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Sample records for susceptibility including hereditary

  1. Hereditary breast cancer: the era of new susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Paraskevi; Fostira, Florentia

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. 5%-10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary and are caused by pathogenic mutations in the considered reference BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. As sequencing technologies evolve, more susceptible genes have been discovered and BRCA1 and BRCA2 predisposition seems to be only a part of the story. These new findings include rare germline mutations in other high penetrant genes, the most important of which include TP53 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 mutations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and PTEN mutations in Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, more frequent, but less penetrant, mutations have been identified in families with breast cancer clustering, in moderate or low penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and BRIP1. This paper will summarize all current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

  2. Hereditary Breast Cancer: The Era of New Susceptibility Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Apostolou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. 5%–10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary and are caused by pathogenic mutations in the considered reference BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. As sequencing technologies evolve, more susceptible genes have been discovered and BRCA1 and BRCA2 predisposition seems to be only a part of the story. These new findings include rare germline mutations in other high penetrant genes, the most important of which include TP53 mutations in Li-Fraumeni syndrome, STK11 mutations in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and PTEN mutations in Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, more frequent, but less penetrant, mutations have been identified in families with breast cancer clustering, in moderate or low penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and BRIP1. This paper will summarize all current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

  3. The spectrum of genetic variants in hereditary pancreatic cancer includes Fanconi anemia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Thomas P; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nehoray, Bita; Niell-Swiller, Mariana; Solomon, Ilana; Rybak, Christina; Blazer, Kathleen; Adamson, Aaron; Yang, Kai; Sand, Sharon; Guerrero-Llamas, Nancy; Castillo, Danielle; Herzog, Josef; Wu, Xiwei; Tao, Shu; Raja, Shivali; Chung, Vincent; Singh, Gagandeep; Nadesan, Sue; Brown, Sandra; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Petersen, Gloria M; Weitzel, Jeffrey

    2017-07-08

    Approximately 5-10% of all pancreatic cancer patients carry a predisposing mutation in a known susceptibility gene. Since >90% of patients present with late stage disease, it is crucial to identify high risk individuals who may be amenable to early detection or other prevention. To explore the spectrum of hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we evaluated germline DNA from pancreatic cancer participants (n = 53) from a large hereditary cancer registry. For those without a known predisposition mutation gene (n = 49), germline next generation sequencing was completed using targeted capture for 706 candidate genes. We identified 16 of 53 participants (30%) with a pathogenic (P) or likely pathogenic (LP) variant that may be related to their hereditary pancreatic cancer predisposition; seven had mutations in genes associated with well-known cancer syndromes (13%) [ATM (2), BRCA2 (3), MSH2 (1), MSH6 (1)]. Many had mutations in Fanconi anemia complex genes [BRCA2 (3 participants), FANCF, FANCM]. Eight participants had rare protein truncating variants of uncertain significance with no other P or LP variants. Earlier age of pancreatic cancer diagnosis (57.5 vs 64.8 years) was indicative of possessing a P or LP variant, as was cancer family history (p values cancer predisposing genetic susceptibility in those at risk for hereditary pancreatic cancer may have direct applicability to clinical practice in cases with mutations in actionable genes. Future pancreatic cancer predisposition studies should include evaluation of the Fanconi anemia genes.

  4. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ohno, Sumire; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Matsuura, Miyuki

    2013-09-01

    Women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome represent a unique group who are diagnosed at a younger age and result in an increased lifetime risk for developing breast, ovarian and other cancers. This review integrates recent progress and insights into the molecular basis that underlie the HBOC syndrome. A review of English language literature was performed by searching MEDLINE published between January 1994 and October 2012. Mutations and common sequence variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes are responsible for the majority of HBOC syndrome. Lifetime cancer risks in BRCA mutation carriers are 60-80% for breast cancer and 20-40% for ovarian cancer. Mutations in BRCA genes cannot account for all cases of HBOC, indicating that the remaining cases can be attributed to the involvement of constitutive epimutations or other cancer susceptibility genes, which include Fanconi anemia (FA) cluster (FANCD2, FANCA and FANCC), mismatch repair (MMR) cluster (MLH1, MSH2, PMS1, PMS2 and MSH6), DNA repair cluster (ATM, ATR and CHK1/2), and tumor suppressor cluster (TP53, SKT11 and PTEN). Sporadic breast cancers with TP53 mutations or epigenetic silencing (hypermethylation), ER- and PgR-negative status, an earlier age of onset and high tumor grade resemble phenotypically BRCA1 mutated cancers termed 'BRCAness', those with no BRCA mutations but with a dysfunction of the DNA repair system. In conclusion, genetic or epigenetic loss-of-function mutations of genes that are known to be involved in the repair of DNA damage may lead to increased risk of developing a broad spectrum of breast and ovarian cancers.

  5. Variants of cancer susceptibility genes in Korean BRCA1/2 mutation-negative patients with high risk for hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Soo; Lee, Seung-Tae; Nam, Eun Ji; Han, Jung Woo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Hyung Seok

    2018-01-01

    Background We evaluated the incidence and spectrum of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants of cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2 mutation-negative Korean patients with a high risk for hereditary breast cancer using a comprehensive multigene panel that included 35 cancer susceptibility genes. Methods Samples from 120 patients who were negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, but had been diagnosed with breast cancer that was likely hereditary, were prospectively evaluated for the prevalence of...

  6. Beyond BRCA: new hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economopoulou, P; Dimitriadis, G; Psyrri, A

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases might be inheritable, up to 30% of which are due to BRCA1/2 mutations. During the past few years and thanks to technology evolution, we have been witnesses of an intensive search of additional genes with similar characteristics, under the premise that successful gene discovery will provide substantial opportunities for primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. Consequently, new genes have emerged as breast cancer susceptibility genes, including rare germline mutations in high penetrant genes, such as TP53 and PTEN, and more frequent mutations in moderate penetrant genes, such as CHEK2, ATM and PALB2. This review will summarize current data on new findings in breast cancer susceptibility genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein tyrosine phosphatase variants in human hereditary disorders and disease susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Pulido, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins is a key regulatory mechanism to steer normal development and physiological functioning of multicellular organisms. Phosphotyrosine dephosphorylation is exerted by members of the super-family of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) enzymes and many play such essential roles that a wide variety of hereditary disorders and disease susceptibilities in man are caused by PTP alleles. More than two decades of PTP research has resulted in a collection of PTP genetic variants with corresponding consequences at the molecular, cellular and physiological level. Here we present a comprehensive overview of these PTP gene variants that have been linked to disease states in man. Although the findings have direct bearing for disease diagnostics and for research on disease etiology, more work is necessary to translate this into therapies that alleviate the burden of these hereditary disorders and disease susceptibilities in man. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hereditary Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-News Sign-Up Home Hereditary Pancreatitis Hereditary Pancreatitis Hereditary Pancreatitis (HP) is a rare genetic condition characterized by ... of pancreatic attacks, which can progress to chronic pancreatitis . Symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Onset ...

  9. [Hereditary ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikán, M; Foretová, L; Cibula, D; Kotlas, J; Pohlreich, P

    2006-05-01

    This article reviews the topic of hereditary ovarian cancer, describes persons at risk of hereditary disposition to cancer and gives instructions for genetic counselling and molecular analysis, including contacts to specialized centres in the Czech Republic. Review. Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, Charles University in Prague. Hereditary ovarian cancer occurs in three autosomal dominant syndromes: appropriate hereditary ovarian cancer (HOC), hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-poliposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Physician in practice or specialist at the clinic should focus interest on patients form families with frequent occurrence of breast and/or ovarian cancer, patients with early onset disease or tumour duplicity (breast and ovarian cancer). Hereditary disposition to ovarian (and breast) cancer could be assessed by molecular genetic analysis of two main susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, or other genes in families with diverse tumours. Molecular genetic analysis should be in any cases indicated by experienced clinical genetic. In the Czech Republic, the consensus of genetic and clinical care of risk patients was published and specialized centres for families with hereditary predisposition were settled in Prague and Brno. Persons with hereditary susceptibility to cancer constitute noted group where painstaking dispensarisation and preventive care may prevent malignancy or detect it in the early stage.

  10. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  11. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  12. Prognostic factors for hereditary cancer distress six months after BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored predictors for hereditary cancer distress six months after genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial BRCA1/2 or HNPCC related mutation, in order to gain insight into aspects relevant for the identification of individuals needing additional psychosocial support. Coping,

  13. Evidence against an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalmers, R.M.; Davis, M.B.; Sweeney, M.G.; Wood, N.W.; Harding, A.E. [Inst. of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    Pedigree analysis of British families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) closely fits a model in which a pathogenic mtDNA mutation interacts with an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus (VLSL). This model predicts that 60% of affected females will show marked skewing of X inactivation. Linkage analysis in British and Italian families with genetically proven LHON has excluded the presence of such a VLSL over 169 cM of the X chromosome both when all families were analyzed together and when only families with the bp 11778 mutation were studied. Further, there was no excess skewing of X inactivation in affected females. There was no evidence for close linkage to three markers in the pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosomes. The mechanism of incomplete penetrance and male predominance in LHON remains unclear. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Urticaria and Prodromal Symptoms Including Erythema Marginatum in Danish Patients with Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva R; Valente de Freitas, Priscila; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Erythema marginatum is a characteristic skin rash seen in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE); however, it can be confused with urticaria, leading to delay in correct diagnosis. The aim of this study was to clarify how often erythema marginatum is misinterpreted as urticaria, potentially...... leading physicians to refrain from testing for HAE. Few studies have been published on urticaria and prodromal symptoms in HAE, thus the incidence of these parameters were also investigated. A total of 87 patients affiliated to the national HAE Centre were included. Retrospective and prospective data...... on skin eruptions and prodromal symptoms were collected. Fifty-six percent of 87 patients had a positive history of erythema marginatum. Half of the patients had experienced erythema marginatum being misinterpreted as urticaria. The most prevalent other prodromal symptoms were other skin symptoms, malaise...

  15. Variants of cancer susceptibility genes in Korean BRCA1/2 mutation-negative patients with high risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Soo; Lee, Seung-Tae; Nam, Eun Ji; Han, Jung Woo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Tae Il; Park, Hyung Seok

    2018-01-16

    We evaluated the incidence and spectrum of pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants of cancer susceptibility genes in BRCA1/2 mutation-negative Korean patients with a high risk for hereditary breast cancer using a comprehensive multigene panel that included 35 cancer susceptibility genes. Samples from 120 patients who were negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, but had been diagnosed with breast cancer that was likely hereditary, were prospectively evaluated for the prevalence of high-penetrance and moderate-penetrance germline mutations. Nine patients (7.5%) had at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Ten variants were identified in these patients: TP53 in two patients, PALB2 in three patients, BARD1 in two patients, BRIP1 in two patients, and MRE11A in one patient. We also identified 30 types of 139 variants of unknown significance (VUS). High-penetrance germline mutations, including TP53 and PALB2, tended to occur with high frequency in young (cancer patients (4/19, 21.1%) than in those diagnosed with breast cancer at ≥35 years of age (1/101, 1.0%; p = 0.003). These combined results demonstrate that multigene panels offer an alternative strategy for identifying veiled pathogenic and likely pathogenic mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes.

  16. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies a Recurrent Mutation in MCPH1 Associating with Hereditary Breast Cancer Susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Mantere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is strongly influenced by hereditary risk factors, a majority of which still remain unknown. Here, we performed a targeted next-generation sequencing of 796 genes implicated in DNA repair in 189 Finnish breast cancer cases with indication of hereditary disease susceptibility and focused the analysis on protein truncating mutations. A recurrent heterozygous mutation (c.904_916del, p.Arg304ValfsTer3 was identified in early DNA damage response gene, MCPH1, significantly associating with breast cancer susceptibility both in familial (5/145, 3.4%, P = 0.003, OR 8.3 and unselected cases (16/1150, 1.4%, P = 0.016, OR 3.3. A total of 21 mutation positive families were identified, of which one-third exhibited also brain tumors and/or sarcomas (P = 0.0007. Mutation carriers exhibited significant increase in genomic instability assessed by cytogenetic analysis for spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements in peripheral blood lymphocytes (P = 0.0007, suggesting an effect for MCPH1 haploinsufficiency on cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, 40% of the mutation carrier tumors exhibited loss of the wild-type allele. These findings collectively provide strong evidence for MCHP1 being a novel breast cancer susceptibility gene, which warrants further investigations in other populations.

  17. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Groep, Petra; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high or moderate penetrance breast cancer susceptibility genes, all contributing to the hereditary breast cancer spe...

  18. Case-control analysis of truncating mutations in DNA damage response genes connects TEX15 and FANCD2 with hereditary breast cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantere, Tuomo; Tervasmäki, Anna; Nurmi, Anna; Rapakko, Katrin; Kauppila, Saila; Tang, Jiangbo; Schleutker, Johanna; Kallioniemi, Anne; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Nieminen, Pentti; Hanhisalo, Riitta; Lehto, Sini; Suvanto, Maija; Grip, Mervi; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Tengström, Maria; Auvinen, Päivi; Kvist, Anders; Borg, Åke; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Greenberg, Roger A; Winqvist, Robert; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pylkäs, Katri

    2017-04-06

    Several known breast cancer susceptibility genes encode proteins involved in DNA damage response (DDR) and are characterized by rare loss-of-function mutations. However, these explain less than half of the familial cases. To identify novel susceptibility factors, 39 rare truncating mutations, identified in 189 Northern Finnish hereditary breast cancer patients in parallel sequencing of 796 DDR genes, were studied for disease association. Mutation screening was performed for Northern Finnish breast cancer cases (n = 578-1565) and controls (n = 337-1228). Mutations showing potential cancer association were analyzed in additional Finnish cohorts. c.7253dupT in TEX15, encoding a DDR factor important in meiosis, associated with hereditary breast cancer (p = 0.018) and likely represents a Northern Finnish founder mutation. A deleterious c.2715 + 1G > A mutation in the Fanconi anemia gene, FANCD2, was over two times more common in the combined Finnish hereditary cohort compared to controls. A deletion (c.640_644del5) in RNF168, causative for recessive RIDDLE syndrome, had high prevalence in majority of the analyzed cohorts, but did not associate with breast cancer. In conclusion, truncating variants in TEX15 and FANCD2 are potential breast cancer risk factors, warranting further investigations in other populations. Furthermore, high frequency of RNF168 c.640_644del5 indicates the need for its testing in Finnish patients with RIDDLE syndrome symptoms.

  19. Unpacking the Blockers: Understanding Perceptions and Social Constraints of Health Communication in Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) Susceptibility Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenen, Regina; Hoskins, Lindsey M.; Koehly, Laura M.; Graubard, Barry; Loud, Jennifer T.; Greene, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Family communication is essential for accurate cancer risk assessment and counseling; family blockers play a role in this communication process. This qualitative analysis of social exchanges is an extension of earlier work characterizing those who are perceived by study participants as health information gatherers, disseminators, and blockers within families with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) susceptibility. Eighty-nine women, ages 23–56 years, enrolled in a Breast Imaging Study (BIS) and participated in a sub-study utilizing a social assessment tool known as the Colored Ecological Genetic Relational Map (CEGRM). Purposive sampling ensured that participants varied according to numbers of participating family members e.g., ranging from 1 to 6. Eighty-nine women from 42 families (1–8 relatives/family) participated. They collectively designated 65 blockers, both male and female. Situational factors, beliefs, attitudes and cultural traditions, privacy and protectiveness comprised perceived reasons for blocking intra-family health communications. Longitudinal data collected over 4 years showed families where blocking behavior was universally recognized and stable over time, as well as other families where blocking was less consistent. Self-blocking was observed among a significant minority of participating women. Blocking of health communications among family members with HBOC was variable, complex, and multifaceted. The reasons for blocking were heterogeneous; duration of the blocking appeared to depend on the reasons for blocking. Blocking often seemed to involve bi-directional feedback loops, in keeping with Lepore’s Social Constraints and Modulation Theory. Privacy and protectiveness predominated as explanations for long-term blocking. PMID:21547418

  20. Evidence against an X-linked locus close to DXS7 determining visual loss susceptibility in British and Italian families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.G.; Davis, M.B.; Lashwood, A.; Brockington, M.; Harding, A.E. (Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom)); Toscano, A. (Clinica Neurologica, Messina (Italy))

    1992-10-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is associated with mutations of mtDNA, but two features of LHON pedigrees are not explicable solely on the basis of mitochondrial inheritance. There is a large excess of affected males, and not all males at risk develop the disease. These observations could be explained by the existence of an X-linked visual loss susceptibility gene. This hypothesis was supported by linkage studies in Finland, placing the susceptibility locus at DXS7, with a maximum lod score of 2.48 at a recombination fraction of 0. Linkage studies in 1 Italian and 12 British families with LHON, analyzed either together or separately depending on the associated mtDNA mutation, have excluded the presence of such a locus from an interval of about 30 cM around DXS7 in these kindreds, with a total lod score of -26.51 at a recombination fraction of 0. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. SCA1 patients may present as hereditary spastic paraplegia and must be included in spastic-ataxias group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, José Luiz; de Souza, Paulo Victor Sgobbi; Pinto, Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende; Braga-Neto, Pedro; Albuquerque, Marcus Vinicius Cristino; Saraiva-Pereira, Maria Luiza; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Barsottini, Orlando Graziani Povoas

    2015-10-01

    The combination of cerebellar ataxia and spasticity is common. However, autosomal dominant genetic diseases presenting with spastic-ataxia are a smaller group. Pyramidal signs have been frequently observed in several SCA subtypes, particularly in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. We prospectively evaluated the pyramidal signs and spasticity in SCA1 patients, and correlated the data with genetic and clinical features. In this study, we observed that spasticity may be an early and presenting feature of SCA1, since 3 patients had pyramidal signs and spasticity as the first neurological sign. SCA1 patients with spasticity were significantly younger. SCA1 may rarely present with pure spastic paraplegia, resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia, before the appearance of cerebellar signs. This observation may confuse the neurologist when a genetic testing is requested for an autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, directing research to hereditary spastic paraplegia group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A monograph proposing the use of canine mammary tumours as a model for the study of hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Katie; Merner, Nancy D

    2017-05-01

    Canines are excellent models for cancer studies due to their similar physiology and genomic sequence to humans, companion status and limited intra-breed heterogeneity. Due to their affliction to mammary cancers, canines can serve as powerful genetic models of hereditary breast cancers. Variants within known human breast cancer susceptibility genes only explain a fraction of familial cases. Thus, further discovery is necessary but such efforts have been thwarted by genetic heterogeneity. Reducing heterogeneity is key, and studying isolated human populations have helped in the endeavour. An alternative is to study dog pedigrees, since artificial selection has resulted in extreme homogeneity. Identifying the genetic predisposition to canine mammary tumours can translate to human discoveries - a strategy currently underutilized. To explore this potential, we reviewed published canine mammary tumour genetic studies and proposed benefits of next generation sequencing canine cohorts to facilitate moving beyond incremental advances.

  3. Development and analytical validation of a 25-gene next generation sequencing panel that includes the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to assess hereditary cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Thaddeus; Leclair, Benoît; Bowles, Karla; Gutin, Natalia; Trost, Jeff; McCulloch, James; Bhatnagar, Satish; Murray, Adam; Craft, Jonathan; Wardell, Bryan; Bastian, Mark; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Chen, Jian; Tran, Thanh; Williams, Deborah; Potter, Jennifer; Jammulapati, Srikanth; Perry, Michael; Morris, Brian; Roa, Benjamin; Timms, Kirsten

    2015-04-02

    Germline DNA mutations that increase the susceptibility of a patient to certain cancers have been identified in various genes, and patients can be screened for mutations in these genes to assess their level of risk for developing cancer. Traditional methods using Sanger sequencing focus on small groups of genes and therefore are unable to screen for numerous genes from several patients simultaneously. The goal of the present study was to validate a 25-gene panel to assess genetic risk for cancer in 8 different tissues using next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Twenty-five genes associated with hereditary cancer syndromes were selected for development of a panel to screen for risk of these cancers using NGS. In an initial technical assessment, NGS results for BRCA1 and BRCA2 were compared with Sanger sequencing in 1864 anonymized DNA samples from patients who had undergone previous clinical testing. Next, the entire gene panel was validated using parallel NGS and Sanger sequencing in 100 anonymized DNA samples. Large rearrangement analysis was validated using NGS, microarray comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analyses (MLPA). NGS identified 15,877 sequence variants, while Sanger sequencing identified 15,878 in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 comparison study of the same regions. Based on these results, the NGS process was refined prior to the validation of the full gene panel. In the validation study, NGS and Sanger sequencing were 100% concordant for the 3,923 collective variants across all genes for an analytical sensitivity of the NGS assay of >99.92% (lower limit of 95% confidence interval). NGS, microarray CGH and MLPA correctly identified all expected positive and negative large rearrangement results for the 25-gene panel. This study provides a thorough validation of the 25-gene NGS panel and indicates that this analysis tool can be used to collect clinically significant information related to risk of

  4. A retrospective review of 48 individuals, including 12 families, molecularly diagnosed with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, Priya T; Gilpin, Cathy; Smith, Amanda; Graham, Gail E

    2018-02-08

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is caused by autosomal dominant germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene and is characterized by cutaneous leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and aggressive renal malignancies. We conducted a retrospective chart review to characterize the patients referred to our Regional Genetics Program for assessment of HLRCC from 2004 to mid-2016. Forty-eight of 69 (69.5%) referred individuals were positive for a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in FH; they had an average age of 39.1 years. There were 11 different FH variants among them. As expected, the most sensitive indications for a positive genetic test were papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at a young age (5/5; 100%) and multiple cutaneous leiomyomas (18/19; 95%). However, only twenty-two of 48 (46%) individuals with a positive molecular test had cutaneous leiomyomas, which is considerably lower than previously reported and supports the likelihood of ascertainment bias in previous reports. Notably, we have experience with 1 large family in which there were no cutaneous leiomyomas across a large age range. We confirm that multiple cutaneous leiomyomas and papillary RCCs at a young age have a high positive predictive value for a molecular diagnosis of HLRCC, but that cutaneous leiomyomas are less prevalent in HLRCC than previously understood, and therefore the condition is likely to be under-ascertained. Our understanding of the phenotypic spectrum of HLRCC is still evolving.

