; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Shipley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) combined with its strong heritable basis suggests that stratified screening for the early detection of TGCT may be clinically useful. We modelled the efficiency of such a personalised screening approach, based on genetic...... known TGCT susceptibility variants. The diagnostic performance of testicular biopsy and non-invasive semen analysis was also assessed, within a simulated combined screening programme. RESULTS: The area under the curve for the TGCT PRS model was 0.72 with individuals in the top 1% of the PRS having...

  7. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Nsengiyumva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The results revealed that susceptibility is spatially distributed countrywide with 42.3% of the region classified from moderate to very high susceptibility, and this is inhabited by 49.3% of the total population. In addition, Provinces with high to very high susceptibility are West, North and South (40.4%, 22.8% and 21.5%, respectively. Subsequently, the Eastern Province becomes the peak under low susceptibility category (87.8% with no very high susceptibility (0%. Based on these findings, the employed model produced accurate and reliable outcome in terms of susceptibility, since 49.5% of past landslides fell within the very high susceptibility category, which confirms the model’s performance. The outcomes of this study will be useful for future initiatives related to landslide risk reduction and management.

  8. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsengiyumva, Jean Baptiste; Luo, Geping; Nahayo, Lamek; Huang, Xiaotao; Cai, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Landslides susceptibility assessment has to be conducted to identify prone areas and guide risk management. Landslides in Rwanda are very deadly disasters. The current research aimed to conduct landslide susceptibility assessment by applying Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation Model with eight layers of causal factors including: slope, distance to roads, lithology, precipitation, soil texture, soil depth, altitude and land cover. In total, 980 past landslide locations were mapped. The relationship between landslide factors and inventory map was calculated using the Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The results revealed that susceptibility is spatially distributed countrywide with 42.3% of the region classified from moderate to very high susceptibility, and this is inhabited by 49.3% of the total population. In addition, Provinces with high to very high susceptibility are West, North and South (40.4%, 22.8% and 21.5%, respectively). Subsequently, the Eastern Province becomes the peak under low susceptibility category (87.8%) with no very high susceptibility (0%). Based on these findings, the employed model produced accurate and reliable outcome in terms of susceptibility, since 49.5% of past landslides fell within the very high susceptibility category, which confirms the model’s performance. The outcomes of this study will be useful for future initiatives related to landslide risk reduction and management. PMID:29385096

  9. Comparison of the landslide susceptibility models in Taipei Water Source Domain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, C. Y.; Yeh, Y. C.; Chou, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Taipei Water Source Domain, locating at the southeast of Taipei Metropolis, is the main source of water resource in this region. Recently, the downstream turbidity often soared significantly during the typhoon period because of the upstream landslides. The landslide susceptibilities should be analysed to assess the influence zones caused by different rainfall events, and to ensure the abilities of this domain to serve enough and quality water resource. Generally, the landslide susceptibility models can be established based on either a long-term landslide inventory or a specified landslide event. Sometimes, there is no long-term landslide inventory in some areas. Thus, the event-based landslide susceptibility models are established widely. However, the inventory-based and event-based landslide susceptibility models may result in dissimilar susceptibility maps in the same area. So the purposes of this study were to compare the landslide susceptibility maps derived from the inventory-based and event-based models, and to interpret how to select a representative event to be included in the susceptibility model. The landslide inventory from Typhoon Tim in July, 1994 and Typhoon Soudelor in August, 2015 was collected, and used to establish the inventory-based landslide susceptibility model. The landslides caused by Typhoon Nari and rainfall data were used to establish the event-based model. The results indicated the high susceptibility slope-units were located at middle upstream Nan-Shih Stream basin.

  10. Genomic analysis suggests higher susceptibility of children to air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Danitsja M; Pedersen, Marie; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2008-01-01

    modulated gene expressions. In addition, gene expressions in both children and adults were investigated for associations with micronuclei frequencies. Both analysis approaches returned considerably more genes or gene groups and pathways that significantly differed between children from both regions than......Differences in biological responses to exposure to hazardous airborne substances between children and adults have been reported, suggesting children to be more susceptible. Aim of this study was to improve our understanding of differences in susceptibility in cancer risk associated with air...... pollution by comparing genome-wide gene expression profiles in peripheral blood of children and their parents. Gene expression analysis was performed in blood from children and parents living in two different regions in the Czech Republic with different levels of air pollution. Data were analyzed by two...

  11. Characteristics of Japanese inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Yoshiaki; Isshiki, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Kei; Nagaishi, Kanna; Yamashita, Kentaro; Sonoda, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Takazoe, Masakazu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Fujimiya, Mineko; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2014-08-01

    There are substantial differences in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) genetics depending on the populations examined. We aimed to identify Japanese population-specific or true culprit susceptibility genes through a meta-analysis of past genetic studies of Japanese IBD. For this study, we reviewed 2,703 articles. The review process consisted of three screening stages: we initially searched for relevant studies and then relevant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Finally, we adjusted them for the meta-analysis. To maximize our chances of analysis, we introduced proxy SNPs during the first stage. To minimize publication bias, no significant SNPs and solitary SNPs without pairs were combined to be reconsidered during the third stage. Additionally, two SNPs were newly genotyped. Finally, we conducted a meta-analysis of 37 published studies in 50 SNPs located at 22 loci corresponding to the total number of 4,853 Crohn's disease (CD), 5,612 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 14,239 healthy controls. We confirmed that the NKX2-3 polymorphism is associated with common susceptibility to IBD and that HLA-DRB1*0450 alleles increase susceptibility to CD but reduce risk for UC while HLA-DRB1*1502 alleles increase susceptibility to UC but reduce CD risk. Moreover, we found individual disease risk loci: TNFSF15 and TNFα to CD and HLA-B*5201, and NFKBIL1 to UC. The genetic risk of HLA was substantially high (odds ratios ranged from 1.54 to 2.69) while that of common susceptibility loci to IBD was modest (odds ratio ranged from 1.13 to 1.24). Results indicate that Japanese IBD susceptibility loci identified by the meta-analysis are closely associated with the HLA regions.

  12. Topological susceptibility from the overlap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Therefore, the overlap formalism appears as an appealing candidate to study the continuum limit of the topological susceptibility while keeping the systematic errors under theoretical control. We present results for the SU(3) pure gauge theory using the index of the overlap Dirac operator to study the topology of the gauge configurations. The topological charge is obtained from the zero modes of the overlap and using a new algorithm for the spectral flow analysis. A detailed comparison with cooling techniques is presented. Particular care is taken in assessing the systematic errors. Relatively high statistics (500 to 1000 independent configurations) yield an extrapolated continuum limit with errors that are comparable with other methods. Our current value from the overlap is χ 1/4 = 188±12±5MeV (author)

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Susceptibility to Non-Point Source Contaminants Using Three-Dimensional Transient Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Weissmann, Gary S; Fogg, Graham E; Lu, Bingqing; Sun, HongGuang; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2018-06-05

    Groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination is typically quantified by stable indexes, while groundwater quality evolution (or deterioration globally) can be a long-term process that may last for decades and exhibit strong temporal variations. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3- d ), transient index map built upon physical models to characterize the complete temporal evolution of deep aquifer susceptibility. For illustration purposes, the previous travel time probability density (BTTPD) approach is extended to assess the 3- d deep groundwater susceptibility to non-point source contamination within a sequence stratigraphic framework observed in the Kings River fluvial fan (KRFF) aquifer. The BTTPD, which represents complete age distributions underlying a single groundwater sample in a regional-scale aquifer, is used as a quantitative, transient measure of aquifer susceptibility. The resultant 3- d imaging of susceptibility using the simulated BTTPDs in KRFF reveals the strong influence of regional-scale heterogeneity on susceptibility. The regional-scale incised-valley fill deposits increase the susceptibility of aquifers by enhancing rapid downward solute movement and displaying relatively narrow and young age distributions. In contrast, the regional-scale sequence-boundary paleosols within the open-fan deposits "protect" deep aquifers by slowing downward solute movement and displaying a relatively broad and old age distribution. Further comparison of the simulated susceptibility index maps to known contaminant distributions shows that these maps are generally consistent with the high concentration and quick evolution of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) in groundwater around the incised-valley fill since the 1970s'. This application demonstrates that the BTTPDs can be used as quantitative and transient measures of deep aquifer susceptibility to non-point source contamination.

  14. Magnetic susceptibility of semiconductor melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutvitskij, V.A.; Shurygin, P.M.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature dependences chi of various alloys confirm the existence of cluster formations in molten semiconductors, the stability of these formations in melts being considerably affected by the anion nature. The concentrational dependences of the magnetic susceptibility for all the investigated systems exhibit the diamagnetism maxima corresponding to the compound compositions. Heating the melt causes ''smearing'' the maxima, which is related with the cluster structure dissociation. The existence of the maxima concentrational dependence chi corresponding to BiTe and BiSe is found in the isotherms. The non-linear dependence of chi on the composition shows the absence of a single-valued relation between the phase diagram and the chi-diagram for melts

  15. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... to take toxicological data and both interpret and extrapolate it in a manner as to cause exaggerated concern. The challenge to the toxicologist is to explain what data means and in a way that inspires the confidence in those who have to apply data to the assessment of hazard and risk management. It seems...

  16. Autolysis of methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, J E; Berger-Bächi, B; Strässle, A; Wilkinson, B J

    1992-01-01

    The autolytic activities, including unstimulated, Triton X-100-stimulated, and daptomycin-induced, of various sets of methicillin-resistant and related methicillin-susceptible strains were compared. Faster rates of autolysis were noted in two heterogeneous methicillin-resistant transductants than in their methicillin-susceptible parental recipients, in a heterogeneous resistant strain than in a susceptible derivative created by chemical mutagenesis, and in a homogeneous resistant strain than in a derivative that had decreased methicillin resistance and was created by transposon Tn551 mutagenesis. These results suggest that the presence of the methicillin resistance region, mec, either directly or indirectly through an interaction with other host genes, confers a faster rate of autolysis on strains. Various auxilliary genes are known to affect methicillin resistance expression, and one of these genes, femA, was necessary for the expression of this faster rate of autolysis. These differences in autolytic activities were not observed in isolated crude cell walls retaining autolytic activities, suggesting different modes of regulation of autolysins in intact cells and isolated walls. In contrast, one homogeneous, highly resistant strain, DU4916, had a lower autolytic activity than did derived heterogeneous resistant and susceptible strains created by chemical mutagenesis and a strain that had decreased resistance and was created by transposon mutagenesis. Our observations suggest that methicillin resistance expression is associated with an enhanced rate of autolysis, in heterogeneous resistant strains at least. Images PMID:1320363

  17. Effects of tissue susceptibility on brain temperature mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Andrew A; Goryawala, Mohammed Z; Sheriff, Sulaiman

    2017-02-01

    A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field. These metabolite-specific susceptibility effects are also shown to change with age. Results indicate no change of apparent brain temperature with age from 18 to 84 years old, with a trend for increased brain temperature throughout the cerebrum in females relative for males on the order of 0.1°C; slightly increased temperatures in the left hemisphere relative to the right; and a lower temperature of 0.3°C in the cerebellum relative to that of cerebral white-matter. This study presents a novel acquisition method for noninvasive measurement of brain temperature that is of potential value for diagnostic purposes and treatment monitoring, while also demonstrating limitations of the measurement due to the confounding effects of tissue susceptibility variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scalar and pseudoscalar susceptibilities in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, Magda; Chanfray, Guy; Chanfray, Guy

    2003-01-01

    We study the two QCD susceptibilities of the nuclear medium in the linear σ model. The magnitude of the scalar one increases due to the mixing with the softer modes of the nucleon-hole excitations. The pseudoscalar susceptibility, follows the density evolution of the quark condensate and thus decreases in magnitude. At normal nuclear matter density the two susceptibilities become much close than in the vacuum, a consequence of the partial chiral symmetry restoration. (author)

  19. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  20. Dynamic insecticide susceptibility changes in Florida populations of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Killiny, Nabil; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-02-01

    Five field populations of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama from various regions of Florida were evaluated in 2011 for resistance to commonly used insecticides. Three diagnostic doses (LD50, LD75, and LD95), developed in 2009 using a laboratory susceptible population, were used to measure changes in susceptibility levels of field-collected populations as compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Further reductions in the susceptibility levels of D. citri to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin were determined, compared with results obtained in 2010. Mean percent mortality obtained from all five locations was significantly lower than observed with the laboratory susceptible population for all insecticides tested. Previously, expression of five CYP4 genes was implicated in contributing to insecticide metabolism in D. citri. In the current study, we compared the relative expression of these five CYP4 genes and their associated levels of protein expression among field-collected and laboratory susceptible populations. Expression of all CYP4 genes investigated was higher in field-collected populations when normalized against the laboratory susceptible population. There was an increased signal of a band corresponding to a 45 kDa protein in four of the five field populations as measured by the Western blot assay, which suggests increased production of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The current results indicate that insecticide resistance continues to increase in Florida populations ofD. citri, particularly to chlorpyriphos and fenpropathrin. However, there was no further decrease in susceptibility of Florida populations of D. citri to neonicotinoid insecticides in 2011 as compared with previous years.

  1. Assessing rockfall susceptibility in steep and overhanging slopes using three-dimensional analysis of failure mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matasci, Battista; Stock, Greg M.; Jaboyedoff, Michael; Carrea, Dario; Collins, Brian D.; Guérin, Antoine; Matasci, G.; Ravanel, L.

    2018-01-01

    Rockfalls strongly influence the evolution of steep rocky landscapes and represent a significant hazard in mountainous areas. Defining the most probable future rockfall source areas is of primary importance for both geomorphological investigations and hazard assessment. Thus, a need exists to understand which areas of a steep cliff are more likely to be affected by a rockfall. An important analytical gap exists between regional rockfall susceptibility studies and block-specific geomechanical calculations. Here we present methods for quantifying rockfall susceptibility at the cliff scale, which is suitable for sub-regional hazard assessment (hundreds to thousands of square meters). Our methods use three-dimensional point clouds acquired by terrestrial laser scanning to quantify the fracture patterns and compute failure mechanisms for planar, wedge, and toppling failures on vertical and overhanging rock walls. As a part of this work, we developed a rockfall susceptibility index for each type of failure mechanism according to the interaction between the discontinuities and the local cliff orientation. The susceptibility for slope parallel exfoliation-type failures, which are generally hard to identify, is partly captured by planar and toppling susceptibility indexes. We tested the methods for detecting the most susceptible rockfall source areas on two famously steep landscapes, Yosemite Valley (California, USA) and the Drus in the Mont-Blanc massif (France). Our rockfall susceptibility models show good correspondence with active rockfall sources. The methods offer new tools for investigating rockfall hazard and improving our understanding of rockfall processes.

  2. Susceptibility of ectomycorrhizal fungi to soil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, Tabea; Egli, Simon; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are an important biotic factor for successful tree recruitment because they enhance plant growth and alleviate drought stress of their hosts. Thus, EcM propagules are expected to be a key factor for forest regeneration after major disturbance events such as stand-replacing forest fires. Yet the susceptibility of soil-borne EcM fungi to heat is unclear. In this study, we investigated the heat tolerance of EcM fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae). Soil samples of three soil depths were heated to the temperature of 45, 60 and 70 °C, respectively, and surviving EcM fungi were assessed by a bioassay using Scots pine as an experimental host plant. EcM species were identified by a combination of morphotyping and sequencing of the ITS region. We found that mean number of species per sample was reduced by the 60 and 70 °C treatment, but not by the 45 °C treatment. Species composition changed due to heat. While some EcM fungi species did not survive heating, the majority of species was also found in the heated samples. The most frequent species in the heat treatment were Rhizopogon roseolus, Cenococcum geophilum and several unidentified species. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Sandijck, P.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion disorder has been associated with hypnotic susceptibility for over a century and is currently still believed to be a form of autohypnosis. There is, however. little empirical evidence for the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and conversion symptoms. The authors compared 50

  4. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Bi - Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaffa bin Haji Abdullah

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements on eight samples of tin-rich and three samples of bismuth-rich Bi-Sn alloys were made from 85K to 300K by Faraday's method. The susceptibilities of the eight tin-rich samples are positive and greater than the susceptibility of pure tin. The values are approximately constant at low temperatures but decreasing a little bit with increasing temperature. This result is interpreted as due to the predominant contribution of the Pauli spin paramagnetic susceptibility. A small decrease in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to the effect of the second order term in the expression for spin paramagnetic susceptibility. The fluctuation of the susceptibility for alloys of different composition is interpreted as due to the effect of the density of states at the Fermi levels. The three samples of bismuth-rich alloys show a transition to diamagnetic property, where the diamagnetism is increased with temperature. This result is predominant and due to the diamagnetic contribution from the ions. The increase in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to an increase in the effective radii of the ions due to thermal expansion. (author)

  5. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Treatment of enteric fever is increasingly becoming very challenging due to the increasing wave of antibiotic resistance. This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species to a wide range of.

  6. Storm-Induced Slope Failure Susceptibility Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to characterize and map the areas susceptible to slope failure using state-wide available data. The objective was to determine whether it would be possible to provide slope-failure susceptibility mapping that could be used...

  7. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a university Teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Amoxycillin clavunanic acid and ciprofloxacin were most active with MRSA isolates showing 97% and 93.9% susceptibility to the two drugs respectively. Eighteen (54.5%) ...

  8. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Till F M; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis.

  9. Meta-analysis and genome-wide interpretation of genetic susceptibility to drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical genetic studies provide strong evidence for heritable contributions to susceptibility to developing dependence on addictive substances. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought genes, chromosomal regions and allelic variants likely to contribute to susceptibility to drug addiction. Results Here, we performed a meta-analysis of addiction candidate gene association studies and GWAS to investigate possible functional mechanisms associated with addiction susceptibility. From meta-data retrieved from 212 publications on candidate gene association studies and 5 GWAS reports, we linked a total of 843 haplotypes to addiction susceptibility. We mapped the SNPs in these haplotypes to functional and regulatory elements in the genome and estimated the magnitude of the contributions of different molecular mechanisms to their effects on addiction susceptibility. In addition to SNPs in coding regions, these data suggest that haplotypes in gene regulatory regions may also contribute to addiction susceptibility. When we compared the lists of genes identified by association studies and those identified by molecular biological studies of drug-regulated genes, we observed significantly higher participation in the same gene interaction networks than expected by chance, despite little overlap between the two gene lists. Conclusions These results appear to offer new insights into the genetic factors underlying drug addiction. PMID:21999673

  10. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  11. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE WITH APPLICATIONS IN SUSCEPTIBLE-INFECTIOUS-SUSCEPTIBLE MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Arotăriţei, D; Rotariu, Mariana; Popescu, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    Practical significance of understanding the dynamics and evolution of infectious diseases increases continuously in contemporary world. The mathematical study of the dynamics of infectious diseases has a long history. By incorporating statistical methods and computer-based simulations in dynamic epidemiological models, it could be possible for modeling methods and theoretical analyses to be more realistic and reliable, allowing a more detailed understanding of the rules governing epidemic spreading. To provide the basis for a disease transmission, the population of a region is often divided into various compartments, and the model governing their relation is called the compartmental model. To present all of the information available, a graphical user interface provides icons and visual indicators. The graphical interface shown in this paper is performed using the MATLAB software ver. 7.6.0. MATLAB software offers a wide range of techniques by which data can be displayed graphically. The process of data viewing involves a series of operations. To achieve it, I had to make three separate files, one for defining the mathematical model and two for the interface itself. Considering a fixed population, it is observed that the number of susceptible individuals diminishes along with an increase in the number of infectious individuals so that in about ten days the number of individuals infected and susceptible, respectively, has the same value. If the epidemic is not controlled, it will continue for an indefinite period of time. By changing the global parameters specific of the SIS model, a more rapid increase of infectious individuals is noted. Using the graphical user interface shown in this paper helps achieving a much easier interaction with the computer, simplifying the structure of complex instructions by using icons and menus, and, in particular, programs and files are much easier to organize. Some numerical simulations have been presented to illustrate theoretical

  12. TRIGRS Application for landslide susceptibility mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarti, K.; Sukristiyanti, S.

    2018-02-01

    Research on landslide susceptibility has been carried out using several different methods. TRIGRS is a modeling program for landslide susceptibility by considering pore water pressure changes due to infiltration of rainfall. This paper aims to present a current state-of-the-art science on the development and application of TRIGRS. Some limitations of TRIGRS, some developments of it to improve its modeling capability, and some examples of the applications of some versions of it to model the effect of rainfall variation on landslide susceptibility are reviewed and discussed.

  13. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  14. Method for the measurement of susceptibility to decubitus ulcer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J H; Schut, G L; Ribbe, M W; Goovaerts, H G; Nieuwenhuys, R; Reulen, J P; Schneider, H

    1989-09-01

    A method for measuring the susceptibility of a patient to develop decubitus ulcers is described and initially evaluated. It is based on an indirect, noninvasive measurement of the transient regional blood flow response after a test pressure load which simulates the external stimulus for pressure-sore formation. This method was developed to determine the individual risk of a patient and to study the subfactors which contribute to the susceptibility. This would also offer the possibility of evaluating the effect of preventive treatment aimed at reducing the susceptibility. The method was found to discriminate between preselected elderly patients at risk on the one hand, and non-risk patients and healthy young adults on the other hand. No differences in blood flow responses were found between the non-risk elderly patients and the healthy young adults. This suggests that age per se is not a factor in the formation of pressure sores. In the risk group the recovery time after pressure relief was found to be three times as long as the duration of the pressure exercise. This indicates that the recovery time after pressure exercise may be as important as the period of pressure exercise in deducing the risk of developing decubitus ulcers.

  15. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S Scerri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Six independent studies have identified linkage to chromosome 18 for developmental dyslexia or general reading ability. Until now, no candidate genes have been identified to explain this linkage. Here, we set out to identify the gene(s conferring susceptibility by a two stage strategy of linkage and association analysis.Linkage analysis: 264 UK families and 155 US families each containing at least one child diagnosed with dyslexia were genotyped with a dense set of microsatellite markers on chromosome 18. Association analysis: Using a discovery sample of 187 UK families, nearly 3000 SNPs were genotyped across the chromosome 18 dyslexia susceptibility candidate region. Following association analysis, the top ranking SNPs were then genotyped in the remaining samples. The linkage analysis revealed a broad signal that spans approximately 40 Mb from 18p11.2 to 18q12.2. Following the association analysis and subsequent replication attempts, we observed consistent association with the same SNPs in three genes; melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, dymeclin (DYM and neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like (NEDD4L.Along with already published biological evidence, MC5R, DYM and NEDD4L make attractive candidates for dyslexia susceptibility genes. However, further replication and functional studies are still required.

  16. Ising model on tangled chain - 2: Magnetization and susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdani, R.

    1993-05-01

    In the preceding paper we have considered an Ising model defined on tangled chain to study the behaviour of the free energy and entropy, particularly in the zero-field and zero-temperature limit. In this paper, following the main line and basing on some results of the previous work, we shall study in the ''language'' of state configurations the behaviour of the magnetization and the susceptibility for different conditions of the model, to understand better the competition between the ferromagnetic bonds along the chain and the antiferromagnetic additional bonds across the chain. Particularly interesting is the behaviour of the susceptibility in the zero-field and zero-temperature limit. Exact solutions for the magnetization and susceptibility, generated by analytical calculations and iterative algorithms, are described. The additional bonds, introduced as a form of perfectly disorder, indicate a particular effect on the spin correlation. We found that the condition J=-J' between the ferromagnetic interaction J along the chain and the antiferromagnetic interaction J' across the chain is somewhat as a ''transition-region'' condition for this behaviour. (author). 16 refs, 14 figs

  17. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE VOL. 2 NO. 1 & 2 2009: 5 - ... This study is a review of the contemporary antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of. Salmonella species. ... south-east Asia, parts of Latin America, the. Caribbean, and ...

  18. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary pathogens isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Conclusion: This study justifies the necessity to treat patients with UTI based on antimicrobial susceptibility test result in order ... colonization of the urine and symptomatic infection ... indicated a high incidence of UTIs (54%) in pregnant women ...

  19. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium ... This study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics and ..... Distribution of reference and virulence genes among antibiotic-sensitive S. aureus (SAS), .... environmental factors such as temperature, water activity,.

  20. Short Communication Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, β-lactamase, Recurrent furunculosis, Staphylococcus ... processes ranging from localised abscess which can ... In this study, isolates of S.aureus from cases ... buffered penicillin G. The bacterial suspension.

  1. Bacteriological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were ... setting and there are antibiotic-resistant uropathogens among the studied population. ... used antibiotics must be a continuous process so as to provide physicians with up ...

  2. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  3. Bacteriuria and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of urinary tract infection among ... Key words: Urinary tract infection, pregnant women, antimicrobial drug ..... and premature labour as well as adverse outcome for the unborn child (Raz, 2003).

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility in community-acquired bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with communityacquired pneumonia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bacterial isolates were obtained from adults suspected to have ...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and plasmid-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative Staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from clinical samples and isolates subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing, plasmid curing and plasmid DNA isolation. Result: The highest percentages isolates were recovered from urine samples and ...

  6. Intergranular corrosion susceptibility in supermartensitic stainless steel weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, J.M. [Sao Carlos Federal University (UFSCar), Materials Engineering Department, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: dsek@power.ufscar.br; Della Rovere, C.A.; Kuri, S.E. [Sao Carlos Federal University (UFSCar), Materials Engineering Department, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The intergranular corrosion susceptibility in supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) weldments was investigated by the double loop - electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) technique through the degree of sensitization (DOS). The results showed that the DOS decreased from the base metal (BM) to the weld metal (WM). The heat affected zone (HAZ) presented lower levels of DOS, despite of its complex precipitation mechanism along the HAZ length. Chromium carbide precipitate redissolution is likely to occur due to the attained temperature at certain regions of the HAZ during the electron beam welding (EBW). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed preferential oxidation sites in the BM microstructure.

  7. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The increase in urban population in arctic areas leads to an increased demand for transportation infrastructures (such as roads and airfields) in the regions. This challenges the road constructions in terms of condition, bearing capacity and maintenance. It is believed that deicing agents used...... on roads and airfields enter the granular subbase materials and thereby makes the soil more frost-susceptible. In this project a series of isothermal frost heave tests has been carried out on granular subbase material from the runway at Kuujjuaq Airport, Québec, Canada. The tests have been carried out...

  8. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, M., E-mail: mitoh@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Ishizuka, M. [Renovation Center of Instruments for Science Education and Technology, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  9. Debris flows susceptibility mapping under tropical rain conditions in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Nsengiyumva, Jean-Baptiste; BUgnon, Pierre-Charles; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2017-04-01

    Rwanda is a densely populated country. It means that all the space is exploited, including sometimes areas with very steep slopes. This has as for consequences that during the rainy season slopes with human activities are affected by gravitational processes, mostly debris and mud flows and shallow landslides. The events of early May 2016 (May 8 and 9), with more than 50 deaths, are an illustration of these frequents landslides and inundations. The goal of this work is to produce a susceptibility map for debris/mud flows at regional/national scale. Main available pieces of data are a national digital terrain model at 10m resolution, bedrock and soil maps, and information collected during field visits on some specific localities. The first step is the characterization of the slope angle distribution for the different types of bedrock or soils (decomposition in Gaussian populations). Then, the combination of this information with other geomorphic and hydrologic parameters is used to define potential source areas of debris flows. Finally, propagation maps of debris flows are produced using FLOW-R (Horton et al. 2013). Horton, P., Jaboyedoff, M., Rudaz, B., and Zimmermann, M.: Flow-R, a model for susceptibility mapping of debris flows and other gravitational hazards at a regional scale, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 869-885, doi:10.5194/nhess-13-869-2013, 2013. The paper is in open access.