  5. Reevaluation of the linkage of an optic atrophy susceptibility gene to X-chromosomal markers in Finnish families with Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, V.; Aula, P.; Vilkki, J.; Nikoskelainen, E.; Savontaus, M.-L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the commonest reasons for sudden-onset optic nerve degeneration in young men can be attributed to maternally inherited Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON) (Nikoskelainen et al. 1987). Specific point mutations at either np 11778 (Wallace et al. 1988) or np 3460 (Howell et al. 1991; Huoponen et al. 1991) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding for respiratory enzyme complex I subunits (i.e., ND4 or ND1) can be found in 70% of families. These mutations exist as being either homoplasmic or heteroplasmic, but the correlation between the degree of heteroplasmy and the risk of developing optic atrophy is far from clear (Holt et al. 1989; Vilkki et al. 1990). Neither does heteroplasmy explain the strong male bias seen in LHON families, when the sex ratio of patients with visual impairment is observed. Earlier results indicated that susceptibility to optic atrophy in Finnish families with LHON was probably determined by an X-chromosomal gene closely linked to DXS7. Contradictory results prompted reevaluation of the existence of an X-chromosomal visual loss susceptibility gene in Finnish LHON families. The results of this present study clearly demonstrate that the earlier close linkage to DXS7 is implausible. The altered Z is due to revised pedigrees, the use of liability classes, and separation of the families according to the associated mtDNA mutation. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...

  7. Susceptibility of recently collected Spanish pneumococci nonsusceptible to oral penicillin from serotypes not included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/< or =6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral beta-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B.

  8. Methylation profiles of the BRCA1 promoter in hereditary and sporadic breast cancer among Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Da; Zhao, Yashuang; Xue, Weinan; Shan, Ming; Chen, Yanbo; Zhang, Youxue; Zhang, Guoqiang; Liu, Feng; Li, Dalin; Yang, Yanmei

    2012-09-01

    The development of breast cancer is a multistep process associated with complex changes in host gene expression patterns including inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Critically, hereditary predisposition plays a significant role in cancer susceptibility. However, mutation of the BRCA1 gene is found only in the minority of hereditary breast cancer, which indicates that there might be alternative, novel mechanisms contributing to inactivation of the BRCA1 gene. Studies have shown that aberrant methylation of genomic DNA plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation may be an alternative mechanism for the inactivation of BRCA1 as an epigenetic modification of the genome and whether hereditary breast cancer has a different BRCA1 methylation phenotype pattern than sporadic breast cancer. The pattern of CpG island methylation within the promoter region of BRCA1 was assessed by bisulfite sequencing DNA from peripheral blood cells of 72 patients with hereditary predisposition but without BRCA1 mutations and 30 sporadic breast cancer controls. The overall methylation level in patients with hereditary predisposition was significantly lower than that in the sporadic control group. However, patients with hereditary predisposition showed a significantly higher methylation susceptibility for the sites -518 when compared to controls. These results suggest that there might be different BRCA1 promoter methylation levels and patterns in sporadic and hereditary breast cancer in peripheral blood DNA. These findings may facilitate the early diagnosis of hereditary breast cancer.

  9. Hereditary Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the appearance of an inverted champagne glass) or scoliosis (curvature of the spine). The symptoms of hereditary neuropathies may be apparent ... the appearance of an inverted champagne glass) or scoliosis (curvature of the spine). The symptoms of hereditary neuropathies may be apparent ...

  10. Increased susceptibility of skin from HERDA (Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia)-affected horses to bacterial collagenase degradation: a potential contributing factor to the clinical signs of HERDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Lavagnino, Michael; Sedlak, Aleksa; Gardner, Keri; Arnoczky, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) is a genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fragile, hyper-extensible skin and ulcerative lesions. The predominance of skin lesions have been shown to occur on the dorsum of HERDA-affected horses. While this has been postulated to be due to increased exposure to sunlight of these areas, the precise pathological mechanism which causes this to occur is unclear. We hypothesized that an increase in collagenase activity, that has been associated with the exposure of dermal fibroblasts to sunlight, will significantly degrade the material properties of skin from HERDA-affected horses when compared to unaffected controls. Six unaffected and seven HERDA-affected horses, all euthanized for other reasons. Full-thickness skin samples from similar locations on each horse were collected and cut into uniform strips and their material properties (tensile modulus) determined by mechanical testing before (n = 12 samples/horse) or after (n = 12 samples/horse) incubation in bacterial collagenase at 37°C for 6 h. The change in modulus following treatment was then compared between HERDA-affected and unaffected horses using a Student's t-test. The modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses decreased significantly more than that from unaffected horses following collagenase treatment (54 ± 7% versus 30 ± 16%, P = 0.004). The significant decrease in the modulus of skin from HERDA-affected horses following collagenase exposure suggests that their altered collagen microarchitecture is more susceptible to enzymatic degradation and may explain the localization of skin lesions in HERDA-affected horses to those areas of the body most exposed to sunlight. These findings appear to support the previously reported benefits of sunlight restriction in HERDA-affected horses. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Susceptibility of Recently Collected Spanish Pneumococci Nonsusceptible to Oral Penicillin from Serotypes Not Included in the 7-Valent Conjugate Vaccine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, Asunción; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Vicioso, María-Dolores; Robledo, Olga; Granizo, Juan-José; Coronel, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibilities of pneumococci recently collected (up to June 2009) in Spain (500 isolates nonsusceptible to oral penicillin and 150 susceptible isolates) from serotypes not included in the conjugate vaccine were determined. Most nonsusceptible isolates (53.6%) belonged to serotype 19A. Susceptibility rates in serotype 19A penicillin-intermediate (n = 201)/penicillin-resistant (n = 67) isolates were <33%/≤6.0% (erythromycin and oral cephalosporins with defined breakpoints), 85.1%/11.9% (amoxicillin), and 96.0%/52.2% (cefotaxime), respectively. Low susceptibility to common oral β-lactams was also found in serotypes 11A (95.5% susceptibility to cefotaxime and erythromycin) and 35B. PMID:20308373

  12. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (pgout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (p meta =3.58×10-8). Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    Objective A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Methods Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. Results In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (pgout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (pmeta=3.58×10−8). Conclusions Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. PMID:27899376

  14. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Not Only BRCA 1 and 2 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Toss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65–85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  15. Hereditary ovarian cancer: not only BRCA 1 and 2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toss, Angela; Tomasello, Chiara; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Contu, Giannina; Grandi, Giovanni; Cagnacci, Angelo; Schilder, Russell J; Cortesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65-85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR) genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility of staphylococci isolates from patients with chronic conjunctivitis: including associated factors and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Claudia; Núñez, María Ximena

    2013-11-01

    To determine species of staphylococci in chronic conjunctivitis, their antibiotic susceptibility pattern, patient treatments, clinical course, and clinical conditions. In this prospective study, 243 conjunctival cultures were taken from 191 patients with chronic conjunctivitis, we obtained staphylococci susceptibility patterns with E-test, and they were analyzed in coagulase-positive and negative. The minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of isolates (MIC90) was determined for Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Additionally, clinical follow-up and associated factors of all patients were analyzed depending on methicillin resistance (MR) or susceptibility (MS) bacterial state. One hundred and eight (44%) cultures were positive; 81 positive cultures were Gram-positive of which, 77 were staphylococci, 29 coagulase-positive with S. aureus as the most prevalent, 89% MS, and 11% MR. And 48 were coagulase-negative with S. epidermidis as the most isolated with 36% of MS and 64% of MR. Poor susceptibility was found in the staphylococcus coagulase-negative/MR group. Moxifloxacin and vancomycin show the best in vitro activity for all isolates. The MIC90 of moxifloxacin and vancomycin were 0.064/1.5, 0.64/3.0, and 1/3.0 for S. aureus-MS, S. epidermidis-MS, and S. epidermidis-MR, respectively. The most frequently associated factors found in patients with positive culture for staphylococcus were exposure to the health care system 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients and dry eye 23 (29.87%) of 77 patients. Both with a proportion of 3 in 10. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated from the conjunctiva with 58.33% of MR; even though multiresistance was detected, their susceptibility to a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone, commonly used, such as moxifloxacin, was preserved.

  17. Hereditary cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahner, Nils; Steinke, Verena

    2008-10-01

    Persons carrying mutations for hereditary cancer syndromes are at high risk for the development of tumors at an early age, as well as the synchronous or metachronous development of multiple tumors of the corresponding tumor spectrum. The genetic causes of many hereditary cancer syndromes have already been identified. About 5% of all cancers are part of a hereditary cancer syndrome. Selective literature review, including evidence-based guidelines and recommendations. Clinical criteria are currently available according to which many hereditary cancer syndromes can be diagnosed or suspected and which point the way to further molecular genetic analysis. A physician can easily determine whether these criteria are met by directed questioning about the patient's personal and family medical history. The identification of the causative germ line mutation in the family allows confirmation of the diagnosis in the affected individual and opens up the option of predictive testing in healthy relatives. Mutation carriers for hereditary cancer syndromes need long-term medical surveillance in a specialized center. It is important that these persons should be identified in the primary care setting and then referred for genetic counseling if molecular genetic testing is to be performed in a targeted, rational manner.

  18. Hereditary hyperbilirubinemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherited disorders of bilirubin metabolism involve four autosomal recessive syndromes: Gilbert, Crigler- Najjar, Dubin-Johnson and Rotor, among which the first two are characterized by unconjugated and the second two by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Gilbert syndrome occurs in 2%-10% of general population, while others are rare. Except for Crigler-Najjar syndrome, hereditary hyperbilirubinemias belong to benign disorders and thus no treatment is required.

  19. Hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, M P; Bygum, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a 64-year-old man who suffered from recurrent visible swelling attacks since the age of 20 as well as episodes with severe upper airway edema, resulting in 4 emergency tracheotomies. Eventually after 44 years he was diagnosed with hereditary angioedema (HAE) type II. The aims of this re...... of this report is to emphasize the importance of awareness concerning HAE, which does not respond to traditional anti-allergic therapy, and remind physicians to test for functional C1-INH deficiency....

  20. Hereditary pancreatitis for the endoscopist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Milan R.; Eppolito, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis shares a majority of clinical and morphologic features with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, but may present at an earlier age. The term hereditary pancreatitis has primarily been associated with mutations in the serine protease 1 gene (PRSS1) which encodes for cationic trypsinogen. PRSS1 mutations account for approximately 68–81% of hereditary pancreatitis. Mutations in other genes, primarily serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are also associated with hereditary pancreatitis. While chronic alcoholic pancreatitis may develop in the fourth or fifth decades, patients with hereditary pancreatitis may develop symptoms in the first or second decades of life. Hereditary pancreatitis is diagnosed either by detecting a causative gene mutation or by the presence of chronic pancreatitis in two first-degree or three second-degree relatives, in two or more generations, without precipitating factors and with a negative workup for known causes. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis may have recurrent acute pancreatitis and may develop pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Hereditary pancreatitis may involve premature trypsinogen activation or decreased control of trypsin. Recurrent inflammation can lead to acute pancreatitis and subsequently to chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcification. There is a markedly increased risk of pancreatic carcinoma compared with the general population. Patients are often referred for evaluation of pancreatitis, biliary or pancreatic ductal dilatation, jaundice, biliary obstruction, pancreatic duct stone or stricture, pancreatic pseudocysts, and for evaluation for malignancy. Medical treatment includes pancreatic enzyme supplementation, nutritional supplementation, diabetes management, and palliation of pain. Patients should avoid tobacco use and alcohol exposure. Hereditary pancreatitis is reviewed and recommendations for

  1. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, A.; Nakaoka, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakiyama, M.; Shaukat, A.; Toyoda, Y.; Okada, Y.; Kamatani, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Takada, T.; Inoue, K.; Yasujima, T.; Yuasa, H.; Shirahama, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Higashino, T.; Kawamura, Y.; Ogata, H.; Kawaguchi, M.; Ohkawa, Y.; Danjoh, I.; Tokumasu, A.; Ooyama, K.; Ito, T.; Kondo, T.; Wakai, K.; Stiburkova, B.; Pavelka, K.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, H; Hosoyamada, M.; Fujimori, S.; Yokoo, T.; Hosoya, T.; Inoue, I.; Takahashi, A.; Kubo, M.; Ooyama, H.; Shimizu, T.; Ichida, K.; Shinomiya, N.; Merriman, T.R.; Matsuo, H.; Andres, M; Joosten, L.A.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Jansen, T.L.; Liote, F.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; So, A.; Tauches, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. METHODS: Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were

  2. Hereditary Renal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Lakshmi; Jim, Belinda

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary kidney disease comprises approximately 10% of adults and nearly all children who require renal replacement therapy. Technologic advances have improved our ability to perform genetic diagnosis and enhanced our understanding of renal and syndromic diseases. In this article, we review the genetics of renal diseases, including common monogenic diseases such as polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and Fabry disease, as well as complex disorders such as congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. We provide the nephrologist with a general strategy to approach hereditary disorders, which includes a discussion of commonly used genetic tests, a guide to genetic counseling, and reproductive options such as prenatal diagnosis or pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for at-risk couples. Finally, we review pregnancy outcomes in certain renal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hereditary hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is the most commonly identified autosomal recessive genetic disorder in the white population, characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and secondary abnormal accumulation in parenchymal organs, not infrequently accompanied by functional impairment. This entity is associated with mutations of the HFE gene (located on the short arm of chromosome 6 at location 6p22.2; closely linked to the HLA-A3 locus, which encodes the HFE protein, a membrane protein thought to regulate iron absorption by affecting the interaction between transferrin receptor and transferrin.

  4. Hereditary spherocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spherocytosis (HS is a familial hemolytic disorder with marked heterogeneity of clinical features, ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a fulminant hemolytic anemia. In severe cases, the disorder may present in early childhood, but in some cases it may go unnoticed until later in adult life. We present a 32-year-old male who presented with anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, and gallstones. Seven of his family members had similar illness in the past. The Mother died of similar illness at the age of 40. The Blood film showed spherocytosis and reticulocytosis. There was increased osmotic fragility and a negative direct coomb′s test. He was given folic acid supplements and was advised for splenectomy and cholecystectomy. This case is reported due to its rarity in Indian population.

  5. Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Kooshyar, Mohammad Mahdi; Roudbar, Zahra; Mahdavi, Morteza; Doosti, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Iran in the past three decades and is now considered as a serious problem for our society. This cancer has two types hereditary and non-hereditary, 80% of cases being the latter. Considering that the relationship between SNPs with diseases is a concern, many researchers believed that they offer valuable markers for identifying genes responsible for susceptibility to common diseases. In some cases, they are direct causes of human disease. One SNP can increase risk of cancer, but when considering the rate of overlap and frequency of DNA repair pathways, it might be expected that SNP alone cannot affect the final result of cancer, although several SNPs together can exert a significant influence. Therefore identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are: MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, SMAD7, STK11, XRCC3, DNMT1, MTHFR, Exo1, XRCC1 and VDR. Presence of SNPs in these genes decreases or increases risk of colorectal cancer. In this article we reviewed the Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary of colorectal cancer that recently were reported from candidate gene y, meta-analysis and GWAS studies. As with other cancers, colorectal cancer is associated with SNPs in gene loci. Generally, by exploring SNPs, it is feasible to predict the risk of developing colorectal cancer and thus establishing proper preventive measures. SNPs of genes associated with colorectal cancer can be used as a marker SNP panel as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

  6. RAD50 and NBS1 are not likely to be susceptibility genes in Chinese non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Di, Gen-Hong; Cao, A-Yong; Hu, Zhen; Jin, Wei; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2012-05-01

    Deleterious mutations in several genes that are involved in repair of damage to DNA have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Recent studies have shown sequence variants in two such genes, RAD50 and NBS1, which can be predisposed to breast cancer. The aim of this study is to elucidate the contribution of RAD50 and NBS1 germline mutations to the etiology of non-BRCA1/2 hereditary breast cancer in China. We conducted a mutational analysis of RAD50 and NBS1 in genomic DNA from 384 Chinese women with early-onset breast cancer and/or affected relatives. All the coding exons and adjacent intronic splice junction rejoins of RAD50 and NBS1 were screened using PCR-DHPLC and DNA sequencing analysis. Among all cases, no obviously deleterious mutations were observed in RAD50; one synonymous change c.102G>A at codon 34 and one single nucleotide polymorphism IVS9 + 19C>T were identified in NBS1. Furthermore, there was no remarkable difference in the allele frequency of NBS1 c.553G>C (E185Q) between cases (172/384) and controls (182/420). Our results exclude the possible role of RAD50 and NBS1 in familial breast cancer predisposition in Chinese women, and there is no evidence for the recommendation of RAD50 and NBS1 for genetic testing in China.

  7. The contribution of hereditary thrombophilia to increasing the frequency of thrombosis in patients with Ph negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, including the victims from the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishcheniuk, O Y; Shkarupa, V M; Kostukevich, O M; Neumerzhitcka, L V; Kravchenko, S M; Klymenko, S V

    2016-12-01

    The definition of a contribution of the carriage of the G1691A allele of thecoagulation factor V gene and the G20210A allele of the coagulation factor II gene in the development of thrombosis in Ph negative myeloprolifer ative neoplasms (MPN) patients, who were irradiated in the dose range 0,001 0,99 Gy and who were not. The clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of patients with radiation associated and spontaneous polycythemia vera (PV), essential trombotsytemiya (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) were ana lyzed. The group of radiation associated PV, ET and PMF represented by 35, 10 and 22 patients respectively, and the cohort of spontaneous PV, ET and PMF - 149, 111 and 78 patients respectively. The carriage of any of the two molecular genetic markers of hereditary thrombophilia at spontaneous PMF increases the frequency (3 of 6 vs 8 of 72; p = 0.033) and risk (RR = 6.09; 95 % CI = 1.40-26.43) of thrombosis. The presence of the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene in patients with PMF, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, causes increase the likelihood of venous thrombosis at 10.14 times (95 % CI = 1.67-61.33). At spontaneous and radiation associated Ph negative MPN (in individuals exposed to doses in the range 0,001-0,99 Gy), the higher rate of the occurrence of venous, arterial and any thrombosis was observed in carriers of the G1691A allele the coagulation factor V gene, than in those, whose have the wild type allele. In particular, the G1691A allele of the proaccelerin gene carriers, that are belonged to the group of patients with radiation associated PV, have at 33.33 person years bigger rate of any thrombosis (95 % CI = 0.22-100.00, p = 0.048) and venous vascular events (95 % CI = 12.50-50.00; p = 0.003).In PMF patients with a radiation anamnesis were found the difference (20.00 person years; 95 % CI = 1.51-50.00, p = 0.035) between the ratio of any thrombosis and arterial vascular events, which was calculated for the G1691A allele of

  8. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

  9. Hereditary Predispositions to Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Bannon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are heterogeneous clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, bone marrow dysplasia, and peripheral cytopenias. Familial forms of MDS have traditionally been considered rare, especially in adults; however, the increasing availability of somatic and germline genetic analyses has identified multiple susceptibility loci. Bone marrow failure syndromes have been well-described in the pediatric setting, e.g., Fanconi anemia (FA, dyskeratosis congenita (DC, Diamond–Blackfan anemia (DBA, and Shwachman–Diamond syndrome (SBS, hallmarked by clinically-recognizable phenotypes (e.g., radial ray anomalies in FA and significantly increased risks for MDS and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the setting of bone marrow failure. However, additional families with multiple cases of MDS or AML have long been reported in the medical literature with little known regarding potential hereditary etiologies. Over the last decade, genomic investigation of such families has revealed multiple genes conferring inherited risks for MDS and/or AML as the primary malignancy, including RUNX1, ANKRD26, DDX41, ETV6, GATA2, and SRP72. As these syndromes are increasingly appreciated in even apparently de novo presentations of MDS, it is important for hematologists/oncologists to become familiar with these newly-described syndromes. Herein, we provide a review of familial MDS syndromes and practical aspects of management in patients with predisposition syndromes.

  10. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyerson C

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cherise Meyerson, Greg Van Stavern, Collin McClelland Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies causing bilateral central vision loss. The disorder results from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. The primary cell type that is lost in LHON is the retinal ganglion cell, which is highly susceptible to disrupted ATP production and oxidative stress. Inheritance of LHON follows that of mitochondrial genetics, and it has a highly variable clinical phenotype, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role. Although LHON usually presents with isolated vision loss, some patients suffer other neurological sequelae. For ill-defined reasons, male LHON mutation carriers are more affected than females. Most LHON patients remain legally blind, but a small proportion can experience spontaneous partial recovery, often within the first year of symptom onset. Unfortunately, at this time there are no established curative interventions and treatment is largely supportive. Patients should be offered low vision services and counseled on mitigating risk factors for additional vision loss, such as smoking and consuming alcohol. Encouraging treatments currently undergoing investigation includes ubiquinone analogs, such as idebenone, as well as gene therapy and stem cells to restore ATP synthesis and provide neuroprotection to surviving retinal ganglion cells. Keywords: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondria, neuro-ophthalmology, mitochondrial DNA

  11. [Ataxias and hereditary spastic paraplegias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, R; Schöls, L

    2017-07-01

    Hereditary ataxias and spastic paraplegias are genetic disorders with age-dependent nearly complete penetrance. The mostly monogenetic etiology allows one to establish the diagnosis, study pathogenesis and to develop new causative therapeutic approaches for these diseases. Both the causative genes as well as the clinical presentation overlap considerably between hereditary ataxias and spastic paraplegias. This strongly argues towards a united classification for these two groups of diseases. Next generation sequencing technologies have greatly expanded the number of genes known to be causative for hereditary ataxias and spastic paraplegias and allow simultaneous time- and cost-effective diagnostic testing of > 200 genes. However, repeat expansions and large genomic deletions must be considered separately. Here, we suggest a pragmatic algorithm for genetic testing in hereditary ataxias and spastic paraplegias that we have developed in our specialized outpatient clinics. Detailed phenotyping remains crucial to interpret the multitude of genetic variants discovered by high throughput sequencing techniques. Despite recent technical advances, a substantial proportion of ataxia and spastic paraplegia families are still without a molecular diagnosis. Beside new and so far undetected ataxia and spasticity genes, unusual mutation types including noncoding variants and polygenic inheritance patterns may contribute. Because of these clinical, genetic, and technological challenges, patients with hereditary ataxias and spastic paraplegias should be referred to specialized centers offering research and clinical studies. This will also help to recruit representative patient cohorts for upcoming interventional trials.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several genes, including HAMP , HFE , HFE2 , SLC40A1 , and TFR2 , can cause hereditary hemochromatosis . Type 1 hemochromatosis results ... the HFE2 or HAMP gene. Mutations in the TFR2 gene cause type 3 hemochromatosis, and mutations in ...

  13. Hereditary Renal Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Naomi B.

    2013-01-01

    Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of renal cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell renal cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome and mutations in BAP1, as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary renal cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (FH mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic renal cancers are predominantly associated with Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome. Angiomyolipomas are commonly and their malignant counterpart epitheliod angiomyolipomas rarely are found in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The targeted therapeutic options for the renal cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand, and are an area of active clinical research. PMID:24359990

  14. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (2 links) Encyclopedia: Hereditary angioedema Health Topic: Vascular Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hereditary ...

  15. HEREDITARY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bit-Sava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer occurs in 5–20 % of cases and it is associated with inherited mutations in particular genes, such as BRCA1 и BRCA2 in most cases. The CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, RAD51, BLM, PALB2, Nbs genes are associated with low and median risks ofdeveloping breast cancer. Molecular genetic studies identify germinal mutations underlying hereditary breast cancer. In most cases hereditary breast cancer refers to triple-negative phenotype, which is the most aggressive type of breast cancer, that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. The review presents the diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer. Clinical-morphological aspects allow the new diagnostic and treatment methods of hereditary breast cancer to be identified. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors demonstrate the potential for effective treatment of BRCA-associated breast cancer.

  16. The Genetics Of Blood Disorders: Hereditary Hemoglobinopathies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonati M.F.; Costa F.F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To summarize recently published data on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of sickle cell diseases and β-Thalassemias, the most relevant hereditary hemoglobinopathies in the global population. Sources: Searches were run on the MEDLINE and SCIELO databases, limited to the period from 2003 to May 2008, using the terms hereditary hemoglobinopathies, sickle cell diseases and β-thalassemia. Two books and two chapters were also included. Summary of the findings: More than 2,000...

  17. Diagnosis and Management of Hereditary Renal Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menko, Fred H; Maher, Eamonn R

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the common denominator for a heterogeneous group of diseases. The subclassification of these tumours is based on histological type and molecular pathogenesis. Insight into molecular pathogenesis has led to the development of targeted systemic therapies. Genetic susceptibility is the principal cause of RCC in about 2-4% of cases. Hereditary RCC is the umbrella term for about a dozen different conditions, the most frequent of which is von Hippel-Lindau disease . Here, we describe the main hereditary RCC syndromes, consider criteria for referral of RCC patients for clinical genetic assessment and discuss management options for patients with hereditary RCC and their at-risk relatives.

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  20. CHEK2 1100delC is a susceptibility allele for HNPCC-related colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasielewski, Marijke; Vasen, Hans; Wijnen, Juul; Hooning, Maartje; Dooijes, Dennis; Tops, Carli; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Schutte, Mieke

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenic CHEK2 1100delC variant is firmly established as a breast cancer susceptibility allele. Dutch CHEK2 1100delC breast cancer families frequently also include colorectal cancer cases, and the variant is particularly prevalent among breast cancer families with hereditary breast and

  1. [Hereditary optic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milea, D; Verny, C

    2012-10-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are a group of heterogeneous conditions affecting both optic nerves, with an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-related or mitochondrial transmission. The two most common non-syndromic hereditary optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy) are very different in their clinical presentation and their genetic transmission, leading however to a common, non-specific optic nerve atrophy. Beyond the optic atrophy-related visual loss, which is the clinical hallmark of this group of diseases, other associated neurological signs are increasingly recognized. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Development and validation of a 36-gene sequencing assay for hereditary cancer risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina S. Vysotskaia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have brought many important advances in our understanding of the hereditary susceptibility to cancer. Numerous studies have provided convincing evidence that identification of germline mutations associated with hereditary cancer syndromes can lead to reductions in morbidity and mortality through targeted risk management options. Additionally, advances in gene sequencing technology now permit the development of multigene hereditary cancer testing panels. Here, we describe the 2016 revision of the Counsyl Inherited Cancer Screen for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs, short insertions and deletions (indels, and copy number variants (CNVs in 36 genes associated with an elevated risk for breast, ovarian, colorectal, gastric, endometrial, pancreatic, thyroid, prostate, melanoma, and neuroendocrine cancers. To determine test accuracy and reproducibility, we performed a rigorous analytical validation across 341 samples, including 118 cell lines and 223 patient samples. The screen achieved 100% test sensitivity across different mutation types, with high specificity and 100% concordance with conventional Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. We also demonstrated the screen’s high intra-run and inter-run reproducibility and robust performance on blood and saliva specimens. Furthermore, we showed that pathogenic Alu element insertions can be accurately detected by our test. Overall, the validation in our clinical laboratory demonstrated the analytical performance required for collecting and reporting genetic information related to risk of developing hereditary cancers.

  3. Learning about Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Hereditary Hemochromatosis Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  4. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructosemia; Fructose intolerance; Fructose aldolase B-deficiency; Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase deficiency ... substances build up in the liver. Hereditary fructose intolerance is inherited, which means it can be passed ...

  5. [Hereditary carcinoma: pathogenesis and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, M

    2000-01-01

    Effective prevention of cancer in patients with a hereditary disposition to malignant tumours was made possible by intensive prevention programs and molecular diagnosis. Taken hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as an example this article deals with the pathogenesis and molecular diagnosis in hereditary dispositions to cancer. HNPCC is inherited in an autosomal-dominant fashion and caused by germline mutations in genes responsible for detection an removal of DNA-basepair-mismatches (DNA-mismatch-repair-genes). The error rate in DNA replication is reduced thousandfold by these genes. A defective DNA-mismatch-repair results in tumours if the increased mutation rate causes alterations of tumour-suppressor- or oncogenes. HNPCC patients develop colorectal cancer but also tumours of the renal pelvis, the ureter, the small bowel, the endometrium and less often in other organs. The clinical presentation of these tumours may be characteristic, the clinical diagnosis may be guided by different clinical criteria catalogues. The suspicion is proven by the identification of a germline mutation in DNA-mismatch-repair-genes. This laborious diagnostic procedure is often preceded by prescreening procedures as the detection of microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical tests. Once the germline mutation is identified in a affected family member, the first degree relatives may be tested for this mutation. If they have inherited the mutation, they harbour a extremely high risk for developing cancer and therefore may be included in prevention programs. This so called predictive testing must be preceded by genetic counseling.

  6. Cerebral abscesses among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Tørring, P M; Nissen, H

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), which due to paradoxical embolization may cause cerebral abscess.......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), which due to paradoxical embolization may cause cerebral abscess....

  7. [Hereditary kidney diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-qin; Ding, Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Hong-wen

    2013-04-18

    About 10 to 15 percent of kidney diseases are inherited or related to genetic factors. While, hereditary kidney diseases have no specific clinical manifestations and react poorly to the therapy, as a result, about 30 percent of hospitalized children with chronic renal failure is due to hereditary kidney diseases in our country. Hereditary kidney diseases are related to many genes. Molecular genetic analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of hereditary kidney diseases. Our group have made a series of research in hereditary kidney diseases for nearly 30 years. Here we review the research work and the main results in hereditary kidney diseases of our group.

  8. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Cherise; Van Stavern, Greg; McClelland, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies causing bilateral central vision loss. The disorder results from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. The primary cell type that is lost in LHON is the retinal ganglion cell, which is highly susceptible to disrupted ATP production and oxidative stress. Inheritance of LHON follows that of mitochondrial genetics, and it has a highly variable clinical phenotype, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role. Although LHON usually presents with isolated vision loss, some patients suffer other neurological sequelae. For ill-defined reasons, male LHON mutation carriers are more affected than females. Most LHON patients remain legally blind, but a small proportion can experience spontaneous partial recovery, often within the first year of symptom onset. Unfortunately, at this time there are no established curative interventions and treatment is largely supportive. Patients should be offered low vision services and counseled on mitigating risk factors for additional vision loss, such as smoking and consuming alcohol. Encouraging treatments currently undergoing investigation includes ubiquinone analogs, such as idebenone, as well as gene therapy and stem cells to restore ATP synthesis and provide neuroprotection to surviving retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26170609

  9. Hereditary gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Seruca, Raquel; Carneiro, Fátima

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous and highly prevalent disease, being the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer associated death worldwide. Most cases are sporadic and familial clustering is observed in about 10% of the cases. Hereditary gastric cancer accounts for a very low percentage of cases (1-3%) and a single hereditary syndrome - Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC) - has been characterised. Among families that fulfil the clinical criteria for HDGC, about 40% carry CDH1 germline mutations, the genetic cause of the others being unknown. The management options for CDH1 asymptomatic germline carriers are intensive endoscopic surveillance and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter we review the pathophysiology and clinicopathological features of HDGC and discuss issues related with genetic testing and management of family members.

  10. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  11. [Hereditary systemic autoinflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aróstegui, Juan I

    2011-01-01

    Systemic autoinflammatory diseases encompass different rare clinical entities characterized by recurrent acute inflammatory episodes secondary to a dysregulated inflammatory process. Since their first clinical descriptions, the Mendelian hereditary nature of some of them became evident, with their genetic and molecular basis being recently elucidated. There are disease-causing mutations in genes encoding for different proteins involved in the innate immune response and inflammation. Herein, we will introduce the reader to an updated review of the main clinical, physiopathological and therapeutic features of the different hereditary systemic autoinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  13. Sepsis and siderosis, Yersinia enterocolitica and hereditary haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, Phoebe A; Woods, Marion L

    2017-01-04

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted with sepsis, relative bradycardia, CT evidence of numerous small liver abscesses and 'skin bronzing' consistent with hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 infection was confirmed by serology specimens taken 10 days apart. Iron overload was detected, and homozygous C282Y gene mutation confirmed HH. Liver biopsy revealed grade IV siderosis with micronodular cirrhosis. Haemochromatosis is a common, inherited disorder leading to iron overload that can produce end-organ damage from excess iron deposition. Haemochromatosis diagnosis allowed aggressive medical management with phlebotomy achieving normalisation of iron stores. Screening for complications of cirrhosis was started that included hepatoma surveillance. Iron overload states are known to increase patient susceptibility to infections caused by lower virulence bacteria lacking sophisticated iron metabolism pathways, for example, Yersinia enterocolitica Although these serious disseminated infections are rare, they may serve as markers for occult iron overload and should prompt haemochromatosis screening. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Late-onset Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Hashemi, Nafiseh; Foroozan, Rod; Lee, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    While Leber hereditary optic neuropathy typically causes bilateral visual loss in the second through fourth decades, we highlight visual loss from Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in older patients to characterize the clinical features of this cohort. Retrospective case series. Patients seen between January 2003 and July 2012 at Baylor College of Medicine and between April 2010 and July 2012 at The Methodist Hospital in Houston, Texas. Patients with visual loss from genetically confirmed Leber hereditary optic neuropathy were identified via retrospective chart review. Clinical courses of patients. Five patients with visual loss from genetically confirmed Leber hereditary optic neuropathy were greater than 60 years of age at the time of visual loss (range 62-70 years, mean 66.4 ± 3.0). This series reinforces the importance of including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in the differential diagnosis of patients of any age with optic neuropathy. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  15. Managing hereditary ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of recent developments in the management of hereditary ovarian cancer. Until recently, intensive screening of the ovaries was recommended to mutation carriers and their first-degree female relatives. However, since screening is not effective in detecting

  16. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  17. Hereditary Angioedema in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Line; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare inherited disease that is often difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy with a spontaneous mutation causing HAE, diagnosed after a life-threatening episode of angioedema of the head and upper respiratory tract after a 5-year history of r...

  18. Hereditary ovarian cancer: beyond the usual suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kathryn P; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    In the past, hereditary ovarian carcinoma was attributed almost entirely to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with a much smaller contribution from mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Recently, three new ovarian cancer susceptibility genes have been identified: RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1. In addition, germline mutations in women with ovarian carcinoma have been recently identified in many of the previously identified breast cancer genes in the Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway. While mutations in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 are each individually rare, together they make up a significant proportion of cases. With at least 16 genes implicated in hereditary ovarian cancer to date, comprehensive testing for ovarian cancer risk will require assessment of many genes. As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the practice of evaluating cancer susceptibility one gene at a time is rapidly becoming obsolete. New advances in genomic technologies will likely accelerate the discovery of additional cancer susceptibility genes and increase the feasibility of comprehensive evaluation of multiple genes simultaneously at low cost. Improved recognition of inherited risk will identify individuals who are candidates for targeted prevention. In addition, identifying inherited mutations in a variety of FA-BRCA pathway genes may aid in identifying individuals who will selectively benefit from PARP inhibitors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  20. Hereditary neuropathies: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, T

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary neuropathies are the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases. Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease represents the most common form with an average prevalence ranging from 1/2500 to 1/1200, depending on the studies. To date and with the advances of the latest generation sequencing, more than 80 genes have been identified. Although the common clinical phenotype comprises a progressive distal muscle weakness and sensory loss, foot deformities and decreased or absent tendon reflexes, clinical and electrophysiological phenotypes exhibit great variability. Moreover, atypical phenotypes are arising, overlapping with spastic paraplegia, hereditary sensory neuropathies or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The causative genes are involved in various biological processes such as myelin development and maintenance, biosynthesis and degradation of proteins, neuronal structural maintenance, axonal transport, endocytosis, membrane dynamics, ion-channel function and the mitochondrial network. An accurate genetic diagnosis is important for appropriate genetic counselling and treatment options. Therapeutic advances, particularly small interfering RNA therapy, are encouraging in hereditary transthyretin amyloid neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Committee opinion no. 634: Hereditary cancer syndromes and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A hereditary cancer syndrome is a genetic predisposition to certain types of cancer, often with onset at an early age, caused by inherited mutations in one or more genes. Cases of cancer commonly encountered by obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric-gynecologic providers--such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer--are features of specific hereditary cancer syndromes. The most common hereditary cancer syndromes related to gynecologic cancer include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. Screening should include, at minimum, a personal cancer history and a first- and second-degree relative cancer history that includes a description of the type of primary cancer, the age of onset, and the lineage (paternal versus maternal) of the family member. In addition, a patient's ethnic background can influence her genetic risk. If a hereditary cancer risk assessment suggests an increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome, referral to a specialist in cancer genetics or a health care provider with expertise in genetics is recommended for expanded gathering of family history information, risk assessment, education, and counseling, which may lead to genetic testing.

  2. HFE-Associated Hereditary Haemochromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Eijkelkamp, Emmeke J; Yapp, Thomas R; Powell, Lawrie W

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of the iron metabolism. Screening studies indicate that it has a prevalence of one in 200 to 400, depending on the population studied, and a carrier rate of about one in seven to one in 10. Feder et al identified the hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 1996 and two candidate mutations; the C282Y mutation has been shown to be responsible for the majority of the hereditary hemochromatosis cases worldwide. The gene discovery has led ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hyperekplexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neuromuscular Disorders Health Topic: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hereditary hyperekplexia Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Hereditary fructose intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary fructose intolerance is a condition that affects a person's ability ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  6. A multi-gene panel study in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock-Rada, A M; Ossa, C A; Garcia, H I; Gomez, L R

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for approximately 50% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Three founder mutations in BRCA1/2 have been reported in Colombia, but the pattern of mutations in other cancer susceptibility genes is unknown. This study describes the frequency and type of germline mutations in hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer genes in a referral cancer center in Colombia. Eighty-five women referred to the oncogenetics unit of the Instituto de Cancerologia Las Americas in Medellin (Colombia), meeting testing criteria for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (NCCN 2015), who had germline testing with a commercial 25-gene hereditary cancer panel, were included in the analysis. Nineteen patients (22.4%) carried a deleterious germline mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene: BRCA1 (7), BRCA2 (8), PALB2 (1), ATM (1), MSH2 (1) and PMS2 (1). The frequency of mutations in BRCA1/2 was 17.6%. One BRCA2 mutation (c.9246dupG) was recurrent in five non-related individuals and is not previously reported in the country. Seventeen mutation-carriers had a diagnosis of breast cancer (median age of diagnosis of 36 years) and two of ovarian cancer. All BRCA1 mutation-carriers with breast cancer had triple negative tumors (median age of diagnosis of 31 years). Variants of unknown significance were reported in 35% of test results. This is the first report of a multi-gene study for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in a Latin American country. We found a high frequency and a wide spectrum of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes in Colombian patients, some of which were not previously reported in the country. We observed a very low frequency of known Colombian founder BRCA1/2 mutations (1.2%) and we found mutations in other genes such as PALB2, ATM, MSH2 and PMS2. Our results highlight the importance of performing multi-gene panel testing, including comprehensive BRCA1/2 analysis (full gene sequencing and large rearrangement

  7. Canine hereditary ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urkasemsin, Ganokon; Olby, Natasha J

    2014-11-01

    The hereditary ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that cause a progressive (or episodic) cerebellar ataxia. A large number of different disorders have been described in different breeds of purebred dog, and in some instances, more than one disorder occurs in a single breed, creating a confusing clinical picture. The mutations associated with these disorders are being described at a rapid rate, potentially changing our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat affected dogs. A breed-related neurodegenerative process should be suspected in any pure bred dog with slowly progressive, symmetric signs of ataxia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  9. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, EJ; Yapp, TR; Powell, LW

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of the iron metabolism Screening studies indicate that it has a prevalence of one in 200 to 400, depending on the population studied, and a carrier rate of about one in seven to one in 10. Feder et al identified the hereditary hemochromatosis

  10. EAMJ Oct Hereditary.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEREDITARY GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS: REPORT OF FAMILY CASE SERIES. E. G. WAGAIYU, R. N. NG'ANG'A and A. M. KEMOLI. SUMMARY. Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented.

  11. Comparison of individuals opting for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing with regard to coping, illness perceptions, illness experiences, family system characteristics and hereditary cancer distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Bröcker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    2007-01-01

    To study differences between individuals opting for genetic cancer susceptibility testing of a known familial BRCA1/2 and HNPCC related germline mutation. Coping, illness perceptions, experiences with cancer in relatives and family system characteristics were assessed in 271 applicants for genetic

  12. Comparison of individuals opting for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing with regard to coping, illness perceptions, illness experiences, family system characteristics and hereditary cancer distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Brocker-Vriends, Annette H. J. T.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Gool, Arthur R.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Tibben, Aad

    Objective: To study differences between individuals opting for genetic cancer susceptibility testing of a known familial BRCA1/2 and HNPCC related germline mutation. Methods: Coping, illness perceptions, experiences with cancer in relatives and family system characteristics were assessed in 271

  13. Comparison of individuals opting for BRCA1/2 or HNPCC genetic susceptibility testing with regard to coping, illness perceptions, illness experiences, family system characteristics and hereditary cancer distress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study differences between individuals opting for genetic cancer susceptibility testing of a known familial BRCA1/2 and HNPCC related germline mutation. METHODS: Coping, illness perceptions, experiences with cancer in relatives and family system characteristics were assessed in 271

  14. Genome-wide linkage scan in Dutch hereditary non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families identifies 9q21-22 as a putative breast cancer susceptibility locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Kroeze-Jansema, Karin H. G.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Dambrot, Cheryl; van Asperen, Christi J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Bakker, Bert; van Beers, Erik H.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Vasen, Hans; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Devilee, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer accounts for over 20% of all female cancers. A positive family history remains one of the most important risk factors for the disease, with first-degree relatives of patients having a twofold elevated risk. Known breast cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 explain only

  15. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain and mosquito species and strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype and that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: Analysis of ISAba Elements and blaOXA-23-like Genes Including A New Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas eBahador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB causes serious nosocomial infections, especially in ICU wards of hospitals, worldwide. Expression of blaOXA genes is the chief mechanism of conferring carbapenem resistance among CR-AB. Although some blaOXA genes have been studied among CR-AB isolates from Iran, their blaOXA-23-like genes have not been investigated. We used a multiplex-PCR to detect Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases of 85 isolates, and determined that 34 harbored blaOXA-23-like genes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genotyping, followed by DNA sequencing of blaOXA-23-like amplicons of CR-AB from each AFLP group was used to characterize their blaOXA-23-like genes. We also assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CR-AB isolates, and tested whether they harbored insertion sequences ISAba1 and ISAba4. Sequence comparison with reference strain A. baumannii (NCTC12156 revealed five types of mutations in blaOXA-23-like genes; including one novel variant and four mutants that were already reported from China and the USA. All of the blaOXA-23-like genes mutations were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against imipenem. ISAba1 and ISAba4 sequences were detected upstream of blaOXA-23 genes in 19% and 7% of isolates, respectively. The isolation of CR-AB with new blaOXA-23 mutations including some that have been reported from the USA and China highlights CR-AB pervasive distribution, which underscores the importance of concerted national and global efforts to control the spread of CR-AB isolates worldwide.