  10. Electric susceptibility of a magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, E

    2011-01-01

    This study derives the electric susceptibility tensor of a cold magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime (Litvak and Tokman 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 095003, Shvets and Wurtele 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 115003) in which an intense right-hand circularly polarized pump wave is injected parallel to the background magnetic field. A dispersion relation of the wave in the electron cyclotron frequency range for an arbitrary propagation angle is obtained from this susceptibility tensor. In the case of purely parallel propagation of the probe wave, the dispersion relation obtained by Litvak, Shvets and others is recaptured. A new finding is that a stop band emerges between left-hand cutoff and upper hybrid frequencies, in which originally an extraordinary-mode (X) branch exists, in the case of perpendicular propagation to the background magnetic field under the EIT. The bandwidth of the stop band expands as the pump wave is intensified. For the situation of launching the probe wave from the high-field side in a tokamak, the accessibility of the probe wave to the region where the EIT effect appears is investigated. The EIT region which is a resonance layer created by the EIT is accessible to the probe wave, indicating the possibility of the application of EIT to control the spatial position of wave power deposition.

  11. Antianaerobic Antimicrobials: Spectrum and Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Hannah M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria recovered from selected cases can influence the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) has standardized many laboratory procedures, including anaerobic susceptibility testing (AST), and has published documents for AST. The standardization of testing methods by the CLSI allows comparisons of resistance trends among various laboratories. Susceptibility testing should be performed on organisms recovered from sterile body sites, those that are isolated in pure culture, or those that are clinically important and have variable or unique susceptibility patterns. Organisms that should be considered for individual isolate testing include highly virulent pathogens for which susceptibility cannot be predicted, such as Bacteroides, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Clostridium spp.; Bilophila wadsworthia; and Sutterella wadsworthensis. This review describes the current methods for AST in research and reference laboratories. These methods include the use of agar dilution, broth microdilution, Etest, and the spiral gradient endpoint system. The antimicrobials potentially effective against anaerobic bacteria include beta-lactams, combinations of beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, macrolides, tetracyclines, and fluoroquinolones. The spectrum of efficacy, antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, and resistance patterns against these agents are described. PMID:23824372

  12. The Geological Susceptibility of Induced Earthquakes in the Duvernay Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawley, Steven; Schultz, Ryan; Playter, Tiffany; Corlett, Hilary; Shipman, Todd; Lyster, Steven; Hauck, Tyler

    2018-02-01

    Presently, consensus on the incorporation of induced earthquakes into seismic hazard has yet to be established. For example, the nonstationary, spatiotemporal nature of induced earthquakes is not well understood. Specific to the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, geological bias in seismogenic activation potential has been suggested to control the spatial distribution of induced earthquakes regionally. In this paper, we train a machine learning algorithm to systemically evaluate tectonic, geomechanical, and hydrological proxies suspected to control induced seismicity. Feature importance suggests that proximity to basement, in situ stress, proximity to fossil reef margins, lithium concentration, and rate of natural seismicity are among the strongest model predictors. Our derived seismogenic potential map faithfully reproduces the current distribution of induced seismicity and is suggestive of other regions which may be prone to induced earthquakes. The refinement of induced seismicity geological susceptibility may become an important technique to identify significant underlying geological features and address induced seismic hazard forecasting issues.

  13. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Personality traits as potential susceptibility markers : Differential susceptibility to support among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, M.; Dubas, J.S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Deković, M.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether parents are differentially susceptible to support from their spouse and adolescent child depending on their personality traits, and whether differences in susceptibility to support among parents, in turn, are linked to the quality of support parents give to their

  15. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  16. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  17. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  18. Magnetic susceptibility characterisation of superparamagnetic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, David Tim; Wise, Naomi; Oduwole, Olayinka; Sheard, Steve

    2018-04-01

    The separation of magnetic materials in microsystems using magnetophoresis has increased in popularity. The wide variety and availability of magnetic beads has fuelled this drive. It is important to know the magnetic characteristics of the microspheres in order to accurately use them in separation processes integrated on a lab-on-a-chip device. To investigate the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic microspheres, the magnetic responsiveness of three types of Dynabeads microspheres were tested using two different approaches. The magnetophoretic mobility of individual microspheres is studied using a particle tracking system and the magnetization of each type of Dynabeads microsphere is measured using SQUID relaxometry. The magnetic beads' susceptibility is obtained at four different applied magnetic fields in the range of 38-70 mT for both the mobility and SQUID measurements. The susceptibility values in both approaches show a consistent magnetic field dependence.

  19. Identification of highly susceptible individuals in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoting; Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    Identifying highly susceptible individuals in spreading processes is of great significance in controlling outbreaks. In this paper, we explore the susceptibility of people in susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and rumor spreading dynamics. We first study the impact of community structure on people's susceptibility. Although the community structure can reduce the number of infected people for same infection rate, it will not significantly affect nodes' susceptibility. We find the susceptibility of individuals is sensitive to the choice of spreading dynamics. For SIR spreading, since the susceptibility is highly correlated to nodes' influence, the topological indicator k-shell can better identify highly susceptible individuals, outperforming degree, betweenness centrality and PageRank. In contrast, in rumor spreading model, where nodes' susceptibility and influence have no clear correlation, degree performs the best among considered topological measures. Our finding highlights the significance of both topological features and spreading mechanisms in identifying highly susceptible population.

  20. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Pirpamer, Lukas; Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.

  1. Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-10

    It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.

  2. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair. PMID:25257519

  3. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...

  4. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of human Brucella melitensis isolates from Qatar between 2014 - 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, A.; Hagen, F.; Sharabasi, O.A.; Abraham, M.; Wilson, G.; Doiphode, S.; Maslamani, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic disease affecting humans and animals and is endemic in many parts of the world including the Gulf Cooperation Council region (GCC). The aim of this study was to identify the species and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of

  5. Analysis of a p53 Mutation Associated with Cancer Susceptibility for Biochemistry and Genetic Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cruz, Isabel; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of a p53 polymorphism associated with cancer susceptibility. First, students collected a drop of peripheral blood cells using a sterile sting and then used FTA cards to extract the genomic DNA. The p53 region is then PCR…

  6. Quantitative measurements of brain iron deposition in cirrhotic patients using susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zheng, Gang; Shen, Wen; Liu, Saifeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Haacke, E Mark; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been used to detect micro-bleeds and iron deposits in the brain. However, no reports have been published on the application of SWI in studying iron changes in the brain of cirrhotic patients. To compare the susceptibility of different brain structures in cirrhotic patients with that in healthy controls and to evaluate susceptibility as a potential biomarker and correlate the measured susceptibility and cadaveric brain iron concentration for a variety of brain structures. Forty-three cirrhotic patients (27 men, 16 women; mean age, 50 ± 9 years) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 men, 12 women; mean age, 47 ± 7 years) were included in this retrospective study. Susceptibility was measured in the frontal white matter, basal ganglia, midbrain, and dentate nucleus and compared with results gathered from two postmortem brain studies. Correlation between susceptibility and clinical biomarkers and neuropsychiatric tests scores was calculated. In cirrhotic patients, the susceptibility of left frontal white matter, bilateral caudate head, and right substantia nigra was higher than that in healthy controls (P brain study (r = 0.835, P = 0.01) in eight deep grey matter structures and another in five brain structures (r = 0.900, P = 0.03). The susceptibility of right caudate head (r = 0.402) and left caudate head (r = 0.408) correlated with neuropsychological test scores (both P brain regions appears to reflect neurocognitive changes. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Investigating hyperoxic effects in the rat brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping based on MRI phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Li-Wei; Huang, Yun-An; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2017-02-01

    To test whether susceptibility imaging can detect microvenous oxygen saturation changes, induced by hyperoxia, in the rat brain. A three-dimensional gradient-echo with a flow compensation sequence was used to acquire T2*-weighted images of rat brains during hyperoxia and normoxia. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and QSM-based microvenous oxygenation venography were computed from gradient-echo (GRE) phase images and compared between the two conditions. Pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in the cortex was examined and compared with venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) estimated by QSM. Oxygen saturation change calculated by a conventional Δ R2* map was also compared with the ΔSvO 2 estimated by QSM. Susceptibilities of five venous and tissue regions were quantified separately by QSM. Venous susceptibility was reduced by nearly 10%, with an SvO 2 shift of 10% during hyperoxia. A hyperoxic effect, confirmed by SpO 2 measurement, resulted in an SvO 2 increase in the cortex. The ΔSvO 2 between hyperoxia and normoxia was consistent with what was estimated by the Δ R2* map in five regions. These findings suggest that a quantitative susceptibility map is a promising technique for SvO 2 measurement. This method may be useful for quantitatively investigating oxygenation-dependent functional MRI studies. Magn Reson Med 77:592-602, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  9. Mapping of murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia susceptibility loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakhshan, F.

    2001-01-01

    Studies on radiation-induced AML have shown characteristic phenotypic variation in susceptibility amongst inbred mouse strains, suggesting the involvement of genetic factors in determining the development of AML post-irradiation exposure. The main objective of the present study therefore was to identify and map markers in linkage disequilibrium with gene variants associated with influencing susceptibility to radiation induced AML in mice. Given Chr 2 abnormalities are characteristic of AML in mice, this feature was exploited in an effort to overcome the long latency for AML development. Analysis of Chr 2 aberrations at 24 and 48 h following irradiation established a positive correlation between Chr 2 radiosensitivity and radiation-AML susceptibility thus validating the choice of substitute assay. The analysis also resulted in the identification of a further trait, additional to Chr 2 radiosensitivity, termed overall chromosome radiosensitivity. Genetic mapping of Chr 2 radiosensitivity using public domain microsatellite database information resulted in the definition of cluster regions on 7 different chromosomes. Further genotyping reduced the candidate regions to 3 specific regions of interest. A test of allelic association could not ascertain a conclusive link between markers at these regions and the Chr 2 radiosensitivity/radiation-AML susceptibility phenotype. However, a region on Chr 4 around D4Mit221 appears to be most strongly associated. Similar studies identified three chromosomal regions of interest (on Chrs 4, 8 and 16) associated with overall chromosome radiosensitivity trait. An independent mapping strategy using F3 RCS confirmed the likely involvement of two of the candidate Chr 2 radiosensitivity regions identified by the inbred analysis including that on Chr 4 and also highlighted phenotypic heterogeneity amongst resistant RC strains, suggesting the influence of multiple alleles in specific phenotypes. RFLP analysis of candidate genes, localised on

  10. Mapping Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropies of White Matter in vivo in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency- shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor (χ¯¯). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS = (χ∥ + 2χ⊥)/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA = χ∥ − χ⊥, where χ∥ and χ⊥ are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°–30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1×1×1 mm3 frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from −0.037 to −0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with

  11. Dielectric susceptibility of classical Coulomb systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquard, Ph.; Piller, B.; Rentsch, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the shape dependence of the dielectric susceptibility (equivalently defined, in a canonical ensemble, by the mean square fluctuation of the electric polarization or by the second moment of the charge-charge correlation function) of classical Coulomb systems. The concept of partial second moment is introduced with the aim of analyzing the contributions to the total susceptibility of pairs of particles of increasing separation. For a disk-shaped one-component plasma with coupling parameter γ=2 it is shown, numerically and algebraically for small and large systems, that (1) the correlation function of two particles close to the edge of the disk decays as the inverse of the square of their distance, and (2) the susceptibility is made up of a bulk contribution, which saturates rapidly toward the Stillinger-Lovett value, and of surface contribution, which varies on the scale of the disk diameter and is described by a new law called the arc sine law. It is also shown that electrostatics and statistical mechanics with shape-dependent thermodynamic limits are consistent for the same model in a strip geometry, whereas the Stillinger-Lovett sum rule is verified for a boundary-free geometry such as the surface of a sphere. Some results of extensive computer simulations of one- and two-component plasmas in circular and elliptic geometries are shown. Anisotropy effects on the susceptibilities are clearly demonstrated and the arc sine law for a circular plasma is well confirmed

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from different animal species with septic ocular surface disease. Sixteen strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from different species of animals (dog, cat, horse, penguin and brown bear) with ocular surface ...

  13. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  14. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  15. Group B streptococcal carriage, antimicrobial susceptibility, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the carriers had rectal colonization alone. All isolates (100%) were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, vancomycin, and linezolid. On the other hand, 43.4%, 28.3%, 22.6%, and 15% of isolates were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin respectively.

  16. Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic Certainty Factor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    done using many different methods and techniques. A detailed outline of .... of depressions where water is accumulated, espe- cially when the ..... The two decision rules that must be satisfied for a good landslide .... making the susceptibility zonation relative. This is ..... tional Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques,.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility measurement using 3D NMR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Kořínek, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl. 1 (2011), s. 381-382 ISSN 0968-5243. [ESMRMB 2011 Congress. 06.10.2011-08.10.2011, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * artifact correction * magnetic susceptibility * gradient echo Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Susceptibility of female Anopheles mosquito to pyrethroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of insecticides resistance status in a natural population of Anopheles vectors is a vital tool for malaria control intervention strategy against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, which is the main malaria vector in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility status of the female Anopheles ...

  19. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or re...

  20. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with 3 H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with 125 I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae

  1. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of oral pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Seme, K.; Raangs, Gerwin; Rurenga, P.; Singadji, Z.; Wekema - Mulder, G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that can be treated with systemic antibiotics. The aim of this study was to establish the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of five periodontal pathogens to six commonly used antibiotics in periodontics. A total of 247 periodontal bacterial isolates were tested

  3. Helicobacter pylori : Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients, its relationship with gastric pathologies, and associated antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and compared two media to find the appropriate medium that enhances growth and expedites culture and isolation. Methods. Rapid urease and histological tests were used to screen for H. pylori. Culture was performed to test ...

  4. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  5. The differential susceptibility to media effects model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this theoretical article, we introduce the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects Model (DSMM), a new, integrative model to improve our understanding of media effects. The DSMM organizes, integrates, and extends the insights developed in earlier microlevel media-effects theories. It

  6. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    The quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC in four species of enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence variations of parC could be related to the different enterococcal species. Mutations...... in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium related to reduced susceptibility were identical to mutations detected in E jaecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin. A minimal inhibitory concentration of 8 mug ml(-1) to ciprofloxacin was not associated with any mutations in the gyrA and parC gene...... of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. These two species may be intrinsically less susceptible to ciprofloxacin....

  7. Analysis of the susceptibility in a fluid system with Neumann – plus boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djondjorov Peter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the local and total susceptibilities of a fluid system bounded by different surfaces is studied in the framework of the Ginsburg-Landau Ising type model. The case of a plain geometry, Neumann-infinity boundary conditions under variations of the temperature and an external ordering field is considered. Exact analytic expressions for the order parameter, local and total susceptibilities in such a system are presented. They are used to analyse the phase behaviour of fluids confined in regions close to the bulk critical point of the respective infinite system.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  9. A Susceptible Mouse Model for Zika Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a mosquito-borne pathogen which has recently spread beyond Africa and into Pacific and South American regions. Despite first being detected in 1947, very little information is known about the virus, and its spread has been associated with increases in Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly. There are currently no known vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV infection. Progress in assessing interventions will require the development of animal models to test efficacies; however, there are only limited reports on in vivo studies. The only susceptible murine models have involved intracerebral inoculations or juvenile animals, which do not replicate natural infection. Our report has studied the effect of ZIKV infection in type-I interferon receptor deficient (A129 mice and the parent strain (129Sv/Ev after subcutaneous challenge in the lower leg to mimic a mosquito bite. A129 mice developed severe symptoms with widespread viral RNA detection in the blood, brain, spleen, liver and ovaries. Histological changes were also striking in these animals. 129Sv/Ev mice developed no clinical symptoms or histological changes, despite viral RNA being detectable in the blood, spleen and ovaries, albeit at lower levels than those seen in A129 mice. Our results identify A129 mice as being highly susceptible to ZIKV and thus A129 mice represent a suitable, and urgently required, small animal model for the testing of vaccines and antivirals.

  10. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, Till F. M.; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A.; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G.; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M.; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M.; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562

  11. Anomalous behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility of the mixed spin-1 and spin- 1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg model in the Oguchi approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobak, Andrej; Dely, Jan; Pokorny, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The effects of both an exchange anisotropy and a single-ion anisotropy on the magnetic susceptibility of the mixed spin-1 and spin- 1/2 Heisenberg model are investigated by the use of an Oguchi approximation. Particular emphasis is given to the simple cubic lattice with coordination number z = 6 for which the magnetic susceptibility is determined numerically. Anomalous behaviour in the thermal variation of the magnetic susceptibility in the low-temperature region is found due to the applied negative single-ion anisotropy field strength. Also, the difference between the behaviours of the magnetic susceptibility of the Heisenberg and Ising models is discussed.

  12. ORCHIDS: an Observational Randomized Controlled Trial on Childhood Differential Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhangur Rabia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central tenet in developmental psychopathology is that childhood rearing experiences have a major impact on children’s development. Recently, candidate genes have been identified that may cause children to be differentially susceptible to these experiences (i.e., susceptibility genes. However, our understanding of the differential impact of parenting is limited at best. Specifically, more experimental research is needed. The ORCHIDS study will investigate gene-(gene-environment interactions to obtain more insight into a moderating effects of polymorphisms on the link between parenting and child behavior, and b behavioral mechanisms that underlie these gene-(gene-environment interactions in an experimental design. Methods/Design The ORCHIDS study is a randomized controlled trial, in which the environment will be manipulated with an intervention (i.e., Incredible Years parent training. In a screening, families with children aged 4–8 who show mild to (subclinical behavior problems will be targeted through community records via two Dutch regional healthcare organizations. Assessments in both the intervention and control condition will be conducted at baseline (i.e., pretest, after 6 months (i.e., posttest, and after 10 months (i.e., follow-up. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that investigates gene-(gene-environment interactions in the development of child behavior. Two hypotheses will be tested. First, we expect that children in the intervention condition who carry one or more susceptibility genes will show significantly lower levels of problem behavior and higher levels of prosocial behavior after their parent(s received the Incredible Years training, compared to children without these genes, or children in the control group. Second, we expect that children carrying one or more susceptibility genes will show a heightened sensitivity to changes in parenting behaviors, and

  13. The effect of nitrogen fertilization and irradiation on barley susceptibility to net blotch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Al-safadi, B.; Charbaji, T.

    2000-11-01

    Isolates of Drechslera teres f. sp. teres that cause net blotch symptoms on barley were collected from fields in different regions of Syria. there virulence spectra were determined using 11 barley cultivars. Cultivars exhibited a continuos range of response from very susceptible to moderately resistant. Isolate Raqa 13 had the highest mean virulence, then Halap 2, whereas ICARDA 3 was the lowest virulent. The effect of three concentrations (1000, 1500, 2000 ppm) of nitrogen (Urea 45%) fertilizer, and two doses of gamma ray (10 and 20 Gy), on susceptibility to infection by Drechslera teres were studied. Two barley cultivars (Thibaut and Furia) were used in this study. Results showed that 1000 ppm (N) and 15 Gy dose treatment had a positive effect on decreasing the susceptibility. (author)

  14. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a means to measure brain iron? A post mortem validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Schweser, Ferdinand; Krebs, Nikolaus; Deistung, Andreas; Goessler, Walter; Scheurer, Eva; Sommer, Karsten; Reishofer, Gernot; Yen, Kathrin; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported a reasonable correlation of magnetic susceptibility with brain iron concentrations in vivo. Instead of performing direct comparisons, however, all these studies used the putative iron concentrations reported in the hallmark study by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) for their analysis. Consequently, the extent to which QSM can serve to reliably assess brain iron levels is not yet fully clear. To provide such information we investigated the relation between bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility and brain iron concentration in unfixed (in situ) post mortem brains of 13 subjects using MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A strong linear correlation between chemically determined iron concentration and bulk magnetic susceptibility was found in gray matter structures (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation coefficient was much lower in white matter (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). The slope of the overall linear correlation was consistent with theoretical considerations of the magnetism of ferritin supporting that most of the iron in the brain is bound to ferritin proteins. In conclusion, iron is the dominant source of magnetic susceptibility in deep gray matter and can be assessed with QSM. In white matter regions the estimation of iron concentrations by QSM is less accurate and more complex because the counteracting contribution from diamagnetic myelinated neuronal fibers confounds the interpretation. PMID:22634862

  15. Contrasting patterns of coral bleaching susceptibility in 2010 suggest an adaptive response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, James R; Baird, Andrew H; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J; Campbell, Stuart J; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pBleaching was much less severe at locations that bleached during 1998, that had greater historical temperature variability and lower rates of warming. Remarkably, Acropora and Pocillopora, taxa that are typically highly susceptible, although among the most susceptible in Pulau Weh (Sumatra, Indonesia) where respectively, 94% and 87% of colonies died, were among the least susceptible in Singapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments.

  16. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Perez-Losada

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in finding associations between specific genetic variants and cancer susceptibility in human populations. These studies have identified a range of highly statistically significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and susceptibility to development of a range of human tumors. However, the effect of each SNP in isolation is very small, and all of the SNPs combined only account for a relatively minor proportion of the total genetic risk (5-10%. There is therefore a major requirement for alternative routes to the discovery of genetic risk factors for cancer. We have previously shown using mouse models that chromosomal regions harboring susceptibility genes identified by linkage analysis frequently exhibit allele-specific genetic alterations in tumors. We demonstrate here that the Fbxw7 gene, a commonly mutated gene in a wide range of mouse and human cancers, shows allele-specific deletions in mouse lymphomas and skin tumors. Lymphomas from three different F1 hybrids show 100% allele-specificity in the patterns of allelic loss. Parental alleles from 129/Sv or Spretus/Gla mice are lost in tumors from F1 hybrids with C57BL/6 animals, due to the presence of a specific non-synonymous coding sequence polymorphism at the N-terminal portion of the gene. A specific genetic test of association between this SNP and lymphoma susceptibility in interspecific backcross mice showed a significant linkage (p = 0.001, but only in animals with a functional p53 gene. These data therefore identify Fbxw7 as a p53-dependent tumor susceptibility gene. Increased p53-dependent tumor susceptibility and allele-specific losses were also seen in a mouse skin model of skin tumor development. We propose that analysis of preferential allelic imbalances in tumors may provide an efficient means of uncovering genetic variants that affect mouse and human tumor susceptibility.

  17. Susceptibility Testing of Medically Important Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetu Bayih, Abebe; Debnath, Anjan; Mitre, Edward; Huston, Christopher D; Laleu, Benoît; Leroy, Didier; Blasco, Benjamin; Campo, Brice; Wells, Timothy N C; Willis, Paul A; Sjö, Peter; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Pillai, Dylan R

    2017-07-01

    In the last 2 decades, renewed attention to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has spurred the development of antiparasitic agents, especially in light of emerging drug resistance. The need for new drugs has required in vitro screening methods using parasite culture. Furthermore, clinical laboratories sought to correlate in vitro susceptibility methods with treatment outcomes, most notably with malaria. Parasites with their various life cycles present greater complexity than bacteria, for which standardized susceptibility methods exist. This review catalogs the state-of-the-art methodologies used to evaluate the effects of drugs on key human parasites from the point of view of drug discovery as well as the need for laboratory methods that correlate with clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Susceptibility weighted imaging: differentiating between calcification and hemosiderin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jeam Haroldo Oliveira; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido, E-mail: jeamharoldo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Santos, Antonio Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to present a detailed explanation on the processing of magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI), demonstrating the effects of echo time and sensitive mask on the differentiation between calcification and hemosiderin. Materials and methods: computed tomography and magnetic resonance (magnitude and phase) images of six patients (age range 41-54 years; four men) were retrospectively selected. The SWI images processing was performed using the Matlab's own routine. Results: four out of the six patients showed calcifications at computed tomography images and their SWI images demonstrated hyperintense signal at the calcification regions. The other patients did not show any calcifications at computed tomography, and SWI revealed the presence of hemosiderin deposits with hypointense signal. Conclusion: the selection of echo time and of the mask may change all the information on SWI images, and compromise the diagnostic reliability. Amongst the possible masks, the authors highlight that the sigmoid mask allows for contrasting calcifications and hemosiderin on a single SWI image. (author)

  19. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Antimony Susceptibility/Resistance in L. donovani Rentala Madhubala School of Life Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16.

  20. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C; Vannberg, Fredrik O; Chapman, Stephen J; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H; Walley, Andrew J; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K H; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J Anthony; Williams, Thomas N; Berkley, James A; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L S; Fine, Paul E M; Goh, Denise L M; Hill, Adrian V S

    2010-06-03

    The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam. We had previously tested 20 other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (at positions -639, -292, -163, +1320, and +3415 [all relative to CISH]) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multiple-SNP score, we found an association between CISH genetic variants and susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (P=3.8x10(-11) for all comparisons), with -292 accounting for most of the association signal (P=4.58x10(-7)). Peripheral-blood mononuclear cells obtained from adult subjects carrying the -292 variant, as compared with wild-type cells, showed a muted response to the stimulation of interleukin-2 production--that is, 25 to 40% less CISH expression. Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signaling have a role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of one of these infectious diseases was increased by at least 18% among persons carrying the variant CISH alleles. 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society

  1. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...

  2. Anaerobic bacteraemia revisited: species and susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily S Y; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Tan, Thean Yen

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the frequency of anaerobic bacteraemia over a 10-year period, and to provide updated antibiotic susceptibilities for the more clinically relevant anaerobes causing blood stream infection. Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method. Anaerobes comprised 4.1% of all positive blood culture with 727 obligate anaerobes recovered over the 10-year period, representing a positivity rate of 0.35%. The only significant change in anaerobe positivity rates occurred between 2003 and 2004, with an increase of 0.2%. The Bacteroides fragilis group (45%) were the predominant anaerobic pathogens, followed by Clostridium species (12%), Propioniobacterium species (11%) and Fusobacterium species (6%). The most active in vitro antibiotics were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with susceptibilities of 95.0%, 93.3%, 90.8% and 90.8% respectively. Resistance was high to penicillin, clindamycin and moxifl oxacin. However, there were apparent differences for antibiotic susceptibilities between species. This study indicates that the anaerobes comprise a small but constant proportion of bloodstream isolates. Antibiotic resistance was high to some antibiotics, but metronidazole, the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and

  3. Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Balaji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.

  4. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Chiea C.; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Chapman, Stephen J.; Guo, Haiyan; Wong, Sunny H.; Walley, Andrew J.; Vukcevic, Damjan; Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C.; Chang, Kwok-Chiu; Kam, Kai-Man; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ngwira, Bagrey; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Tam, Cheuk-Ming; Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Yew, Wing-Wai; Toh, Kai-Yee; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Lienhardt, Christian; Hien, Tran-Tinh; Day, Nicholas P.; Peshu, Nobert; Marsh, Kevin; Maitland, Kathryn; Scott, J. Anthony; Williams, Thomas N.; Berkley, James A.; Floyd, Sian; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Fine, Paul E.M.; Goh, Denise L.M.; Hill, Adrian V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The interleukin-2 (IL2)-mediated immune response is critical for host defence against infectious pathogens. CISH, a suppressor of cytokine signalling, controls IL2 signalling. Methods We tested for association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis and severe malaria) in 8402 persons from the Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya, Malawi, and Vietnam using a case-control design. We have previously tested twenty other immune-related genes in one or more of these sample collections. Results We observed associations between variant alleles of multiple CISH polymorphisms and increased susceptibility to each infectious disease in each of the study populations. When all five SNPs (CISH −639, −292, −163, +1320 and +3415) within the CISH-associated locus were considered together in a multi-SNP score, we found substantial support for an effect of CISH genetic variants on susceptibility to bacteremia, malaria, and tuberculosis (overall P=3.8 × 10−11) with CISH −292 being “responsible” for the majority of the association signal (P=4.58×10−7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adult volunteers carrying the CISH −292 variant showed a muted response to IL2 stimulation — in the form of 25-40% less CISH — when compared with “control” cells lacking the −292 variant. Conclusions Variants of CISH are associated with susceptibility to diseases caused by diverse infectious pathogens, suggesting that negative regulators of cytokine signalling may play a major role in immunity against various infectious diseases. The overall risk of having one of these infectious diseases was found to be increased by at least 18 percent in individuals carrying the variant CISH alleles. PMID:20484391

  5. Magnetic susceptibility of YbN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.; Bowen, S.P.; Koelling, D.D.; Monnier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Applying the Zwicknagl, Zevin, and Fulde (ZZF) approximation for the spectral densities of the occupied and empty f states resulting from a degenerate-Anderson-impurity model, which incorporates crystal fields, we compute the low-temperature magnetic susceptibility of YbN. The model, in which each crystal-field level couples to the band states with its own hybridization function, has previously been successfully applied without the ZZF approximation to explain the specific-heat structure at low temperatures. The ZZF approximation removes the spurious zero-temperature behavior of the parent noncrossing approximation for the susceptibility. Surprisingly, even at the low crystal-field degeneracy (N=2) of YbN, the Shiba relation is very nearly satisfied. The appropriate experimental impurity susceptibility for comparison is extracted from the measurement by removing an empirical exchange interaction. The resultant Kondo temperature (T 0 =8.49 K) is consistent with previous specific-heat estimates (10--11 K), and the agreement with experiment is good

  6. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired.To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance.Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  7. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin eYuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  8. Drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, I S; Larsen, A R; Sandven, P

    2003-01-01

    In the first attempt to establish a quality assurance programme for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones, 20 strains with different fluoroquinolone susceptibility patterns were distributed by the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Stockholm to the other...