  17. Fasciculations in human hereditary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Aliyev, Rahim

    2015-06-01

    Fasciculations are a manifestation of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability in addition to myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps, or tetany. Fasciculations occur in hereditary and non-hereditary diseases. Among the hereditary diseases, fasciculations are most frequently reported in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Among the non-hereditary diseases, fasciculations occur most frequently in peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes (Isaac's syndrome, voltage-gated potassium channelopathy, cramp fasciculation syndrome, Morvan syndrome). If the cause of fasciculations remains unknown, they are called benign. Systematically reviewing the literature about fasciculations in hereditary disease shows that fasciculations can be a phenotypic feature in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA), GM2-gangliosidosis, triple-A syndrome, or hereditary neuropathy. Additionally, fasciculations have been reported in familial amyloidosis, spinocerebellar ataxias, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome, central nervous system disease due to L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) mutations, Fabry's disease, or Gerstmann-Sträussler disease. Rarely, fasciculations may be a phenotypic feature in patients with mitochondrial disorders or other myopathies. Fasciculations are part of the phenotype in much more genetic disorders than commonly assumed. Fasciculations not only occur in motor neuron disease, but also in hereditary neuropathy, spinocerebellar ataxia, GM2-gangliosidosis, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome, Fabry's disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler disease, mitochondrial disorders, or muscular dystrophies.

  18. [Hereditary and familial colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Up to 5% of all colorectal cancer cases are caused by a known hereditary syndrome. These hereditary types often need a higher degree of clinical suspicion to be diagnosed and require specific and specialized management. In addition, diagnosing hereditary colorectal cancer has significant consequences not only for the patient, for whom there are effective preventative measures, but also for their families, who could be carriers of the condition. The most significant advances in the field of colorectal cancer have come from the diagnosis and characterization of these syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  20. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  1. Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance, the prevalence of which is 1 : 20,000 population, is diagnosed much less frequently than is found in child and adult populations. Presented pathology is caused by a deficiency in ferment aldolase B and block of fructose transformation in the gastrointestinal tract with the accumulation of unprocessed fructose in the intestine, manifesting by characteristic symptom and numerous biochemical changes in the body. The disease is asymptomatic until a person begins to use fructose, sucrose or sorbitol. This article describes the fructose metabolism, genetic aspects of the discussing disease, the diversity of its clinical manifestations. The authors presented modern diagnostic criteria and international approaches to diet therapy.

  2. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: Clinical and Genetic Hallmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Victor Sgobbi; de Rezende Pinto, Wladimir Bocca Vieira; de Rezende Batistella, Gabriel Novaes; Bortholin, Thiago; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia comprises a wide and heterogeneous group of inherited neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from primary retrograde dysfunction of the long descending fibers of the corticospinal tract. Although spastic paraparesis and urinary dysfunction represent the most common clinical presentation, a complex group of different neurological and systemic compromise has been recognized recently and a growing number of new genetic subtypes were described in the last decade. Clinical characterization of individual and familial history represents the main step during diagnostic workup; however, frequently, few and unspecific data allows a low rate of definite diagnosis based solely in clinical and neuroimaging basis. Likewise, a wide group of neurological acquired and inherited disorders should be included in the differential diagnosis and properly excluded after a complete laboratorial, neuroimaging, and genetic evaluation. The aim of this review article is to provide an extensive overview regarding the main clinical and genetic features of the classical and recently described subtypes of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP).

  3. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Johnsen, B; Koefoed, P

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...... relatively decreased regional cerebral blood flow in most of the cerebellum. We conclude that this kindred demonstrates a considerable overlap between cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia, emphasizing the marked clinical heterogeneity of HSP associated with spastin mutations....

  4. [Hereditary angioedema: strange cause of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Lozano, Nereo Guillermo; Meza-Cardona, Javier; González-Fernández, Coty; Pineda-Figueroa, Laura; de Ariño-Suárez, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an episodic swelling disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance characterized by sudden attacks of peripheral swelling. Patients also commonly have episodic swelling of the wall of hollow viscera, including the bowel. We present a 33-year-old previously healthy male with a complaint of acute-onset intense abdominal pain localized in the epigastrium. Pain irradiated to the right lower quadrant and was associated with five episodes of vomiting. Computed tomography showed thickening of the duodenal wall with liquid in the subphrenic space. Complementary laboratory tests showed low C4 complement levels (5.5 mg/dl) and 30% complement C1 inhibitor activity. Hereditary angioedema is caused by a deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) in complement C1 inhibitor. Abdominal associated with angioedema may manifest as severe acute-onset abdominal pain or as moderately severe chronic recurrent abdominal pain. Two medications are currently FDA-approved for the treatment of these patients.

  5. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about...

  6. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup; Christensen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis. These monogenic disorders are often characterized by early-age stroke, but also by migraine, mood disturbances, vascular dementia and often gait disturbances. Some also present with extra-cerebral manifestations such as microangiopathy of the eyes and kidneys. Many present with clinically recognizable syndromes. Investigations include a thorough family medical history, medical history, neurological examination, neuroimaging, often supplemented by specific examinations e.g of the of vision, retinal changes, as well as kidney and heart function. However molecular genetic analysis is the final gold standard of diagnosis. There are increasing numbers of reports on new monogenic syndromes causing cerebral small vessel disease. Genetic counseling is important. Enzyme replacement therapy is possible in Fabry disease, but treatment options remain overall very limited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Medical Management of Hereditary Optic Neuropathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Carbonelli, Michele; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Alfredo Arrigo; Carelli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are diseases affecting the optic nerve. The most common are mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathies, i.e., the maternally inherited Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA). They both share a mitochondrial pathogenesis that leads to the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and axons, in particular of the papillo-macular bundle. Typically, LHON is characterized by an acute/subacute loss of central vision associated with impairment of color vision and swelling of retinal nerve fibers followed by optic atrophy. DOA, instead, is characterized by a childhood-onset and slowly progressive loss of central vision, worsening over the years, leading to optic atrophy. The diagnostic workup includes neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation and genetic testing of the three most common mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I (11778/ND4, 3460/ND1, and 14484/ND6) for LHON and sequencing of the nuclear gene OPA1 for DOA. Therapeutic strategies are still limited including agents that bypass the complex I defect and exert an antioxidant effect (idebenone). Further strategies are aimed at stimulating compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis. Gene therapy is also a promising avenue that still needs to be validated. PMID:25132831

  8. Medical management of hereditary optic neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLa Morgia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary optic neuropathies are diseases of the optic nerve. The most common are mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathies, i.e. the maternally inherited Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON and Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA. They both share a mitochondrial pathogenesis that leads to the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and axons, in particular of the papillo-macular bundle. Typically, LHON is an acute/subacute loss of central vision associated with impairment of color vision and swelling of retinal nerve fibers followed by optic atrophy. DOA, instead, is characterized by a childhood-onset and slowly progressive loss of central vision, worsening over the years, leading to optic atrophy. The diagnostic workup includes neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation and genetic testing of the three most common mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I (11778/ND4, 3460/ND1 and 14484/ND6 for LHON and sequencing of the nuclear gene OPA1 for DOA. Therapeutic strategies are limited including agents that bypass the complex I defect and exert an antioxidant effect (idebenone. Further strategies are aimed at stimulating compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis. Gene therapy is also a promising venue that still needs to be validated.

  9. Nuclear matrix proteins and hereditary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjakste, N; Sjakste, T

    2005-03-01

    The review summarizes literature data on alterations of structure or expression of different nuclear matrix proteins in hereditary syndromes. From the point of view of involvement of nuclear matrix proteins in etiology and pathogenesis of the disease hereditary pathologies can be classified in pathologies with pathogenesis associated with defects of nuclear matrix proteins and pathologies associated to changes of the nuclear matrix protein spectrum. The first group includes laminopathies, hereditary diseases with abnormal nuclear-matrix associated proteins and triplet extension diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal proteins in the nuclear matrix. Laminopathies are hereditary diseases coupled to structural defects of the nuclear lamina. These diseases include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with conduction system disease, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2, CMT2), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), Hutchison Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGS), Greenberg Skeletal Dysplasia, and Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA). Most of them are due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene, one - to mutations in emerin gene, some are associated with mutations in Lamin B receptor gene. In Werner's, Bloom's, Cockayne's syndromes, Fanconi anemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency mutations in nuclear matrix protein or enzyme gene lead to deficient DNA repair, abnormal regulation of cell growth and differentiation or other specific metabolic functions. Proteins with a long polyglutamic tract synthesized in the cells of patients with dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease interfere with transcription on the nuclear matrix. Down's syndrome is a representative of the group of diseases with altered nuclear matrix protein spectrum.

  10. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  11. Expanding the genotype-phenotype spectrum in hereditary colorectal cancer by gene panel testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, Anna; Rambech, Eva; Kvist, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel......-based approaches detecting both SNVs, indels and CNVs in the same assay. We applied a panel including 19 CRC susceptibility genes to 91 individuals of six phenotypic subgroups. Targeted NGS-based sequencing of the whole gene regions including introns of the 19 genes was used. The individuals had a family history...... of CRC or had a phenotype consistent with a known CRC syndrome. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the diagnostic difficulties linked to genotype-phenotype diversity and the benefits of using a gene panel. Pathogenicity classification was carried out on 46 detected variants. In total we detected...

  12. Studies of four Japanese families with hereditary angioneurotic edema: simultaneous activation of plasma protease systems and exogenous triggering stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, J; Uchida, K; Yoshimura, S; Katayama, Y; Kushiro, H; Yutani, C; Funahashi, S; Takamiya, O; Matsumoto, Y; Ando, Y

    1984-11-01

    Forty-five relatives of 4 families with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) were studied. Twenty-five, including 11 asymptomatic kindreds with the disposition, showed typical changes in complement system compatible with HANE. Follow-up study of HANE patients showed that, even in remission period, complement, coagulation and fibrinolytic systems can be activated. During edema attacks, moderate haemoconcentration and neutrophilia were encountered and kallikrein-kinin system was found to be also activated. Replacement therapy with C 1-inhibitor preparation for an edema attack revealed that clinical improvement paralleled the increase in blood levels of high molecular weight kininogen. Thus, HANE attack is considered to be elicited in kindreds with the hereditary disposition by activation of plasma protease systems, particularly by that of kallikrein-kinin system. On the other hand, exogenous triggers that can initiate activation of the protease systems can be classified into 2, neuro-humoral (sympathetic nerve response) and physico-chemical, categories. Hence, the edema attack of kindreds with the hereditary disposition can at least be modified by the biosynthesis of plasma factors and the individual susceptibility to the liberated catecholamines. These two different reaction processes are considered to be linked by the release of plasminogen activator and/or Hageman factor activating enzyme.

  13. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  14. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  15. Hereditary pancreatitis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael KL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kara L Raphael, Field F Willingham Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Hereditary pancreatitis (HP is a rare cause of acute, recurrent acute, and chronic pancreatitis. It may present similarly to other causes of acute and chronic pancreatitis, and often there has been a protracted evaluation prior to the diagnosis of HP. Since it was first described in 1952, multiple genetic defects that affect the action of digestive enzymes in the pancreas have been implicated. The most common mutations involve the PRSS1, CFTR, SPINK1, and CTRC genes. New mutations in these genes and previously unrecognized mutations in other genes are being discovered due to the increasing use of next-generation genomic sequencing. While the inheritance pathways of these genetic mutations may be variable and complex, sometimes involving coinheritance of other mutations, the clinical presentation of patients tends to be similar. Interactions with environmental triggers often play a role. Patients tend to present at an early age (prior to the second decade of life and have a significantly increased risk for the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients with HP may develop sequelae of chronic pancreatitis such as strictures and fluid collections as well as exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Management of patients with HP involves avoidance of environmental triggers, surveillance for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, medical therapy for endocrine and exocrine insufficiency, pain management, and endoscopic or surgical treatment for complications. Care for affected patients should be individualized, with an emphasis on early diagnosis and multidisciplinary involvement to develop a comprehensive treatment strategy. Keywords: pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, idiopathic pancreatitis, pancreatitis, familial pancreatitis, genetic mutations

  16. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary breast cancer: Role of BRCA1 and BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebbeck, T.R.; Couch, F.J.; Kant, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The common hereditary forms of breast cancer have been largely attributed to the inheritance of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. However, it is not yet clear what proportion of hereditary breast cancer is explained by BRCA1 and BRCA2 or by some other unidentified susceptibility gene(s). We describe the proportion of hereditary breast cancer explained by BRCA1 or BRCA2 in a sample of North American hereditary breast cancers and assess the evidence for additional susceptibility genes that may confer hereditary breast or ovarian cancer risk. Twenty-three families were identified through two high-risk breast cancer research programs. Genetic analysis was undertaken to establish linkage between the breast or ovarian cancer cases and markers on chromosomes 17q (BRCA1) and 13q (BRCA2). Mutation analysis in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was also undertaken in all families. The pattern of hereditary cancer in 14 (61%) of the 23 families studied was attributed to BRCA1 by a combination of linkage and mutation analyses. No families were attributed to BRCA2. Five families (22%) provided evidence against linkage to both BRCA1 and BRCA2. No BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were detected in these five families. The BRCA1 or BRCA2 status of four families (17%) could not be determined. BRCA1 and BRCA2 probably explain the majority of hereditary breast cancer that exists in the North American population. However, one or more additional genes may yet be found that explain some proportion of hereditary breast cancer. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Advocate's Viewpoint on Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolling-Dandrieu Francisca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses the presentation I held at the symposium on genetics during the 4th European Breast Cancer Conference held in Hamburg in March 2004. Primarily, the goals and working methods of the advocacy group specialised in Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer of the Dutch Breast Cancer Patient Organisation known as BorstkankerVereniging Nederland (BVN are explained. Furthermore, some specific individual problems that mutation carriers might encounter before and after BRCA1/2 susceptibility testing are discussed. These include: dilemmas in choosing preventive interventions, dealing with the psychological impact of knowing you are a mutation carrier, dealing with the social implications of being genetically at risk, an example of insurance discrimination. In addition, some controversial social and ethical issues that are currently under debate are highlighted, such as the issue of the European patenting of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Since this topic could also become relevant for other gene-related diseases, society as a whole has to consider the ethical and social implications related to the patenting of human genes in general. Another ethical area of debate is the controversial issue of prenatal BRCA testing and the choice of pregnancy termination. Finally, the Working Party pleads for the international co-operation and exchange of data and experience among professionals as well as patients. It appears that professionals in different European countries tend to advise on different risk management strategies and treatments and as such, the Working Party strongly advocates the international standardisation of risk management and treatment of mutation carriers. In this respect, specific attention should be given to a group that has had a non-informative or negative BRCA test result, because this group is still considered to be at high risk to develop the disease.

  18. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr eAlaarg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  19. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias. PMID

  20. Genetic Testing: Challenges and Changes in Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elisabeth; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    The practice of genetic testing for hereditary cancer syndromes has changed dramatically in recent years, and patients often approach oncology nurses requesting information about genetic testing.
. This article aims to explore changes in cancer genetics, the role of genetics professionals in providing comprehensive genetic care, and the implications of these new developments in genetics for oncology nurses.
. A literature review was conducted and focused on articles about the updating of genetic tests with panel testing, insurance changes, alternative genetic counseling strategies, and direct-to-consumer genetic testing.
. Oncology nurses play an important role in identifying and referring patients, including those who have tested negative for hereditary susceptibility genes, to genetics professionals. Genetics professionals can assist with insurance issues, interpretation of test results, clarification when a variant of unknown clinical significance is detected, and recommendations for care based on personal and family history and testing results. Oncology nurses can assist families with understanding the limitations of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

  1. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810789

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  2. Drug therapy for hereditary cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyanitov Evgeny N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumors arising in patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may have distinct drug sensitivity as compared to their sporadic counterparts. Breast and ovarian neoplasms from BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by deficient homologous recombination (HR of DNA, that makes them particularly sensitive to platinum compounds or inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Outstandingly durable complete responses to high dose chemotherapy have been observed in several cases of BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer (BC. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that women with BRCA1-related BC may derive less benefit from taxane-based treatment than other categories of BC patients. There is virtually no reports directly assessing drug response in hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC patients; studies involving non-selected (i.e., both sporadic and hereditary CRC with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H suggest therapeutic advantage of irinotecan. Celecoxib has been approved for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers (MTC have been shown to be highly responsive to a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, which exerts specific activity towards mutated RET receptor. Given the rapidly improving accessibility of DNA analysis, it is foreseen that the potential predictive value of cancer-associated germ-line mutations will be increasingly considered in the future studies.

  3. Genetics of Hereditary Angioedema Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germenis, Anastasios E; Speletas, Matthaios

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary genetic research has provided evidences that angioedema represents a diverse family of disorders related to kinin metabolism, with a much greater genetic complexity than was initially considered. Convincing data have also recently been published indicating that the clinical heterogeneity of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (classified as C1-INH-HAE) could be attributed at least in part, either to the type of SERPING1 mutations or to mutations in genes encoding for enzymes involved in the metabolism and function of bradykinin. Alterations detected in at least one more gene (F12) are nowadays considered responsible for 25 % of cases of hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH (type III hereditary angioedema (HAE), nlC1-INH-HAE). Interesting data derived from genetic approaches of non-hereditary angioedemas indicate that other immune pathways might be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAE. More than 125 years after the recognition of the hereditary nature of HAE by Osler, the heterogeneity of clinical expressions, the genetics of this disorder, and the genotype-phenotype relationships, still presents a challenge that will be discussed in this review. Large scale, in-depth genetic studies are expected not only to answer these emerging questions but also to further elucidate many of the unmet aspects of angioedema pathogenesis. Uncovering genetic biomarkers affecting the severity of the disease and/or the effectiveness of the various treatment modalities might lead to the prevention of attacks and the optimization of C1-INH-HAE management that is expected to provide a valuable benefit to the sufferers of angioedema.

  4. [Hereditary hemachromatosis: clinical case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ricardo; Tagle, Martín

    2006-01-01

    Hemachromatosis is a hereditary condition, producing progressive iron overload as a result of the mutation in proteins that regulate intestinal iron absorption. It is a systemic disease with several manifestations including cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, joint disease and a proportion of asymptomatic patients. When it is diagnosed and treatment with phlebotomies is initiated before any organ damage is developed, the prognosis is very good, with normal survival free of manifestations. This condition is common in European populations. We report the case of a Peruvian patient of European ancestry who is asymptomatic, but has high levels of aminotransferases and elevated iron markers. Genetic testing confirmed the patient's diagnosis of hereditary hemachromatosis.

  5. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan...

  6. Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Jian, Shu-Wan; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Lin, Cheo; Wang, Pei-Feng; Su, Chien-Ling; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Shu, Pei-Yun; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. Methods: We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to understand the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: The viral su...

  7. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. Recommendations regarding splenectomy in hereditary hemolytic anemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; Andolfo, Immacolata; Barcellini, Wilma; Corcione, Francesco; Garçon, Loïc; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pignata, Claudio; Graziadei, Giovanna; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Rees, David C.; de Montalembert, Mariane; Rivella, Stefano; Gambale, Antonella; Russo, Roberta; Ribeiro, Leticia; Vives-Corrons, Jules; Martinez, Patricia Aguilar; Kattamis, Antonis; Gulbis, Beatrice; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Roberts, Irene; Tamary, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders with a variety of causes, including red cell membrane defects, red blood cell enzyme disorders, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, thalassemia syndromes and hemoglobinopathies. As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. In light of the priorities identified by the European Hematology Association Roadmap we generated specific recommendations for each disorder, except thalassemia syndromes for which there are other, recent guidelines. Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. PMID:28550188

  9. Hereditary kidney diseases: highlighting the importance of classical Mendelian phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Geneviève; Machuca, Eduardo; Heidet, Laurence; Antignac, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    A Mendelian inheritance underlies a nonnegligible proportion of hereditary kidney diseases, suggesting that the encoded proteins are essential for maintenance of the renal function. The identification of genes involved in congenital anomalies of the kidney and in familial forms of nephrotic syndrome significantly increased our understanding of the renal development and kidney filtration barrier physiology. This review will focus on the classical phenotype and clinical heterogeneity observed in the monogenic forms of these disorders. In addition, the role of susceptibility genes in kidney diseases with a complex inheritance will also be discussed. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Practice Bulletin No 182: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by multiple family members with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both. Based on the contemporary understanding of the origins and management of ovarian cancer and for simplicity in this document, ovarian cancer also refers to fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer. Clinical genetic testing for gene mutations allows more precise identification of those women who are at an increased risk of inherited breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For these individuals, screening and prevention strategies can be instituted to reduce their risks. Obstetrician-gynecologists play an important role in the identification and management of women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. If an obstetrician-gynecologist or other gynecologic care provider does not have the necessary knowledge or expertise in cancer genetics to counsel a patient appropriately, referral to a genetic counselor, gynecologic or medical oncologist, or other genetics specialist should be considered (1). More genes are being discovered that impart varying risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other types of cancer, and new technologies are being developed for genetic testing. This Practice Bulletin focuses on the primary genetic mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also will briefly discuss some of the other genes that have been implicated.

  11. Syringomyelia in hereditary multiple exostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legare, Janet M; Modaff, Peggy; Iskandar, Bermans J; Pauli, Richard M

    2016-11-01

    We describe five children with Hereditary Multiple Exostosis (HME) who also had syringomyelia. Of these, four had a tethered cord/fibrolipoma. No spinal osteochondromas were found in these patients. All had antecedent neurological signs or symptoms that prompted spinal imaging with MRI. Of all patients with HME seen in the Midwest Regional Bone Dysplasia Clinic from 1982 to present, 44% (17/39) of patients had signs or symptoms concerning for possible cord-related neurological findings. However, only 10 of 39 had spinal imaging. Assuming that all individuals with syringomyelia were identified, then 5/39 (13%) were in that way affected. This, of course, is a minimal estimate given that many were not imaged. The incidence of syringomyelia appears to be increased in this population, and seems to be unrelated to spinal osteochondromas. A low threshold for obtaining spinal MRI in patients with Hereditary Multiple Exostosis seems rational. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  13. Hereditary aspects of prostate cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    McLellan, D. L.; Norman, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current literature on the hereditary aspects of prostate cancer and to evaluate the importance of family history in history taking and screening for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles in English or French published between Jan. 1, 1956, and Oct. 31, 1994, with the use of MeSH headings "prostatic neoplasms," "genetics" and "chromosomes." Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of articles found during the search. STUDY SELE...

  14. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Brocker-Vriends, A.H.; Asperen, C.J. van; Sijmons, R.H.; Seynaeve, C.; Gool, A.R. van; Klijn, J.G.M.; Tibben, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  15. Family system characteristics and psychological adjustment to cancer susceptibility genetic testing : a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    This study examined prospectively the contribution of family functioning, differentiation to parents, family communication and support from relatives to psychological distress in individuals undergoing genetic susceptibility testing for a known familial pathogenic BRCA1/2 or Hereditary nonpolyposis

  16. Prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and occurrence of neurological symptoms in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms.......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms....

  17. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does how...... of hereditary angioedema. The case illustrates how clinicians can have difficulties in handling patients with rare diseases, especially in the emergency care setting....

  18. Oncologic Management of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub, George; Nagalla, Srikanth; Aklilu, Mebea

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in females and the third most common cancer diagnosed in males. Familial CRC comprises ~20 to 30% of all CRC cases. Lynch syndrome (LS), previously called hereditary nonpolyposis CRC (HNPCC), is the most common of the hereditary CRC syndromes. In this review, the oncological management of hereditary colorectal cancer from the medical oncologist perspective is discussed with special emphasis on Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome is character...

  19. Susceptibility trends including emergence of linezolid resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from invasive infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Desroches, Marine; Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Potier, Julien; Jehl, François; Lina, Gérard; Cattoir, Vincent; Vandenesh, François; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Multiresistance in staphylococci constitutes a major challenge for the antimicrobial chemotherapy of invasive infections such as bacteraemia or bone and joint infections (BJIs). A nationwide prospective study was performed to detect antimicrobial resistance trends among staphylococci causing invasive infections. Between October 2011 and February 2012, 367 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 695 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were collected from 37 French hospitals, mainly from bacteraemia (59.9%) and osteoarticular infections (29.0%). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution, and specific screening and confirmation tests were performed to detect heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA). Staphylococcal isolates exhibiting a linezolid MIC>4 mg/L were further characterised to determinate their clonal relationships and the mechanism of resistance. MRSA exhibited additional resistances, including levofloxacin (82% associated resistance), gentamicin (13.6%), fusidic acid (13.6%) and rifampicin (6.5%), compromising oral step-down therapy in BJIs. Only two hVISA strains (0.5%) were identified. Among the CoNS, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis (506/695; 72.8%), resistance to first- and second-line agents was more common. Linezolid resistance was identified in 10 CoNS (1.4%). The most frequent linezolid resistance mechanism was the G2576T mutation in 23S rDNA (9/10). For the first time in France, the cfr gene was found in five related sequence type 2 (ST2) S. epidermidis from two different hospitals, in association with ribosomal RNA and L3 ribosomal protein mutations. These national data must be considered when selecting empirical treatment for invasive staphylococcal infections. Moreover, the emergence and spread of linezolid-resistant CoNS carrying the cfr gene is of concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary multiple osteochondromas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topic: Benign Tumors Health Topic: Bone Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hereditary multiple osteochondromas Educational Resources (6 links) Cleveland Clinic: ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome Health Topic: Arteriovenous Malformations Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National ...

  2. SEOM clinical guidelines for hereditary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, Begoña; Lastra, Enrique; Llort, Gemma; Brunet, Joan; Isla, Dolores

    2011-08-01

    Research in genetics has facilitated the identification of highly penetrant genes responsible for a large number of diseases. In the oncology field, genetic counselling and gene testing are focused on the two most common syndromes in familial cancer: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer or Lynch syndrome (LS). The objective of this guideline in hereditary cancer is to summarise the current state of knowledge and make recommendations in the areas of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of hereditary cancer.

  3. Genetics of hereditary large vessel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Takayuki; Morisaki, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of hereditary large vessel diseases such as Marfan syndrome (MFS) have not only identified responsible genes but also provided better understanding of the pathophysiology and revealed possible new therapeutic targets. Genes identified for these diseases include FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, SMAD3, TGFB2, TGFB3, SKI, EFEMP2, COL3A1, FLNA, ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK and SLC2A10, as well as others. Their dysfunction disrupts the function of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways, as well as that of the extracellular matrix and smooth muscle contractile apparatus, resulting in progression of structural damage to large vessels, including aortic aneurysms and dissections. Notably, it has been shown that the TGF-β signaling pathway has a key role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, which may be important for development of strategies for medical and surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

  4. Role of detection of microsatellite instability in Chinese with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Feng; ZHANG, ZHEN-HAI; Wang, Shu-Bao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer and to provide criteria for screening the kindreds with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer at molecular level.

  5. Deciphering the genetics of hereditary non-syndromic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaemmanuil, Eli; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Sellick, Gabrielle S; Kemp, Zoe; Webb, Emily; Spain, Sarah; Sullivan, Kate; Barclay, Ella; Lubbe, Steven; Jaeger, Emma; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Broderick, Peter; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Lucassen, Anneke; Bishop, D Timothy; Evans, D Gareth; Maher, Eamonn R; Steinke, Verena; Rahner, Nils; Schackert, Hans K; Goecke, Timm O; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Propping, Peter; Van Wezel, Tom; Wijnen, Juul; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Thomas, Huw; Houlston, Richard S; Tomlinson, Ian

    2008-12-01

    Previously we have localized to chromosome 3q21-q24, a predisposition locus for colorectal cancer (CRC), through a genome-wide linkage screen (GWLS) of 69 families without familial adenomatous polyposis or hereditary non-polyposis CRC. To further investigate Mendelian susceptibility to CRC, we extended our screen to include a further GWLS of an additional 34 CRC families. We also searched for a disease gene at 3q21-q24 by linkage disequilibrium mapping in 620 familial CRC cases and 960 controls by genotyping 1676 tagging SNPs and sequencing 30 candidate genes from the region. Linkage analysis was conducted using the Affymetrix 10K SNP array. Data from both GWLSs were pooled and multipoint linkage statistics computed. The maximum NPL score (3.01; P=0.0013) across all families was at 3q22, maximal evidence for linkage coming from families segregating rectal CRC. The same genomic position also yielded the highest multipoint heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) score under a dominant model (HLOD=2.79; P=0.00034), with an estimated 43% of families linked. In the case-control analysis, the strongest association was obtained at rs698675 (P=0.0029), but this was not significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Analysis of candidate gene mapping to the region of maximal linkage on 3q22 failed to identify a causal mutation. There was no evidence for linkage to the previously reported 9q CRC locus (NPL=0.95, P=0.23; HLOD(dominant)=0.40, HLOD(recessive)=0.20). Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation at 3q22 contributes to the risk of CRC, but this is unlikely to be mediated through a restricted set of alleles.

  6. Hereditary Hemochromatosis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kids usually isn't as aggressive as for adults. Minor changes in diet often can help slow iron buildup. Your child's doctor will recommend ways to delay or lower iron overload. These might include: Drinking tea and milk products. Black, green, and oolong teas have tannins, ...

  7. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3......) families with diagnoses of both DGC and LBC (one diagnosis before the age of 50). Additionally, CDH1 testing could be considered in patients with bilateral or familial LBC before the age of 50, patients with DGC and cleft lip/palate, and those with precursor lesions for signet ring cell carcinoma. Given...

  8. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  9. [Consensus on hereditary cancer between the Spanish Oncology Society and the primary care societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L; Balmaña, J; Barrel, I; Grandes, S; Graña, B; Guillén, C; Marcos, H; Ramírez, D; Redondo, E; Sánchez, J

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that 5% of all cancers are hereditary, on being caused by mutations in the germinal line in cancer susceptibility genes. The hereditary pattern in the majority of cases is autosomal dominant. Genetic tests are only recommended to individuals whose personal or family history is highly suggestive of a hereditary cancer. The appropriate assessment of these individuals and their families must be performed in Cancer Genetic Counselling Units (UCGC). Representatives of the Spanish Medical Oncology Society (Sociedad Española de Oncología Médica [SEOM]) and the three primary care scientific societies: Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine (Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [SEMFyC]), Spanish Society of Primary Care Physicians (Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN]) and the Spanish Society of General and Family Doctors (Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG]), met to prepare this consensus document on hereditary cancer. The consensus identified the three main aspects: how to identify subjects at risk of hereditary cancer; how to refer to a UCGC; and the usefulness of the assessment and genetic studies. A document, with the text fully agreed by all the participants, has been prepared. It contains a summary of the principal characteristics of the care for individuals with hereditary cancer. It shows how to; identify them, assess them, refer them to a UCGC. How to assess their genetic risk, perform genetic studies, as well as prevention measures and reduction of the risk is also presented. This consensus document is a landmark in the relationships with several Scientific Societies that represent the professionals who provide care to individuals with cancer and their families, and will help to improve care in hereditary cancer in Spain. Copyright © 2013. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  10. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....... affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing...

  11. Hereditary & familial colorectal cancer : Identification, characteristics, surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, F.G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, 15-20% is related to familial or hereditary factors. Diagnosing familial and hereditary CRC syndromes is important for several reasons. One of these is that surveillance colonoscopies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality importantly. A complete family history

  12. Hereditary cerebral small vessel disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Christian Baastrup; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Hansen, Christine Krarup

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this system...

  13. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J E; Johnsen, B; Koefoed, P

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria...

  14. Molecular aspects of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreau, Anne; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive lower limbs spasticity and weakness. What was first thought to be a small group of rare Mendelian disorder has now become a large group that includes many complex syndromes. While large families with defined modes of inheritance were used for the initial HSP gene discovery, new sequencing technologies have recently allowed the study of small families, with the identification of many new disease causative genes. These discoveries are slowly leading to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HSP with the identification of precise disease pathways. These insights may lead to new therapeutic strategies for what is a group of largely untreatable diseases. This review looks at the key players involved in HSP and where they act in their specific pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  16. [Peroxisomal hereditary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandoga, J; Tomková, M; Hlavatá, A

    1997-01-01

    Nearly two tens of diseases are known to be caused by impairment of several metabolic functions of peroxisomes, or by deficiency in individual peroxisomal enzymes. With the exception of X-bound adrenoleukodystrophy, all diseases are based on autosomally recessive type of inheritance and a majority of them are characteristic by specific neurologic symptoms. The group of diseases in which patients develop a generalised loss of peroxisomal functions includes: Zellweger's cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile Refsum's disease, hyperpipecolic acidaemia. Other diseases, such as rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Zellweger-like syndrome are accompanied by a deficiency in several enzymatic activities. X-bound adrenoleukodystrophy, pseudo-Zellweger's syndrome, hyperoxaluria 1, adult form of Refsum's disease and acatalasaemia are peroxisomal diseases with a deficiency of a single enzyme. In clinically most severe diseases (generalised loss of peroxisomal functions), the impairment of peroxisomal biogenesis is caused assumedly due to the defect in some of the peroxisomal membrane proteins. The biochemical findings are brought about by insufficiency in such metabolic functions as oxidation of fatty acids with very long chains, oxidation of the phytanic and pipecolic acids, synthesis of cholesterol, bile salts and plasmalogenes. Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata and Zellweger's syndrome are more moderate forms which are dominantly biochemically manifestant by an impairment in the synthesis of plasmalogenes. Among the diseases characterised by a deficiency in individual peroxisomal enzymes, most frequent is the X-bound andrenoleukodystrophy which has several clinical phenotypes manifestant in childhood, as well as a clinically less severe form manifestant in adulthood-adrenomyeloneuropathy. The diagnosis of peroxisomal diseases is performed by use of a wide range of methods (morphological, biochemical, immunochemical and molecular

  17. Recurrent IVF failure and hereditary thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdarian, Leila; Najmi, Zahra; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Aghahosseini, Marzieh; Rashidi, Mandana; Asadollah, Sara

    2014-07-01

    The largest percentage of failed invitro fertilization (IVF (cycles, are due to lack of implantation. As hereditary thrombophilia can cause in placentation failure, it may have a role in recurrent IVF failure. Aim of this case-control study was to determine whether hereditary thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failures. Case group comprised 96 infertile women, with a history of recurrent IVF failure. Control group was comprised of 95 healthy women with proven fertility who had conceived spontaneously. All participants were assessed for the presence of inherited thrombophilias including: factor V Leiden, methilen tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation, prothrombin mutation, homocystein level, protein S and C deficiency, antithrombin III (AT-III) deficiency and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) mutation. Presence of thrombophilia was compared between groups. Having at least one thrombophilia known as a risk factor for recurrent IVF failure (95% CI=1.74-5.70, OR=3.15, p=0.00). Mutation of factor V Leiden (95% CI=1.26-10.27, OR=3.06, P=0.01) and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation (95% CI=1.55-97.86, OR=12.33, p=0.05) were also risk factors for recurrent IVF failure. However, we could not find significant difference in other inherited thrombophilia's. Inherited thrombophilia is more prevalent in women with recurrent IVF failure compared with healthy women. Having at least one thrombophilia, mutation of factor V Leiden and homozygote form of MTHFR mutation were risk factors for recurrent IVF failure.

  18. Chaperonopathies: spotlight on hereditary motor neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Lupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN comprise a group of rare hereditary neuromuscular disorders characterized by a peroneal muscular atrophy without sensory symptoms. To date twenty-three genes for dHMN have been reported and four of them encode for chaperones: DNAJB2, which encodes a member of the HSP40/DNAJ co-chaperone family, and HSPB1, HSPB3 and HSPB8, which encode three members of the family of small heat shock proteins. Except for HSPB1, with around thirty different mutations, the remaining three genes comprise a much low number of cases. Thus, only one case has been described caused by an HSPB3 mutation, whereas few DNAJB2 and HSPB8 cases are known, most of them caused by a founder c.352+1G>A mutation in DNAJB2 and by mutations affecting the hot spot K141 residue of the HSPB8 chaperone. This low number of cases makes it difficult to understand the pathomechanism underlying the neuropathy. Chaperones can assemble in multi-chaperone complexes forming an integrative chaperone network in the cell, which plays relevant cellular roles in a variety of processes such as the correct folding of newly synthesized proteins, their escort to their precise cellular locations to form functional proteins and complexes and the response to protein misfolding, including the degradation of proteins that fail to refold properly. Despite of this variety of functions, mutations in some of them lead to diseases with a similar clinical picture, suggesting common pathways. This review gives an overview of the genetics of dHMNs caused by mutations in four genes, DNAJB2, HSPB1, HSPB3 and HSPB8, which encode chaperones and show a common disease mechanism.

  19. Hereditary breast cancer in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) populations: identification of novel, recurrent and founder BRCA1 mutations in the Tunisian population

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfoudh, Wijden; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Ahmed, Slim Ben; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Shan, Jingxuan; Mathew, Rebecca; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Troudi, Wafa; Elgaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Hassen, Elham; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2011-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 breast cancer susceptibility gene account for a large proportion of hereditary breast cancer families and show considerable ethnic and geographical variations. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to hereditary breast cancer has not yet been thoroughly investigated in Middle Eastern and North African populations. In this study, 16 Tunisian high-risk breast cancer families were screened for germline mutations in the entire BRCA1 coding region and exon?intron boundar...

  20. Hereditary Breast Cancer in the Han Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenming; Wang, Xiaojia; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and has a strong genetic background. So far, 13 breast cancer susceptibility genes of high or moderate penetrance have been identified. This review summarizes findings on these genes in Han Chinese. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the 2 most important susceptibility genes. They have a relatively low mutation rate, and the most frequent sites of mutation are in exon 11. Frameshift mutations are the main type of mutation. Founder mutations may also exist, and BRCA-associated breast cancer has specific clinicopathologic characteristics. TP53 and PALB2 are relatively rare susceptibility genes. The relationship between the other 9 genes and breast cancer has not been fully elucidated. At present, the mutation spectrum for these susceptibility genes is not well understood in the Chinese population, and there are few reports on prognosis and clinical intervention in high-risk populations. Therefore, the true value of genetic counseling for breast cancer has yet to be realized. This article reviews studies of hereditary breast cancer in the Han Chinese population, highlights potential inadequacies, and provides a foundation for genetic counseling for breast cancer in China. PMID:23318652

  1. A web resource on DNA tests for canine and feline hereditary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Jeffrey; Raj, Karthik; Yuhnke, Scott; Bell, Jerold; Fretwell, Neale; Hedhammar, Ake; Wade, Claire; Giger, Urs

    2013-08-01

    Following the first identification of a disease-causing mutation in dogs in 1989 and the more recent completion of canine and feline genome sequences, much progress has been made in the molecular characterization of hereditary diseases in dogs and cats. To increase access to information on diagnosing hereditary diseases in dogs and cats, a web application has been developed to collect, organize and display information on available DNA tests and other supporting information, including gene and chromosomal locations, mutations, primary research citations and disease descriptions. The DNA testing information can be accessed at the URL: http://research.vet.upenn.edu/WSAVA-LabSearch. There are currently 131 molecular genetic tests available for hereditary diseases in dogs and cats offered by 43 laboratories worldwide. This tool should provide clinicians, researchers, breeders and companion animal owners with a single comprehensive, up-to-date and readily searchable webpage for information on hereditary disease testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New treatments addressing the pathophysiology of hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alvin E

    2008-04-14

    Hereditary angioedema is a serious medical condition caused by a deficiency of C1-inhibitor. The condition is the result of a defect in the gene controlling the synthesis of C1-inhibitor, which regulates the activity of a number of plasma cascade systems. Although the prevalence of hereditary angioedema is low - between 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 - the condition can result in considerable pain, debilitation, reduced quality of life, and even death in those afflicted. Hereditary angioedema presents clinically as cutaneous swelling of the extremities, face, genitals, and trunk, or painful swelling of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Angioedema of the upper airways is extremely serious and has resulted in death by asphyxiation.Subnormal levels of C1-inhibitor are associated with the inappropriate activation of a number of pathways - including, in particular, the complement and contact systems, and to some extent, the fibrinolysis and coagulation systems.Current findings indicate bradykinin, a product of contact system activation, as the primary mediator of angioedema in patients with C1-inhibitor deficiency. However, other systems may play a role in bradykinin's rapid and excessive generation by depleting available levels of C1-inhibitor.There are currently no effective therapies in the United States to treat acute attacks of hereditary angioedema, and currently available agents used to treat hereditary angioedema prophylactically are suboptimal. Five new agents are, however, in Phase III development. Three of these agents replace C1-inhibitor, directly addressing the underlying cause of hereditary angioedema and re-establishing regulatory control of all pathways and proteases involved in its pathogenesis. These agents include a nano-filtered C1-inhibitor replacement therapy, a pasteurized C1-inhibitor, and a recombinant C1-inhibitor isolated from the milk of transgenic rabbits. All C1-inhibitors are being investigated for acute angioedema attacks; the nano-filtered C1

  3. The diagnostic quandary of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia vs. CREST syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Ben-Aviv, D; Covello, S P

    2001-10-01

    The distribution and clinical appearance of the telangiectasia in the CREST syndrome (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal involvement, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) are very similar. Several previously reported cases of the CREST syndrome simulating HHT illustrate this diagnostic quandary. We report a patient who met the diagnostic criteria for both the CREST syndrome and HHT, and discuss the distinguishing features of the two diseases, including the distinctive histopathological findings of telangiectasia in HHT.

  4. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does...... however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack...

  5. Hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, Carole; Leach, Brandie H; Burke, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer and cancer deaths in the Western world. Approximately 5-10% of CRC are hereditary, due to a defined genetic cause. Individuals and families affected with a hereditary CRC syndrome exhibit benign and malignant extra-intestinal tumors, require aggressive cancer screening and benefit from management by a multi-disciplinary team of professionals. The clinical manifestations, genetic causes and current management of patients with hereditary colon cancer syndrome is provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. High Prevalence of Hereditary Cancer Syndromes in Adolescents and Young Adults With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Maureen E; You, Y Nancy; Ying, Jun; Bannon, Sarah A; Lynch, Patrick M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Vilar, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Established guidelines recommend evaluation for hereditary cancer syndromes in patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). This group has been well described in the literature; however, patients diagnosed as adolescents and young adults are not well represented in CRC studies. Here, we define the clinical profile, including the extent of hereditary cancer syndromes and family history of cancer, in patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 or younger. We reviewed patients who underwent genetic counseling at our institution during 5 years (2009 to 2013). Data were collected regarding demographics, clinicopathologic information, tumor and genetic testing, and family history. Patients with an identified hereditary cancer syndrome were compared with those without a syndrome. Of the 193 patients with evaluable data, 35% had an identifiable hereditary cancer syndrome, including 23 with Lynch syndrome, 22 with mutation-negative Lynch syndrome, 16 with familial adenomatous polyposis, two with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, two with biallelic MUTYH mutations, and one with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Patients without a hereditary syndrome more frequently presented with metastatic disease, whereas patients with a syndrome were more likely to present at earlier stages and to have a family history of cancer. Nevertheless, a substantial proportion of the hereditary syndromes (19%) were diagnosed in individuals with no family history of the disease. We conclude that patients diagnosed with CRC at age 35 years or younger should receive genetic counseling regardless of their family history and phenotype. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cancer Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Iuliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are germline variations interspersed in the human genome. These subtle changes of DNA sequence can influence the susceptibility to various pathologies including cancer. The functional meaning of SNPs is not always clear, being, the majority of them, localized in noncoding regions. The discovery of microRNAs, tiny noncoding RNAs able to bind the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of target genes and to consequently downregulate their expression, has provided a functional explanation of how some SNPs positioned in noncoding regions contribute to cancer susceptibility. In this paper we summarize the current knowledge of the effect on cancer susceptibility of SNPs included in regions related with miRNA-dependent pathways. Hereditary cancer comes up from mutations that occur in high-penetrant predisposing tumor genes. However, a considerable part of inherited cancers arises from multiple low-penetrant predisposing gene variants that influence the behavior of cancer insurgence. Despite the established significance of such polymorphic variants in cancer predisposition, sometimes their functional role remains unknown. The discovery of a new group of genes called microRNAs (miRNAs opened an avenue for the functional interpretation of polymorphisms involved in cancer predisposition.