  9. Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data in the Mapping of Global Landslide Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of natural hazards such as landslides. Relying on the recent advances in satellite remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques, this paper aims to map landslide susceptibility over most of the globe using a GIs-based weighted linear combination method. First , six relevant landslide-controlling factors are derived from geospatial remote sensing data and coded into a GIS system. Next, continuous susceptibility values from low to high are assigned to each of the six factors. Second, a continuous scale of a global landslide susceptibility index is derived using GIS weighted linear combination based on each factor's relative significance to the process of landslide occurrence (e.g., slope is the most important factor, soil types and soil texture are also primary-level parameters, while elevation, land cover types, and drainage density are secondary in importance). Finally, the continuous index map is further classified into six susceptibility categories. Results show the hot spots of landslide-prone regions include the Pacific Rim, the Himalayas and South Asia, Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Alps, and parts of the Middle East and Africa. India, China, Nepal, Japan, the USA, and Peru are shown to have landslide-prone areas. This first-cut global landslide susceptibility map forms a starting point to provide a global view of landslide risks and may be used in conjunction with satellite-based precipitation information to potentially detect areas with significant landslide potential due to heavy rainfall. 1

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliwal B.B.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from Bovine Mastitis in and around Dharwad region. A total of 310 samples were screened and 180 confirmed Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were obtained. The antimicrobial susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci against 10 antimicrobial agents was tested using the disc diffusion method. The highest numbers of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were susceptible to ceftriaxone 83.88% followed by cefotaxime 79.41%, methicillin 76.47%, ciprofloxacin 73.52%, erythromycin 70.05%, amikacin 66.11%, gentamycin 42.94%, amoxicillin 36.76%, ampicillin 29.41%, and the lowest susceptibility was shown in penicillin 23.23% . The results indicated that the increase in prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci isolated from bovine mastitis exhibited the highest degree of susceptible to ceftriaxone of all the tested antimicrobial agents. [Vet. World 2011; 4(4.000: 158-161

  11. Penicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: susceptibility testing, resistance rates and outcome of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrand Aldman, Malin; Skovby, Annette; I Påhlman, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is an important human pathogen that causes both superficial and invasive infections. Penicillin is now rarely used in the treatment of SA infections due to widespread resistance and a concern about the accuracy of existing methods for penicillin susceptibility testing. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of penicillin-susceptible SA isolates from blood and wound cultures in Lund, Sweden, and to evaluate methods for penicillin testing in SA. We also wanted to investigate if penicillin-susceptible isolates are associated with higher mortality. Hundred blood culture isolates collected 2008/2009, 140 blood culture isolates from 2014/2015, and 141 superficial wound culture strains from 2015 were examined. Penicillin susceptibility was tested with disk diffusion according to EUCAST guidelines, and results were confirmed with a cloverleaf assay and PCR amplification of the BlaZ gene. Patient data for all bacteraemia cases were extracted from medical records. The disk diffusion method with assessment of both zone size and zone edge appearance had high accuracy in our study. About 57% of bacteraemia isolates from 2008/2009 were sensitive to penicillin compared to 29% in 2014/2015 (p penicillin susceptible. There was no difference in co-morbidity or mortality rates between patients with penicillin resistant and penicillin sensitive SA bacteraemia. Disk-diffusion is a simple and reliable method to detect penicillin resistance in SA, and susceptibility rates are significant. Penicillin has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the treatment of SA bacteraemia when susceptible.

  12. Definition of a magnetic susceptibility of conglomerates with magnetite particles. Particularities of defining single particle susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandulyak, A. A.; Sandulyak, A. V.; Ershova, V.; Pamme, N.; Ngmasom, B.; Iles, A.

    2017-11-01

    Data of a magnetic susceptibility of ferro-and the ferrimagnetic particles of many technogenic, natural, special media are especially demanded for the solution of various tasks connected with purposeful magnetic impact on these particles. One of productive approaches to definition of a magnetic susceptibility χ of these particles consists in receiving experimental data of a susceptibility of disperse samples 〈 χ 〉 with a disperse phase of these particles. The paper expounds and analyses the results of experiments on defining (by Faraday method in a magnetic field with intensity H = 90-730 kA/m) the magnetic susceptibility 〈 χ 〉 of disperse samples (conglomerates) with a given volume ratio γ of magnetite particles (γ = 0.0065-0.25). The corresponding families of concentration and field dependences are provided alongside with discussing the applicability of linear and exponential functions to describe these dependences. We consider the possibility of defining single particles susceptibility χ (with simultaneous obtaining field dependence of this susceptibility) by the commonly used relation χ = 〈 χ 〉 /γ both at relatively small (preferable for accuracy reasons) values γ - to γ = 0.02…0.025, as well as at increased values γ - up to γ = 0.25. The data χ are provided depending on H and correlating with known data at H matter magnetic susceptibility χm (for the case when the particles are traditionally likened to balls with the characteristic for them demagnetising factor equalling 1/3) complies with the anticipated inverse function χm ∼ 1/H in the studied area H (where magnetization M expressed as M = χH reaches saturation M = Const).

  13. Pre-Use Susceptibility to Ceftaroline in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Germany: Is There a Non-Susceptible Pool to be Selected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Strommenger

    Full Text Available Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin active against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Based on a representative collection of clinical S. aureus isolates from Germany, supplemented with isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239, we demonstrate the in-vitro susceptibility towards ceftaroline prior to its introduction into clinical use for a total of 219 isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution, disc diffusion and Etest, respectively. Results were interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines and showed considerable variance in dependence on clonal affiliation of the isolates tested. Among isolates of widespread hospital-associated lineages we found a high proportion of clinical isolates with MICs close to the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC50/90 1.0/1.5 mg/L; currently, interpretation of these "borderline" MICs is complicated by a lack of concordant susceptibility testing methods and reasonable breakpoint determination. Isolates of clonal lineages ST228 and ST239 demonstrated increased MIC50/90 values of 2.5/3.33 mg/L. Sequencing of mecA revealed no association of resistance to a specific mecA polymorphism, but rather reveals two regions in the non-penicillin-binding domain of PbP2a which displayed different combinations of mutations putatively involved in resistance development. This study provides national baseline data to (i adjust susceptibility testing methods and current breakpoints to clinical and epidemiological requirements, (ii evaluate current breakpoints with respect to therapeutic outcome and (iii monitor further resistance evolution.

  14. Susceptibilities to DNA Structural Transitions within Eukaryotic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabinskaya, Dina; Benham, Craig; Madden, Sally

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the competitive transitions to alternate secondary DNA structures in a negatively supercoiled DNA molecule of kilobase length and specified base sequence. We use statistical mechanics to calculate the competition among all regions within the sequence that are susceptible to transitions to alternate structures. We use an approximate numerical method since the calculation of an exact partition function is numerically cumbersome for DNA molecules of lengths longer than hundreds of base pairs. This method yields accurate results in reasonable computational times. We implement algorithms that calculate the competition between transitions to denatured states and to Z-form DNA. We analyze these transitions near the transcription start sites (TSS) of a set of eukaryotic genes. We find an enhancement of Z-forming regions upstream of the TSS and a depletion of denatured regions around the start sites. We confirm that these finding are statistically significant by comparing our results to a set of randomized genes with preserved base composition at each position relative to the gene start sites. When we study the correlation of these transitions in orthologous mouse and human genes we find a clear evolutionary conservation of both types of transitions around the TSS.

  15. Susceptibility Breakpoint for Enrofloxacin against Swine Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haihong; Pan, Huafang; Ahmad, Ijaz; Cheng, Guyue; Wang, Yulian; Dai, Menghong; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Dapeng; Liu, Zhenli

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibility breakpoints are crucial for prudent use of antimicrobials. This study has developed the first susceptibility breakpoint (MIC ≤ 0.25 μg/ml) for enrofloxacin against swine Salmonella spp. based on wild-type cutoff (COWT) and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) cutoff (COPD) values, consequently providing a criterion for susceptibility testing and clinical usage of enrofloxacin. PMID:23784134

  16. Finite perturbation studies of magnetic susceptibility and shielding with GIAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaucer, M.; Pumpernik, D.; Hladnik, M.; Azman, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility tensor and proton and fluorine magnetic shielding tensors are calculated for F 2 and (FHF) - using an ab initio finite perturbation method with gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO). The discussion of the basis set deficiency shows that the calculated values for the susceptibilities are reliable. Simple additivity (Pascal rule) for the susceptibility is confirmed. (orig.) [de

  17. Sociodemographic and economic characteristics of susceptibility to rubella among women preparing for pregnancy in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Zhang, Shikun; Liu, Jue; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-09-01

    Infection with rubella virus during pregnancy can result in congenital defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The risk of rubella infection is greatly determined by the level of rubella antibodies in the serum. A survey of rubella antibody seronegativity rates was conducted in 780 000 women in rural China who were planning a pregnancy, in order to evaluate the herd susceptibility in different age groups and by high, middle, and low GDP per capita regions. In order to evaluate the herd susceptibility to rubella, a nationwide population-based study of rural Chinese women who were planning to have a baby and who were aged 21-49 years was instigated. As a part of the National Free Pre-conception Health Examination Project covering 29 provinces in 2012, a physical check-up program was provided to women who planned to become pregnant within the next 6 months. All medical data were from serological samples tested by ELISA, and the participants' immunity status was categorized based on levels of rubella antibodies. Economic data were also collected to explore the association between herd susceptibility and socioeconomic characteristics in the women of childbearing age. A total 264 306 of 782 293 recruited women preparing for pregnancy tested susceptible to rubella (33.79%). The seronegativity rate in women with a history of vaccination was significantly lower than that in women who had not received the vaccination or did not know their vaccination history (23.76%, 33.70%, and 35.68%, respectively). The seronegativity rates were 26.89%, 37.86%, and 32.61% in high, middle, and low GDP per capita areas, respectively. After stratified analysis and adjusting for other factors by multiple logistic regression, the lower seronegativity rates in women in high GDP per capita regions compared to women in middle and low GDP per capita regions remained in the different age groups and subgroups of immunization history. There is a clear difference in rubella-specific susceptibility

  18. Differential Susceptibility to Parenting in Middle Childhood : Do Impulsivity, Effortful Control and Negative Emotionality Indicate Susceptibility or Vulnerability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Meike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357402871; Dubas, Judith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155382195; van Aken, Marcel A G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/081831218

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether children differ in their susceptibility to harsh and responsive parenting as reflected in their externalizing and prosocial behaviour two years later. We focused on three potential susceptibility markers assessed during middle childhood: Negative

  19. Measurement of magnetic susceptibility on tailings cores report on cores obtained from the Ontario Research Foundation lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Bulk susceptibility and induced magnetic remanence results are reported for 40 cores obtained from the uranium tailings lysimeter experiment at the Ontario Research Foundation. Both methods indicate a broad threefold subdivision of the tailings pile. An upper zone is characterized by an enhanced susceptibility level, which is related to enhanced concentration of both magnetite and hematite. Depletion zones, where present, are of limited areal extent and strongly developed. An intermediate zone is characterized by a mixture of large areas of reduced susceptibility that separate smaller regions of slightly enhanced susceptibility. The zones of susceptibility depletion appear to define a dendritic drainage pattern. Locally in this zone magnetite is enhanced and hematite depleted. In the lowermost zone susceptibility levels are reduced over most of the tailings bed. Only in the upper most right hand corner is there any vestige of a positive susceptibility concentration. Both magnetite and hematite are strongly depleted in this lower zone. Visually it is apparent that this lowermost depleted zone correlates to the zones of strongest 'yellowcake' development

  20. Landslide susceptibility and risk assessment: specificities for road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicani, Roberta; Argentiero, Ilenia; Parisi, Alessandro; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    A regional-scale assessment of landslide susceptibility and risk along the main road corridors crossing the provincial territory of Matera (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy) was carried out. The entire provincial road network extends for about 1,320 km through a territory, of which represents the main connection infrastructure among thirty-one municipalities due to the lack of an efficient integrated transportation system through the whole regional territory. For this reason, the strategic importance of these roads consists in their uniqueness in connecting every urban center with the socio-economic surrounding context. These roads and their vehicular traffic are continuously exposed to instability processes (about the 40% of the total length is disrupted by landslides), characterized both by high intensity and low frequency and by low intensity and high frequency. This last typology, consisting in small shallow landslides, is particularly hazardous for the roads since it is widespread along the road network, its occurrence is connected to rainfalls and determines high vulnerability conditions for the road in terms of interruption of vehicular traffic. A GIS-based heuristic-bivariate statistical predictive model was performed to assess and map the landslide susceptibility in the study area, by using a polynomial function of eight predisposing factors, weighted according to their influence on the landslide phenomena, recognized and collected in an inventory. Susceptibility associated to small shallow phenomena was assessed by using a polynomial function of specific factors, such as slope angle and aspect, lithological outcrops, rainfalls, etc. In absence of detailed input data, the spatial distribution of landslide risk along the road corridors was assessed and mapped using a qualitative hazard-consequence matrix approach, by which risk is obtained by combining hazard categories with consequence classes pairwise in a two-dimensional table or matrix. Landslide

  1. Identification of rs671, a common variant of ALDH2, as a gout susceptibility locus

    OpenAIRE

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kawai, Sayo; Okada, Rieko; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a common disease resulting from hyperuricemia. Recently, a genome-wide association study identified an association between gout and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2188380, located on an intergenic region between MYL2 and CUX2 on chromosome 12. However, other genes around rs2188380 could possibly be gout susceptibility genes. Therefore, we performed a fine-mapping study of the MYL2-CUX2 region. From 8,595 SNPs in the MYL2-CUX2 region, 9 tag SNPs were selected, and genotyping ...

  2. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  3. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  4. Nature of the magnetic susceptibility of dysprosium. Paramagnetic susceptibility of dysprosium - yttrium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, V.G.; Levitin, R.Z.; Chistyakov, O.D.

    1976-01-01

    The paramagnetic susceptibility of single crystals of dysprosium-yttirum alloys is measured in the basal plane and along the hexagonal axis. It is shown that the susceptibility of the alloys obeys the Curie-Weiss law, the effective magnetic moments allong the different directions being the same and the paramagnetic Curie temperatures being different. The difference between the paramagnetic Curie temperatures in the basal plane and along the hexagonal axis is independent of the dysprosium concentration in the alloy. As a comparison with the theoretical models of magnetic anisotropy shows, this is an indication that the magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium - yttrium alloys is of a single-ion nature

  5. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Den Eeckhaut

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set, and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set. The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to

  6. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-03-01

    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set), and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set). The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to link terrain domains to appropriate land

  7. AC susceptibility enhancement studies in magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Chakravarti, A.; Sil, S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of AC susceptibility has been observed for typical ferromagnets (Gd), reentrant spin glasses like (Fe 1.5 Mn 1.5 Si) and canted spin systems (Ce(Fe 0.96 Al 0.04 ) 2 ). The data have been interpreted with the help of a simulation model based on dry friction-like pinning of domain walls for systems having ferromagnetic domain structures. A strong pinning mechanism appears in the reentrant spin glass like and canted spin systems at low temperatures in addition to the intrinsic one in the ferromagnetic phase. The temperature variation of the pinning potential has been given qualitatively for the reentrant spin glass like systems

  8. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A.; Northington, F.J.; Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J.; Huisman, T.A.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  9. Macroeconomic susceptibility, inflation, and aggregate supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2017-03-01

    We unify aggregate-supply dynamics as a time-dependent susceptibility-mediated relationship between inflation and aggregate economic output. In addition to representing well various observations of inflation-output dynamics this parsimonious formalism provides a straightforward derivation of popular representations of aggregate-supply dynamics and a natural basis for economic-agent expectations as an element of inflation formation. Our formalism also illuminates questions of causality and time-correlation that challenge central banks for whom aggregate-supply dynamics is a key constraint in their goal of achieving macroeconomic stability.

  10. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  11. Aspergillus--classification and antifungal susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzina, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus is one of the most important fungal genera for the man, for its industrial use, its ability to spoil food and not least its medical impact as cause of a variety of diseases. Currently hundreds of species of Aspergillus are known; nearly fifty of them are able to cause infections in humans and animals. Recently, the genus Aspergillus is subdivided into 8 subgenera and 22 sections. The spectrum of diseases caused by Aspergillus species varies from superficial cutaneous to invasive and systemic infections. All species of Aspergillus investigated so far are resistant against the antifungals fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, the range of susceptibilities to currently available antifungals is discussed in this paper.

  12. Susceptibility effects in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziener, Christian Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The properties of dephasing and the resulting relaxation of the magnetization are the basic principle on which all magnetic resonance imaging methods are based. The signal obtained from the gyrating spins is essentially determined by the properties of the considered tissue. Especially the susceptibility differences caused by magnetized materials (for example, deoxygenated blood, BOLD-effect) or magnetic nanoparticles are becoming more important for biomedical imaging. In the present work, the influence of such field inhomogeneities on the NMR-signal is analyzed. (orig.)

  13. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  14. Linkage analysis: Inadequate for detecting susceptibility loci in complex disorders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L.L.; Nagatomi, J. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) may provide valuable clues about approaches to detecting susceptibility loci in other oligogenic disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated significant association between IDDM and a VNTR in the 5{prime} flanking region of the insulin (INS) gene. Paradoxically, all attempts to demonstrate linkage of IDDM to this VNTR have failed. Lack of linkage has been attributed to insufficient marker locus information, genetic heterogeneity, or high frequency of the IDDM-predisposing allele in the general population. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is located 2.7 kb from INS on the 5` side of the VNTR and shows linkage disequilibrium with INS region loci. We typed a highly polymorphic microsatellite within TH in 176 multiplex families, and performed parametric (lod score) linkage analysis using various intermediate reduced penetrance models for IDDM (including rare and common disease allele frequencies), as well as non-parametric (affected sib pair) linkage analysis. The scores significantly reject linkage for recombination values of .05 or less, excluding the entire 19 kb region containing TH, the 5{prime} VNTR, the INS gene, and IGF2 on the 3{prime} side of INS. Non-parametric linkage analysis also provided no significant evidence for linkage (mean TH allele sharing 52.5%, P=.12). These results have important implications for efforts to locate genes predisposing to complex disorders, strongly suggesting that regions which are significantly excluded by linkage methods may nevertheless contain predisposing genes readily detectable by association methods. We advocate that investigators routinely perform association analyses in addition to linkage analyses.

  15. Static magnetic susceptibility of radiopaque NiTiPt and NiTiEr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovan, Drahomír; Gandhi, Abbasi; Butler, James; Tofail, Syed A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic properties of metallic alloys used in biomedical industry are important for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). If the alloys were to be used for long term implants or as guiding devices, safety of the patient as well as the medical staff has to be ensured. Strong response to the external magnetic field can cause mechanical damage to the patients body. In this paper we present magnetic susceptibility of nickel rich, ternary NiTiPt and NiTiEr to static magnetic field. We show that the magnetic susceptibility of these radiopaque alloys has values in low paramagnetic region comparable to the binary nickel-titanium. Furthermore, we studied the effect of the thermal and mechanical treatments on magnetic properties. Despite deviation from linear M (H) treated samples spanning small region around H = 0 , the linearity of the M (H) and χ =d M /d H values suggest that these ternary alloys are safe to use under MRI conditions.

  16. Susceptibility to mountain hazards in Austria - paradigms of vulnerability revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The concept of vulnerability is pillared by multiple disciplinary theories underpinning either a technical or a social origin of the concept and resulting in a range of paradigms for either a qualitative or quantitative assessment of vulnerability. However, efforts to reduce susceptibility to hazards and to create disaster-resilient communities require intersections among these theories, since human activity cannot be seen independently from the environmental setting. Acknowledging different roots of disciplinary paradigms, issues determining structural, economic, institutional and social vulnerability are discussed with respect to mountain hazards in Austria. The underlying idea of taking such an integrative viewpoint was the cognition that human action in mountain environments affects the state of vulnerability, and the state of vulnerability in turn shapes the possibilities of human action. It is argued that structural vulnerability as originator results in considerable economic vulnerability, generated by the institutional settings of dealing with natural hazards and shaped by the overall societal framework. Hence, the vulnerability of a specific location and within a considered point of time is triggered by the hazardous event and the related physical susceptibility of structures, such as buildings located on a torrent fan. Depending on the specific institutional settings, economic vulnerability of individuals or of the society results, above all with respect to imperfect loss compensation mechanisms in the areas under investigation. While this potential for harm can be addressed as social vulnerability, the concept of institutional vulnerability has been developed with respect to the overall political settings of governmental risk management. As a result, the concept of vulnerability, as being used in natural sciences, can be extended by integration of possible reasons why such physical susceptibility of structures exists, and by integration of compensation

  17. Implementation of landslide susceptibility maps in Lower Austria as part of risk governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rainer; Petschko, Helene; Bauer, Christian; Glade, Thomas; Granica, Klaus; Heiss, Gerhard; Leopold, Philip; Pomaroli, Gilbert; Proske, Herwig; Schweigl, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    Landslides frequently cause damage to agricultural land and infrastructure in Lower Austria - a province of Austria. Also settlements and people are threatened by landslides. To reduce landslide risks and to prevent the establishment of new settlements in highly landslide prone areas, the project "MoNOE" (Method development for landslide susceptibility modeling in Lower Austria) was set up by the provincial government. The main aim of the project is the development of methods to model rock fall and slide susceptibility for an area of approx. 15,900 km2 and to implement the resulting susceptibility maps into the spatial planning strategies of the state. Right from the beginning of the project a close cooperation between the involved scientists and the stakeholders from the Geological Survey of Lower Austria and the Department of Spatial Planning and Regional Policy of Lower Austria was established to ensure that method development and final susceptibility maps meet exactly the needs and demands of the stakeholders. This posed huge challenges, together with its realization in the large study area and a (heterogeneous) complex geological situation,. Limitations were given by restricted data availability (e.g. for geology or landslide inventories) in such a large study area. Rock fall susceptibility was modeled by a combined approach of determining rock fall release areas by empirical slope thresholds (dependent on geology) followed by empirical run-out modeling. Slide susceptibility was modeled based on the statistical approaches of weights of evidence (WofE) and generalized additive models (GAM) by two different research groups. Huge efforts were spent on the validation of all susceptibility models. In a later stage of the project we found that the best scientific maps are not necessarily the best maps to be implemented in spatial planning strategies. Thus, in close cooperation with the stakeholders, decisions had to be taken to find the best resolution of the maps

  18. Correlation functions and susceptibilities of photonics band gap reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate quantum statistical properties of photonic band gap reservoirs in terms of correlation functions and susceptibilities in time and spectral domains. Typical features are oscillations of the time-dependent correlation functions and susceptibilities. This is because photonic bad gap reservoirs are intrinsically non-Markovian reservoirs. The results help us to understand better how intrinsic quantum-statistical properties of a reservoir influence dynamics of an atom interacting with this reservoir. Boundary conditions influence time and spectral properties of the electromagnetic field. This well-known fact has a great importance in optics and generally in electromagnetism. Specific examples are resonators used in laser technique and cavity electrodynamics. In quantum optics high-Q micro cavities are used for single-atom experiments when an atom can interact in a coherent way with an electromagnetic field which has its mode structure totally different from those in free space. In particular, interaction of an (effectively) two-level atom with a single-mode cavity field was observed in the region of microwaves (with the wavelength about 1 cm). In 1987 Yablonovitch and John independently proposed that certain periodic dielectric structures can present forbidden frequency gaps (or pseudo gaps in partially disordered structures) for transverse modes. Such periodic structures were named 'photonic band structures' or 'photonic crystals', in analogy with electronic crystals which also have a (forbidden) gap for electronic energy. For true photonic crystals the basic property of blocking electromagnetic wave propagation must be fulfilled for all waves within some frequency range, i.e. for all wavevector and polarization directions

  19. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing.

  20. Measuring Nematic Susceptibilities from the Elastoresistivity Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A. T.; Shapiro, M. C.; Hlobil, Patrick; Maharaj, Akash; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Fisher, Ian

    The elastoresistivity tensor mijkl relates changes in resistivity to the strain on a material. As a fourth-rank tensor, it contains considerably more information about the material than the simpler (second-rank) resistivity tensor; in particular, certain elastoresistivity coefficients can be related to thermodynamic susceptibilities and serve as a direct probe of symmetry breaking at a phase transition. The aim of this talk is twofold. First, we enumerate how symmetry both constrains the structure of the elastoresistivity tensor into an easy-to-understand form and connects tensor elements to thermodynamic susceptibilities. In the process, we generalize previous studies of elastoresistivity to include the effects of magnetic field. Second, we describe an approach to measuring quantities in the elastoresistivity tensor with a novel transverse measurement, which is immune to relative strain offsets. These techniques are then applied to BaFe2As2 in a proof of principle measurement. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  1. Pregnancy and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Sappenfield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes. The evidence indicates that pregnancy is associated with increased severity of some infectious diseases, such as influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and herpes simplex virus (HSV infection (risk for dissemination/hepatitis; there is also some evidence for increased severity of measles and smallpox. Disease severity seems higher with advanced pregnancy. Pregnant women may be more susceptible to acquisition of malaria, HIV infection, and listeriosis, although the evidence is limited. These results reinforce the importance of infection prevention as well as of early identification and treatment of suspected influenza, malaria, hepatitis E, and HSV disease during pregnancy.

  2. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgässner, C; Schmitt, S; Borgström, A; Wittenbrink, M M

    2016-06-01

    Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. So far, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of B. hyodysenteriae in Switzerland have not been investigated. Therefore, a panel of 30 porcine B. hyodysenteriae isolates were tested against 6 antimicrobial agents by using the VetMIC Brachy panel, a broth microdilution test. Tiamulin and valnemulin showed high antimicrobial activity inhibiting all isolates at low concentrations. The susceptibility testing of doxycycline revealed values from ≤0.25 μg/ ml (47%) to 2 μg/ml (10%). The MIC values of lincomycin ranged between ≤0.5 μg/ml (30%) and 32 μg/ml (43%). For tylosin, 57% of the isolates could not be inhibited at the highest concentration of ≥128 μg/ml. The MIC values for tylvalosin were between ≤0.25 μg/ml (10%) and 8 μg/ml (20%). These findings reveal Switzerland's favourable situation compared to other European countries. Above all, tiamulin and valnemulin are still effective antimicrobial agents and can be further used for the treatment of SD.