  8. Expanding the genotype-phenotype spectrum in hereditary colorectal cancer by gene panel testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlin, Anna; Rambech, Eva; Kvist, Anders; Törngren, Therese; Eiengård, Frida; Lundstam, Ulf; Zagoras, Theofanis; Gebre-Medhin, Samuel; Borg, Åke; Björk, Jan; Nilbert, Mef; Nordling, Margareta

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel-based approaches detecting both SNVs, indels and CNVs in the same assay. We applied a panel including 19 CRC susceptibility genes to 91 individuals of six phenotypic subgroups. Targeted NGS-based sequencing of the whole gene regions including introns of the 19 genes was used. The individuals had a family history of CRC or had a phenotype consistent with a known CRC syndrome. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the diagnostic difficulties linked to genotype-phenotype diversity and the benefits of using a gene panel. Pathogenicity classification was carried out on 46 detected variants. In total we detected sixteen pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants and 30 variants of unknown clinical significance. Four of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were found in BMPR1A in patients with unexplained familial adenomatous polyposis or atypical adenomatous polyposis, which extends the genotype-phenotype spectrum for this gene. Nine patients had more than one variant remaining after the filtration, including three with truncating mutations in BMPR1A, PMS2 and AXIN2. CNVs were found in three patients, in upstream regions of SMAD4, MSH3 and CTNNB1, and one additional individual harbored a 24.2 kb duplication in CDH1 intron1.

  9. Novel EXOSC3 mutation causes complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Ayelet; Lerer, Israela; Cohen, Rony; Kornreich, Liora; Shuper, Avinoam; Gamliel, Moria; Zimerman, Bat-El; Korabi, Isam; Meiner, Vardiella; Straussberg, Rachel; Lossos, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    We describe two pairs of siblings from a consanguineous family manifesting autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by a novel mutation in the EXOSC3 gene, previously reported in pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1. Clinical findings included delayed motor milestones, early-onset spastic paraplegia, variable cognitive disability, and cerebellar signs. Cerebral imaging demonstrated enlarged cisterna magna and mild hypoplasia and atrophy of the lower vermis with a normal pons. Genetic analysis using homozygosity mapping followed by whole exome sequencing identified homozygous c.571G>T; p.G191C mutation in the EXOSC3 gene. We suggest that EXOSC3 mutations may present not only as pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1, but also as a complicated form of hereditary spastic paraplegia without pontine hypoplasia or atrophy.

  10. Working the endless puzzle of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Francesco; Cantarini, Luca; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Sfriso, Paolo; Fioretti, Maria; Costa, Luisa; Vitale, Antonio; Atteno, Mariangela; Galeazzi, Mauro; Muscari, Isabella; Magnotti, Flora; Frediani, Bruno; Punzi, Leonardo; Rigante, Donato

    2014-05-01

    Hereditary autoinflammatory disorders encompass manifold dysfunctions of innate immunity caused by mutations in genes coding for the main characters of the inflammatory scene: most of these conditions have an early onset, ranging from the first days of life to the first decades, and include hereditary periodic fevers, NLRP-related diseases, granulomatous and pyogenic syndromes, which are basically characterized by upturned inflammasome activity and overproduction of bioactive interleukin (IL)-1β and other proinflammatory cytokines. The discovery of a causative link between autoinflammation and IL-1β release has improved our understanding of the intimate mechanisms of innate immunity, and has likewise led to the identification of extraordinary treatments for many of these disorders.

  11. Diagnostic Approach to Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalady, Matthew F.; Heald, Brandie

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5 to 10% of colorectal cancers develop within a known hereditary syndrome. Specific underlying genetic mutations drive the clinical phenotype and it is imperative to determine the genetic etiology to provide meaningful surveillance and intervention. Recognizing potential patients and families with a hereditary predisposition is the first step in management. Syndromes can be categorized according to polyp burden as polyposis or nonpolyposis. Clinical assessment should start with a personal and family medical history, physical examination, and evaluation for the presence and type of colorectal polyps or cancers. Key information is gained from these simple steps and should guide the specific genetic analysis for diagnosis. Genetic counseling is a critical component to any hereditary colorectal cancer program and should be conducted before genetic testing to provide education about the implications of test results. This review focuses on the thought process that drives initial clinical evaluation and guides genetic testing for patients with suspected hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes. PMID:26664327

  12. How we manage persons with hereditary angioedema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuraw, Bruce L; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema ( HAE ) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder clinically characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous and mucosal swelling that can result in significant morbidity and even mortality...

  13. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  14. Genetics 101 --The Hereditary Material of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Genetics 101 — The Hereditary Material of Life Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in ...

  15. [Sudden blindness: consider Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schieving, J.H.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Hol, F.A.; Stroink, H.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 young male patients, aged 10, 19 and 21 years respectively, sequential, severe, painless bilateral visual loss occurred. Ophthalmological examination revealed no other abnormalities and this delayed the diagnosis Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a mitochondrial genetic

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary antithrombin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have an increased risk for pregnancy loss (miscarriage) or stillbirth. Related Information What does it mean ... Meer J. High long-term absolute risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with hereditary deficiencies of ...

  17. Towards a dietary prevention of hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A

    2005-03-01

    Inheritance of a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 confers a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Variation in penetrance between individuals suggests that factors other than the gene mutation itself may influence the risk of cancer in susceptible women. Several risk factors have been identified which implicate estrogen-induced growth stimulation as a probable contributor to breast cancer pre-disposition. The protein products of both of these genes appear to help preserve genomic integrity via their participation in the DNA damage response and repair pathways. To date, the evidence for a cancer-protective role of dietary nutrients, for the most part those with antioxidant properties, has been based on women without any known genetic pre-disposition and it is important to identify and evaluate dietary factors which may modify the risk of cancer in BRCA carriers. Here we propose that diet modification may modulate the risk of hereditary breast cancer by decreasing DNA damage (possibly linked to estrogen exposure) or by enhancing DNA repair. The prevention of hereditary breast cancer through diet is an attractive complement to current management strategies and deserves exploration.

  18. 2010 International consensus algorithm for the diagnosis, therapy and management of hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We published the Canadian 2003 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE; C1 inhibitor [C1-INH] deficiency and updated this as Hereditary angioedema: a current state-of-the-art review: Canadian Hungarian 2007 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema. Objective To update the International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (circa 2010. Methods The Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'angioédème héréditaire (RCAH http://www.haecanada.com and cosponsors University of Calgary and the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (with an unrestricted educational grant from CSL Behring held our third Conference May 15th to 16th, 2010 in Toronto Canada to update our consensus approach. The Consensus document was reviewed at the meeting and then circulated for review. Results This manuscript is the 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema that resulted from that conference. Conclusions Consensus approach is only an interim guide to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase III and IV clinical trials, meta analyses, and using data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, followed by large head-to-head clinical trials and then evidence-based guidelines and standards for HAE disease management.

  19. The molecular basis of hereditary enamel defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Carrion, I A; Morris, C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. © International & American Associations for

  20. A Review of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder with hereditary determinism, clinically manifested on terms of fructose intake. Untreated, hereditary fructose intolerance may result in renal and hepatic failure. Unfortunately, there are no formal diagnostic and surveillance guidelines for this disease. If identified and treated before the occurrence of permanent organ damage, patients can improve their symptoms and self-rated health. Implementation and adherence to a strict fructose free diet is often difficult, but not impossible.

  1. A Review of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Mogoş Tiberius; Iacobini Andra Evelin

    2016-01-01

    Fructose intolerance is a metabolic disorder with hereditary determinism, clinically manifested on terms of fructose intake. Untreated, hereditary fructose intolerance may result in renal and hepatic failure. Unfortunately, there are no formal diagnostic and surveillance guidelines for this disease. If identified and treated before the occurrence of permanent organ damage, patients can improve their symptoms and self-rated health. Implementation and adherence to a strict fructose free diet is...

  2. Hereditary Renal Cystic Disorders: Imaging of the Kidneys and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Trout, Andrew T; Smith, Ethan A; Towbin, Alexander J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the hereditary renal cystic diseases that can manifest in children and adults, with specific attention to pathogenesis and imaging features. Various common and uncommon hereditary renal cystic diseases are reviewed in terms of their underlying etiology, including the involved genetic mutations and the affected proteins and cellular structures. Focus is placed on the morphologic findings in each condition and the features that distinguish one disorder from another. The two most common categories of hereditary renal cystic disease are (a) the ciliopathic disorders, which are related to mutations affecting the primary cilia (called "ciliopathies"), and (b) the phakomatoses. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, and the "medullary cystic disease complex" are all ciliopathies but have different phenotypes. Tuberous sclerosis complex and the associated "contiguous gene syndrome," as well as von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, are phakomatoses that can manifest with cystic renal lesions but have uniquely different extrarenal manifestations. Finally, DICER1 mutations can manifest with renal cystic lesions (typically, cystic nephromas) in patients predisposed to other malignancies in the chest, ovaries, and thyroid. Although some overlap exists in the appearance of the renal cysts associated with each of these diseases, there are clear morphologic differences (eg, cyst size, location, and complexity) that are emphasized in this review. To improve patient outcomes, it is important for the radiologist to recognize the various hereditary renal cystic diseases so that a correct diagnosis is assigned and so that the patient is adequately evaluated and followed up. ©RSNA, 2017.

  3. Hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and other red cell membrane disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Lydie; Galimand, Julie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis are the two most common inherited red cell membrane disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding various red cell membrane and skeletal proteins. Red cell membrane, a composite structure composed of lipid bilayer linked to spectrin-based membrane skeleton is responsible for the unique features of flexibility and mechanical stability of the cell. Defects in various proteins involved in linking the lipid bilayer to membrane skeleton result in loss in membrane cohesion leading to surface area loss and hereditary spherocytosis while defects in proteins involved in lateral interactions of the spectrin-based skeleton lead to decreased mechanical stability, membrane fragmentation and hereditary elliptocytosis. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. Both these diseases can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include red blood cell cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of the red cell membrane proteins, and mutational analysis of gene encoding red cell membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Elie; Milone, Margherita

    2017-11-01

    Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency as a predominant feature of the clinical phenotype are uncommon and underestimated in adults. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients with hereditary myopathies who demonstrated early respiratory insufficiency before the need for ambulatory assistance. Only patients with disease-causing mutations or a specific histopathological diagnosis were included. Patients with cardiomyopathy were excluded. We identified 22 patients; half had isolated respiratory symptoms at onset. The diagnosis of the myopathy was often delayed, resulting in delayed ventilatory support. The most common myopathies were adult-onset Pompe disease, myofibrillar myopathy, multi-minicore disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Single cases of laminopathy, MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike events), centronuclear myopathy, and cytoplasmic body myopathy were identified. We highlighted the most common hereditary myopathies associated with early respiratory insufficiency as the predominant clinical feature, and underscored the importance of a timely diagnosis for patient care. Muscle Nerve 56: 881-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Phenotypic heterogeneity of hereditary gynecologic cancers: a report from the Creighton hereditary cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Murray Joseph; Bewtra, Chhanda; Lynch, Henry T; Snyder, Carrie; Stacy, Mark; Watson, Patrice

    2013-12-01

    To determine the validity of observations suggesting a significant dichotomy of gynecologic cancers determined by linkage to specific genetic defects associated with two major autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndromes; the Creighton University Hereditary Cancer Registry was searched for female carriers of germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, associated with the Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer syndrome, and in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6, associated with Lynch syndrome, who were registered with invasive uterine, ovarian, fallopian tube or peritoneal cancers between January 1, 1959 and December 31, 2010. From 217 such cases, a total of 174 subjects, consisting of 95 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and 79 carriers of mutations in MMR genes, were identified who had current signed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act forms and complete primary diagnostic pathology reports and clinical records. Data meticulously extracted from these cases were categorized and statistically analyzed. There were highly significant differences between carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and carriers of MMR gene mutations in the proportion of serous carcinomas compared with endometrioid carcinomas of the uterus, including cervix and endometium (p cancers (p cancer, and endometrioid carcinoma was found in two of four MMR gene mutation carriers with fallopian tube cancers. All other fallopian tube cancers were serous carcinomas. Seven BRCA1 and one BRCA2 mutation carriers were diagnosed with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma; no peritoneal carcinomas were registered in MMR gene mutation carriers. Nine of 14 gynecologic cancers with associated endometriosis in mutation carriers were endometrioid or endometrioid mixed carcinomas compared with just three of other histologic types. Primary breast cancers, that characterize the HBOC syndrome, were much more frequent in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers; while multiple gynecologic cancers and

  6. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Syndrome: CDH1 Mutations and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Samantha; Kaurah, Pardeep; Li-Chang, Hector; Woo, Michelle; Senz, Janine; Pinheiro, Hugo; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Schaeffer, David F; Shumansky, Karey; Zogopoulos, George; Santos, Teresa Almeida; Claro, Isabel; Carvalho, Joana; Nielsen, Cydney; Padilla, Sarah; Lum, Amy; Talhouk, Aline; Baker-Lange, Katie; Richardson, Sue; Lewis, Ivy; Lindor, Noralane M; Pennell, Erin; MacMillan, Andree; Fernandez, Bridget; Keller, Gisella; Lynch, Henry; Shah, Sohrab P; Guilford, Parry; Gallinger, Steven; Corso, Giovanni; Roviello, Franco; Caldas, Carlos; Oliveira, Carla; Pharoah, Paul D P; Huntsman, David G

    2015-04-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cancer predisposition gene mutated in families meeting clinically defined hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Reliable estimates of cancer risk and spectrum in germline mutation carriers are essential for management. For families without CDH1 mutations, genetic-based risk stratification has not been possible, resulting in limited clinical options. To derive accurate estimates of gastric and breast cancer risks in CDH1 mutation carriers and determine if germline mutations in other genes are associated with HDGC. Testing for CDH1 germline mutations was performed on 183 index cases meeting clinical criteria for HDGC. Penetrance was derived from 75 mutation-positive families from within this and other cohorts, comprising 3858 probands (353 with gastric cancer and 89 with breast cancer). Germline DNA from 144 HDGC probands lacking CDH1 mutations was screened using multiplexed targeted sequencing for 55 cancer-associated genes. Accurate estimates of gastric and breast cancer risks in CDH1 mutation carriers and the relative contribution of other cancer predisposition genes in familial gastric cancers. Thirty-one distinct pathogenic CDH1 mutations (14 novel) were identified in 34 of 183 index cases (19%). By the age of 80 years, the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was 70% (95% CI, 59%-80%) for males and 56% (95% CI, 44%-69%) for females, and the risk of breast cancer for females was 42% (95% CI, 23%-68%). In CDH1 mutation-negative index cases, candidate mutations were identified in 16 of 144 probands (11%), including mutations within genes of high and moderate penetrance: CTNNA1, BRCA2, STK11, SDHB, PRSS1, ATM, MSR1, and PALB2. This is the largest reported series of CDH1 mutation carriers, providing more precise estimates of age-associated risks of gastric and breast cancer that will improve counseling of unaffected carriers. In HDGC families lacking CDH1 mutations, testing of CTNNA1 and other tumor suppressor genes should be considered

  7. [Epidemiology of monogenic hereditary diseases in Rostov oblast: population dynamic factors determining the differentiation of the load of hereditary diseases in eight districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, R A; Amelina, S S; Shokarev, R A; Val'kov, R A; Val'kova, T I; Vetrova, N V; Kriventsova, N V; El'chinova, G I; Petrova, N V; Khlebnikova, O V

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of the diversity of monogenic hereditary diseases in eight raions (districts) of Rostov oblast (region) of Russia (Tsimlyansk, Volgodonskoi, Tselina, Egorlykskaya, Millerovo, Tarasovskaya, Rodionovo-Nesvetaiskaya, and Matveevo-Kurgan raions) has been summarized. The total sample size was 320925 subjects. The spectrum of hereditary diseases detected in the eight districts comprises 187 diseases, including 99 autosomal dominant (AD), 72 autosomal recessive (AR), and 16 X-linked diseases. The mean prevalence rate of each disease in the total population has been calculated. Accumulation of individual diseases in different regions of Rostov oblast has been calculated; the disease accumulation has been compared with that in some populations of Russia examined earlier. Cluster analysis using the data on the frequencies of genes of hereditary diseases has shown the gene geographic position of the Rostov oblast population among the following ethnic populations of Russia: Russians (Kostroma, Kirov, and Rostov oblasts and Krasnodar krai), Chuvashes (Chuvashia), Adygeans (Adygea), Maris (Marii El), and Udmurts (Udmurtia).

  8. Mutational analysis of RAD51C and RAD51D genes in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from Murcia (southeastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bermúdez, Ana Isabel; Sarabia-Meseguer, Ma Desamparados; García-Aliaga, Ángeles; Marín-Vera, Miguel; Macías-Cerrolaza, José Antonio; Henaréjos, Pilar Sánchez; Guardiola-Castillo, Verónica; Peña, Francisco Ayala-de la; Alonso-Romero, José Luis; Noguera-Velasco, José Antonio; Ruiz-Espejo, Francisco

    2018-01-31

    RAD51C and RAD51D have been defined as susceptibility genes for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in several studies. In the present study, a mutation analysis of these genes was performed on non BRCA1/2 families. RAD51C and RAD51D genes were analyzed in 141 and 77 families, respectively. The analysis included direct sequencing and multiple ligation probe analysis. The RAD51C pathogenic variant c.404G > A was identified in a breast and ovarian cancer family (0.7%), while the RAD51D pathogenic variant c.694C > T was described in an ovarian cancer family (1.3%). Moreover, three unknown clinical significance variants were detected: c.307T > G in RAD51C, and c.413A > G and c.715C > T in RAD51D. No large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) were found. RAD51D carriers suffered from premenopausal ovarian tumors. These results increase our knowledge about the RAD51C and RAD51D mutation spectrum and support the notion that these genes should be included in the gene panel testing performed on patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Automated reticulocyte parameters for hereditary spherocytosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarova, Elena; Pradier, Olivier; Cotton, Frédéric; Gulbis, Béatrice

    2014-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on several screening and confirmatory tests; our algorithm includes clinical features, red blood cell morphology analysis and cryohaemolysis test, and, in case of positive screening, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a diagnostic test. Using the UniCel DxH800 (Beckman Coulter) haematology analyser, we investigated automated reticulocyte parameters as HS screening tool, i.e. mean reticulocyte volume (MRV), immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF) and mean sphered cell volume (MSCV). A total of 410 samples were screened. Gel electrophoresis was applied to 159 samples that were positive for the screening tests. A total of 48 patients were diagnosed as HS, and seven were diagnosed as acquired autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Some other 31 anaemic conditions were also studied. From the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, both delta (mean cell volume (MCV)-MSCV) and MRV presented an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.98. At the diagnostic cut-off of 100 % sensitivity, MRV showed the best specificity of 88 % and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7. The parameters IRF, MRV and MSCV discriminated HS not only from controls and other tested pathologies but also from AIHA contrary to the cryohaemolysis test. In conclusion, automated reticulocyte parameters might be helpful for haemolytic anaemia diagnostic orientation even for general laboratories. In combination with cryohaemolysis, they ensure an effective and time-saving screening for HS for more specialised laboratories.

  10. Consanguinity and hereditary hearing loss in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Giorgia; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Abdulhadi, Khalid; Vuckovic, Dragana; Vozzi, Diego; Khalifa Alkowari, Moza; Gasparini, Paolo; Badii, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Qatar is a sovereign state located on the Eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in the Persian Gulf. Its native population consists of 3 major subgroups: people of Arabian origin or Bedouins, those from an Eastern or Persian ancestry and individuals with African admixture. Historically, all types of consanguineous marriages have been and still are common in the Qatari population, particularly among first and double-first cousins. Thus, there is a higher risk for most inherited diseases including hereditary hearing loss (HHL). In particular, a hearing loss prevalence of 5.2% has been reported in Qatar, with parental consanguinity being more common among affected individuals as compared with unaffected ones. Our recent molecular results confirm a high homogeneity and level of inbreeding in Qatari HHL patients. Among all HHL genes, GJB2, the major player worldwide, accounts for a minor proportion of cases and at least 3 additional genes have been found to be mutated in Qatari patients. Interestingly, one gene, BDP1, has been described to cause HHL only in this country. These results point towards an unexpected level of genetic heterogeneity despite the high level of inbreeding. This review provides an up-to-date picture of HHL in Qatar and of the impact of consanguinity on this disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Hereditary multiple exostoses of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fiky, Tarek A M; Chow, Wang; Li, Yun Hoi; To, Michael

    2009-08-01

    To assess the radiographic features of 36 hips with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Hip parameters of 12 males and 6 females (36 hips) aged 2 to 28 years with HME were assessed using anteroposterior radiographs. The recorded features included the sites of osteochondromas, the femoral head/neck ratio, the Reimer's migration percentage, Sharp's acetabular angle, the centre edge angle, the femoral neck-shaft angle, and degenerative changes. 15 of the 18 patients were asymptomatic; 3 complained of pain (2 underwent excision or bone biopsy); no lesion was malignant. Osteochondromas were most commonly located in the femur followed by the ilium; only one was intra-articular. 32 hips had coxa valga; 26 had an abnormal Reimer's migration percentage; 17 had an abnormal Sharp's acetabular angle; 12 had an abnormal centre edge angle; 32 had an abnormal femoral neck-shaft angle; and 6 had degenerative changes. Acetabular and femoral dysplasia as well as subluxation are common in patients with HME. Borderline subluxated hips and those with marked coxa valga and/or acetabular dysplasia should be closely monitored to determine the need for surgery in the future. Subluxated hips should be operated on early, particularly in children and symptomatic adults.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neuropathy, type V Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V is a progressive disorder that affects nerve cells ...

  13. The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer Study: Review and Future Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-01-01

    .... In 2007, the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) Study was established to obtain evidence for the accurate risk assessment and management of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in Korea...

  14. [Quality control of DNA testing in hereditary diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweland, A.M.W. van den; Scheffer, H.

    2001-01-01

    The laboratories performing diagnostic studies regarding hereditary diseases and the specialists providing hereditary counselling are housed in clinical genetic centres. The laboratories are subject to the Special Medical Performances Act and have had licenses from the Ministry. The DNA diagnostic

  15. X-inactivation pattern in multiple tissues from two Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Elena; Vettori, Andrea; Valentino, Maria L; Molon, Annamaria; Mostacciuolo, Maria L; Howell, Neil; Carelli, Valerio

    2003-05-15

    The more frequent manifestation of ophthalmological abnormalities in males, relative to females, is an unexplained feature of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that suggests an X-linked modifying gene acting in concert with the pathogenic LHON mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. In addition, segregation analysis of the optic neuropathy in LHON pedigrees was compatible with the presence of a recessive-modifying gene on chromosome X. According to this two-locus model, females would be affected only if homozygous or if they were susceptible to skewed X-inactivation. Attempts both to localize the putative LHON-modifying gene by linkage analysis and to find an excess of skewed X-inactivation in affected females were unsuccessful, although the inactivation pattern was only studied in DNA isolated from blood cells. We had the opportunity to analyze a wide range of tissues at autopsy, including the optic nerves and the retina, from two LHON female patients. We found no evidence of skewed X-inactivation in the affected tissues, thus weakening further the hypothesized involvement of a specific X chromosome locus in the pathophysiological expression of LHON. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Heat Shock Response Associated with Hepatocarcinogenesis in a Murine Model of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angileri, Francesca; Morrow, Geneviève; Roy, Vincent; Orejuela, Diana; Tanguay, Robert M., E-mail: robert.tanguay@ibis.ulaval.ca [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Genetics, Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS) and PROTEO, 1030 avenue de la médecine, Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2014-04-23

    Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is a metabolic liver disease caused by genetic defects of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme necessary to complete the breakdown of tyrosine. The severe hepatic dysfunction caused by the lack of this enzyme is prevented by the therapeutic use of NTBC (2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione). However despite the treatment, chronic hepatopathy and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still observed in some HT1 patients. Growing evidence show the important role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in many cellular processes and their involvement in pathological diseases including cancer. Their survival-promoting effect by modulation of the apoptotic machinery is often correlated with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in a number of cancers. Here, we sought to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with liver dysfunction and tumor development in a murine model of HT1. Differential gene expression patterns in livers of mice under HT1 stress, induced by drug retrieval, have shown deregulation of stress and cell death resistance genes. Among them, genes coding for HSPB and HSPA members, and for anti-apoptotic BCL-2 related mitochondrial proteins were associated with the hepatocarcinogenetic process. Our data highlight the variation of stress pathways related to HT1 hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting the role of HSPs in rendering tyrosinemia-affected liver susceptible to the development of HCC.

  17. Hereditary Predispositions to Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah A. Bannon; Courtney D. DiNardo

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, bone marrow dysplasia, and peripheral cytopenias. Familial forms of MDS have traditionally been considered rare, especially in adults; however, the increasing availability of somatic and germline genetic analyses has identified multiple susceptibility loci. Bone marrow failure syndromes have been well-described in the pediatric setting, e.g., Fanconi anemia (FA), dysker...

  18. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sun Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes.

  19. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis and growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, S K; Gidvani, V K; Rettig, K R

    2001-01-01

    To describe two patients with hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) and growth hormone deficiency and to review the literature on HGF and related endocrine abnormalities. We present case reports of two patients (first cousins)-an 8-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy-with an existing diagnosis of HGF, who were assessed because of presumed growth failure. Both patients underwent growth hormone stimulation testing and more in-depth endocrine evaluation, including measurement of morning cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and prolactin levels as well as thyroid function tests. An ACTH stimulation test was also performed. Radiologic evaluation included assessment of bone age and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. In addition to HGF, both patients had short stature, subnormal growth velocity, and delayed bone age but no abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Serum prolactin levels and results of thyroid function tests were normal. Subnormal growth hormone response was noted during hypoglycemia and pharmacologic stimuli with clonidine and levodopa. The female patient, who also had recurrent hypoglycemic episodes, had a suboptimal cortisol and ACTH response during hypoglycemia. On the ACTH stimulation test, she showed an inadequate cortisol response at 30 minutes but a normal response at 60 minutes. The male patient had normal morning cortisol and ACTH levels plus a normal response to ACTH stimulation. Both patients are responding well to treatment with growth hormone. The girl is also receiving cortisol replacement and has had no further episodes of hypoglycemia. Although HGF has been described as an isolated finding, it can occur as part of a syndrome, including infrequent endocrine abnormalities such as growth hormone insufficiency. The cause of the growth hormone deficiency remains unclear in these two patients. We believe that patients with HGF should be monitored carefully for a prolonged period for growth as well as other

  20. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO is a rare hereditary metabolic disorder that may be associated with or without resistant to parathyroid hormone (pseudohypoparathyroidism. It is commonly characterized by a constellation of physical features of short stature, round face, short neck, and small metacarpals and metatarsals, mild mental retardation, osteoporosis, subcutaneous calcification, and sometimes olfactory and hearing functional defect. Hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphatemia are the most important manifestations of the case. We report a clinical case of siblings with AHO with reduced Gs-alpha activity and we discuss their clinical features with oral manifestations, radiographic findings, laboratory tests along with treatment.

  1. Therapeutic Strategies for Hereditary Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidana, Abhinav; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad

    2016-08-01

    The study of hereditary forms of kidney cancer has vastly increased our understanding of metabolic and genetic pathways involved in the development of both inherited and sporadic kidney cancers. The recognition that diverse molecular events drive different forms of kidney cancers has led to the preclinical and clinical development of specific pathway-directed strategies tailored to treat distinct subgroups of kidney cancer. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of several different types of hereditary renal cancers, review their clinical characteristics, and summarize the treatment strategies for the management of these cancers.

  2. Extramedullary paraspinal hematopoiesis in hereditary spherocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spherocytosis (HS is a common inherited hemolytic anemia due to red cell membrane defects. Extramedullary hematopoiesis is a compensatory response to insufficient bone marrow blood cell production. The preferred sites of extramedullary hematopoietic involvement are the spleen, liver and lymph nodes; but in HS, the posterior paravertebral mediastinum is also commonly involved. We report a case of a 50-year-old male who presented to us in respiratory distress and with bilateral paravertebral posterior mediastinal masses, which on trucut biopsy were found to be extra-hematopoietic masses; and the patient was found to have hereditary spherocytosis.

  3. [Recurrent urinary lithiasis revealing hereditary xanthinuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlous, Afef; Gasmi, Manef; Mohsni, Amira; Abdelmoula, Jaouida

    2007-09-01

    Hereditary xanthinuria, due to a purine metabolism disorder, is a rare cause of urinary lithiasis in children. We report the case of a child aged 3 and a half years, who presented recurrent urinary lithiasis that led to destruction of the right kidney. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the calculus concluded that it was composed of 100% xanthine. Laboratory tests showed hypouricemia and hypouricosuria with elevated urinary excretion of oxypurines. These findings led to a diagnosis of hereditary xanthinuria. Early diagnosis of this rare disease is essential to avoid its complications. Metabolic causes must be sought in children with lithiasis.

  4. Rare copy number variants observed in hereditary breast cancer cases disrupt genes in estrogen signaling and TP53 tumor suppression network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Pylkäs

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and the contribution of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer development has been well-recognized. However, a great proportion of these hereditary predisposing factors still remain unidentified. To examine the contribution of rare copy number variants (CNVs in breast cancer predisposition, high-resolution genome-wide scans were performed on genomic DNA of 103 BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutation negative familial breast cancer cases and 128 geographically matched healthy female controls; for replication an independent cohort of 75 similarly mutation negative young breast cancer patients was used. All observed rare variants were confirmed by independent methods. The studied breast cancer cases showed a consistent increase in the frequency of rare CNVs when compared to controls. Furthermore, the biological networks of the disrupted genes differed between the two groups. In familial cases the observed mutations disrupted genes, which were significantly overrepresented in cellular functions related to maintenance of genomic integrity, including DNA double-strand break repair (P = 0.0211. Biological network analysis in the two independent breast cancer cohorts showed that the disrupted genes were closely related to estrogen signaling and TP53 centered tumor suppressor network. These results suggest that rare CNVs represent an alternative source of genetic variation influencing hereditary risk for breast cancer.

  5. Rare copy number variants observed in hereditary breast cancer cases disrupt genes in estrogen signaling and TP53 tumor suppression network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylkäs, Katri; Vuorela, Mikko; Otsukka, Meeri; Kallioniemi, Anne; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Winqvist, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in developed countries, and the contribution of genetic susceptibility to breast cancer development has been well-recognized. However, a great proportion of these hereditary predisposing factors still remain unidentified. To examine the contribution of rare copy number variants (CNVs) in breast cancer predisposition, high-resolution genome-wide scans were performed on genomic DNA of 103 BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutation negative familial breast cancer cases and 128 geographically matched healthy female controls; for replication an independent cohort of 75 similarly mutation negative young breast cancer patients was used. All observed rare variants were confirmed by independent methods. The studied breast cancer cases showed a consistent increase in the frequency of rare CNVs when compared to controls. Furthermore, the biological networks of the disrupted genes differed between the two groups. In familial cases the observed mutations disrupted genes, which were significantly overrepresented in cellular functions related to maintenance of genomic integrity, including DNA double-strand break repair (P = 0.0211). Biological network analysis in the two independent breast cancer cohorts showed that the disrupted genes were closely related to estrogen signaling and TP53 centered tumor suppressor network. These results suggest that rare CNVs represent an alternative source of genetic variation influencing hereditary risk for breast cancer.

  6. [Hereditary angioedema in Medellín (Colombia): Clinical evaluation and quality of life appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, María Dulfary; Cuervo, Julián; Rave, Deisi; Clemen, Gustavo; Yepes-Núñez, Juan José; Ortiz-Reyes, Blanca; Sus, Sara; Cardona, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency caused by a deficiency of the C1 inhibitor protein and characterized by recurrent episodes of subcutaneous and mucosal edema. Unpredictable and frequent crisis of angioedema affect the quality of life of individuals suffering this kind of disorder. To analyze the clinical characteristics of a family with an index case of hereditary angioedema and to determine the impact of this disease on their quality of life. Twenty six members of the family were included in the trial; 25 of them were analyzed for C4 complement and antigenic and functional C1 inhibitor blood levels. Two instruments (SF-365 and KIDSCREEN-27) were used to evaluate adult health quality and children and teenagers quality of life, respectively. Eighty three percent (83%) of individuals reporting symptoms of the condition exhibited serological criteria of hereditary angioedema type I: low levels of both C4 complement and quantitative (antigenic) and qualitative (functional) C1 inhibitor. In relation to patients' psychological and emotional performance, their quality of life was significantly affected by the symptoms of hereditary angioedema. This study provides evidence of the first family in Valle de Aburrá (Colombia) characterized as having hereditary angioedema type I. Despite the use of a generic instrument, the negative impact on the quality of life of individuals suffering this disease was also confirmed.

  7. Epidemiology of Non-hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Attermann, Jørn; Linneberg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of non-hereditary angioedema was investigated in a general population sample (n¿=¿7,931) and in a sample of Danish patients (n¿=¿7,433) tested for deficiency of functional complement C1 esterase inhibitor protein (functional C1 INH). The general population sample (44% response rate...

  8. Epidemiology of Non-hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Flemming; Attermann, Jorn; Linneberg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of non-hereditary angioedema was investigated in a general population sample (n = 7,931) and in a sample of Danish patients (n = 7,433) tested for deficiency of functional complement C1 esterase inhibitor protein (functional C1 INH). The general population sample (44% response rate...

  9. [Preventive resection of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Nagengast, F.M.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancers are rare, accounting for at most 1-3% of gastric cancers. It can be caused by a mutation in the tumour-suppressor gene CDH1. A healthy person carrying a CDH1 mutation has a cumulative risk of developing gastric cancer of 70-80%. In most cases, gastric cancer is

  10. Hereditary spherocytosis. | Hassan | Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a familial hemolytic disorder with marked heterogeneity of clinical features, ranging from an asymptomatic condition to a fulminant hemolytic anemia. Although a positive family history of spherocytosis increases the risk for this disorder, it may be sporadic in some cases. In severe cases the ...

  11. Presumed hereditary retinal degenerations: Ibadan experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary retinal degenerative condition with no known treatment. Associated ocular conditions, such as cataract and glaucoma, when present further worsen vision, but these conditions are often treatable. There are, however, no known reports of cataract or glaucoma surgery in ...

  12. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and

  13. Clinical management of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasen, Hans F A; Tomlinson, Ian; Castells, Antoni

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary factors are involved in the development of a substantial proportion of all cases of colorectal cancer. Inherited forms of colorectal cancer are usually subdivided into polyposis syndromes characterized by the development of multiple colorectal polyps and nonpolyposis syndromes characterized by the development of few or no polyps. Timely identification of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes is vital because patient participation in early detection programmes prevents premature death due to cancer. Polyposis syndromes are fairly easy to recognize, but some patients might have characteristics that overlap with other clinically defined syndromes. Comprehensive analysis of the genes known to be associated with polyposis syndromes helps to establish the final diagnosis in these patients. Recognizing Lynch syndrome is more difficult than other polyposis syndromes owing to the absence of pathognomonic features. Most investigators therefore recommend performing systematic molecular analysis of all newly diagnosed colorectal cancer using immunohistochemical methods. The implementation in clinical practice of new high-throughput methods for molecular analysis might further increase the identification of individuals at risk of hereditary colorectal cancer. This Review describes the clinical management of the various hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes and demonstrates the advantage of using a classification based on the underlying gene defects.

  14. Hereditary spectrin deficiency in Golden Retriever dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slappendel, Robbert J.; van Zwieten, Rob; van Leeuwen, Martin; Schneijdenberg, Chris T. W. M.

    2005-01-01

    Spectrin deficiency with increased erythrocyte osmotic fragility (OF) is a hallmark of hereditary spherocytosis, which is the most common congenital hemolytic anemia in humans of northern European ancestry. A radioimmunoassay revealed that erythrocyte spectrin concentration was 50-65% of normal in 5

  15. Demyelinating polyneuropathy in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilhuis, H.J.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Cruysberg, J.R.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We report a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (G11778A mtDNA) and a severe demyelinating neuropathy, for which no other cause except his mitochondrial disorder could be found. The involvement of the peripheral nervous system of patients with LHON, in particular with a 11778 mtDNA, is

  16. Hereditary spherocytosis presenting as indolent leg ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolent leg ulcertation, which is the rarest manifestation of hereditary spherocytosis, started at the age of 5 years affecting a 15-year-old boy and his mother is reported. Review of literature showed very few reports from India and abroad. The response to oral folic acid was excellent

  17. Childhood-onset Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majander, Anna; Bowman, Richard; Poulton, Joanna; Antcliff, Richard J; Reddy, M Ashwin; Michaelides, Michel; Webster, Andrew R; Chinnery, Patrick F; Votruba, Marcela; Moore, Anthony T; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The onset of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is relatively rare in childhood. This study describes the clinical and molecular genetic features observed in this specific LHON subgroup. Our retrospective study consisted of a UK paediatric LHON cohort of 27 patients and 69 additional cases identified from a systematic review of the literature. Patients were included if visual loss occurred at the age of 12 years or younger with a confirmed pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A or m.14484T>C. In the UK paediatric LHON cohort, three patterns of visual loss and progression were observed: (1) classical acute (17/27, 63%); (2) slowly progressive (4/27, 15%); and (3) insidious or subclinical (6/27, 22%). Diagnostic delays of 3-15 years occurred in children with an insidious mode of onset. Spontaneous visual recovery was more common in patients carrying the m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C mutations compared with the m.11778G>A mutation. Based a meta-analysis of 67 patients with available visual acuity data, 26 (39%) patients achieved a final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥0.5 Snellen decimal in at least one eye, whereas 13 (19%) patients had a final BCVA <0.05 in their better seeing eye. Although childhood-onset LHON carries a relatively better visual prognosis, approximately 1 in 5 patients will remain within the visual acuity criteria for legal blindness in the UK. The clinical presentation can be insidious and LHON should be considered in the differential diagnosis when faced with a child with unexplained subnormal vision and optic disc pallor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Bullous Impetigo in Children Infected with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Alone or in Combination with Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus: Analysis of Genetic Characteristics, Including Assessment of Exfoliative Toxin Gene Carriage▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Da; Higuchi, Wataru; Takano, Tomomi; Saito, Kohei; Ozaki, Kyoko; Takano, Misao; Nitahara, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Among bullous impetigo isolates, exfoliative toxin (ET) gene carriage was found in 61.5% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates versus 90.6% of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. MRSA-only cases were ETB or ETA positive, while MRSA/MSSA coinfection cases were ET negative for MRSA but ETA positive for MSSA. Collagen adhesin may facilitate some MRSA infections. PMID:21430094

  19. Pediatric hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema (HAE resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH is a rare, life-threatening disorder. It is characterized by attacks of angioedema involving the skin and/or the mucosa of the upper airways, as well as the intestinal mucosa. In approximately 50 per cent of cases, clinical manifestations may appear during childhood. The complex management of HAE in pediatric patients is in many respects different from the management of adults. Establishing the diagnosis early, preferably before the onset of clinical symptoms, is essential in cases with a positive family history. Complement studies usually afford accurate diagnosis, whereas molecular genetics tests may prove helpful in uncertain cases. Appropriate therapy, supported by counselling, suitable modification of lifestyle, and avoidance of triggering factors (which primarily include mechanical trauma, mental stress and airway infections in children may spare the patient unnecessary surgery and may prevent mortality. Prompt control of edematous attacks, short-term prophylaxis and intermittent therapy are recommended as the primary means for the management of pediatric cases. Medicinal products currently used for the treatment of children with hereditary angioedema include antifibrinolytics, attenuated androgens, and C1-INH replacement therapy. Current guidelines favour antifibrinolytics for long-term prophylaxis because of their favorable safety profile but efficacy may be lacking. Attenuated androgens administered in the lowest effective dose are another option. C1-INH replacement therapy is also an effective and safe agent for children. Regular monitoring and follow-up of patients are necessary.

  20. A patient with hereditary hemochromatosis, ulcerative colitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis: genetic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, C. Y.; Stokkers, P. C.; van der Horst, A. R.; Tytgat, G. N.; van Deventer, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a family in which the rare combination of hereditary hemochromatosis, ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis was found. Subsequent to the index patient, who had all three diseases, a screening was done in his parents and siblings that included HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and

  1. Abnormal red cell features associated with hereditary neurodegenerative disorders: the neuroacanthocytosis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franceschi, L. De; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Mohandas, N.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the mechanisms involved in the generation of thorny red blood cells (RBCs), known as acanthocytes, in patients with neuroacanthocytosis, a heterogenous group of neurodegenerative hereditary disorders that include chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and McLeod

  2. Tooth resorptions are not hereditary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Root resorptions caused by orthodontic movement are not supported by consistent scientific evidence that correlate them with heredity, individual predisposition and genetic or familial susceptibility. Current studies are undermined by methodological and interpretative errors, especially regarding the diagnosis and measurements of root resorption from orthopantomographs and cephalograms. Samples are heterogeneous insofar as they comprise different clinical operators, varied types of planning, and in insufficient number, in view of the prevalence of tooth resorptions in the population. Nearly all biological events are coded and managed through genes, but this does not mean tooth resorptions are inherited, which can be demonstrated in heredograms and other methods of family studies. In orthodontic root resorption, one cannot possibly determine percentages of how much would be due to heredity or genetics, environmental factors and unknown factors. There is no need to lay the blame of tooth resorptions on events taking place outside the orthodontic realm since in the vast majority of cases, resorptions are not iatrogenic. In orthodontic practice, when all teeth are analyzed and planned using periapical radiography or computerized tomography, and when considering all predictive factors, tooth resorptions are not iatrogenic in nature and should be considered as one of the clinical events inherent in the treatment applied.

  3. Clinical features of pure hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the clinical features and diagnostic methods of patients with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP. Methods Patients diagnosed with pure HSP from October 2006 to February 2013 admitted to Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University were included. The patients were assessed by the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale and the clinical features were reviewed. Results Thirty-three HSP patients (21 men and 12 women were included in the study. Thirteen patients (39.39% had family history of HSP and the most common genetic mode of the familial cases were autosomal dominant inheritance (11/13. The mean age of onset were (20.35 ± 15.55 years and the mean disease duration were (12.77 ± 9.83 years. All of the included patients presented with signs of impairment of the pyramidal tract such as increased muscular tone, tendon hyperreflexia and positive Babinski's sign of the lower limbs. Impairment of the pyramidal tract also presented in the upper limbs in some patients. Scissors gait appeared in 29 patients and feet deformity in 5 patients. Atrophy of thoracic cord on MRI were presented in 5 patients while 2 patients complicated with peripheral nerve damage. Four patients had a novel exon 10-17 deletion in SPG4 gene. There were no differences in onset age, disease duration and mean score of the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale between male and female patients as well as between patients with and without family history (P > 0.05, for all. Conclusion The onset age of pure HSP is variational and males are more common than females. The most common inheritance mode is autosomal dominant and most of the cases are characterized by impairment of the pyramidal tract of the lower limbs and occasionally bladder dysfunction and peripheral nerve damage. Gender and family history do not affect the clinical features. Clinical features, family history and spinal cord MRI will assist the correct diagnosis, and making a definite

  4. Pediatric Hereditary Angioedema as a Cause of Acute Compartment Syndrome of the Hand and Forearm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditto, Chelsea; Jager, Zachary; LoGiudice, John; Matloub, Hani

    2017-05-01

    Compartment syndrome of the upper extremity is a surgical emergency that, when left untreated, can have dire consequences. Its causes are numerous, one of which is the uncommon entity hereditary angioedema, an autosomal dominant disease resulting in edema in a variety of potential locations, including the extremities. This is only the second time hereditary angioedema has been mentioned in the literature as a cause of compartment syndrome. We present a case of hereditary angioedema leading to hand and forearm compartment syndrome in a 13-year-old pediatric patient. Diagnosis of hereditary angioedema was made by our Rheumatology colleagues with physical exam and a thorough history, and confirmed by laboratory studies. Our patient presented with compartment syndrome of the hand and forearm and underwent hand and volar forearm fasciotomies. She was subsequently worked up for hereditary angioedema with laboratory results confirming the diagnosis. She was discharged after a 5-day hospitalization with prophylactic C1-inhibitor therapy. Hereditary angioedema is a rare but known cause of compartment syndrome of the upper extremity, and must be considered when patients present with compartment syndrome of unknown etiology. This disease can be diagnosed by laboratory studies and symptoms can be controlled with medical therapy.