  4. FLOOD SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT IN THE NIRAJ BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDA ROŞCA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood susceptibility assessment in the Niraj basin. In the context of global warming and the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, it becomes evident that we have to face natural hazards, such as floods. In the area of Niraj basin this phenomenon is specific both in the spring, because of the snow melting and of the precipitations which come along with the season, and then in the summer because of the torrential precipitations but rarely in autumn and winter. The aim of this paper is to determinate the susceptibility of the zone and obtain a map which will take into consideration the possibility of a flooding. Defining vulnerability can help us understand this type of natural disasters and find the best ways to reduce it. For this purpose we use thematic layers, morphological characteristics (slope and depth fragmentation, hydrological characteristics, geology, pedology (permeability and soil texture, landuse, precipitation data, and human interventions because in this way we have the possibility to use data mining for this purpose. Data mining will allow us to extract new information based on the existing sets of data.The final result will be a thematic map that highlights the areas which are exposed to the flood. Therefore, this map can be used as a support decision for local government or business purposes.

  5. Susceptibility to thyroid disorders in hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Muratori, Paolo; Lenzi, Marco; Granito, Alessandro; Ma, Yun; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Bianchi, Francesco B; Vergani, Diego

    2005-06-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) are reported, especially during interferon treatment, in chronic HCV infection, in which non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSAs) are common. We wondered whether seropositivity for NOSA is associated with susceptibility to AITDs. We evaluated thyroid function and antithyroglobulin and antithyroperoxidase antibodies in 348 Italian patients with chronic hepatitis C (34% NOSA-positive), 196 patients (33% NOSA-positive) of whom received interferon treatment. At baseline, thyroid disorders were significantly more frequent in liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1)-positive patients (29% vs 9%, P LKM1-positive patients (50% vs 3%, P LKM1 positivity were predictors of AITD, but only the latter remained significant after logistic regression analysis. Cross-reactivity to all 7 linear epitopes encoding homologous amino acid sequences shared by the HCV polyprotein, CYP2D6 (the LKM1 autoantigen), and thyroperoxidase was detected in 86% LKM1-positive HCV patients with clinical thyroid disorders, but in none of the LKM1-positive or negative HCV patients without thyroid disease, and none of an HCV-negative control group comprising subjects with LKM1-positive autoimmune hepatitis or AITD without liver disease ( P LKM1 are susceptible to develop AITDs, in association with treatment. Molecular mimicry and epitope spreading are potential pathogenic mechanisms.

  6. Ranking alloys for susceptibility to MIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.J.B.; Davies, M.; Goldie, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that laboratory experiments demonstrate that alloys containing 6 to 9% Mo are susceptible to microbiologically influenced corrosion attack. They also demonstrate that corrosion behavior in batch cultures do not correlate well with standard ferric chloride and pitting potential tests of the same alloys. In recent years, there has been an increasing awareness of the incidence of plant equipment failures caused by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This has led to the search for suitable testing techniques to look for MIC, which, in turn, has expanded the list of known susceptible alloys. Faced with field failures, the normal response has been to upgrade the alloy of construction. There is, for example, a common belief that the addition of more molybdenum to austenitic stainless steels conveys immunity (or at least increased resistance) to MIC. The basis for this is an extrapolation of localized corrosion data. The supposed correlation between molybdenum content and resistance to MIC has not yet been supported by a comprehensive testing program

  7. New insights into susceptibility to glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Shete, Sanjay; Hosking, Fay J; Robertson, Lindsay B; Bondy, Melissa L; Houlston, Richard S

    2010-03-01

    The study of inherited susceptibility to cancer has been one of the most informative areas of research in the past decade. Most of the cancer genetics studies have been focused on the common tumors such as breast and colorectal cancers. As the allelic architecture of these tumors is unraveled, research attention is turning to other rare cancers such as glioma, which are also likely to have a major genetic component as the basis of their development. In this brief review we discuss emerging data on glioma whole genome-association searches to identify risk loci. Two glioma genome-wide association studies have so far been reported. Our group identified 5 risk loci for glioma susceptibility (TERT rs2736100, CCDC26 rs4295627, CDKN2A/CDKN2B rs4977756, RTEL1 rs6010620, and PHLDB1 rs498872). Wrensch and colleagues provided further evidence to 2 risk loci (CDKN2B rs1412829 and RTEL1 rs6010620) for GBM and anaplastic astrocytoma. Although these data provide the strongest evidence to date for the role of common low-risk variants in the etiology of glioma, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified alone are unlikely to be candidates for causality. Identifying the causal variant at each specific locus and its biological impact now poses a significant challenge, contingent on a combination of fine mapping and functional analyses. Finally, we hope that a greater understanding of the biological basis of the disease will lead to the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

  8. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... in cerebral hemodynamics than noncontrast-enhanced imaging. The results of the deconvolution analysis suggested that perfusion calculation by conventional tracer kinetic methods may be impracticable because of nonlinear effects in contrast-enhanced MR imaging....

  9. Outlining precision boundaries among areas with different variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Sammy S. R.; Marques Júnior,José; Siqueira,Diego S.; Pereira,Gener T.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for detailed maps that represent in a simplified way the knowledge of the variability of a particular area or region maps. The objective was to outline precision boundaries among areas with different accuracy variability standards using magnetic susceptibility and geomorphic surfaces. The study was conducted in an area of 110 ha, which identified three compartment landscapes based on the geomorphic surfaces model. To determinate pH, organic matter, phosphorus, po...

  10. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  11. Whole Gene Capture Analysis of 15 CRC Susceptibility Genes in Suspected Lynch Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anne M L; Geilenkirchen, Marije A; van Wezel, Tom; Jagmohan-Changur, Shantie C; Ruano, Dina; van der Klift, Heleen M; van den Akker, Brendy E W M; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Galen, Michiel; Wagner, Anja; Letteboer, Tom G W; Gómez-García, Encarna B; Tops, Carli M J; Vasen, Hans F; Devilee, Peter; Hes, Frederik J; Morreau, Hans; Wijnen, Juul T

    2016-01-01

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) is caused by pathogenic germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, up to 60% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cases are categorized as suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS) because no pathogenic MMR germline variant can be identified, which leads to difficulties in clinical management. We therefore analyzed the genomic regions of 15 CRC susceptibility genes in leukocyte DNA of 34 unrelated sLS patients and 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors with a clear family history. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the entire non-repetitive genomic sequence, including intronic and regulatory sequences, of 15 CRC susceptibility genes. In addition, tumor DNA from 28 sLS patients was analyzed for somatic MMR variants. Of 1979 germline variants found in the leukocyte DNA of 34 sLS patients, one was a pathogenic variant (MLH1 c.1667+1delG). Leukocyte DNA of 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors was negative for pathogenic germline variants in the tested CRC susceptibility genes and for germline MLH1 hypermethylation. Somatic DNA analysis of 28 sLS tumors identified eight (29%) cases with two pathogenic somatic variants, one with a VUS predicted to pathogenic and LOH, and nine cases (32%) with one pathogenic somatic variant (n = 8) or one VUS predicted to be pathogenic (n = 1). This is the first study in sLS patients to include the entire genomic sequence of CRC susceptibility genes. An underlying somatic or germline MMR gene defect was identified in ten of 34 sLS patients (29%). In the remaining sLS patients, the underlying genetic defect explaining the MMRdeficiency in their tumors might be found outside the genomic regions harboring the MMR and other known CRC susceptibility genes.

  12. Weights of evidence method for landslide susceptibility mapping in Tangier, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousta Mahfoud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tangier region is known by a high density of mass movements which cause several human and economic losses. The goal of this paper is to assess the landslide susceptibility of Tangier using the Weight of Evidence method (WofE. The method is founded on the principle that an event (landslide is more likely to occur based on the relationship between the presence or absence of a predictive variable (predisposing factors and the occurrence of this event. The inventory, description and analysis of mass movements were prepared. Then the main factors governing their occurrence (lithology, fault, slope, elevation, exposure, drainage and land use were mapped before applying WofE. Finally, the ROC curves were established and the areas under curves (AUC were calculated to evaluate the degree of fit of the model and to choose the best landslide susceptibility zonation. The prediction accuracy was found to be 70%. Obtained susceptibility map shows that 60% of inventoried landslides are in the high to very high susceptibility zones, which is very satisfactory for the validation of the adopted model and the obtained results. These zones are mainly located in the N-E and E part of the Tangier region in the soft and fragile facies of the marls and clays of the Tangier unit, where landuse is characterized by dominance of arable and agricultural land (lack of forest cover. From a purely spatial point of view, the localization of these two classes of susceptibility is completely corresponding to the ground truth data, that is to say that all the environmental and anthropogenic conditions are in place for making this area prone to landslide hazards. The obtained map is a decision-making tool for presenting, comparing and discussing development and urban scenarios in Tangier. These results fall within the context of sustainable development and will help to mitigate the socio-economic impacts usually observed when landslides are triggered.

  13. Ertapenem susceptibility of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Edward B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by multiply drug resistant organisms such as extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are increasing. Carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem are the antibiotics commonly used to treat these agents. There is limited clinical data regarding the efficacy of the newest carbapenem, ertapenem, against these organisms. Ertapenem susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were evaluated and compared to imipenem to determine if imipenem susceptibility could be used as a surrogate for ertapenem susceptibility. Methods 100 ESBL isolates (n = 34 E. coli and n = 66 K. pneumoniae collected from 2005–2006 clinical specimens at WRAMC were identified and tested for susceptibility by Vitek Legacy [bioMerieux, Durham, NC]. Ertapenem susceptibility was performed via epsilometer test (E-test [AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden]. Results 100% of ESBL isolates tested were susceptible to ertapenem. 100% of the same isolates were also susceptible to imipenem. Conclusion These results, based on 100% susceptibility, suggest that ertapenem may be an alternative to other carbapenems for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Clinical outcomes studies are needed to determine if ertapenem is effective for the treatment of infection caused by these organisms. However, due to lack of resistant isolates, we are unable to conclude whether imipenem susceptibility accurately predicts ertapenem susceptibility.

  14. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  15. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis in biofilms to amoxicillin, doxycycline and metronidazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole......Biofilm, Porphyromonas gingivalis, susceptibility testing, amoxicillin, doxycycline, metronidazole...

  16. Magnon heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility of the spin Lieb lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmohammadi, Mohsen, E-mail: m.yarmohammadi69@gamil.com

    2016-11-01

    Using linear response theory, Heisenberg model Hamiltonian and Green's function technique, the influences of Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI), external magnetic field and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) coupling on the density of magnon modes (DMM), the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the magnon heat capacity (MHC) of a spin Lieb lattice, a face-centered square lattice, are investigated. The results reveal a band gap in the DMM and we witness an extension in the bandwidth and an increase in the number of van-Hove singularities as well. As a notable point, besides the magnetic nature which includes ferromagnetism in spin Lieb-based nanosystems, MS is investigated. Further, we report a Schottky anomaly in the MHC. The results show that the effects of the magnetic field on the MHC and MS have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, MHC and MS increase when the magnetic field strength increases. On the other hand, the MHC and MS reduce with increasing the magnetic field strength in the high temperature region. Also comprehensive numerical modelling of the DMM, the MS and the MHC of a spin Lieb lattice yields excellent qualitative agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of density of states of the spin Lieb lattice. • The investigation of the effect of external magnetic field on the magnon heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility. • The investigation of the effect of NNN coupling and the DMI strength on the magnon heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility.

  17. Land susceptibility to soil erosion in Orashi Catchment, Nnewi South, Anambra State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunuga, Shakirudeen; Ajijola, Abiodun; Igwetu, Nkechi; Adegun, Olubunmi

    2018-02-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most critical environmental hazards that causes land degradation and water quality challenges. Specifically, this phenomenon has been linked, among other problems, to river sedimentation, groundwater pollution and flooding. This paper assesses the susceptibility of Orashi River Basin (ORB) to soil erosion for the purpose of erosion control measures. Located in the South Eastern part of Nigeria, the ORB which covers approximately 413.61 km2 is currently experiencing one of the fastest population growth rate in the region. Analysis of the soil erosion susceptibility of the basin was based on four factors including; rainfall, Land use/Land cover change (LULC), slope and soil erodibility factor (k). The rainfall was assumed to be a constant and independent variable, slope and soil types were categorised into ten (10) classes each while the landuse was categorised into five classes. Weight was assigned to the classes based on the degree of susceptibility to erosion. An overlay of the four variables in a GIS environment was used to produce the basin susceptibility to soil erosion. This was based on the weight index of each factors. The LULC analysis revealed that built-up land use increased from 26.49 km2 (6.4 %) in year 1980 to 79.24 km2 (19.16 %) in 2015 at an average growth rate of 1.51 km2 per annum while the light forest decreased from 336.41 km2 (81.33 %) in 1980 to 280.82 km2 (67.89 %) in 2015 at an average rate 1.59 km2 per annum. The light forest was adjudged to have the highest land cover soil erosion susceptibility. The steepest slope ranges between 70 and 82° (14.34 % of the total land area) and was adjudged to have the highest soil susceptibility to erosion. The total area covered of the loamy soil is 112.37 km2 (27.07 %) with erodibility of 0.7. In all, the overlay of all the variables revealed that 106.66 km2 (25.70 %) and 164.80 km2 (39.7 %) of the basin has a high and very high susceptibility to soil erosion. The over 50

  18. An application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to landslide susceptibility mapping (Klang valley, Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ebru; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2010-05-01

    agreement between the obtained susceptibility map and the existing data on landslide areas. Qualitatively, the model yields reasonable results which can be used for preliminary land-use planning purposes. As a final conclusion, the results obtained from the study showed that the ANFIS modeling is a very useful and powerful tool for the regional landslide susceptibility assessments. However, the results to be obtained from the ANFIS modeling should be assessed carefully because the overlearning may cause misleading results. To prevent overlerning, the numbers of membership functions of inputs and the number of training epochs should be selected optimally and carefully.

  19. ANFIS modeling for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for the Cameron Highland (Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Sezer, Ebru; Gokceoglu, Candan; Buchroithner, Manfred F.

    2010-05-01

    -use planning purposes. As a final conclusion, the results revealed that the ANFIS modeling is a very useful and powerful tool for the regional landslide susceptibility assessments. However, the results to be obtained from the ANFIS modeling should be assessed carefully because the overlearning may cause misleading results. To prevent overlerning, the numbers of membership functions of inputs and the number of training epochs should be selected optimally and carefully.

  20. Magnetic susceptibility in the edged topological disordered nanoscopic cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizabadi, Edris; Omidi, Mahboubeh

    2011-01-01

    The effects of edged topological disorder on magnetic susceptibility are investigated in a nanoscopic cylinder threaded by a magnetic flux. Persistent current versus even or odd number of electrons shows different signs in ordered and disordered cylinders and also in short or long ones. In addition, temperature-averaged susceptibility has only diamagnetic signs in strong regimes and it is associated with paramagnetic signs in ordered and weak disordered ones. Besides, in an edged topological disordered cylinder, the temperature-averaged susceptibility decreases by raising the temperature somewhat and then increasing initiates and finally at high temperature tends to zero as the ordered one. - Research highlights: → Magnetic susceptibility in one-dimensional topological disordered quantum ring. → Edged topological disorder effect on magnetic susceptibility in nanoscopic cylinder. → Edged topological disorder effect on temperature-averaged susceptibility in cylinder.

  1. Inflationary susceptibilities, duality and large-scale magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate what can be said about the interaction of scalar fields with Abelian gauge fields during a quasi-de Sitter phase of expansion and under the assumption that the electric and the magnetic susceptibilities do not coincide. The duality symmetry, transforming the magnetic susceptibility into the inverse of the electric susceptibility, exchanges the magnetic and electric power spectra. The mismatch between the two susceptibilities determines an effective refractive index affecting the evolution of the canonical fields. The constraints imposed by the duration of the inflationary phase and by the magnetogenesis requirements pin down the rate of variation of the susceptibilities that is consistent with the observations of the magnetic field strength over astrophysical and cosmological scales but avoids back-reaction problems. The parameter space of this magnetogenesis scenario is wider than in the case when the susceptibilities are equal, as it happens when the inflaton or some other spectator field is ...

  2. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Nonlinear AC susceptibility, surface and bulk shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the nonlinear AC response of a thin superconducting strip in perpendicular field, shielded by an edge current due to the geometrical barrier. A comparison with the results for infinite samples in parallel field, screened by a surface barrier, and with those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state, shows that the AC response due to a barrier has general features that are independent of geometry, and that are significantly different from those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state. By consequence, the nonlinear (global) AC susceptibility can be used to determine the origin of magnetic irreversibility. A comparison with experiments on a Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ crystal shows that in this material, the low-frequency AC screening at high temperature is mainly due to the screening by an edge current, and that this is the unique source of the nonlinear magnetic response at temperatures above 40 K.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmeť, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum β-lactamases were detected.

  5. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  6. High-order nonlinear susceptibilities of He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.C.; Clark, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    High-order nonlinear optical response of noble gases to intense laser radiation is of considerable experimental interest, but is difficult to measure or calculate accurately. The authors have begun a set of calculations of frequency-dependent nonlinear susceptibilities of He 1s, within the framework of Rayleigh=Schroedinger perturbation theory at lowest applicable order, with the goal of providing critically evaluated atomic data for modelling high harmonic generation processes. The atomic Hamiltonian is decomposed in term of Hylleraas coordinates and spherical harmonics using the formalism of Ponte and Shakeshaft, and the hierarchy of inhomogeneous equations of perturbation theory is solved iteratively. A combination of Hylleraas and Frankowski basis functions is used; the compact Hylleraas basis provides a highly accurate representation of the ground state wavefunction, whereas the diffuse Frankowski basis functions efficiently reproduce the correct asymptotic structure of the perturbed orbitals

  7. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  8. Crusting susceptibility in some allic Colombian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Dora M; Madero E E; Amezquita E

    2001-01-01

    Many lab methods were used: dry and water soil aggregates stability, instability index and erosion index and their results were related with soil characteristics like texture, Fe and Al oxides and organic matter. Soil samples collected within 0-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm of the soil surface came from terrains with many kinds of both forest and savanna intervened systems. Those results were analyzed like a completely randomized designed. It was found that significative changes in oxides content could increase soil-crusting susceptibility unless soil humus was up to was up to 4%. In this sense, pastures or its rotation with rice and leguminous offer a best alternative for intervening these natural systems. Intensive land husbandry or monocultures with low stubble soil incorporation caused an increase in physical instability at the top of soil. Dry soil stability test and instability index were most adequate for these soils

  9. Genetic changes associated with testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Louise C; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2016-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is a highly heritable cancer primarily affecting young white men. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been particularly effective in identifying multiple common variants with strong contribution to TGCT risk. These loci identified through association studies have implicated multiple genes as associated with TGCT predisposition, many of which are unique among cancer types, and regulate processes such as pluripotency, sex specification, and microtubule assembly. Together these biologically plausible genes converge on pathways involved in male germ cell development and maturation, and suggest that perturbation of them confers susceptibility to TGCT, as a developmental defect of germ cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Cancer through Analysis of Genes in Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plon, Sharon E.; Wheeler, David A.; Strong, Louise C.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Pirics, Michael; Meng, Qingchang; Cheung, Hannah C.; Begin, Phyllis R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lewis, Lora; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer genetic susceptibility analysis typically proceeds sequentially beginning with the most likely causative gene. The process is time consuming and the yield is low particularly for families with unusual patterns of cancer. We determined the results of in parallel mutation analysis of a large cancer-associated gene panel. We performed deletion analysis and sequenced the coding regions of 45 genes (8 oncogenes and 37 tumor suppressor or DNA repair genes) in 48 childhood cancer patients who also (1) were diagnosed with a second malignancy under age 30, (2) have a sibling diagnosed with cancer under age 30 and/or (3) have a major congenital anomaly or developmental delay. Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 of 48 (13%) families, 4 of which met the sibling criteria. Mutations were identified in genes previously implicated in both dominant and recessive childhood syndromes including SMARCB1, PMS2, and TP53. No pathogenic deletions were identified. This approach has provided efficient identification of childhood cancer susceptibility mutations and will have greater utility as additional cancer susceptibility genes are identified. Integrating parallel analysis of large gene panels into clinical testing will speed results and increase diagnostic yield. The failure to detect mutations in 87% of families highlights that a number of childhood cancer susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. PMID:21356188

  11. Magnetic susceptibility in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costagli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurological disorder that entails degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. The primary motor cortex (M1 in patients with upper motor neuron (UMN impairment is pronouncedly hypointense in Magnetic Resonance (MR T2* contrast. In the present study, 3D gradient-recalled multi-echo sequences were used on a 7 Tesla MR system to acquire T2*-weighted images targeting M1 at high spatial resolution. MR raw data were used for Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM. Measures of magnetic susceptibility correlated with the expected concentration of non-heme iron in different regions of the cerebral cortex in healthy subjects. In ALS patients, significant increases in magnetic susceptibility co-localized with the T2* hypointensity observed in the middle and deep layers of M1. The magnetic susceptibility, hence iron concentration, of the deep cortical layers of patients' M1 subregions corresponding to Penfield's areas of the hand and foot in both hemispheres significantly correlated with the clinical scores of UMN impairment of the corresponding limbs. QSM therefore reflects the presence of iron deposits related to neuroinflammatory reaction and cortical microgliosis, and might prove useful in estimating M1 iron concentration, as a possible radiological sign of severe UMN burden in ALS patients.

  12. Variants in the SP110 gene are associated with genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Kerrie; Campbell, Sarah J.; Fielding, Katherine; Sillah, Jackson; Bah, Boubacar; Gustafson, Per; Manneh, Kebba; Lisse, Ida; Sirugo, Giorgio; Bennett, Steve; Aaby, Peter; McAdam, Keith P. W. J.; Bah-Sow, Oumou; Lienhardt, Christian; Kramnik, Igor; Hill, Adrian V. S.

    2006-01-01

    The sst1 locus has been identified in a mouse model to control resistance and susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Subsequent studies have now identified Ipr1 (intracellular pathogen resistance 1) to be the gene responsible. Ipr1 is encoded within the sst1 locus and is expressed in the tuberculosis lung lesions and macrophages of sst1-resistant, but not sst1-susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the closest human homologue of Ipr1, SP110, for its ability to control susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection in humans. In a study of families from The Gambia we have identified three polymorphisms that are associated with disease. On examination of additional families from Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Guinea, two of these associations were independently replicated. These variants are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and lie within a 31-kb block of low haplotypic diversity, suggesting that a polymorphism within this region has a role in genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in humans. PMID:16803959

  13. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, James R.; Baird, Andrew H.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Muttaqin, Efin; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Yewdall, Katie; Affendi, Yang Amri; Chou, Loke Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral bleaching events vary in severity, however, to date, the hierarchy of susceptibility to bleaching among coral taxa has been consistent over a broad geographic range and among bleaching episodes. Here we examine the extent of spatial and temporal variation in thermal tolerance among scleractinian coral taxa and between locations during the 2010 thermally induced, large-scale bleaching event in South East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys to estimate the bleaching and mortality indices of coral genera were carried out at three locations with contrasting thermal and bleaching histories. Despite the magnitude of thermal stress being similar among locations in 2010, there was a remarkable contrast in the patterns of bleaching susceptibility. Comparisons of bleaching susceptibility within coral taxa and among locations revealed no significant differences between locations with similar thermal histories, but significant differences between locations with contrasting thermal histories (Friedman = 34.97; pSingapore, where only 5% and 12% of colonies died. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of susceptibility among coral genera documented here is unprecedented. A parsimonious explanation for these results is that coral populations that bleached during the last major warming event in 1998 have adapted and/or acclimatised to thermal stress. These data also lend support to the hypothesis that corals in regions subject to more variable temperature regimes are more resistant to thermal stress than those in less variable environments. PMID:22428027

  14. Landslide susceptibility mapping by comparing weight of evidence, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vakhshoori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A regional scale basin susceptible to landslide located in Qaemshahr area in northern Iran was chosen for comparing the reliability of weight of evidence (WofE, fuzzy logic, and frequency ratio (FR methods for landslide susceptibility mapping. The locations of 157 landslides were identified using Google Earth® or extracted from archived data, from which, 22 rockslides were eliminated from the data-set due to their different conditions. The 135 remaining landslides were randomly divided into two groups of modelling (70% and validation (30% data-sets. Elevation, slope degree, slope aspect, lithology, land use/cover, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, distance to drainage network, roads, and faults were considered as landslide causative factors. The landslide susceptibility maps were prepared using the three mentioned methods. The validation process was measured by the success and prediction rates calculated by area under receiver operating characteristic curve. The ‘OR’, ‘AND’, ‘SUM’, and ‘PRODUCT’ operators of the fuzzy logic method were unacceptable because these operators classify the target area into either very high or very low susceptible zones that are inconsistent with the physical conditions of the study area. The results of fuzzy ‘GAMMA’ operators were relatively reliable while, FR and WofE methods showed results that are more reliable.

  15. Susceptibility-weighted imaging in stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanipour Roshan, Sara; Salmela, Michael B.; McKinney, Alexander M. [University Of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome has a characteristic clinical presentation and postcontrast T1WI MRI appearance. Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) may help distinguish SMART from other disorders that may have a similar postcontrast MRI appearance. The MRI examinations of four patients with SMART syndrome are described herein, each of which included SWI, FLAIR, DWI, and postcontrast T1WI on the presenting and follow-up MRI examinations. In each, the initial SWI MRI demonstrated numerous susceptibility hypointensities <5 mm in size throughout the cerebrum, particularly within the periventricular white matter (PVWM), presumably related to radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICHs). By follow-up MRI, each postcontrast examination had demonstrated resolution of the gyriform enhancement on T1WI, without susceptibility hypointensities on SWI within those previously enhancing regions. These preliminary findings suggest that SWI may help identify SMART syndrome or at least help discriminate it from other disorders, by the findings of numerous susceptibility hypointensities on SWI likely representing RICHs, gyriform enhancement on T1WI, and postsurgical findings or appropriate clinical history. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical Model for Dengue Epidemics with Differential Susceptibility and Asymptomatic Patients Using Computer Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga Vargas, Clarita

    When there are diseases affecting large populations where the social, economic and cultural diversity is significant within the same region, the biological parameters that determine the behavior of the dispersion disease analysis are affected by the selection of different individuals. Therefore and because of the variety and magnitude of the communities at risk of contracting dengue disease around all over the world, suggest defining differentiated populations with individual contributions in the results of the dispersion dengue disease analysis. In this paper those conditions were taken in account when several epidemiologic models were analyzed. Initially a stability analysis was done for a SEIR mathematical model of Dengue disease without differential susceptibility. Both free disease and endemic equilibrium states were found in terms of the basic reproduction number and were defined in the Theorem (3.1). Then a DSEIR model was solved when a new susceptible group was introduced to consider the effects of important biological parameters of non-homogeneous populations in the spreading analysis. The results were compiled in the Theorem (3.2). Finally Theorems (3.3) and (3.4) resumed the basic reproduction numbers for three and n different susceptible groups respectively, giving an idea of how differential susceptibility affects the equilibrium states. The computations were done using an algorithmic method implemented in Maple 11, a general-purpose computer algebra system.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility and relation to initial 87Sr/86Sr for granitoids of the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Dodge, F.C.W.; Kistler, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of more than 6000 samples of granitic rock from the Mariposa 1?? by 2?? quadrangle, which crosses the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith between 37?? and 38??N latitude, shows that magnetic susceptibility values are above 10-2 SI units in the east and central parts of the batholith and drop abruptly to less than 10-3 SI units in the western foothills. In a narrow transitional zone, intermediate values (10-3 to 10-2) prevail. Magnetic susceptibility appears to decrease slightly westward within the zones of both high and low values. Magnetic susceptibility in plutonic rocks is chiefly a function of the abundance of magnetite, which depends, in turn, on the total iron content of the rocks and their oxidation ratio. Correlations of magnetic susceptibility with initial 87Sr/86Sr suggest that oxidation ratios have been inherited from the source regions for the magmas from which the rocks crystallized. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ by organic carbon or other reducing substances may also have affected magnetic susceptibility. -from Authors

  18. Brain Potentials and Personality: A New Look at Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    disinhibition (Dis) measures a hedonistic , extraverted lifestyle including drinking, parties, sex, and gambling; boredom susceptibility (BS) indicates an...adventure seeking; ES = Experience seeking; Dis = Disinhibition; BS = Boredom susceptibility. 1 14 I N i*5’ Table 4 Correlation of Auditory Evoked...20. aTAS = Thrill and adventure seeking; ES = Experience seeking; Dis = Disinhibition; BS = Boredom susceptibility. < .05. 15 I The present study

  19. Acoustic investigation of magnetic susceptibility of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekuchev, V.V.; Barashkov, B.I.; Ivanova, I.V.; Rygalov, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    An acoustic method is proposed for studying the specific magnetic susceptibility of metal melts. For the first time, magnetic susceptibilities of francium, beryllium, scandium, yttrium, vanadium, niobium, rhenium, palladium, and platinum in the liquid phase at their melting points, as well as temperature dependences of magnetic susceptibilities of cesium, yttrium, and vanadium over the temperature range from melting points to boiling points have been estimated [ru

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... settlements in Venda region, South Africa in 2008 to 2009. All samples ... country (Northern Spain) identified 28.3% (34/120) of ovine and ... Data analysis of information obtained from the goat farms in Venda region, Limpopo.

  1. Susceptibility contrast imaging of CO2-induced changes in the blood volume of the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in human subjects during rest and hypercapnia by MR imaging, and to compare the results from contrast-enhanced and noncontrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five healthy volunteers (aged...... to be in accordance with results obtained by other methods. Noncontrast functional MR (fMR) imaging showed signal increases in gray matter, but also inconsistent changes in some white matter regions. CONCLUSION: In this experiment, contrast-enhanced imaging seemed to show a somewhat higher sensitivity towards changes...

  2. Susceptibility of forests in the northeastern USA to nitrogen and sulfur deposition: critical load exceedance and forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Duarte; L.H. Pardo; M.J. Robin-Abbott

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess susceptibility to acidification and nitrogen (N) saturation caused by atmospheric deposition to northeastern US forests, evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of making critical load assessments using regional data, and assess the relationship between expected risk (exceedance) and forest health. We calculated the critical...

  3. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  4. Identification and molecular characterization of a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus at 17q21.31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Lawrenson, Kate; Shen, Howard C

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3' untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites represent fu...

  5. 21 CFR 866.1640 - Antimicrobial susceptibility test powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 866.1640 Antimicrobial... clinical laboratories for determining in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to these therapeutic...

  6. Landslides susceptibility mapping at Gunung Ciremai National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizin; Nur, Bambang Azis

    2018-02-01

    In addition to agriculture, tourism became one of primary economic income for communities around Mount Ciremai, West, Java. Unfortunately, the landscape of West Java has many potential causes to disasters, mainly landslides. Mapping of disaster susceptibility area is needed as a consideration of tourism planning. The study was conducted in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java. This paper propose a methodology to map landslides susceptibilities based on spatial data. Using Geographic Information System tools, several environmental parameters such as slope, land use, elevation, and lithology are scored to build a landslide susceptibility map. Then, susceptibility map is overlaid with Utilization Zone.

  7. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  8. Spectrum of Uropathogens and its Antibiotic Susceptibility in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectrum of Uropathogens and its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Pregnant Women with Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Running headline: Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy.

  9. Magntic susceptibility as a proxy to heavy metal content in the sediments of Anzali wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Mohammad Reza Vesali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metal concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of sediment samples were analyzed as indicators of urban and industrial contamination in Anzali wetland in Gilan, Iran. The aim was to investigate the suitability of magnetic properties measurements for indicating heavy metal pollution. The concentration of six heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Pb was determined in different depths of four sediment core samples within four different regions of the wetland (Abkenar, Hendekhaleh, Shijan and Siakeshim. Average concentration of heavy metals in the sediment cores was higher than the severe effect level (SEL for Ni, Cr and Fe (77.26, 113.63 ppm and 5.2%, respectively and lower than SEL for Cd, Zn and Pb (0.84, 137.7, 29.77 ppm, respectively. It was found that the trend of metal concentrations with the depth is different in each core and is related to the pollution discharges into the rivers entering the wetland. Core magnetic susceptibility measurements also showed different magnetic properties in each core. Cluster analysis was applied using Pearson correlation coefficient between heavy metal concentrations and magnetic properties across each core. Significant relationship was found to exist between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of Ni in Abkenar and the concentration of Fe in other regions. Whereas Abkenar is almost the isolated and uncontaminated region of the wetland, it revealed a difference in magnetic properties between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was concluded that magnetic properties of samples from contaminated zone were mostly related to Fe content. The result of this study demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility measurements could be applied as a proxy method for heavy metal pollution determination in marine environments in Iran especially as a rapid and cost-effective introductory site assessments.

  10. Landslide susceptibility mapping for a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (Northeast Turkey) using logistic regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Gökhan; aytekin, mustafa; banu ikizler, sabriye; angın, zekai

    2013-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is know as one of the most active and destructive fault zone which produced many earthquakes with high magnitudes. Along this fault zone, the morphology and the lithological features are prone to landsliding. However, many earthquake induced landslides were recorded by several studies along this fault zone, and these landslides caused both injuiries and live losts. Therefore, a detailed landslide susceptibility assessment for this area is indispancable. In this context, a landslide susceptibility assessment for the 1445 km2 area in the Kelkit River valley a part of North Anatolian Fault zone (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) was intended with this study, and the results of this study are summarized here. For this purpose, geographical information system (GIS) and a bivariate statistical model were used. Initially, Landslide inventory maps are prepared by using landslide data determined by field surveys and landslide data taken from General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. The landslide conditioning factors are considered to be lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, topographical elevation, distance to streams, distance to roads and distance to faults, drainage density and fault density. ArcGIS package was used to manipulate and analyze all the collected data Logistic regression method was applied to create a landslide susceptibility map. Landslide susceptibility maps were divided into five susceptibility regions such as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. The result of the analysis was verified using the inventoried landslide locations and compared with the produced probability model. For this purpose, Area Under Curvature (AUC) approach was applied, and a AUC value was obtained. Based on this AUC value, the obtained landslide susceptibility map was concluded as satisfactory. Keywords: North Anatolian Fault Zone, Landslide susceptibility map, Geographical Information Systems, Logistic Regression Analysis.

  11. Seroprevalence and susceptibility to hepatitis A in the European Union and European Economic Area: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Tavoschi, Lara; Severi, Ettore; Bonfigli, Sandro; Edelstein, Michael; Byström, Emma; Lopalco, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Most of the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) is considered a region of very low hepatitis A virus (HAV) endemicity; however, geographical differences exist. We did a systematic review with the aim of describing seroprevalence and susceptibility in the general population or special groups in the EU and EEA. We searched databases and public health national institutes websites for HAV seroprevalence records published between Jan 1, 1975, and June 30, 2014, with no language restrictions. An updated search was done on Aug 10, 2016. We defined seroprevalence profiles (very low, low, and intermediate) as the proportion of the population with age-specific anti-HAV antibodies at age 15 and 30 years, and susceptibility profiles (low, moderate, high, and very high) as the proportion of susceptible individuals at age 30 and 50 years. We included 228 studies from 28 of 31 EU and EEA countries. For the period 2000-14, 24 countries had a very low seroprevalence profile, compared with five in 1975-89. The susceptibility among adults ranged between low and very high and had a geographical gradient, with three countries in the low susceptibility category. Since 1975, EU and EEA countries have shown decreasing seropositivity; however, considerable regional variability exists. The main limitations of this study are that the studies retrieved for analysis might not be representative of all EU and EEA publications about HAV and might have poor national representativeness. A large proportion of EU and EEA residents are now susceptible to HAV infection. Our Review supports the need to reconsider specific prevention and control measures, to further decrease HAV circulation while providing protection against the infection in the EU and EEA, and could be used to inform susceptible travellers visiting EU and EEA countries with different HAV endemicity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  13. Global stability of a susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic model on networks with individual awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke-Zan; Xu Zhong-Pu; Zhu Guang-Hu; Ding Yong

    2014-01-01

    Recent research results indicate that individual awareness can play an important influence on epidemic spreading in networks. By local stability analysis, a significant conclusion is that the embedded awareness in an epidemic network can increase its epidemic threshold. In this paper, by using limit theory and dynamical system theory, we further give global stability analysis of a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model on networks with awareness. Results show that the obtained epidemic threshold is also a global stability condition for its endemic equilibrium, which implies the embedded awareness can enhance the epidemic threshold globally. Some numerical examples are presented to verify the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Epidemic spreading in annealed directed networks: susceptible-infected-susceptible model and contact process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungchul; Kim, Yup

    2013-01-01

    We investigate epidemic spreading in annealed directed scale-free networks with the in-degree (k) distribution P(in)(k)~k(-γ(in)) and the out-degree (ℓ) distribution, P(out)(ℓ)~ℓ(-γ(out)). The correlation of each node on the networks is controlled by the probability r(0≤r≤1) in two different algorithms, the so-called k and ℓ algorithms. For r=1, the k algorithm gives =, whereas the ℓ algorithm gives =. For r=0, = for both algorithms. As the prototype of epidemic spreading, the susceptible-infected-susceptible model and contact process on the networks are analyzed using the heterogeneous mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The directedness of links and the correlation of the network are found to play important roles in the spreading, so that critical behaviors of both models are distinct from those on undirected scale-free networks.

  15. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E; Van Mieghem, P

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  16. Nodal infection in Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible and susceptible-infected-removed epidemics on networks are non-negatively correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2014-05-01

    By invoking the famous Fortuin, Kasteleyn, and Ginibre (FKG) inequality, we prove the conjecture that the correlation of infection at the same time between any pair of nodes in a network cannot be negative for (exact) Markovian susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-removed (SIR) epidemics on networks. The truth of the conjecture establishes that the N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) upper bounds the infection probability in any graph so that network design based on NIMFA always leads to safe protections against malware spread. However, when the infection or/and curing are not Poisson processes, the infection correlation between two nodes can be negative.

  17. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  18. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  19. Materials with low DC magnetic susceptibility for sensitive magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, R; Kendrick, R; Khosravi, M; Peters, M; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Dennis, L

    2016-01-01

    Materials with very low DC magnetic susceptibility have many scientific applications. To our knowledge however, relatively little research has been conducted with the goal to produce a totally nonmagnetic material. This phrase in our case means after spatially averaging over macroscopic volumes, it possesses an average zero DC magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the DC magnetic susceptibility of three different types of nonmagnetic materials at room temperature: (I) solutions of paramagnetic salts and diamagnetic liquids, (II) liquid gallium–indium alloys and (III) pressed powder mixtures of tungsten and bismuth. The lowest measured magnetic susceptibility among these candidate materials is in the order of 10 −9 cgs volume susceptibility units, about two orders of magnitude smaller than distilled water. In all cases, the measured concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is consistent with that expected for the weighted sum of the susceptibilities of the separate components within experimental error. These results verify the well-known Wiedemann additivity law for the magnetic susceptibility of inert mixtures of materials and thereby realize the ability to produce materials with small but tunable magnetic susceptibility. For our particular scientific application, we are also looking for materials with the largest possible number of neutrons and protons per unit volume. The gallium–indium alloys fabricated and measured in this work possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature liquid, and the tungsten-bismuth pressed powder mixtures possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature solid. This ratio is a figure of merit for a certain class of precision experiments that search for possible exotic spin-dependent forces of Nature. (paper)

  20. Identification and susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida spp. to killer toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Robledo-Leal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP. Restriction resulted in 23 isolates identified as C. albicans using AlwI, 24 isolates as C. parapsilosis using RsaI, and 13 as C. tropicalis using XmaI. Then, a group of all isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of previously described killer yeasts, resulting in 75% being susceptible to at least one killer yeast while the remaining were not inhibited by any strain. C. albicans was the most susceptible group while C. tropicalis had the fewest inhibitions. No species-specific pattern of inhibition was obtained with this panel of killer yeasts. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were the strains that inhibited the most isolates of Candida spp.

  1. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WINDFALLS IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF MOLDOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINEA V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Windfalls are caused by the interaction of several factors and occur in a meteorological context characterized mainly by high wind speeds. In the present study we tried to develop a method for predicting windfalls in a test region, determining areas of high susceptibility of this climatic risk. For this purpose we evaluated parameters regarding the morphometric (slope, exposition, altitude and morphological (mountain side concavity/convexity, slope break properties of the relief, the types of forest and the soil on which these grow. We gave susceptibility scores for each parameter considered, resulting in a series of classified layers. These were subsequently added up to form the final cartographic material which highlights the vulnerable areas. For validating the results we utilised LandSat images from different time periods. The existence of a major windfalls event in the studied region (March 2002 allowed us to compare the situation before and after the event, and to check if there is a correlation with the model developed in this analysis. On the basis of this study it may be possible to predict the future evolution of trees susceptibility to windfall which could be helpful in establishing silvic measures to be implemented in order to minimize the damage caused by these phenomena.

  2. Landslide susceptibility mapping using logistic statistical regression in Babaheydar Watershed, Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karimi Sangchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are amongst the most damaging natural hazards in mountainous regions. Every year, hundreds of people all over the world lose their lives in landslides; furthermore, there are large impacts on the local and global economy from these events. In this study, landslide hazard zonation in Babaheydar watershed using logistic regression was conducted to determine landslide hazard areas. At first, the landslide inventory map was prepared using aerial photograph interpretations and field surveys. The next step, ten landslide conditioning factors such as altitude, slope percentage, slope aspect, lithology, distance from faults, rivers, settlement and roads, land use, and precipitation were chosen as effective factors on landsliding in the study area. Subsequently, landslide susceptibility map was constructed using the logistic regression model in Geographic Information System (GIS. The ROC and Pseudo-R2 indexes were used for model assessment. Results showed that the logistic regression model provided slightly high prediction accuracy of landslide susceptibility maps in the Babaheydar Watershed with ROC equal to 0.876. Furthermore, the results revealed that about 44% of the watershed areas were located in high and very high hazard classes. The resultant landslide susceptibility maps can be useful in appropriate watershed management practices and for sustainable development in the region.

  3. Genetic Testing for TMEM154 Mutations Associated with Lentivirus Susceptibility in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Dustin T.; Simpson, Barry; Kijas, James W.; Clawson, Michael L.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Leymaster, Kreg A.

    2013-01-01

    In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal’s health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154) has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E) at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V) and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T) of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes). The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks. PMID:23408992

  4. Genetic testing for TMEM154 mutations associated with lentivirus susceptibility in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Heaton

    Full Text Available In sheep, small ruminant lentiviruses cause an incurable, progressive, lymphoproliferative disease that affects millions of animals worldwide. Known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV in the U.S., and Visna/Maedi virus (VMV elsewhere, these viruses reduce an animal's health, productivity, and lifespan. Genetic variation in the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154 has been previously associated with OPPV infection in U.S. sheep. Sheep with the ancestral TMEM154 haplotype encoding glutamate (E at position 35, and either form of an N70I variant, were highly-susceptible compared to sheep homozygous for the K35 missense mutation. Our current overall aim was to characterize TMEM154 in sheep from around the world to develop an efficient genetic test for reduced susceptibility. The average frequency of TMEM154 E35 among 74 breeds was 0.51 and indicated that highly-susceptible alleles were present in most breeds around the world. Analysis of whole genome sequences from an international panel of 75 sheep revealed more than 1,300 previously unreported polymorphisms in a 62 kb region containing TMEM154 and confirmed that the most susceptible haplotypes were distributed worldwide. Novel missense mutations were discovered in the signal peptide (A13V and the extracellular domains (E31Q, I74F, and I102T of TMEM154. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS assay was developed to detect these and six previously reported missense and two deletion mutations in TMEM154. In blinded trials, the call rate for the eight most common coding polymorphisms was 99.4% for 499 sheep tested and 96.0% of the animals were assigned paired TMEM154 haplotypes (i.e., diplotypes. The widespread distribution of highly-susceptible TMEM154 alleles suggests that genetic testing and selection may improve the health and productivity of infected flocks.

  5. Bacteriology of diabetic foot in tertiary care hospital; frequency, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, S.S.; Shams, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot being one of the frequent and disabling complications of diabetes. In view of widespread regional variation in causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility, the current study aimed to determine frequency of causative organisms, their antimicrobial susceptibility and associated risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 months' duration at dept. of Medicine; PIMS Hospital Islamabad. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled after informed consent. Patients already receiving antibiotics, having no growth on culture and >3 weeks' duration of ulcer were excluded. Sample from wound was sent for culture and sensitivity. Antibiotic susceptibility testing identified the susceptible and resistant strains of organisms. Results: Among 114 patients (66.67% males and 33.33% females); mean age was 55.11+-11.96 years. Staphylococcus aureus was identified in 46%, E. coli in 28%, Pseudomonas in 6%, Klebsiella in 3.5% and other organisms in 17%. 92% of S. aureus was sensitive to Vancomycin and 67% to Clindamycin. Amongst E. coli, 81% showed sensitivity to Imipenem, 69% to Aminoglycosides and 31% to Quinolones. Glycaemic control was unsatisfactory in 65.8%. Peripheral vascular disease was found in 46% patients and sensory neuropathy in 94%. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent isolate amongst gram positive organisms while E. coli amongst gram-negatives. Vancomycin is suggested to be the drug of choice for gram positive and Imipenem for gram negative organisms. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy according to susceptibility patterns would reduce the morbidity and emergence of multidrug resistant organisms in diabetic foot infections. (author)

  6. Overlap of disease susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Ke, Xiayi; Barton, Anne; Martin, Paul; Flynn, Edward; Packham, Jon; Worthington, Jane; Thomson, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been extremely successful in the search for susceptibility risk factors for complex genetic autoimmune diseases. As more studies are published, evidence is emerging of considerable overlap of loci between these diseases. In juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), another complex genetic autoimmune disease, the strategy of using information from autoimmune disease GWAS or candidate gene studies to help in the search for novel JIA susceptibility loci has been successful, with confirmed association with two genes, PTPN22 and IL2RA. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that shares similar clinical and pathological features with JIA and, therefore, recently identified confirmed RA susceptibility loci are also excellent JIA candidate loci. Objective To determine the overlap of disease susceptibility loci for RA and JIA. Methods Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at nine RA-associated loci were genotyped in Caucasian patients with JIA (n=1054) and controls (n=3531) and tested for association with JIA. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using the genetic analysis software, PLINK. Results Two JIA susceptibility loci were identified, one of which was a novel JIA association (STAT4) and the second confirmed previously published associations of the TRAF1/C5 locus with JIA. Weak evidence of association of JIA with three additional loci (Chr6q23, KIF5A and PRKCQ) was also obtained, which warrants further investigation. Conclusion All these loci are good candidates in view of the known pathogenesis of JIA, as genes within these regions (TRAF1, STAT4, TNFAIP3, PRKCQ) are known to be involved in T-cell receptor signalling or activation pathways. PMID:19674979

  7. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are predominantly susceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podin, Yuwana; Sarovich, Derek S; Price, Erin P; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Hii, KingChing; Ngian, Hieung; Wong, SeeChang; Wong, IngTien; Wong, JinShyan; Mohan, Anand; Ooi, MongHow; Fam, TemLom; Wong, Jack; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul; Giffard, Philip M; Currie, Bart J

    2014-01-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Resistance to gentamicin is generally a hallmark of B. pseudomallei, and gentamicin is a selective agent in media used for diagnosis of melioidosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence and mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility found in B. pseudomallei isolates from Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We performed multilocus sequence typing and antibiotic susceptibility testing on 44 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates from melioidosis patients in Sarawak district hospitals. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify the mechanism of gentamicin susceptibility. A novel allelic-specific PCR was designed to differentiate gentamicin-sensitive isolates from wild-type B. pseudomallei. A reversion assay was performed to confirm the involvement of this mechanism in gentamicin susceptibility. A substantial proportion (86%) of B. pseudomallei clinical isolates in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, were found to be susceptible to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, a rare occurrence in other regions where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Gentamicin sensitivity was restricted to genetically related strains belonging to sequence type 881 or its single-locus variant, sequence type 997. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel nonsynonymous mutation within amrB, encoding an essential component of the AmrAB-OprA multidrug efflux pump. We confirmed the role of this mutation in conferring aminoglycoside and macrolide sensitivity by reversion of this mutation to the wild-type sequence. Our study demonstrates that alternative B. pseudomallei selective media without gentamicin are needed for accurate melioidosis laboratory diagnosis in Sarawak. This finding may also have implications for environmental sampling of other locations to test for B. pseudomallei endemicity.

  8. Empiric Antibiotic Use and Susceptibility in Infants With Bacterial Infections: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Elana A; McCulloh, Russell J; Myers, Angela L; Aronson, Paul L; Neuman, Mark I; Bradford, Miranda C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Balamuth, Frances; Blackstone, Mercedes M; Browning, Whitney L; Hayes, Katie; Korman, Rosalynne; Leazer, Rianna C; Nigrovic, Lise E; Marble, Richard; Roben, Emily; Williams, Derek J; Tieder, Joel S

    2017-07-20

    To assess hospital differences in empirical antibiotic use, bacterial epidemiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility for common antibiotic regimens among young infants with urinary tract infection (UTI), bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis. We reviewed medical records from infants <90 days old presenting to 8 US children's hospitals with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. We used the Pediatric Health Information System database to identify cases and empirical antibiotic use and medical record review to determine infection, pathogen, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. We compared hospital-level differences in antimicrobial use, pathogen, infection site, and antimicrobial susceptibility. We identified 470 infants with bacterial infections: 362 (77%) with UTI alone and 108 (23%) with meningitis or bacteremia. Infection type did not differ across hospitals ( P = .85). Empirical antibiotic use varied across hospitals ( P < .01), although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for common empirical regimens were similar. A third-generation cephalosporin would have empirically treated 90% of all ages, 89% in 7- to 28-day-olds, and 91% in 29- to 89-day-olds. The addition of ampicillin would have improved coverage in only 4 cases of bacteremia and meningitis. Ampicillin plus gentamicin would have treated 95%, 89%, and 97% in these age groups, respectively. Empirical antibiotic use differed across regionally diverse US children's hospitals in infants <90 days old with UTI, bacteremia, or meningitis. Antimicrobial susceptibility to common antibiotic regimens was similar across hospitals, and adding ampicillin to a third-generation cephalosporin minimally improves coverage. Our findings support incorporating empirical antibiotic recommendations into national guidelines for infants with suspected bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Social closeness and feedback modulate susceptibility to the framing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sip, Kamila E.; Smith, David V.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Kar, Kohitij; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2014-01-01

    Although, we often seek social feedback from others to help us make decisions, little is known about how social feedback affects decisions under risk, particularly from a close peer. We conducted two experiments using an established framing task to probe how decision making is modulated by social feedback valence (positive, negative) and the level of closeness with feedback provider (friend, confederate). Participants faced mathematically equivalent decisions framed as either an opportunity to keep (gain frame) or lose (loss frame) part of an initial endowment. Periodically, participants were provided with positive (e.g., “Nice!”) or negative (e.g., “Lame!”) feedback about their choices. Such feedback was provided by either a confederate (Experiment 1), or a gender-matched close friend (Experiment 2). As expected, the framing effect was observed in both experiments. Critically, an individual’s susceptibility to the framing effect was modulated by the valence of the social feedback, but only when the feedback provider was a close friend. This effect was reflected in the activation patterns of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, regions involved in complex decision making. Taken together, these results highlight social closeness as an important factor in understanding the impact of social feedback on neural mechanisms of decision making. PMID:25074501

  10. Neural responses to exclusion predict susceptibility to social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Carp, Joshua; Tinney, Francis J; Bingham, C Raymond; Shope, Jean T; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2014-05-01

    Social influence is prominent across the lifespan, but sensitivity to influence is especially high during adolescence and is often associated with increased risk taking. Such risk taking can have dire consequences. For example, in American adolescents, traffic-related crashes are leading causes of nonfatal injury and death. Neural measures may be especially useful in understanding the basic mechanisms of adolescents' vulnerability to peer influence. We examined neural responses to social exclusion as potential predictors of risk taking in the presence of peers in recently licensed adolescent drivers. Risk taking was assessed in a driving simulator session occurring approximately 1 week after the neuroimaging session. Increased activity in neural systems associated with the distress of social exclusion and mentalizing during an exclusion episode predicted increased risk taking in the presence of a peer (controlling for solo risk behavior) during a driving simulator session outside the neuroimaging laboratory 1 week later. These neural measures predicted risky driving behavior above and beyond self-reports of susceptibility to peer pressure and distress during exclusion. These results address the neural bases of social influence and risk taking; contribute to our understanding of social and emotional function in the adolescent brain; and link neural activity in specific, hypothesized, regions to risk-relevant outcomes beyond the neuroimaging laboratory. Results of this investigation are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying risk taking in adolescents and the public health implications for adolescent driving. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Social closeness and feedback modulate susceptibility to the framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sip, Kamila E; Smith, David V; Porcelli, Anthony J; Kar, Kohitij; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2015-01-01

    Although we often seek social feedback (SFB) from others to help us make decisions, little is known about how SFB affects decisions under risk, particularly from a close peer. We conducted two experiments using an established framing task to probe how decision-making is modulated by SFB valence (positive, negative) and the level of closeness with feedback provider (friend, confederate). Participants faced mathematically equivalent decisions framed as either an opportunity to keep (gain frame) or lose (loss frame) part of an initial endowment. Periodically, participants were provided with positive (e.g., "Nice!") or negative (e.g., "Lame!") feedback about their choices. Such feedback was provided by either a confederate (Experiment 1) or a gender-matched close friend (Experiment 2). As expected, the framing effect was observed in both experiments. Critically, an individual's susceptibility to the framing effect was modulated by the valence of the SFB, but only when the feedback provider was a close friend. This effect was reflected in the activation patterns of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, regions involved in complex decision-making. Taken together, these results highlight social closeness as an important factor in understanding the impact of SFB on neural mechanisms of decision-making.

  12. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to teicoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species and their subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to teicoplanin by disk diffusion (30-micrograms disk) and agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Moderately susceptible and resistant clinical strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and vancomycin. Teicoplanin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the various Staphylococcus species isolated from healthy volunteers or animals. However, the novobiocin-resistant species Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, Staphylococcus kloosii, and Staphylococcus gallinarum were less susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 2 to 8 micrograms/ml) than most of the novobiocin-susceptible species were (MIC, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to teicoplanin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were moderately susceptible (MIC, 16 micrograms/ml) to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 70% were oxacillin resistant. For Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains, 11% were resistant (MIC, greater than 16 micrograms/ml) and 21% were moderately susceptible to teicoplanin. Of these strains, 95% were oxacillin resistant, No strains of S. epidermidis or S. haemolyticus were intermediate or resistant to vancomycin. Teicoplanin appears to be less active in vitro against oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus. However, teicoplanin is an effective antimicrobial agent against many Staphylococcus species. PMID:1835340

  13. Prevalence and Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Panton-Valentine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing by two standard multiplex PCR assay, revealed an uncharacterized resistance element. Overall antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed relatively high degree of susceptibility,however 1 isolate demostrated multidrug resistant pattern, 37(74.0%)resistant to only penicillin, 5 to ...

  14. Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susceptibility Of Five Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) Varieties To Attack By Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) ... in Ghana were screened for susceptibility to the cowpea beetle, C. maculatus, in storage for a period of 30 days in the laboratory at an ambient temperature of 27.5 ± 0.9oC and relative humidity of 64.6 ± 2%.

  15. The susceptibilities in the spin-S Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainane, A.; Saber, M.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibilities of the spin-S Ising model are evaluated using the effective field theory introduced by Tucker et al. for studying general spin-S Ising model. The susceptibilities are studied for all spin values from S = 1/2 to S = 5/2. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100%) to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%), followed by gentamicin (54.5%); of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each), of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70%) followed by ...

  17. Susceptibility of Eikenella corrodens to Newer Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility testing of 28 strains of Eikenella corrodens by the agar dilution technique showed that all strains were uniformly susceptible to penicillin, ticarcillin, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, N-formimidoyl thienamycin, and moxalactam and resistant to clindamycin and cefadroxil. Cefoperazone, piperacillin, and mezlocillin showed good activity, with some strains relatively resistant. Bacampicillin and cefamandole showed relatively poor activity.

  18. A Specific Autistic Trait that Modulates Visuospatial Illusion Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Elizabeth; Dassonville, Paul; Bochsler, Tiana M.

    2009-01-01

    Although several accounts of autism have predicted that the disorder should be associated with a decreased susceptibility to visual illusions, previous experimental results have been mixed. This study examined whether a link between autism and illusion susceptibility can be more convincingly demonstrated by assessing the relationships between…

  19. Susceptibility and reactivity in polysensitized individuals following controlled induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Carlsen, Berit C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether polysensitized patients acquire multiple allergies only because of a high degree of exposure to environmental allergens, or because of being highly susceptible to developing contact allergy.......It is uncertain whether polysensitized patients acquire multiple allergies only because of a high degree of exposure to environmental allergens, or because of being highly susceptible to developing contact allergy....

  20. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  1. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Listeria species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria species isolated from some ready-to-eat (RTE) foods sold in Kano metropolis, north-western Nigeria was carried out using disc-diffusion method. The results obtained showed that L. monocytogenes was moderately susceptible to all the ...

  3. SCC susceptibility evaluation of plastic deformed austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshima, Yoshiari; Totsuka, Nobuo; Arioka, Koji [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Slow strain rate temperature (SSRT) tests were carried out to evaluate the SCC susceptibility of deformed SUS316 stainless steel in simulated primary water of pressurized water reactor (PWR). The influence of material hardness and temperature on SCC susceptibility was studied. From these tests following results were obtained. (1) Both of the total SCC and IGSCC susceptibilities increased as the hardness of deformed specimens increased. Especially over 250{approx}300HV area, this tendency remarkably increased. (2) The reduction ratio showed a plateau under 300HV area. However, over 300HV area, it decreased remarkably as the hardness increased, that is, the SCC susceptibility remarkably increased. (3) Based on the SSRT test results conducted at 320, 340 and 360degC, the total SCC susceptibility dependence on temperature was small and the IGSCC susceptibility was dependent on the temperature. From these results, the TGSCC susceptibility dependence on temperature was also small. The activation energy of total SCC and IGSCC susceptibility were calculated. (author)

  4. In Vitro Antibiotic Susceptibility Studies Of Bacteria Associated With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro tests of the susceptibility of isolates of bacterial keratitis pathogens to antibiotics were carried out in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated organisms followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic sensitivity testing showed a high susceptibility to ...

  5. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  6. Incidence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Bacterial Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was susceptible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin while the enteric bacteria were generally more resistant to ceftazidime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion: The findings show that there is a high rate of wound infection in Kano, ...

  7. Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Panesso , Diana; Planet , Paul J.; Diaz , Lorena; Hugonnet , Jean-Emannuel; Tran , Truc T.; Narechania , Apurva; Munita , José M.; Rincon , Sandra; Carvajal , Lina P.; Reyes , Jinnethe; Londono , Alejandra; Smith , Hannah; Sebra , Robert; Deikus , Gintaras; Weinstock , George M

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat.

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus at 17q21.31

    OpenAIRE

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Lawrenson, Kate; Shen, Howard C.; Velkova, Aneliya; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Chen, Zhihua; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Y. Ann; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Qu, Xiaotao; Ramus, Susan J.; Karevan, Rod; Lee, Janet; Lee, Nathan; Larson, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3′ untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites represent functional targets that influence EOC susceptibility. Here, we evaluate the association between 767 miRNA-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) and EOC risk in 18,174 EOC cases and 26,134 co...

  9. Clonal relationships among penicillin-susceptible, multiresistant serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered in Greece and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrogiannopoulos, G A; Doit, C; Grivea, I N; Geslin, P; Bingen, E

    2001-01-01

    In January 1996 the emergence of penicillin-susceptible, multiresistant serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was observed in young carriers in the city of Patras, located in the southwestern region of Greece. Later, a significant spread of pneumococci with this unusual phenotype was noted in carriers living in various other areas of the country. Using restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal RNA genes, clonal relationships were found between these Greek strains and serotype 6B penicillin-susceptible, multiresistant pneumococci isolated in France between January 1992 and September 1996. The French and Greek isolates appear to have a common ancestry.

  10. Lactase persistence genotypes and malaria susceptibility in Fulani of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolo Amagana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fulani are a widely spread African ethnic group characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum, clinical malaria morbidity and higher rate of lactase persistence compared to sympatric tribes. Lactase non-persistence, often called lactose intolerance, is the normal condition where lactase activity in the intestinal wall declines after weaning. Lactase persistence, common in Europe, and in certain African people with traditions of raising cattle, is caused by polymorphisms in the enhancer region approximately 14 kb upstream of the lactase gene. Methods To evaluate the relationship between malaria and lactase persistence genotypes, a 400 bp region surrounding the main European C/T-13910 polymorphism upstream of the lactase gene was sequenced. DNA samples used in the study originated from 162 Fulani and 79 Dogon individuals from Mali. Results Among 79 Dogon only one heterozygote of the lactase enhancer polymorphism was detected, whereas all others were homozygous for the ancestral C allele. Among the Fulani, the main European polymorphism at locus C/T-13910 was by far the most common polymorphism, with an allele frequency of 37%. Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found with allele frequencies of 3.7%, 1.9% and 0.6% each. The novel DNA polymorphism T/C-13906 was seen in six heterozygous Fulani. Among the Fulani with lactase non-persistence CC genotypes at the C/T-13910 locus, 24% had malaria parasites detectable by microscopy compared to 18% for lactase persistent genotypes (P = 0.29. Pooling the lactase enhancer polymorphisms to a common presumptive genotype gave 28% microscopy positives for non-persistent and 17% for others (P = 0.11. Conclusions Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in asymptomatic Fulani is more common in individuals with lactase non-persistence genotypes, but this difference is not statistically significant. The potential immunoprotective properties of dietary cow milk as a reason

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Afshar, Ali Taghizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Microbial drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases worldwide. The purpose of this survey is to determine the prevalence of the type of bacterial agents that cause urinary infection and to assess the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in the Urmia Medical University, Iran. In the period between 2005 and 2006, urine cultures collected were analyzed. Positive culture was defined as growth of a single bacterial species with colony count of > 100,000 CFU/mL. Stratification was done according to age-group and gender. Statistical tests used included chi-square to evaluate differences between susceptibility rates. A total of 803 urine culture positive patients were studied of whom 81.6% were females and 18.4% were males. The common micro-organisms isolated were E. coli (78.58%), Klebsiella (5.48%), Proteus and Staphylococcus. About 89% of the E. coli isolated showed sensitivity to cephtizoxin, 83.9% to gentamycin and 83.2% to ciprofloxacin; the highest resistance was shown to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Surveys of this nature will give a clear idea about the bacteriologic profile in a given institution as well their antibiotic sensitivity profile. This will act as a guide to commencing empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with urinary infections until such time culture reports are available. (author)

  12. ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenpour, Behzad; Hajibagheri, Katayon; Afrasiabian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghasembegloo, Saeideh

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between blood groups and some infections such as norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Despite the importance of brucellosis, there is a lack of data on the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. Thus, in this study, we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, the blood groups of 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of a positive Coombs Wright test or a history of brucellosis. The chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. The variables that met inclusion criteria for the regression model were entered into the logistic regression model. A total of 43% patients were female and 57% male; 27% were urban and 73% rural. Regression analysis showed that the likelihood of brucellosis infection was 6.26 times more in people with blood group AB than in those with blood group O (Pblood group and brucellosis. People with blood group AB were susceptible to brucellosis, but no difference was observed for brucellosis infection in terms of blood Rh type.

  13. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. PMID:21899826

  14. Individual Susceptibility to Hypobaric Environments: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Watkins, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts are at risk for developing decompression sickness (DCS) while exposed to the hypobaric environment of the extravehicular suit in space, in terrestrial hypobaric chambers, and during ascent from neutral buoyancy training dives. There is increasing recognition that DCS risk is different between diving and altitude exposures, with many individual parameters and environmental factors implicated as risk factors for development of DCS in divers but are not recognized as risk factors in altitude exposures. Much of the literature to date has focused on patent foramen ovale (PFO), which has long been considered a major risk factor for DCS in diving exposures, but its link to serious DCS in altitude exposures remains unclear. Knowledge of those risk factors specific to hypobaric DCS may help identify susceptible individuals and aid in astronaut selection, crew assignment, and mission planning. This paper reviews the current literature pertaining to these risk factors, including PFO, anthropometric parameters, gender, menstrual cycle, lifetime diving experience, physical fitness, biochemical levels, complement activation, cigarette smoking, fluid balance, and ambient temperature. Further research to evaluate pertinent risk factors for DCS in altitude exposures is recommended.

  15. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee K Zaas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a common and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised individuals. A number of environmental and epidemiologic risk factors for developing IA have been identified. However, genetic factors that affect risk for developing IA have not been clearly identified. We report that host genetic differences influence outcome following establishment of pulmonary aspergillosis in an exogenously immune suppressed mouse model. Computational haplotype-based genetic analysis indicated that genetic variation within the biologically plausible positional candidate gene plasminogen (Plg; Gene ID 18855 correlated with murine outcome. There was a single nonsynonymous coding change (Gly110Ser where the minor allele was found in all of the susceptible strains, but not in the resistant strains. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (Asp472Asn was also identified in the human homolog (PLG; Gene ID 5340. An association study within a cohort of 236 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients revealed that alleles at this SNP significantly affected the risk of developing IA after HSCT. Furthermore, we demonstrated that plasminogen directly binds to Aspergillus fumigatus. We propose that genetic variation within the plasminogen pathway influences the pathogenesis of this invasive fungal infection.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility/Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcic, Emina; Aljicevic, Mufida; Bektas, Sabaheta; Karcic, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, whose treatment is threatened with an increase in the number of strains resistant to antibiotic therapy. Goal: The main goal of this research was to investigate the presence of antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance of S. pneumoniae. Material and methods: Taken are swabs of the nose and nasopharynx, eye and ear. In vitro tests that were made in order to study the antimicrobial resistance of pneumococci are: disk diffusion method and E-test. Results: The resistance to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis was recorded at 39.17%, protein synthesis inhibitors 19.67%, folate antagonists 47.78% and quinolone in 1.11%. S. pneumoniae has shown drug resistance to erythromycin in 45%, clindamycin in 45%, chloramphenicol–0.56%, rifampicin–6.11%, tetracycline–4.67%, penicillin-G in 4.44%, oxacillin in 73.89%, ciprofloxacin in 1.11% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 5.34% of cases. Conclusion: The highest resistance pneumococcus showed to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and these should be avoided in the treatment. The least resistance pneumococcus showed to tetracycline, rifampicin, chloramphenicol, penicillin-G and ciprofloxacin. PMID:26236165

  17. Influence of edge effects on single event upset susceptibility of SOI SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Song; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Fazhan; Zhang, Zhangang; Bi, Jinshun; Geng, Chao; Hou, Mingdong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tianqi; Xi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility for heavy ions at tilted incidence was performed. The differences of SEU cross-sections between tilted incidence and normal incidence at equivalent effective linear energy transfer were 21% and 57% for the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) of 0.5 μm and 0.18 μm feature size, respectively. The difference of SEU cross-section raised dramatically with increasing tilt angle for SOI SRAM of deep-submicron technology. The result of CRÈME-MC simulation for tilted irradiation of the sensitive volume indicates that the energy deposition spectrum has a substantial tail extending into the low energy region. The experimental results show that the influence of edge effects on SEU susceptibility cannot be ignored in particular with device scaling down

  18. Decrease in Hydrogen Embrittlement Susceptibility of 10B21 Screws by Bake Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Jen Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking on the mechanical properties and fracture characteristics of low-carbon boron (10B21 steel screws were investigated. Fracture torque tests and hydrogen content analysis were performed on baked screws to evaluate hydrogen embrittlement (HE susceptibility. The diffusible hydrogen content within 10B21 steel dominated the fracture behavior of the screws. The fracture torque of 10B21 screws baked for a long duration was affected by released hydrogen. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS result showed that hydrogen content decreased with increasing baking duration, and thus the HE susceptibility of 10B21 screws improved. Diffusible hydrogen promoted crack propagation in high-stress region. The HE of 10B21 screws can be prevented by long-duration baking.

  19. Effect of surface treatments on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanami, Masaru; Kaneda, Junya; Tamako, Hiroaki; Hato, Hisamitsu; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    Effect of surface treatment on SCC susceptibility of Ni base alloys was investigated. Cracks were observed in all grinding specimens in a creviced bent beam (CBB) test. On the other hand, no cracks occurred in shot peening (SP), water jet peening (WJP) specimens. It was indicated that these surface treatments effectively reduced the SCC susceptibility of nickel-base alloys. As a result of a residual stress test, the surface of specimens with grinding had high tensile residual stress. However, SP and WJP improved surface residual stress to compressive stress. The depth of the compressive effect of WJP was almost the same as that of SP. However, the surface hardness of WJP specimens differed from that of SP and it was found that WJP had less impact on surface hardening. This difference was consistent with their surface microstructures. The surface of SP specimens had clearly the deformation region, but the surface of WJP specimens was localized. (author)

  20. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group strains to cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin/clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEIXOTO JÚNIOR Arnaldo Aires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 strains of the B. fragilis group was isolated from clinical specimens in two hospital centers in Fortaleza from 1993 to 1997. The most frequently isolated species was Bacteroides fragilis (19 strains and most isolates came from intra-abdominal and wound infections. The susceptibility profile was traced for cefoxitin, cefoperazone and ticarcillin-clavulanate by using the agar dilution reference method. All isolates were susceptible to ticarcillin-clavulanate (128/2mug/ml. Resistance rates of 15 and 70% were detected to cefoxitin (64mug/ml and cefoperazone (64mug/ml, respectively. Such regional results permit a better orientation in choosing this group of antibiotics for prophylaxis and therapy especially in relation to cefoxitin, which is frequently used in the hospital centers studied.

  1. RAPD Analysis and Antibiotic Susceptibility for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains Isolated from Different Locations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The routine identification of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients in different locations in Egypt was confirmed by specific DNA fragment amplification. The susceptibilities of 72 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains against the four antibiotics used in tuberculosis treatment (Isoniazid, INH; Rifampicin, Rif; Streptomycin, St and Ethambutol, E were examined. Our results indicated that, multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB represents about 19.5% of the tested strains, whereas sensitive strains represented 26.4%. The genetic polymorphism of the tested strains was examined using RAPD analysis. Six selected strains represent the different antibiotic susceptibility groups were examined using RAPD fingerprinting. No difference between the strains was recorded using the RFLP analysis of amplified specific fragment. The discrimination power of RAPD analysis was inadequate to clarify the genetic correlation between the tested strains. MDR-TB was approximately double time in 2008 compared with the value in 2007. Most of the new MDRTB was correlated with resident dense population regions.

  2. Association Analysis Suggests SOD2 as a Newly Identified Candidate Gene Associated With Leprosy Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Geovana Brotto; Salomão, Heloisa; Francio, Angela Schneider; Fava, Vinícius Medeiros; Werneck, Renata Iani; Mira, Marcelo Távora

    2016-08-01

    Genetic studies have identified several genes and genomic regions contributing to the control of host susceptibility to leprosy. Here, we test variants of the positional and functional candidate gene SOD2 for association with leprosy in 2 independent population samples. Family-based analysis revealed an association between leprosy and allele G of marker rs295340 (P = .042) and borderline evidence of an association between leprosy and alleles C and A of markers rs4880 (P = .077) and rs5746136 (P = .071), respectively. Findings were validated in an independent case-control sample for markers rs295340 (P = .049) and rs4880 (P = .038). These results suggest SOD2 as a newly identified gene conferring susceptibility to leprosy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The magnetic susceptibility of soils in Krakow, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojas, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Studies into the magnetic susceptibility have been used to assess the soils contamination in the Krakow area. The results of topsoil (over a 2 × 2 km grid), subsoil (37 shallow holes) and soil samples (112) measurements were presented as maps of soil magnetic susceptibility (both volume and mass) illustrating the distribution of parameters in topsoil horizon (0-10 cm) and differential magnetic susceptibility maps between topsoil horizon and subsoil (40-60 cm). All evidence leads to the finding that the highest values of magnetic susceptibility of soil are found exclusively in industrial areas. Taking into consideration the type of land use, the high median value (89.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1) was obtained for samples of cultivated soils and is likely to be connected with occurrence of fertile soil (chernozem). Moreover, enrichment of soils with Pb and Zn accompanies magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the vicinity of the high roads and in the steelworks area, respectively.

  4. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  5. Microstructural investigation of vintage pipeline steels highly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Monica

    The use of pipelines for the transmission of gas offers not only efficiency, but a number of economic advantages. Nevertheless, pipelines are subject to aggressive operating conditions and environments which can lead to in-service degradation [1] and thus to failures. These failures can have catastrophic consequences, such as environmental damage and loss of life [2]. One of the most dangerous threats to pipeline integrity is stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Despite the substantial progress that has been achieved in the field, due to the complex nature of this phenomenon there is still not a complete understanding of this form of external corrosion. This makes its detection and prevention a challenge and therefore a risk to pipeline integrity, and most importantly, to the safety of the population. SCC cracks are the result of the interaction between a corrosive environment, applied stresses, and a susceptible microstructure. To date, what defines a susceptible microstructure remains ambiguous, as SCC has been observed in a range of steel grades, microstructures, chemical composition, and grain sizes. Therefore, in order to be able to accurately predict and prevent this hazardous form of corrosion, it is imperative to advance our knowledge on the subject and gain a better understanding on the microstructural features of highly susceptible pipeline materials, especially in the subsurface zone where crack nucleation must take place. Therefore, a microstructural characterization of the region near the surface layer was carried-out utilizing TEM. TEM analysis revealed the dislocation character, ferrite morphology, and apparent carbide precipitation in some grain boundaries. Furthermore, light microscopy, SEM, and hardness testing were performed to expand our knowledge on the microscopical features of highly SCC susceptible service components. This investigation presents a new approach to SCC characterization, which exposed the sub-surface region microscopical

  6. The impact of white matter fiber orientation in single-acquisition quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancione, Marta; Tosetti, Michela; Donatelli, Graziella; Cosottini, Mirco; Costagli, Mauro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the impact of tissue structural orientation on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reliability, and to provide a criterion to identify voxels in which measures of magnetic susceptibility (χ) are most affected by spatial orientation effects. Four healthy volunteers underwent 7-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multi-echo, gradient-echo sequences were used to obtain quantitative maps of frequency shift (FS) and χ. Information from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between tissue orientation and FS measures and QSM. After sorting voxels on the basis of their fractional anisotropy (FA), the variations in FS and χ values over tissue orientation were measured. Using a K-means clustering algorithm, voxels were separated into two groups depending on the variability of measures within each FA interval. The consistency of FS and QSM values, observed at low FA, was disrupted for FA > 0.6. The standard deviation of χ measured at high FA (0.0103 ppm) was nearly five times that at low FA (0.0022 ppm). This result was consistent through data across different head positions and for different brain regions considered separately, which confirmed that such behavior does not depend on structures with different bulk susceptibility oriented along particular angles. The reliability of single-orientation QSM anticorrelates with local FA. QSM provides replicable values with little variability in brain regions with FA < 0.6, but QSM should be interpreted cautiously in major and coherent fiber bundles, which are strongly affected by structural anisotropy and magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Heterogeneity of pulmonary perfusion as a mechanistic image-based phenotype in emphysema susceptible smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Sara K; van Beek, Edwin J R; McLennan, Geoffrey; Hoffman, Eric A

    2010-04-20

    Recent evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction and pathology of pulmonary vascular responses may serve as a precursor to smoking-associated emphysema. Although it is known that emphysematous destruction leads to vasculature changes, less is known about early regional vascular dysfunction which may contribute to and precede emphysematous changes. We sought to test the hypothesis, via multidetector row CT (MDCT) perfusion imaging, that smokers showing early signs of emphysema susceptibility have a greater heterogeneity in regional perfusion parameters than emphysema-free smokers and persons who had never smoked (NS). Assuming that all smokers have a consistent inflammatory response, increased perfusion heterogeneity in emphysema-susceptible smokers would be consistent with the notion that these subjects may have the inability to block hypoxic vasoconstriction in patchy, small regions of inflammation. Dynamic ECG-gated MDCT perfusion scans with a central bolus injection of contrast were acquired in 17 NS, 12 smokers with normal CT imaging studies (SNI), and 12 smokers with subtle CT findings of centrilobular emphysema (SCE). All subjects had normal spirometry. Quantitative image analysis determined regional perfusion parameters, pulmonary blood flow (PBF), and mean transit time (MTT). Mean and coefficient of variation were calculated, and statistical differences were assessed with one-way ANOVA. MDCT-based MTT and PBF measurements demonstrate globally increased heterogeneity in SCE subjects compared with NS and SNI subjects but demonstrate similarity between NS and SNI subjects. These findings demonstrate a functional lung-imaging measure that provides a more mechanistically oriented phenotype that differentiates smokers with and without evidence of emphysema susceptibility.

  8. Identification of a shared genetic susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease and periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne S Schaefer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate a mutual epidemiological relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and periodontitis. Both diseases are associated with similar risk factors and are characterized by a chronic inflammatory process. In a candidate-gene association study, we identify an association of a genetic susceptibility locus shared by both diseases. We confirm the known association of two neighboring linkage disequilibrium regions on human chromosome 9p21.3 with CHD and show the additional strong association of these loci with the risk of aggressive periodontitis. For the lead SNP of the main associated linkage disequilibrium region, rs1333048, the odds ratio of the autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance is 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.94; P = 6.9 x 10(-4 for generalized aggressive periodontitis, and 1.72 (1.06-2.76; P = 2.6 x 10(-2 for localized aggressive periodontitis. The two associated linkage disequilibrium regions map to the sequence of the large antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL, which partly overlaps regulatory and coding sequences of CDKN2A/CDKN2B. A closely located diabetes-associated variant was independent of the CHD and periodontitis risk haplotypes. Our study demonstrates that CHD and periodontitis are genetically related by at least one susceptibility locus, which is possibly involved in ANRIL activity and independent of diabetes associated risk variants within this region. Elucidation of the interplay of ANRIL transcript variants and their involvement in increased susceptibility to the interactive diseases CHD and periodontitis promises new insight into the underlying shared pathogenic mechanisms of these complex common diseases.

  9. [Spectrum and susceptibility of preoperative conjunctival bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rubio, M E; Cuesta-Rodríguez, T; Urcelay-Segura, J L; Cortés-Valdés, C

    2013-12-01

    To describe the conjunctival bacterial spectrum of our patients undergoing intraocular surgery and their antibiotic sensitivity during the study period. A retrospective study of preoperative conjunctival culture of patients consecutively scheduled for intraocular surgery from 21 February 2011 to 1 April 2013. Specimens were directly seeded onto blood-agar and MacConkey-agar (aerobiosis incubation, 2 days), and on chocolate-agar (6% CO2 incubation, 7 days). The identified bacteria were divided into 3 groups according to their origin; the bacteria susceptibility tests were performed on those more pathogenic and on some of the less pathogenic when more than 5 colonies were isolated. The sensitivity of the exigent growing bacteria was obtained with disk diffusion technique, and for of the non-exigent bacteria by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration. The Epidat 3.1 program was used for statistical calculations. A total of 13,203 bacteria were identified in 6,051 cultures, with 88.7% being typical colonizers of conjunctiva (group 1), 8.8% typical of airways (group 2), and the remaining 2.5% of undetermined origin (group 3). 530 cultures (8.8%) were sterile. The sensitivity of group 1 was: 99% vancomycin, 95% rifampicin, 87% chloramphenicol, 76% tetracycline. Levels of co-trimoxazole, aminoglycosides, quinolones, β-lactams and macrolides decreased since 2007. The group 2 was very sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, rifampicin, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate. In group 3, to levofloxacin 93%, ciprofloxacin 89%, tobramycin 76%, but ceftazidime 53% and cefuroxime 29% decreased. None of the tested antibiotics could eradicate all possible conjunctival bacteria. Bacteria living permanently on the conjunctiva (group 1) have achieved higher resistance than the eventual colonizers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Awareness of Cancer Susceptibility Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Phuong L.; Vadaparampil, Susan Thomas; Breen, Nancy; McNeel, Timothy S.; Wideroff, Louise; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. Purpose To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Methods The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000–2005 and 2005–2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Results Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (pAwareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (p-interaction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (p-interaction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25–39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Conclusions Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income. PMID:24745633

  11. Genetic susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Nitta, Yumiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1999-06-01

    The Copenhagen (COP) rat strain has previously been shown to be genetically resistant to chemical induction of breast cancer, while Wistar/Furth (WF) and Fischer 344 (F344) animals are relatively susceptible. We have compared the carcinogenic response of these three strains of rats to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) with that to {sup 60}Co gamma rays. High incidences of mammary carcinomas were induced by MNU in the F344 and WF rats (100%), whereas the COP strain proved resistant (11.8%). In contrast, radiation-induced mammary carcinomas in COP rats developed in a similar incidence (37.0%) to those in the F344 (22.6%) and WF (26.9%) strains. The low incidence of papillary carcinomas in MNU-treated COP rats appeared to be directly related to the COP genetic resistance controlled by the Mcs genes. Ionizing radiation did, however, induce papillary carcinomas in all the three strains of rats. These carcinomas were more differentiated than MNU-induced cancers with regard to the two mammary differentiation markers, rat milk fat globule membrane (R-MFGM) and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin ({alpha}-SMA). Furthermore, ionizing radiation but not MNU induced mammary adenomas in all three strains, especially in COP rats. Such adenomas had differentiation marker profiles similar to these of carcinomas induced by {sup 60}Co gamma rays. When transplanted into syngenic hosts, growth of adenomas was 17 {beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2})-dependent and they progressed to carcinomas. Furthermore, one microcarcinoma was observed to develop from adenoma tissue in a radiation-exposed COP rat. The findings suggest that radiation and chemical carcinogens are likely to induce mammary cancers through different pathways or from different cell populations. The induction of relatively high incidences of mammary carcinomas and adenomas by radiation in COP rats may correlate with the genetically modulated and highly differentiated physiological status of their mammary glands. (author)

  12. Application of a neuro-fuzzy model to landslide-susceptibility mapping for shallow landslides in a tropical hilly area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Joo; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents landslide-susceptibility mapping using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using a geographic information system (GIS) environment. In the first stage, landslide locations from the study area were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and supported by an extensive field survey. In the second stage, landslide-related conditioning factors such as altitude, slope angle, plan curvature, distance to drainage, distance to road, soil texture and stream power index (SPI) were extracted from the topographic and soil maps. Then, landslide-susceptible areas were analyzed by the ANFIS approach and mapped using landslide-conditioning factors. In particular, various membership functions (MFs) were applied for the landslide-susceptibility mapping and their results were compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Additionally, the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for all landslide susceptibility maps were drawn and the areas under curve values were calculated. The ROC curve technique is based on the plotting of model sensitivity — true positive fraction values calculated for different threshold values, versus model specificity — true negative fraction values, on a graph. Landslide test locations that were not used during the ANFIS modeling purpose were used to validate the landslide susceptibility maps. The validation results revealed that the susceptibility maps constructed by the ANFIS predictive models using triangular, trapezoidal, generalized bell and polynomial MFs produced reasonable results (84.39%), which can be used for preliminary land-use planning. Finally, the authors concluded that ANFIS is a very useful and an effective tool in regional landslide susceptibility assessment.

  13. Original Paper Chemical reactivity and supramolecular susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safou-Tchiana

    The morphological structure of Testulea gabonensis (T. ... That morphology is defined by elementary fibrils, microfibrils and microfibrillar bands (Habibi et al., 2012). Microfibrillar bands are composed with crystalline and non-crystalline regions of varying dimension. ...... cellulose in the silver tree fern Cyathea dealbata.

  14. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus species and subspecies to fleroxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, T L; Wadiak, D L; Kloos, W E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four Staphylococcus species or subspecies were examined for their susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolone fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240) by disk diffusion (5-micrograms disk) and by agar dilution for the determination of MICs. Resistant strains were further tested for their susceptibilities to oxacillin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Reference strains of the novobiocin-resistant species (Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus arlettae, and Staphylococcus gallinarum) had an intrinsic intermediate susceptibility (MIC, 4 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Fleroxacin resistance was not observed in the reference strains of the novobiocin-susceptible species (MIC, 0.5 to 2.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative species were generally less susceptible to fleroxacin than were reference strains. Seven percent of the Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical strains were resistant (MIC, greater than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml) to fleroxacin. Of these strains, 77% were resistant to oxacillin and 50% were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Thirty-four percent of the Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical strains were resistant to fleroxacin, and 9% had intermediate susceptibility. Of the resistant strains, 95% were resistant to oxacillin and 77% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while 23% had intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Fleroxacin is an effective antimicrobial agent against most staphylococci. PMID:1759838

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  16. Effects of white matter microstructure on phase and susceptibility maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Samuel; Bowtell, Richard

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) of the frequency variation produced by the microstructure of white matter (WM). The frequency offsets in a WM tissue sample that are not explained by the effect of bulk isotropic or anisotropic magnetic susceptibility, but rather result from the local microstructure, were characterized for the first time. QSM and STI were then applied to simulated frequency maps that were calculated using a digitized whole-brain, WM model formed from anatomical and diffusion tensor imaging data acquired from a volunteer. In this model, the magnitudes of the frequency contributions due to anisotropy and microstructure were derived from the results of the tissue experiments. The simulations suggest that the frequency contribution of microstructure is much larger than that due to bulk effects of anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. In QSM, the microstructure contribution introduced artificial WM heterogeneity. For the STI processing, the microstructure contribution caused the susceptibility anisotropy to be significantly overestimated. Microstructure-related phase offsets in WM yield artifacts in the calculated susceptibility maps. If susceptibility mapping is to become a robust MRI technique, further research should be carried out to reduce the confounding effects of microstructure-related frequency contributions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: Contrast Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Wei, Hongjiang; Gong, Nan-Jie; Cronin, Matthew; Dibb, Russel; Decker, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a recently developed MRI technique for quantifying the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues. It first uses the frequency shift in the MRI signal to map the magnetic field profile within the tissue. The resulting field map is then used to determine the spatial distribution of the underlying magnetic susceptibility by solving an inverse problem. The solution is achieved by deconvolving the field map with a dipole field, under the assumption that the magnetic field is a result of the superposition of the dipole fields generated by all voxels and that each voxel has its unique magnetic susceptibility. QSM provides improved contrast to noise ratio for certain tissues and structures compared to its magnitude counterpart. More importantly, magnetic susceptibility is a direct reflection of the molecular composition and cellular architecture of the tissue. Consequently, by quantifying magnetic susceptibility, QSM is becoming a quantitative imaging approach for characterizing normal and pathological tissue properties. This article reviews the mechanism generating susceptibility contrast within tissues and some associated applications. PMID:26844301

  18. Effect of structural transition on magnetic susceptibility of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in nonmetal sublattice of TaC y is investigated for the first time by methods of magnetic susceptibility and structural neutron diffraction analysis. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted on high-sensitive magnetic scales in temperature interval of 300 - 1300 K with holding at each temperature up to the establishment of constant, nonchanging in the course of time value of susceptibility x. When investigating x-hardened tantalum carbide within the interval of TaC 0.82 - TaC 0.85 compositions under the conditions of slow heating, it was observed nonrecorded earlier irreversible decrease of susceptibility at temperature of 960 - 1000 K. With further temperature increase T>T tr it was observed at first even and than uneven increase of x value at a temperature of T tr equal to 1090, 1130 and 1150 K for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 respectively. The measuring of magnetic susceptibility of the same samples at temperature decrease reveals the presence of susceptibility temperature hysteresis in the interval of 1070 - 1090, 1100 - 1130 and 1120 - 1150 for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 . Reversible susceptibility jump corresponding to the temperature hysteresis range at dependences of x(T), is connected with equilibrium structural phase transition of order-disorder

  19. LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT THROUGH FUZZY LOGIC INFERENCE SYSTEM (FLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is among one of the most important natural hazards that lead to modification of the environment. It is a regular feature of a rapidly growing district Mansehra, Pakistan. This caused extensive loss of life and property in the district located at the foothills of Himalaya. Keeping in view the situation it is concluded that besides structural approaches the non-structural approaches such as hazard and risk assessment maps are effective tools to reduce the intensity of damage. A landslide susceptibility map is base for engineering geologists and geomorphologists. However, it is not easy to produce a reliable susceptibility map due to complex nature of landslides. Since 1980s, several mathematical models have been developed to map landslide susceptibility and hazard. Among various models this paper is discussing the effectiveness of fuzzy logic approach for landslide susceptibility mapping in District Mansehra, Pakistan. The factor maps were modified as landslide susceptibility and fuzzy membership functions were assessed for each class. Likelihood ratios are obtained for each class of contributing factors by considering the expert opinion. The fuzzy operators are applied to generate landslide susceptibility maps. According to this map, 17% of the study area is classified as high susceptibility, 32% as moderate susceptibility, 51% as low susceptibility and areas. From the results it is found that the fuzzy model can integrate effectively with various spatial data for landslide hazard mapping, suggestions in this study are hope to be helpful to improve the applications including interpretation, and integration phases in order to obtain an accurate decision supporting layer.

  20. Estimating Fitness by Competition Assays between Drug Susceptible and Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Predominant Lineages in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatter, Purva; Chatterjee, Anirvan; D'souza, Desiree; Tolani, Monica; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a threat to global tuberculosis control. A significant fitness cost has been associated with DR strains from specific lineages. Evaluation of the influence of the competing drug susceptible strains on fitness of drug resistant strains may have an important bearing on understanding the spread of MDR TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness of MDR TB strains, from a TB endemic region of western India: Mumbai, belonging to 3 predominant lineages namely CAS, Beijing and MANU in the presence of drug susceptible strains from the same lineages. Methodology Drug susceptible strains from a single lineage were mixed with drug resistant strain, bearing particular non synonymous mutation (rpoB D516V; inhA, A16G; katG, S315T1/T2) from the same or different lineages. Fitness of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) strains was evaluated using the difference in growth rates obtained by using the CFU assay system. Conclusion/Significance While MANU were most fit amongst the drug susceptible strains of the 3 lineages, only Beijing MDR strains were found to grow in the presence of any of the competing drug susceptible strains. A disproportionate increase in Beijing MDR could be an alarm for an impending epidemic in this locale. In addition to particular non synonymous substitutions, the competing strains in an environment may impact the fitness of circulating drug resistant strains. PMID:22479407

  1. Susceptibility of bacterial isolates from community-acquired infections in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia to macrolide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Yoel; Turner, Paul; Ashley, Elizabeth A; White, Nicholas J

    2011-10-01

    To review the literature on the susceptibility of common community pathogens in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia to the macrolide antibiotics. Inclusion criteria required that isolates were collected since 2004 to ensure results were of contemporary relevance. The data were aggregated by region, age group and sterility of site of culture sample. A total of 51 studies were identified, which reported the macrolide antimicrobial susceptibilities of common bacterial pathogens isolated since 2004. In general, there was less macrolide resistance in African than in Asian isolates. Most African studies reported high levels of macrolide susceptibility in Streptococcus pneumoniae, whereas most Chinese studies reported high levels of resistance. There was very little information available for Gram-negative organisms. Susceptibility of the pneumococcus to macrolides in SSA remains high in many areas, and good activity of azithromycin has been shown against Salmonellae spp. in Asia. In urban areas where high antibiotic consumption is prevalent, there was evidence of increased resistance to macrolides. However, there is no information on susceptibility from large areas in both continents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on networks with general infection and cure times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, E.; van de Bovenkamp, R.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2013-06-01

    The classical, continuous-time susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) Markov epidemic model on an arbitrary network is extended to incorporate infection and curing or recovery times each characterized by a general distribution (rather than an exponential distribution as in Markov processes). This extension, called the generalized SIS (GSIS) model, is believed to have a much larger applicability to real-world epidemics (such as information spread in online social networks, real diseases, malware spread in computer networks, etc.) that likely do not feature exponential times. While the exact governing equations for the GSIS model are difficult to deduce due to their non-Markovian nature, accurate mean-field equations are derived that resemble our previous N-intertwined mean-field approximation (NIMFA) and so allow us to transfer the whole analytic machinery of the NIMFA to the GSIS model. In particular, we establish the criterion to compute the epidemic threshold in the GSIS model. Moreover, we show that the average number of infection attempts during a recovery time is the more natural key parameter, instead of the effective infection rate in the classical, continuous-time SIS Markov model. The relative simplicity of our mean-field results enables us to treat more general types of SIS epidemics, while offering an easier key parameter to measure the average activity of those general viral agents.

  3. Phase transition of the susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on time-varying configuration model networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Laurence, Edward; Murphy, Charles; Dubé, Louis J.

    2018-02-01

    We present a degree-based theoretical framework to study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) dynamics on time-varying (rewired) configuration model networks. Using this framework on a given degree distribution, we provide a detailed analysis of the stationary state using the rewiring rate to explore the whole range of the time variation of the structure relative to that of the SIS process. This analysis is suitable for the characterization of the phase transition and leads to three main contributions: (1) We obtain a self-consistent expression for the absorbing-state threshold, able to capture both collective and hub activation. (2) We recover the predictions of a number of existing approaches as limiting cases of our analysis, providing thereby a unifying point of view for the SIS dynamics on random networks. (3) We obtain bounds for the critical exponents of a number of quantities in the stationary state. This allows us to reinterpret the concept of hub-dominated phase transition. Within our framework, it appears as a heterogeneous critical phenomenon: observables for different degree classes have a different scaling with the infection rate. This phenomenon is followed by the successive activation of the degree classes beyond the epidemic threshold.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus saprophyticus and urethral staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, T J; Kwan, C

    1982-01-01

    The activity of eight antimicrobial agents was determined against 115 isolates of Staphylococcus saprophyticus. All were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and resistant to nalidixic acid and novobiocin. A bimodal pattern of susceptibility to erythromycin was observed: 80% were inhibited by 0.25 microgram/ml, whereas 13% required greater than or equal to 128 micrograms/ml. The following urethral staphylococci were susceptible to ampicillin, cephalexin, and nitrofurantoin but resistant to nalidixic acid: S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. warneri, S. simulans, and S. cohnii. PMID:6982679

  5. [Susceptibility of enterococci to natural and synthetic iron chelators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisiecki, Paweł; Mikucki, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    A total of 79 strains of enterococci belonging to 10 species were tested for susceptibility to natural and synthetic iron chelators. All strains produced siderophores. These enterococci were susceptible to three synthetic iron chelators only: 8-hydroxyquinoline, disodium versenate (EDTA) and o-phenanthroline. They were resistant to all other synthetic chelators: ethylenediamine-di(o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) (EDDHA), nitrilotriacetate, 2,2'-bipiridyl, salicylic acid, 8-hydroxy-5-sulphonic acid and to all natural chelators: ovotransferrine, human apotransferrine, horse apoferritine, desferrioxamine B, ferrichrome and rhodotorulic acid. The relations between susceptibility/resistance, iron assimilation and structure and stability constants of iron chelators were discussed.

  6. QCD vacuum tensor susceptibility and properties of transversely polarized mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A.P.; Mikhajlov, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    We re-estimate the tensor susceptibility of QCD vacuum, χ, and to this end, we re-estimate the leptonic decay constants for transversely polarized ρ-, ρ'- and b 1 -mesons. The origin of the susceptibility is analyzed using duality between ρ- and b 1 -channels in a 2-point correlator of tensor currents and disagree with [2] on both OPE expansion and the value of QCD vacuum tensor susceptibility. Using our value for the latter we determine new estimations of nucleon tensor charges related to the first moment of the transverse structure functions h 1 of a nucleon

  7. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay; Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  8. Improving the quark number susceptibilities for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavai, Rajiv V.

    2003-01-01

    Quark number susceptibilities approach their ideal gas limit at sufficiently high temperatures. As in the case of other thermodynamic quantities, this limit itself is altered substantially on lattices with small temporal extent, N t = 4-8, making it thus difficult to check the validity of perturbation theory. Unlike other observables, improving susceptibilities or number densities is subject to constraints of current conservation and absence of chemical potential (μ) dependent divergences. We construct such an improved number density and susceptibility for staggered fermions and show that they approximate the continuum ideal gas limit better on small temporal lattices

  9. Low-field susceptibilities of rare earth spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.

    1977-01-01

    Static susceptibility in various applied fields and AC susceptibility data on Sc 13% Gd and Sc 4.5% Tb spin glass alloys are reported. The data show that the sharp peak at the freezing temperature, Tsub(g), normally observed in the low-field susceptibility of spin glasses containing 3d magnetic impurities is observed here in the case of Gd, which is an S state solute, but not for Tb. On the contrary, for the Sc-Tb alloy a rather rounded maximum is observed which becomes slightly sharper with increasing applied magnetic fields. (author)

  10. High-field susceptibility in ferromagnetic NpOs2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Aldred, A.T.; Lam, D.J.; Davidson, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    NpOs 2 is known to be a ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 7.5 0 K. Previous bulk magnetization measurements indicated a field-induced magnetization even well below the transition temperature. By a measurement of the local high-field susceptibility, using the Moessbauer effect in 237 Np, a susceptibility of (1.2 +- 0.2) x 10 -2 emu/mole at 1.6 0 K is obtained, in general agreement with the bulk measurement. Such a large susceptibility is best understood by a model f itinerant magnetism, although other properties of the material indicate localized behavior

  11. Pediatric hemiplegic migraine: susceptibility weighted and MR perfusion imaging abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinok, Deniz; Agarwal, Ajay [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Ascadi, Gyula; Luat, Aimee; Tapos, Daniela [Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Neurology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report on an 11-year-old girl suffering from a typical attack of hemiplegic migraine with characteristic abnormalities in perfusion MR and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings. The imaging abnormalities were resolved 48 h after the attack. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging findings correlated well with the MR perfusion, thus it can be used along with conventional MRI for evaluation of children with complex migraine attacks. Susceptibility-weighted MR imaging might have a diagnostic role in assessing the vascular events in hemiplegic migraine. (orig.)

  12. Cracking susceptibility of stainless steel subjected to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, H.

    1995-01-01

    The similarities and differences in the cracking susceptibility between welding and resolidification after plasma disruption were examined experimentally using a number of primary candidate alloy samples with different chemical compositions. The product of the number density and the average depth of the cracks was measured after simulated disruption, employing a hydrogen ion beam as the heat source, and was compared with the Varestraint test result. An adequate correlation was observed between them, which indicates that the cracking susceptibility during plasma disruption can be well estimated from the welding cracking susceptibility. (orig.)

  13. Intersite interactions and susceptibility in mixed valence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaoqian Wang; Gao Lin; Bingjian Ni; Fusui Liu.

    1985-10-01

    This paper considers the effect of intersite processes on the susceptibility in mixed valence system. The method of thermodynamical perturbation used in this paper can also be generalized to study other properties of mixed valence system. The general formula of partition function of two-site interactions for the mixed valence system is given. The numerical calculations show that the intersite interaction is large enough to explain the minimum of susceptibility discovered in experiments. The different types of our theoretical curves predict that the susceptibility should exhibit a rich variety of behaviour at low temperature for various materials. (author)

  14. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  15. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  16. Fine-Mapping of the 1p11.2 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, Hisani N; Chung, Charles C; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    rs11249433 in 45,276 breast cancer cases and 48,998 controls of European, Asian and African ancestry from 50 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Genotyping was done using iCOGS, a custom-built array. Due to the complicated nature of the region on chr1p11.2: 120......The Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility genome-wide association study (GWAS) originally identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 at 1p11.2 associated with breast cancer risk. To fine-map this locus, we genotyped 92 SNPs in a 900kb region (120,505,799-121,481,132) flanking......,300,000-120,505,798, that lies near the centromere and contains seven duplicated genomic segments, we restricted analyses to 429 SNPs excluding the duplicated regions (42 genotyped and 387 imputed). Per-allelic associations with breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry...

  17. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Nobile, Adriano; Rossi, Mauro; Thiery, Wim; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2) and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1) using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2) changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs) based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X) and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM). Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m) rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m) never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the occurrence of shallow

  18. Field-based landslide susceptibility assessment in a data-scarce environment: the populated areas of the Rwenzori Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jacobs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhabited zone of the Ugandan Rwenzori Mountains is affected by landslides, frequently causing loss of life, damage to infrastructure and loss of livelihood. This area of ca. 1230 km2 is characterized by contrasting geomorphologic, climatic and lithological patterns, resulting in different landslide types. In this study, the spatial pattern of landslide susceptibility is investigated based on an extensive field inventory constructed for five representative areas within the region (153 km2 and containing over 450 landslides. To achieve a reliable susceptibility assessment, the effects of (1 using different topographic data sources and spatial resolutions and (2 changing the scale of assessment by comparing local and regional susceptibility models on the susceptibility model performances are investigated using a pixel-based logistic regression approach. Topographic data are extracted from different digital elevation models (DEMs based on radar interferometry (SRTM and TanDEM-X and optical stereophotogrammetry (ASTER DEM. Susceptibility models using the radar-based DEMs tend to outperform the ones using the ASTER DEM. The model spatial resolution is varied between 10, 20, 30 and 90 m. The optimal resolution depends on the location of the investigated area within the region but the lowest model resolution (90 m rarely yields the best model performances while the highest model resolution (10 m never results in significant increases in performance compared to the 20 m resolution. Models built for the local case studies generally have similar or better performances than the regional model and better reflect site-specific controlling factors. At the regional level the effect of distinguishing landslide types between shallow and deep-seated landslides is investigated. The separation of landslide types allows us to improve model performances for the prediction of deep-seated landslides and to better understand factors influencing the

  19. Predominant modifier of extreme liver cancer susceptibility in C57BR/cdJ female mice localized to 6 Mb on chromosome 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peychal, Stephanie E.-M.; Bilger, Andrea; Pitot, Henry C.; Drinkwater, Norman R.

    2009-01-01

    Sex hormones influence the susceptibility of inbred mice to liver cancer. C57BR/cdJ (BR) females are extremely susceptible to spontaneous and chemically induced liver tumors, in part due to a lack of protection against hepatocarcinogenesis normally offered by ovarian hormones. BR males are also moderately susceptible, and the susceptibility of both sexes of BR mice to liver tumors induced with N,N-diethylnitrosamine relative to the resistant C57BL/6J (B6) strain is caused by two loci designated Hcf1 and Hcf2 (hepatocarcinogenesis in females) located on chromosomes 17 and 1, respectively. The Hcf1 locus on chromosome 17 is the predominant modifier of liver cancer in BR mice. To validate the existence of this locus and investigate its potential interaction with Hcf2, congenic mice for each region were generated. Homozygosity for the B6.BR(D17Mit164-D17Mit2) region resulted in a 4-fold increase in liver tumor multiplicity in females and a 4.5-fold increase in males compared with B6 controls. A series of 16 recombinants covering the entire congenic region was developed to further narrow the area containing Hcf1. Susceptible heterozygous recombinants demonstrated a 3- to 7-fold effect in females and a 1.5- to 2-fold effect in males compared with B6 siblings. The effect in susceptible lines completely recapitulated the susceptibility of heterozygous full-length chromosome 17 congenics and furthermore narrowed the location of the Hcf1 locus to a single region of the chromosome from 30.05 to 35.83 Mb. PMID:19255062

  20. Reduced Insecticide Susceptibility in Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Where Agricultural Pest Management Overlaps With Mosquito Abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Mike W; Bachmann, Amanda; Varenhorst, Adam J

    2018-05-04

    Mosquito abatement programs in Midwestern communities frequently exist within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Although separately managed, both agricultural pests and mosquitoes are targeted by similar classes of insecticides. As a result, there is the potential for unintended insecticide exposure to mosquito populations from agricultural pest management. To determine the impact that agricultural management practices have on mosquito insecticide susceptibility we compared the mortality of Aedes vexans (Meigen; Diptera: Culicidae) between populations sampled from locations with and without mosquito abatement in South Dakota, a region dominated by agricultural production. Collection locations were either within towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; Brookings and Sioux Falls, SD) or located > 16 km from towns with mosquito abatement programs (n = 2; areas near Harrold and Willow Lake, SD). WHO bioassays were used to test susceptibly of adults to differing insecticide classes relative to their respective controls; 1) an organochlorine (dieldrin 4%), 2) an organophosphate (malathion 5%), and 3) a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%). Corrected mortality did not significantly differ between locations with or without abatement; however, when locations were analized by proportion of developed land within the surrounding landscape pyrethroid mortality was significantly lower where crop production dominated the surrounding landscape and mosquito abatement was present. These data suggest that agricultural pest management may incidentally contribute to reduced mosquito susceptibility where overlap between agricultural pest management and mosquito abatement exists. Decoupling insecticide classes used by both agricultural and public health pest management programs may be necessary to ensure continued efficacy of pest management tools.

  1. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study for Susceptibility to and Recoverability From Mastitis in Danish Holstein Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welderufael, B. G.; Løvendahl, Peter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Janss, Lucas L. G.; Fikse, W. F.

    2018-01-01

    Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2) and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3) were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis. PMID:29755506

  3. Multicenter study of antimicrobial susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Korea in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yeon Joon; Kim, Mi Na; Uh, Young; Kim, Myung Sook; Lee, Kyungwon

    2015-09-01

    Periodic monitoring of regional or institutional resistance trends of clinically important anaerobic bacteria is recommended, because the resistance of anaerobic pathogens to antimicrobial drugs and inappropriate therapy are associated with poor clinical outcomes. There has been no multicenter study of clinical anaerobic isolates in Korea. We aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of clinically important anaerobes at multiple centers in Korea. A total of 268 non-duplicated clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria were collected from four large medical centers in Korea in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar dilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. The following antimicrobials were tested: piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tigecycline. Organisms of the Bacteroides fragilis group were highly susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, and meropenem, as their resistance rates to these three antimicrobials were lower than 6%. For B. fragilis group isolates and anaerobic gram-positive cocci, the resistance rates to moxifloxacin were 12-25% and 11-13%, respectively. Among B. fragilis group organisms, the resistance rates to tigecycline were 16-17%. Two isolates of Finegoldia magna were non-susceptible to chloramphenicol (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 16-32 mg/L). Resistance patterns were different among the different hospitals. Piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, and carbapemems are highly active beta-lactam agents against most of the anaerobes. The resistance rates to moxifloxacin and tigecycline are slightly higher than those in the previous study.

  4. Association Study between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and the Susceptibility Genes Polymorphisms in Hui Chinese Women.

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    Lingxia Ha

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic disorders. Evidence of familial aggregation analysis and different clinical traits among different regions and ethnicities indicated that the pathogenesis of PCOS is associated with multiple genetic and environmental factors. Our previous research had identified three susceptibility loci (rs2479106, DENND1A; rs13405728, LHCGR; rs13429458, THADA for PCOS in Han Chinese women. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three susceptibility gene polymorphisms and PCOS in Hui ethnic women.151 patients with PCOS (case group and 99 healthy women (control group were recruited from the Reproductive Medicine Center of the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University. Clinical data and serum hormone characteristics of case and control groups were collected and analyzed. The three susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been replicated in both case and control groups. Gene polymorphisms were detected by direct sequencing after polymerase chain reaction.The Body Mass Index, LH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to control group (P0.05.The present study suggested that the SNP rs13405728 in the LHCGR gene was associated with PCOS in Hui ethnic women, and its TT genotype characterized with higher level of TT, TG and LDL.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs with swine erysipelas in Japan, 1988-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Kijima, M; Yoshimura, H; Takahashi, T

    2001-03-01

    The susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents of 214 strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from pigs affected with swine erysipelas in Japan between 1988 and 1998 was determined. Ampicillin, cloxacillin, benzylpenicillin, ceftiofur, tylosin, enrofloxacin and danofloxacin were the most active agents [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); doxycycline were detected. The susceptibilities to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline tended to decrease. Investigation of the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility of the 214 strains according to their serotypes, sources, isolation years and regions, showed that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin were most frequently found in the strains of serotype 1a and in strains from septicaemic cases. Strains resistant to oxytetracycline were detected in all serotypes and all sources, and most of the strains resistant to erythromycin were detected in the strains of serotype 2. The frequency of strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin gradually increased from 1988 to 1996, but then decreased between 1997 and 1998. The frequency of strains resistant to oxytetracycline was remained more than 38% from 1988 to 1998. It was suggested that the strains resistant to dihydrostreptomycin and oxytetracycline were distributed over almost all districts of Japan.

  6. A major QTL controls susceptibility to spinal curvature in the curveback guppy

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    Dreyer Christine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature would benefit medicine and aquaculture. Heritable spinal curvature among otherwise healthy children (i.e. Idiopathic Scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis accounts for more than 80% of all spinal curvatures and imposes a substantial healthcare cost through bracing, hospitalizations, surgery, and chronic back pain. In aquaculture, the prevalence of heritable spinal curvature can reach as high as 80% of a stock, and thus imposes a substantial cost through production losses. The genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature is unknown and so the objective of this work is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy. Prior work with curveback has demonstrated phenotypic parallels to human idiopathic-type scoliosis, suggesting shared biological pathways for the deformity. Results A major effect QTL that acts in a recessive manner and accounts for curve susceptibility was detected in an initial mapping cross on LG 14. In a second cross, we confirmed this susceptibility locus and fine mapped it to a 5 cM region that explains 82.6% of the total phenotypic variance. Conclusions We identify a major QTL that controls susceptibility to curvature. This locus contains over 100 genes, including MTNR1B, a candidate gene for human idiopathic scoliosis. The identification of genes associated with heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy has the potential to elucidate the biological basis of spinal curvature among humans and economically important teleosts.

  7. Cumulative role of rare and common putative functional genetic variants at NPAS3 in schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Peñas, Javier; Arrojo, Manuel; Paz, Eduardo; Brenlla, Julio; Páramo, Mario; Costas, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia may be considered a human-specific disorder arisen as a maladaptive by-product of human-specific brain evolution. Therefore, genetic variants involved in susceptibility to schizophrenia may be identified among those genes related to acquisition of human-specific traits. NPAS3, a transcription factor involved in central nervous system development and neurogenesis, seems to be implicated in the evolution of human brain, as it is the human gene with most human-specific accelerated elements (HAEs), i.e., .mammalian conserved regulatory sequences with accelerated evolution in the lineage leading to humans after human-chimpanzee split. We hypothesize that any nucleotide variant at the NPAS3 HAEs may lead to altered susceptibility to schizophrenia. Twenty-one variants at these HAEs detected by the 1000 genomes Project, as well as five additional variants taken from psychiatric genome-wide association studies, were genotyped in 538 schizophrenic patients and 539 controls from Galicia. Analyses at the haplotype level or based on the cumulative role of the variants assuming different susceptibility models did not find any significant association in spite of enough power under several plausible scenarios regarding direction of effect and the specific role of rare and common variants. These results suggest that, contrary to our hypothesis, the special evolution of the NPAS3 HAEs in Homo relaxed the strong constraint on sequence that characterized these regions during mammalian evolution, allowing some sequence changes without any effect on schizophrenia risk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evaluation of landslide susceptibility of Sete Cidades Volcano (S. Miguel Island, Azores

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    A. Gomes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete Cidades is an active central volcano with a summit caldera located in the westernmost part of S. Miguel Island (Azores. Since the settlement of the Island, in the 15th century, many landslide events occurred in this volcano, causing extensive damages in buildings and infrastructures. The study of historical records and the observation of new occurrences showed that landslides in the region have been triggered by heavy rainfall periods, earthquakes and erosion. In order to assess landslide susceptibility at Sete Cidades Volcano, landslide scars and associated deposits were mapped through aerial photographs and field surveys. The obtained data were inserted in a GIS to produce a landslide distribution map. It was concluded that the high density landslide areas are related with (1 major scarp faults, (2 the margin of fluvial channels, (3 the sea cliffs and (4 volcanic landforms, namely the caldera wall. About 73% of the mapped events took place in areas where pyroclastic deposits are the dominant lithology and more than 77% occurred where slopes are equal or higher than 20°. These two parameters were integrated and used to generate a preliminary susceptibility map. The incorporation of vulnerability data into the GIS allowed concluding that 30% of dwellings and most of the roads on Sete Cidades Volcano are located in areas where landslide susceptibility is high to very high. Such conclusion should be taken into account for emergency and land use planning.

  9. Assessing susceptibility to erosion related to land cover changes induced by mining in Anori, Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceballos Espinosa, Darney de J; Toro R, Luis Jairo

    2012-01-01

    A model for assessing the susceptibility to erosion in the municipality of Anori, through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), was implemented, allowing the spatial assessment of different variables of a model based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Model takes into account possible changes in vegetation cover because of future development of mining projects. The model includes the major hydrological variables such as rain and runoff, as well as slopes, geology and vegetation cover. Anori is located in the north-northeast of Antioquia and presents a valuable mineral potential for the region which has increased thanks to the high prices of gold in the world and the so called mining locomotive driven by the national government. According to the results of this model, the vegetation cover change caused by open pit mining projects directly increases the susceptibility to erosion in Anori. Consequently, environmental management in the erosion susceptibility model is based on the handling of vegetation cover, through the implementation of prevention, mitigation and compensation mechanisms, to avoid increased erosion.

  10. Kohn anomalies in momentum dependence of magnetic susceptibility of some three-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, A. A.; Volkova, D. O.; Igoshev, P. A.; Katanin, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    We study a question of the presence of Kohn points, yielding at low temperatures nonanalytic momentum dependence of magnetic susceptibility near its maximum, in electronic spectra of some threedimensional systems. In particular, we consider a one-band model on face-centered cubic lattice with hopping between the nearest and next-nearest neighbors, which models some aspects of the dispersion of ZrZn2, and the two-band model on body-centered cubic lattice, modeling the dispersion of chromium. For the former model, it is shown that Kohn points yielding maxima of susceptibility exist in a certain (sufficiently wide) region of electronic concentrations; the dependence of the wave vectors, corresponding to the maxima, on the chemical potential is investigated. For the two-band model, we show the existence of the lines of Kohn points, yielding maximum susceptibility, whose position agrees with the results of band structure calculations and experimental data on the wave vector of antiferromagnetism of chromium.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

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    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  12. Antimicrobial Non-Susceptibility of Escherichia coli from Outpatients and Patients Visiting Emergency Rooms in Taiwan.

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    Jann-Tay Wang

    Full Text Available Longitudinal nationwide surveillance data on antimicrobial non-susceptibility and prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs as well as AmpC β-lactamases producers among Escherichia coli from different sources in the community settings are limited. Such data may impact treatment practice. The present study investigated E. coli from outpatients and patients visiting emergency rooms collected by the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program. A total of 3481 E. coli isolates were studied, including 2153 (61.9% from urine and 1125 (32.3% from blood samples. These isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from a total of 28 hospitals located in different geographic regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using methods recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The prevalence and factors associated with the presence of ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase-producers were determined. Significant increases in non-susceptibility to most β-lactams and ciprofloxacin occurred during the study period. By 2012, non-susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin reached 21.1% and 26.9%, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL- and AmpC- producers also increased from 4.0% and 5.3%, respectively, in 2002-2004, to 10.7% for both in 2010-2012 (P < 0.001. The predominant ESBL and AmpC β-lactamase genes were CTX-M and CMY-types, respectively. Non-susceptibility of urine isolates to nitrofurantoin remained at around 8% and to fosfomycin was low (0.7% but to cefazolin (based on the 2014 CLSI urine criteria increased from 11.5% in 2002-2004 to 23.9% in 2010-2012 (P <0.001. Non-susceptibility of isolates from different specimen types was generally similar, but isolates from elderly patients were significantly more resistant to most antimicrobial agents and associated with the presence of ESBL- and AmpC- β-lactamases. An additional concern is that decreased ciprofloxacin

  13. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems.

  14. Use of deep whole-genome sequencing data to identify structure risk variants in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyi; Shi, Jiajun; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; He, Jing; Wen, Wanqing; Allen, Jamie; Pharoah, Paul; Dunning, Alison; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong

    2018-03-01

    Functional disruptions of susceptibility genes by large genomic structure variant (SV) deletions in germlines are known to be associated with cancer risk. However, few studies have been conducted to systematically search for SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes. We analysed deep (> 30x) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data generated in blood samples from 128 breast cancer patients of Asian and European descent with either a strong family history of breast cancer or early cancer onset disease. To identify SV deletions in known or suspected breast cancer susceptibility genes, we used multiple SV calling tools including Genome STRiP, Delly, Manta, BreakDancer and Pindel. SV deletions were detected by at least three of these bioinformatics tools in five genes. Specifically, we identified heterozygous deletions covering a fraction of the coding regions of BRCA1 (with approximately 80kb in two patients), and TP53 genes (with ∼1.6 kb in two patients), and of intronic regions (∼1 kb) of the PALB2 (one patient), PTEN (three patients) and RAD51C genes (one patient). We confirmed the presence of these deletions using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our study identified novel SV deletions in breast cancer susceptibility genes and the identification of such SV deletions may improve clinical testing.

  15. Identification and molecular characterization of a new ovarian cancer susceptibility locus at 17q21.31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Lawrenson, Kate; Shen, Howard C.; Velkova, Aneliya; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Chen, Zhihua; Lin, Hui-Yi; Chen, Y. Ann; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Qu, Xiaotao; Ramus, Susan J.; Karevan, Rod; Lee, Janet; Lee, Nathan; Larson, Melissa C.; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Antoniou, Antonis; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Bacot, François; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Cai, Qiuyin; Campbell, Ian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cheng, Jin Q.; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Cook, Linda S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Flanagan, James M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind M.; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Goodman, Marc T.; Gore, Martin; Górski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hall, Per; Halle, Mari K.; Harter, Philipp; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Claus K.; Høgdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Jim, Heather; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Stanley B.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Lancaster, Johnathan M.; Le, Nhu D.; Leminen, Arto; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lin, Jie; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen H.; Lubiński, Jan; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Raska, Paola; Renner, Stefan P.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Stram, Daniel; Sutphen, Rebecca; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vincent, Daniel; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Phelan, Catherine M.; Iversen, Edwin; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gayther, Simon A.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a heritable component that remains to be fully characterized. Most identified common susceptibility variants lie in non-protein-coding sequences. We hypothesized that variants in the 3′ untranslated region at putative microRNA (miRNA) binding sites represent functional targets that influence EOC susceptibility. Here, we evaluate the association between 767 miRNA binding site single nucleotide polymorphisms (miRSNPs) and EOC risk in 18,174 EOC cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies genotyped through the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study. We identify several miRSNPs associated with invasive serous EOC risk (OR=1.12, P=10−8) mapping to an inversion polymorphism at 17q21.31. Additional genotyping of non-miRSNPs at 17q21.31 reveals stronger signals outside the inversion (P=10−10). Variation at 17q21.31 associates with neurological diseases, and our collaboration is the first to report an association with EOC susceptibility. An integrated molecular analysis in this region provides evidence for ARHGAP27 and PLEKHM1 as candidate EOC susceptibility genes. PMID:23535648

  16. Reduced lentivirus susceptibility in sheep with TMEM154 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Michael P; Clawson, Michael L; Chitko-Mckown, Carol G; Leymaster, Kreg A; Smith, Timothy P L; Harhay, Gregory P; White, Stephen N; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Mousel, Michelle R; Lewis, Gregory S; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W

    2012-01-01

    Visna/Maedi, or ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) as it is known in the United States, is an incurable slow-acting disease of sheep caused by persistent lentivirus infection. This disease affects multiple tissues, including those of the respiratory and central nervous systems. Our aim was to identify ovine genetic risk factors for lentivirus infection. Sixty-nine matched pairs of infected cases and uninfected controls were identified among 736 naturally exposed sheep older than five years of age. These pairs were used in a genome-wide association study with 50,614 markers. A single SNP was identified in the ovine transmembrane protein (TMEM154) that exceeded genome-wide significance (unadjusted p-value 3×10(-9)). Sanger sequencing of the ovine TMEM154 coding region identified six missense and two frameshift deletion mutations in the predicted signal peptide and extracellular domain. Two TMEM154 haplotypes encoding glutamate (E) at position 35 were associated with infection while a third haplotype with lysine (K) at position 35 was not. Haplotypes encoding full-length E35 isoforms were analyzed together as genetic risk factors in a multi-breed, matched case-control design, with 61 pairs of 4-year-old ewes. The odds of infection for ewes with one copy of a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele were 28 times greater than the odds for those without (p-valuesheep from Nebraska, Idaho, and Iowa, the relative risk of infection was 2.85 times greater for sheep with a full-length TMEM154 E35 allele (p-valuesheep were homozygous for TMEM154 deletion mutations and remained uninfected despite a lifetime of significant exposure. Together, these findings indicate that TMEM154 may play a central role in ovine lentivirus infection and removing sheep with the most susceptible genotypes may help eradicate OPP and protect flocks from reinfection.

  17. Genetic variation in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase and colon cancer susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Thompson

    Full Text Available 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH is a metabolic antagonist of COX-2, catalyzing the degradation of inflammation mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and other prostanoids. Recent studies have established the 15-PGDH gene as a colon cancer suppressor.We evaluated 15-PDGH as a colon cancer susceptibility locus in a three-stage design. We first genotyped 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the 15-PGDH gene, spanning ∼50 kb up and down-stream of the coding region, in 464 colon cancer cases and 393 population controls. We then genotyped the same SNPs, and also assayed the expression levels of 15-PGDH in colon tissues from 69 independent patients for whom colon tissue and paired germline DNA samples were available. In the final stage 3, we genotyped the 9 most promising SNPs from stages 1 and 2 in an independent sample of 525 cases and 816 controls (stage 3.In the first two stages, three SNPs (rs1365611, rs6844282 and rs2332897 were statistically significant (p<0.05 in combined analysis of association with risk of colon cancer and of association with 15-PGDH expression, after adjustment for multiple testing. For one additional SNP, rs2555639, the T allele showed increased cancer risk and decreased 15-PGDH expression, but just missed statistical significance (p-adjusted = 0.063. In stage 3, rs2555639 alone showed evidence of association with an odds ratio (TT compared to CC of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.05-2.15, p = 0.026.Our data suggest that the rs2555639 T allele is associated with increased risk of colon cancer, and that carriers of this risk allele exhibit decreased expression of 15-PGDH in the colon.

  18. Susceptibility of CANDU steam generator preheater to cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, S.L.; Sun, L.; Pietralik, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Darlington Steam Generator (SG) tube inspections revealed some tubes had degraded in the preheater. The tube degradation occurred at the clearance gap between the tube and the preheater baffle and reached up to 50% through-wall depth at the baffles in the middle portion of the preheater. The general pattern of the damage and the elemental composition analysis suggested that the degradation was the result of a hydrodynamic process, such as cavitation erosion. Cavitation erosion occurs when vapour bubbles exist or form in the flowing liquid and then these bubbles collapse violently in the vicinity of the wall. These bubbles collapse when steam bubbles contact water that is sufficiently subcooled, below the saturation temperature. In the gap between the tube and the preheater baffle, low flow will exist due to the pressure difference across the baffle plate. In addition, heat transfer occurs from the primary-side fluid to the secondary-side fluid within this clearance gap that is driven by the primary-to-secondary temperature difference. Factors, such as the tube position in the baffle hole and fouling, influence the local conditions and can cause subcooled boiling that result in cavitation. This paper presents a study of flow and heat transfer phenomena to determine the factors contributing to cavitation erosion in SG preheaters. The analysis used the THIRST1 code for a 3-dimensional thermalhydraulic simulation of the steam generators and the ANSYS FLUENT®2 code for detailed calculations of flow and heat transfer in the clearance gaps. This study identifies that tubes in the preheater region are susceptible to cavitation erosion and indicates that this area should be part of the station inspection program because, regardless of preheater design, some tubes may experience the thermalhydraulic conditions and undergo degradations similar to those observed for the tubes in Darlington SGs. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity and in vitro antibiotic susceptibility profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... and waste water sources in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa using DNA fingerprinting and antibiotic susceptibility profile as test indices. Restriction digests ... fever they cause with human and animal excreta acting.

  20. Magnetic Susceptibilities as they appeared to me - An Amperian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Bosch, A.

    2008-08-15

    Starting from scratch, the book narrates a systematic story of the basic ideas you need for understanding quasi static magnetic susceptibilities. The story leans on the authors 25 year experience measuring susceptibilities following the Faraday technique (related with solid state physics, radiation effects, materials and magneto chemistry). The base of magnetism, the current-current interaction, is the linkage between the topics treated. The number of mathematical equations are reduced to a minimum and can be skipped without losing the thread of the story. The story is positive towards the sound bases of magnetism. However, room is left for the interpretation of measuring data. As the word susceptibility covers different meanings, the story answers for different situations the question: what is susceptible to what for creating what?

  1. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....

  2. Susceptibility of Selected Multi-Drug Resistant Clinical Isolates to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution ... relies on traditional medicine for their primary ... Collection and identification of plant materials: ..... versus carbapenem- susceptible Gram-negative microorganisms: Risk.

  3. GIS-based assessment of landslide susceptibility using certainty ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion systems (GIS) using different models. Many of these ... as spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach ... 2013), support vec- ... Landslide susceptibility assessment using mathematical methods in GIS, Qianyang China 1401.

  4. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power ... economic losses and creating high maintenance costs, are ..... evidence method to landslide susceptibility map- ping using ...

  5. The Identification of Fatigue Resistant and Fatigue Susceptible Individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Richard; Chaiken, Scott; Harville, Donald; Fischer, Joseph; Fisher, Dion; Whitmore, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to target two specific areas regarding fatigue. The primary purpose was to begin investigations into possible genetic markers linked to fatigue resistance and fatigue susceptibility...

  6. original article antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of lactic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    All the 57 tested lactic acid bacteria isolates were sensitive to Pencillin G (Pen, 10units), and ... resistance genes for Penicillin G and Erythromycin as indicated by the sensitivity of isolates. .... Antibiotic Susceptibility Test: The LAB isolates were ...

  7. Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, K; Zorkani, I; Jorio, A

    2011-01-01

    The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χ dia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy E b shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.

  8. High temperature magnetic susceptibility of the Nb-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welter, J.-M.

    1983-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility chi(T,x) of various NbHsub(x) specimens with 0 - 5 to 1.25 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 in this hydrogen concentration range and exhibits a marked break at x approximately 0.6. An estimate of the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility chisub(P) for the two limiting concentrations allowed the evaluation of the orbital paramagnetic susceptibility chisub(O). For x = 0 and x approximately 0.8 the values of chisub(P) are 1.05 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 0.39 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively and the values of chisub(O) are 1.73 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 and 1.08 x 10 - 5 cm 3 g - 1 respectively. The magnetic susceptibility decreases by approximately 10% on going from the concentrated solid solution to the monohydride. (Auth.)

  9. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure-specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed with regard to disease etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with renal failure disease and renal transplant recipients (group 1) and in ... standard methods, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by ... costing the global economy in excess of US$ 6 ... standard control strains.

  11. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaoui, E.; Meletiadis, J.; Mouton, J.W.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    In vitro susceptibilities of 36 zygomycete isolates, belonging to six genera, to itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine were determined by using a broth microdilution adaptation of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M-38P

  12. suitability of vitek 2 system in identification and susceptibility testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-01

    Apr 1, 2014 ... susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria from blood are ... This process ... This was a method validation study carried out at .... testing: Of the 19 cultures with AST by direct Vitek, three had discrepancies for some antibiotics.

  13. Ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from keratitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, JA; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    keratitis, endophthalmitis, contact lens associated red eye (CLARE), and contact lens storage cases showed MIC values below 1 mg/l. Several allelic forms of gyrA and a single variation in the mexR gene product were detected in 10 ciprofloxacin susceptible strains. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of eye......AIM: To examine the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of 106 Pseudomonas aeruginosa eye isolates from the United Kingdom, Denmark, India, the United States, and Australia, and to determine the molecular mechanisms of resistance. METHODS: Ciprofloxacin susceptibility was tested by an agar dilution method...... isolates of P aeruginosa from European countries are fully susceptible to ciprofloxacin and the concentration of ciprofloxacin eye drops used for local treatment (3000 mg/l) exceeds MIC values for strains recorded as resistant. Mutations in more than one target gene were associated with higher MIC values....

  14. Contribution of genes polymorphism to susceptibility and outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evidence that endogenous mediators actually mediate the individual's ... has contribution to susceptibility and outcome of sepsis in some research. ... patients with a high risk of developing severe sepsis and multiple organ dysfunctions.

  15. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya, using pattern recognition ... a combination of both qualitative and quantita- tive features. .... Three distinct types of zones were identified: S1 was identified as ...

  16. Temporal percolation of the susceptible network in an epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Lucas Daniel; Macri, Pablo Alejandro; Braunstein, Lidia Adriana

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the evolution of the susceptible individuals during the spread of an epidemic modeled by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) process spreading on the top of complex networks. Using an edge-based compartmental approach and percolation tools, we find that a time-dependent quantity ΦS(t), namely, the probability that a given neighbor of a node is susceptible at time t, is the control parameter of a node void percolation process involving those nodes on the network not-reached by the disease. We show that there exists a critical time t(c) above which the giant susceptible component is destroyed. As a consequence, in order to preserve a macroscopic connected fraction of the network composed by healthy individuals which guarantee its functionality, any mitigation strategy should be implemented before this critical time t(c). Our theoretical results are confirmed by extensive simulations of the SIR process.

  17. Magnetic Susceptibilities as they appeared to me - An Amperian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bosch, A.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from scratch, the book narrates a systematic story of the basic ideas you need for understanding quasi static magnetic susceptibilities. The story leans on the authors 25 year experience measuring susceptibilities following the Faraday technique (related with solid state physics, radiation effects, materials and magneto chemistry). The base of magnetism, the current-current interaction, is the linkage between the topics treated. The number of mathematical equations are reduced to a minimum and can be skipped without losing the thread of the story. The story is positive towards the sound bases of magnetism. However, room is left for the interpretation of measuring data. As the word susceptibility covers different meanings, the story answers for different situations the question: what is susceptible to what for creating what?

  18. Susceptibility and reactivity in polysensitized individuals following controlled induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Carlsen, Berit C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether polysensitized patients acquire multiple allergies only because of a high degree of exposure to environmental allergens, or because of being highly susceptible to developing contact allergy....

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of listeria monocytogenes from food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Knöchel, Susanne; Hasman, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    for susceptibility to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, tiamulin, trimethoprim, and co-trimoxazole, and the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and triclosan, by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). All...

  20. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical

  2. Genetic Susceptibility Factors for Prostate Cancer at Chromosomal Region 11q13.5

    OpenAIRE

    Nurminen, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    Eturauhassyövän geneettiset alttiustekijät kromosomialueella 11q13.5 Eturauhassyöpä on Suomessa kuten myös useissa muissa länsimaissa miesten yleisin syöpätyyppi ja toiseksi suurin syöpäkuolleisuuden aiheuttaja. Eturauhassyöpä on monitekijäinen sairaus, jonka syntymekanismeja ei vielä täysin tunneta. Riskitekijöinä ovat ikä, sukuhistoria ja etninen tausta. Suuri osa kliinisesti havaittavista eturauhaskasvaimista on hyvänlaatuisia ja hidaskasvuisia, mutta osa kehittyy pahanlaatuisiksi kasv...

  3. Analysis of two susceptibility SNPs in HLA region and evidence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yosser Achour

    2017-11-28

    Nov 28, 2017 ... was carried out using real-time PCR methods by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. A trend of significant ... genetic risk loci with relatively high statistical power from. GWAS was .... for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 17.0 for ...

  4. Pastoralists susceptibility to HIV infection: a study based on Shindle District, Somali, Region, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the hard-hit countries by HIV/AIDS, the epidemic has eroded the development gains made in past decades. The spread of HIV is heterogeneous in Sub-Saharan African courtiers, with different peaks which vary geographically and in terms of their distribution among social or economic groups. Thus,

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  6. Novel non-HLA-susceptible regions determined by meta-analysis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... analysis (GSMA) method to combine the previous four AS genomewide scan studies including 479 families with 1175 affected .... or Caucasian east Asian mixed. Table 2 ..... fit for the GSMA method research data are included.

  7. Predicting the susceptibility to gully initiation in data-poor regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Daoudi, Mohamed; Bosco, Claudio; Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Permanent gullies are common features in many landscapes and quite often they represent the dominant soil erosion process. Once a gully has initiated, field evidence shows that gully channel formation and headcut migration rapidly occur. In order to prevent the undesired effects of gullying, there is a need to predict the places where new gullies might initiate. From detailed field measurements, studies have demonstrated strong inverse relationships between slope gradient of the soil surface (S) and drainage area (A) at the point of channel initiation across catchments in different climatic and morphological environments. Such slope-area thresholds (S-A) can be used to predict locations in the landscape where gullies might initiate. However, acquiring S-A requires detailed field investigations and accurate high resolution digital elevation data, which are usually difficult to acquire. To circumvent this issue, we propose a two-step method that uses published S-A thresholds and a logistic regression analysis (LR). S-A thresholds from the literature are used as proxies of field measurement. The method is calibrated and validated on a watershed, close to the town of Algiers, northern Algeria, where gully erosion affects most of the slopes. The gullies extend up to several kilometres in length and cover 16% of the study area. First we reconstruct the initiation areas of the existing gullies by applying S-A thresholds for similar environments. Then, using the initiation area map as the dependent variable with combinations of topographic and lithological predictor variables, we calibrate several LR models. It provides relevant results in terms of statistical reliability, prediction performance, and geomorphological significance. This method using S-A thresholds with data-driven assessment methods like LR proves to be efficient when applied to common spatial data and establishes a methodology that will allow similar studies to be undertaken elsewhere.

  8. The Havriliak-Negami susceptibility as a nonlinear and nonlocal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, Paulius

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical substantiation of the Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami types of susceptibilities is presented. These types of susceptibility are shown to be a manifestation of weak nonlocality and nonlinearity. The Debye susceptibility corresponds to linear and local relaxation, the Cole-Cole susceptibility being linear and nonlocal; the Cole-Davidson susceptibility is nonlinear and local and the Havriliak-Negami susceptibility corresponds to nonlinear and nonlocal relaxation.

  9. Relationship between the utilisation profile of individual joints and their susceptibility to primary osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two subjects were studied for 1 to 3 weeks during the course of their normal domestic activities. Utilisation profiles were derived for ten joints, using a systematic time-series sampling technique adapted from behavioural biology. At each joint the proportion of the available range utilised was noted. The results were compared with the known regional prevalence of primary osteoarthritis. There was a correlation between the degree to which a joint was incompletely utilised, and its susceptibility to osteoarthritis. The hypothesis is advanced that primary osteoarthritis may be due to incomplete joint utilisation. (orig.)

  10. PHIP – a novel candidate breast cancer susceptibility locus on 6q14.1

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, X; Easton, Douglas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Most non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus on chromosome 6q and two unrelated Swedish families with a LOD >2 together seemed to share a haplotype in 6q14.1. We hypothesized that this region harbored a rare high-risk founder allele contributing to breast...

  11. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  12. Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-03-01

    One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  14. Effects of mineral nutrients on ozone susceptibility of Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L E

    1971-01-01

    Susceptibility of Lemna minor L. to ozone injury was influenced by the mineral nutrients available to the Lemna plants. Additional nitrogen or additional iron in the nutrient media respectively enhanced or reduced chlorophyll loss of Lemna plants fumigated with ozone. Lemna plants growing on a nutrient medium lacking copper had significantly less injury from ozone fumigation than Lemna plants growing on a complete nutrient medium. There were apparent interactions among phosphorus and potassium nutrient levels in determing the Lemna plant's susceptibility to ozone.

  15. Topological susceptibility from twisted mass fermions using spectral projectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Garcia-Ramos, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IAS; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IKP; Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JCHP; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-12-15

    We discuss the computation of the topological susceptibility using the method of spectral projectors and dynamical twisted mass fermions. We present our analysis concerning the O(a)- improvement of the topological susceptibility and we show numerical results for N{sub f}=2 and N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours, performing a study of the quark mass dependence in terms of leading order chiral perturbation theory.

  16. Magnetic susceptibility of 244Cm metal and 249Cf metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, D.K.; Parsons, T.C.; Edelstein, N.; Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-07-01

    The first magnetic susceptibility measurements made on the expanded fcc phase of 249 Cf metal are reported. Further measurements are needed on other Cf metal phases. Another measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of 244 Cm metal in a limited temperature range has been reported. The result does not agree with previously reported values. Further work is continuing on the synthesis of 244 Cm metal and 248 Cm metal and magnetic measurements on these samples. (auth)

  17. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  18. Effects of magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities on the spin susceptibility of a noncentrosymmetrical superconductor: Application to CePt3Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Tamaddonpour, M.

    2013-10-01

    The combined effect of nonmagnetic and magnetic impurities on the spin susceptibility of a noncentrosymmetrical superconductor by considering a Cooper pairing model with a two-component order parameter composed of spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairing components is investigated. For clean superconductor CePt3Si, the low-temperature dependence (T →0) of spin susceptibility is linear which suggests that the gap function has line nodes, consistent with our gap model. We will show that in the presence of magnetic impurities the susceptibility does not vanish even in the absence of spin orbit coupling and in the region where the energy gap still is finite, and in the low concentration of magnetic impurities the spin susceptibility at zero temperature is proportional to impurity concentration.

  19. Effect of centrifugation on dynamic susceptibility of magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Alexander; Lakhtina, Ekaterina; Kuznetsov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Six samples of magnetic fluid were obtained by centrifuging two base ferrocolloids. • Aggregates in magnetic fluids are main reason of dynamic susceptibility dispersion. • Centrifugation is an effective way of changing the dynamic susceptibility. - Abstract: The dispersive composition, dynamic susceptibility and spectrum of times of magnetization relaxation for six samples of magnetic fluid obtained by centrifuging two base colloidal solutions of the magnetite in kerosene was investigated experimentally. The base solutions differed by the concentration of the magnetic phase and the width of the particle size distribution. The procedure of cluster analysis allowing one to estimate the characteristic sizes of aggregates with uncompensated magnetic moments was described. The results of the magnetogranulometric and cluster analyses were discussed. It was shown that centrifugation has a strong effect on the physical properties of the separated fractions, which is related to the spatial redistribution of particles and multi-particle aggregates. The presence of aggregates in magnetic fluids is interpreted as the main reason of low-frequency (0.1–10 kHz) dispersion of the dynamic susceptibility. The obtained results count in favor of using centrifugation as an effective means of changing the dynamic susceptibility over wide limits and obtaining fluids with the specified type of susceptibility dispersion.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.