  5. Practice Bulletin No. 182 Summary: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by multiple family members with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both. Based on the contemporary understanding of the origins and management of ovarian cancer and for simplicity in this document, ovarian cancer also refers to fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer. Clinical genetic testing for gene mutations allows more precise identification of those women who are at an increased risk of inherited breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For these individuals, screening and prevention strategies can be instituted to reduce their risks. Obstetrician-gynecologists play an important role in the identification and management of women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. If an obstetrician-gynecologist or other gynecologic care provider does not have the necessary knowledge or expertise in cancer genetics to counsel a patient appropriately, referral to a genetic counselor, gynecologic or medical oncologist, or other genetics specialist should be considered (1). More genes are being discovered that impart varying risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other types of cancer, and new technologies are being developed for genetic testing. This Practice Bulletin focuses on the primary genetic mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also will briefly discuss some of the other genes that have been implicated.

  6. Familial pancreatic cancer and hereditary syndromes: screening strategy for high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Globally, and almost evenly across nations, a familial disposition can be found in 4-10% of patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). A family history of PC is a risk for this disease and the risk level changes in correlation with the number of affected relatives. Several hereditary syndromes with potential germline mutation also have a high risk for PC; however, little is yet known regarding the genes responsible for familial pancreatic cancer (FPC). Characteristics of FPC cases are similar to those of other familial tumors, including younger onset than in sporadic cases and an ethnic difference (Ashkenazi Jewish > other Caucasian). Other risks resemble those of sporadic cases and include smoking and diabetes mellitus. People with several genetic syndromes, including Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, hereditary pancreatitis, breast-ovarian cancer syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, and familial adenomatous polyposis also have an increased risk of PC. In many countries, but not yet in Japan, screening of these high-risk individuals is now ongoing for the detection of early PC under established familial pancreatic cancer registries. In addition to the ordinary risk factors, such as smoking, diabetes, pancreatitis, cysts, duct ectasia, and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), individuals with a family history of PC and hereditary syndromes are expected to be entered into the screening protocol.

  7. Disease expression in women with hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouillet, Laurence; Longhurst, Hilary; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fluctuations in sex hormones can trigger angioedema attacks in women with hereditary angioedema. Combined oral contraceptive therapies, as well as pregnancy, can induce severe attacks. The course of angioedema may be very variable in different women. STUDY DESIGN: Within the PREHAEAT...... project launched by the European Union, data on 150 postpubertal women with hereditary angioedema were collected in 8 countries, using a patient-based questionnaire. RESULTS: Puberty worsened the disease for 62%. Combined oral contraceptives worsened the disease for 79%, whereas progestogen-only pills...... improved it for 64%. During pregnancies, 38% of women had more attacks, but 30% had fewer attacks. Vaginal delivery was usually uncomplicated. Attacks occurred within 48 hours in only 6% of cases. Those more severely affected during menses had more symptoms during pregnancies, suggesting a hormone...

  8. [Asymptomatic classical hereditary xanthinuria type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubov, Renata; Nir, Vered; Kassem, Eiass; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2012-06-01

    We report on a girl who was diagnosed with classical hereditary xanthinuria due to an incidental finding of extremely low Levels of uric acid in the blood. The girl is compLetely asymptomatic. Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disease that usually causes early urolithiasis but may cause rheumatoid arthritis-like disease and even be associated with defects in the formation of bone, hair and teeth. In Israel it has mostly been described in patients of Bedouin origin. Throughout the world, only about 150 cases have been described; about two thirds of these patients were asymptomatic. Since the clinical presentation and age of symptom appearance are diverse, the case raises questions as to the required follow-up of these patients and as to whether a low oxalate diet should be initiated.

  9. HEREDITARY FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE – CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Brecelj; Gordana Logar-Car; Henrik Peče

    2002-01-01

    Background. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism that presents with hypoglicemia, metabolic acidosis and liver decompensation when the patient is exposed to fructose. Diagnosis was established by fructose tolerance test in the past and nowadays mostly by determination of deficient enzyme fructose-1phosphate aldolase (aldolase B) activity in hepatic tissue or by molecular genetic means if the mutation is known. Treatment involves elimination (in inf...

  10. [Hereditary xanthinuria. A clinical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessano, B; Davì, S; La Brocca, A; Leone, L

    1989-05-01

    A case of hereditary xanthinuria in a 68-year-old man with congestive heart failure and alcoholic liver disease is presented. Urolithiasis and muscular symptoms were absent, and the metabolic error was revealed by hypouricemia, hypouricosuria and excess of xanthine and hypoxanthine excretion in urine. Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) activity in liver tissue was absent, confirming the diagnosis of xanthinuria.

  11. Genetics of human isolated hereditary hair loss disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, S; Khan, S; Ahmad, W

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary hair loss in human is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. It is characterized by sparse to complete absence of hair on the scalp and other parts of the body. In few cases tightly curled twisted wooly hair (WH) on the scalp has been reported as well. The hair loss disorders, including both syndromic and non-syndromic (isolated) forms, segregate either in autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive pattern. To date, seven autosomal dominant and equal numbers of autosomal recessive isolated forms of hair loss disorders have been characterized. Genes responsible for causing most of these disorders have been identified. In this review, we have provided an update on clinical and genetic aspects of isolated hereditary hair loss disorders manifesting with hypotrichosis and/or WHs. Because most of the recessive genes have been mapped using consanguineous families of Pakistani origin, therefore emphasis is given to mutations identified in these families. OMIM nomenclature has been followed to indicate different forms of hair loss disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Colon cancer in rapidly developing countries: review of the lifestyle, dietary, consanguinity and hereditary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer rates are rising dramatically in once low incidence nations. These nations are undergoing rapid economic development and are known as “nations in transition” (NIT. This review identifies some of the most common etiological risk factors of colon cancer in these nations and evaluates the existing epidemiological evidence. The main risk factors which were found to be prevalent in NIT include: lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity, obesity and abdominal adiposity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking; dietary factors such as fatty food and red meat consumption. Protective factors included white meat and fiber consumption. Several studies found to have significantly higher rates of colon cancer among the young population (<40 years old. There appears to be a quantitative and qualitative increase in risk to relatives of patients diagnosed at a young age compared with those diagnosed later in life, at least part of which is likely to be the result of a hereditary susceptibility. Close relatives of patients with colon cancer are at an increased risk of developing a colon cancer. Close relatives of early onset cases warrant more intensive endoscopic screening and at an earlier age than relatives of patients diagnosed at older ages. Furthermore, these suggest the existence of genetic predispositions in these nations which need to be investigated further and have implications for screening programs. In conclusion, public health awareness campaigns promoting prevention of modifiable risk factors and screening initiatives with guidelines suited to the age-specific incidence rates of NIT are needed very urgently.

  13. Hereditary Risk Evaluation for Borderline Ovarian Tumors Based on Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Min; Kim, Min Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Borderline ovarian tumors (BOT) are premalignant lesions. Approximately 10% of all epithelial ovarian cancers are known to be hereditary with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) accounting for approximately 90% of cases; the remaining 10% are attributable to Lynch syndrome, also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The aim of our study is to estimate this risk based on screening immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methods Thirty-four patients diagnosed with B...

  14. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A; Haridy, Nourelhoda A; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P; Korlipara, L V Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W; Lewis, Patrick A; Houlden, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The hereditary spastic paraplegias are a heterogeneous group of degenerative disorders that are clinically classified as either pure with predominant lower limb spasticity, or complex where spastic...

  15. HEREDITARY COLORECTAL CANCER REGISTRY: A CLEVELAND CLINIC FOUNDATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Church, MBCHB

    2017-07-01

    SUMMARY: the Cleveland Clinic approach to hereditary colorectal cancer is described. This is multidisciplinary, involving several specialties and both genetic counseling and mental health services within the registry.

  16. Oestrogens ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giordano, Carla; Montopoli, Monica; Perli, Elena; Orlandi, Maurizia; Fantin, Marianna; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Caparrotta, Laura; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Ghelli, Anna; Sadun, Alfredo A; d'Amati, Giulia; Carelli, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, the most frequent mitochondrial disease due to mitochondrial DNA point mutations in complex I, is characterized by the selective degeneration of retinal ganglion...

  17. Antiretroviral therapy-induced Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moodley, A; Bhola, S; Omar, F; Mogambery, J

    2014-01-01

    .... Individuals with the mutation for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disorder, are usually asymptomatic but develop visual loss when exposed to external triggers such as smoking...

  18. Laboratory markers of thrombosis risk in children with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troendle, Sarah B; Adix, Leah; Crary, Shelley E; Buchanan, George R

    2007-11-01

    Recent data suggest that adults with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) may be protected from atherothrombosis before splenectomy but have increased risk of thrombosis following splenectomy. In order to aid in making informed decisions regarding splenectomy in children with HS, we conducted a retrospective study of several surrogate laboratory markers of thrombosis risk in children with HS. A retrospective record review was performed on 246 children with HS. Platelet count and hemoglobin concentration were recorded prior to and following splenectomy in each patient. Serum cholesterol levels were collected from the record when available. Prior to splenectomy, hypocholesterolemia was common. Mean platelet counts in 31 evaluable patients pre- and post-splenectomy were 334 and 608 x 10(9)/L, respectively (P thrombocytosis following splenectomy. Hemoglobin values following splenectomy often rose to higher than age and gender-matched norms, with 30% of measurements greater than the 90th percentile and 17% greater than the 97th percentile. The findings of hypocholesterolemia before splenectomy and thrombocytosis and mild polycythemia afterwards support the hypothesis that patients with HS might be protected from thrombosis before splenectomy and/or more susceptible afterwards. Prospective studies of additional prothrombotic biomarkers and thrombotic events in HS patients are warranted. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Identification of novel hereditary cancer genes by whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Kuligina, Ekatherina Sh; Bizin, Ilya V; Frishman, Dmitrij; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2015-12-28

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) provides a powerful tool for medical genetic research. Several dozens of WES studies involving patients with hereditary cancer syndromes have already been reported. WES led to breakthrough in understanding of the genetic basis of some exceptionally rare syndromes; for example, identification of germ-line SMARCA4 mutations in patients with ovarian hypercalcemic small cell carcinomas indeed explains a noticeable share of familial aggregation of this disease. However, studies on common cancer types turned out to be more difficult. In particular, there is almost a dozen of reports describing WES analysis of breast cancer patients, but none of them yet succeeded to reveal a gene responsible for the significant share of missing heritability. Virtually all components of WES studies require substantial improvement, e.g. technical performance of WES, interpretation of WES results, mode of patient selection, etc. Most of contemporary investigations focus on genes with autosomal dominant mechanism of inheritance; however, recessive and oligogenic models of transmission of cancer susceptibility also need to be considered. It is expected that the list of medically relevant tumor-predisposing genes will be rapidly expanding in the next few years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin.

  1. Hereditary truncating mutations of DNA repair and other genes in BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2-negatively tested breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhota, F; Zemankova, P; Kleiblova, P; Soukupova, J; Vocka, M; Stranecky, V; Janatova, M; Hartmannova, H; Hodanova, K; Kmoch, S; Kleibl, Z

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast cancer comprises a minor but clinically meaningful breast cancer (BC) subgroup. Mutations in the major BC-susceptibility genes are important prognostic and predictive markers; however, their carriers represent only 25% of high-risk BC patients. To further characterize variants influencing BC risk, we performed SOLiD sequencing of 581 genes in 325 BC patients (negatively tested in previous BRCA1/BRCA2/PALB2 analyses). In 105 (32%) patients, we identified and confirmed 127 truncating variants (89 unique; nonsense, frameshift indels, and splice site), 19 patients harbored more than one truncation. Forty-six (36 unique) truncating variants in 25 DNA repair genes were found in 41 (12%) patients, including 16 variants in the Fanconi anemia (FA) genes. The most frequent variant in FA genes was c.1096_1099dupATTA in FANCL that also show a borderline association with increased BC risk in subsequent analysis of enlarged groups of BC patients and controls. Another 81 (53 unique) truncating variants were identified in 48 non-DNA repair genes in 74 patients (23%) including 16 patients carrying variants in genes coding proteins of estrogen metabolism/signaling. Our results highlight the importance of mutations in the FA genes' family, and indicate that estrogen metabolism genes may reveal a novel candidate genetic component for BC susceptibility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Thymidylate synthase gene (TYMS polymorphisms in sporadic and hereditary breast cancer

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    Junior José da Silva Nogueira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC is a genetic disorder characterized by growth and proliferation of breast cells in a disorderly. In Brazil, there are approximately 49.240 new cases of BC, every year. The BC etiology is still poorly understood. The BC can be sporadic (SBC or hereditary (HBC. Recent studies have correlated gene polymorphisms with the BC, such as alterations in thymidylate synthase gene (TYMS, which are used to improve diagnosis and prevention of the disease. Polymorphisms in the TYMS gene 5’-UTR region, usually present reps double (2R and/or triple (3R. Studies have shown that homozygous 3R/3R is overexpressed compared with 2R/2R genotype, and these polymorphic variations may contribute to individual susceptibility to the development of BC. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the TYMS 2R and 3R polymorphisms, comparing genotypic and allelic distribution with SBC and HBC patients. Methods In this study we included a total of 204 subjects, 70 with BC (33 with SBC, and 37 with HBC and 134 healthy subjects (controls. The Polymerase Chain Reaction was the method used. Results Results demonstrated a high frequency of the 3R allele at BC, SBC, and HBC groups. The frequency of genotype 2R/3R was significantly higher in BC group. This work showed association between the 2R/3R variants (OR = 4.14, CI95% = 1.77-9.71 in the development of SBC, and 2R/2R (OR = 0.233, CI95% = 1.63-7.65 and 2R/3R (OR = 3.53, CI95% = 0.06-0.81 for developing HBC. To BC, there was association with the genotype 2R/3R (OR: 3.79, CI95% = 2.03-7.08. Conclusion Our results show relation to the development of BC in association with the analyzed polymorphisms.

  3. Protrudin Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Morphology and Function Associated with the Pathogenesis of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shirane, Michiko; Matsuzaki, Fumiko; Saita, Shotaro; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Nakayama, Keiichi I.

    2014-01-01

    Protrudin is a membrane protein that regulates polarized vesicular trafficking in neurons. The protrudin gene (ZFYVE27) is mutated in a subset of individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and protrudin is therefore also referred to as spastic paraplegia (SPG) 33. We have now generated mice that express a transgene for dual epitope-tagged protrudin under control of a neuron-specific promoter, and we have subjected highly purified protrudin-containing complexes isolated from the brain of these mice to proteomics analysis to identify proteins that associate with protrudin. Protrudin was found to interact with other HSP-related proteins including myelin proteolipid protein 1 (SPG2), atlastin-1 (SPG3A), REEP1 (SPG31), REEP5 (similar to REEP1), Kif5A (SPG10), Kif5B, Kif5C, and reticulon 1, 3, and 4 (similar to reticulon 2, SPG12). Membrane topology analysis indicated that one of three hydrophobic segments of protrudin forms a hydrophobic hairpin domain similar to those of other SPG proteins. Protrudin was found to localize predominantly to the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and forced expression of protrudin promoted the formation and stabilization of the tubular ER network. The protrudin(G191V) mutant, which has been identified in a subset of HSP patients, manifested an increased intracellular stability, and cells expressing this mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ER stress. Our results thus suggest that protrudin contributes to the regulation of ER morphology and function, and that its deregulation by mutation is a causative defect in HSP. PMID:24668814

  4. Protrudin regulates endoplasmic reticulum morphology and function associated with the pathogenesis of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shirane, Michiko; Matsuzaki, Fumiko; Saita, Shotaro; Ohnishi, Takafumi; Nakayama, Keiichi I

    2014-05-09

    Protrudin is a membrane protein that regulates polarized vesicular trafficking in neurons. The protrudin gene (ZFYVE27) is mutated in a subset of individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and protrudin is therefore also referred to as spastic paraplegia (SPG) 33. We have now generated mice that express a transgene for dual epitope-tagged protrudin under control of a neuron-specific promoter, and we have subjected highly purified protrudin-containing complexes isolated from the brain of these mice to proteomics analysis to identify proteins that associate with protrudin. Protrudin was found to interact with other HSP-related proteins including myelin proteolipid protein 1 (SPG2), atlastin-1 (SPG3A), REEP1 (SPG31), REEP5 (similar to REEP1), Kif5A (SPG10), Kif5B, Kif5C, and reticulon 1, 3, and 4 (similar to reticulon 2, SPG12). Membrane topology analysis indicated that one of three hydrophobic segments of protrudin forms a hydrophobic hairpin domain similar to those of other SPG proteins. Protrudin was found to localize predominantly to the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and forced expression of protrudin promoted the formation and stabilization of the tubular ER network. The protrudin(G191V) mutant, which has been identified in a subset of HSP patients, manifested an increased intracellular stability, and cells expressing this mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ER stress. Our results thus suggest that protrudin contributes to the regulation of ER morphology and function, and that its deregulation by mutation is a causative defect in HSP.

  5. miRNA expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE hereditary breast tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljana Tanić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary breast cancer constitutes only 5–10% of all breast cancer cases and is characterized by strong family history of breast and/or other associated cancer types. Only ~25% of hereditary breast cancer cases carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, while mutations in other rare high and moderate-risk genes and common low penetrance variants may account for additional 20% of the cases. Thus the majority of cases are still unaccounted for and designated as BRCAX tumors. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles as regulators of gene expression and are deregulated in cancer. To characterize hereditary breast tumors based on their miRNA expression profiles we performed global microarray miRNA expression profiling on a retrospective cohort of 80 FFPE breast tissues, including 66 hereditary breast tumors (13 BRCA1, 10 BRCA2 and 43 BRCAX, 10 sporadic breast carcinomas and 4 normal breast tissues, using Exiqon miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array v.11.0. Here we describe in detail the miRNA microarray expression data and tumor samples used for the study of BRCAX tumor heterogeneity (Tanic et al., 2013 and biomarkers associated with positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (Tanic et al., 2014. Additionally, we provide the R code for data preprocessing and quality control.

  6. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DGR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia, and familial adenomatous polyposis; and conditions which are usually not possible to diagnose clinically in a single individual, such as Lynch syndrome and BRCA1/2. Understanding of the mortality in hereditary cancer predisposing diseases is important for developing effective disease treatment programs. A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the genetic predictors, prevalence and incidence, and treatment outcomes of these diseases; however, the majority examine only the most common of these diseases (eg, neurofibromatosis or BRCA, or look into postoperative survival. The mortality of individuals who are diagnosed with one of these hereditary diseases remains an area for investigation. This review is the first to attempt identification of studies investigating life expectancy in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors.Keywords: mortality, survival, life expectancy, early-onset, tumors

  7. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary thrombophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P. H.

    2000-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a multifactorial disease that depends on variable combinations of acquired and genetic risk factors. The genetic risk factors include loss-of-function mutations in the genes that encode proteins with clot-restraining function, and gain-of-function mutations in procoagulant

  8. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1). Methods Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes. Results The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively. Conclusions In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria

  9. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Felipe C; Lisboa, Bianca Cg; Figueiredo, Marcia Cp; Torrezan, Giovana T; Santos, Erika Mm; Krepischi, Ana C; Rossi, Benedito M; Achatz, Maria I; Carraro, Dirce M

    2014-05-15

    Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1). Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes. The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively. In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes

  10. RAD51C mutation screening in high-risk patients from Serbian hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokuca, Ana; Yanowski, Kira; Rakobradovic, Jelena; Benitez, Javier; Brankovic-Magic, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 an important finding was published showing that heterozygous mutations in RAD51C were highly penetrant and were able to confer an increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers. The role of possible third high penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene was assigned to RAD51C. Because of its rising importance in breast cancer development and the lack of information about RAD51C in Slavic populations, our goal was to identify potential population specific mutations in this gene in order to determine more detailed genetic screening strategy and breast cancer risk assessment. The study included 55 females from Serbian hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families negative for sequence alterations and large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1/2 genes. Whole coding region and exon-intron boundaries of RAD51C were analyzed by dHPLC. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. SIFT and Polyphen were used to predict possible impact of non-synonymous variants. We found 5 variants in RAD51C including two missense, one intronic, one in the 5'UTR and one variant in the promoter region of the gene. Three detected variants are common - c.1-118G>A (rs16943176, MAF = 0,203); c.1-26C>T (rs12946397, MAF = 0,207) and c.904+34T>C (rs28363318, MAF = 0,186). We detected two missense variants, c.790G>A (p.Gly264Ser) in exon 5 and c.859A>G (p.Thr287Ala) in exon 6. Both of them were previously shown to exhibit reduced protein function but their contribution to cancer risk is still unknown. Although the initial reports implied that RAD51C might be promising candidate for next high penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene, lack of confirmation suggested that RAD51C mutations are not as common as expected. Our study did not reveal truncating mutations in RAD51C suggesting that other breast cancer susceptibility genes may account for the increased susceptibility in our cohort of high-risk BRCA1/2 negative families.

  11. [Genetic testing in hereditary spastic paraplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzsiev, Kinga; Balikó, László; Komlósi, Katalin; Lőcsei-Fekete, Anett; Csábi, Györgyi; Bene, Judit; Kisfali, Péter; Melegh, Béla

    2015-01-18

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia is the overall term for clinically and genetically diverse disorders characterized with progressive and variable severe lower extremity spasticity. The most common causes of autosomal dominantly inherited hereditary spastic paraplegias are different mutations of the spastin gene with variable incidence in different ethnic groups, ranging between 15-40%. Mutations in the spastin gene lead to loss of spastins function, causing progressive neuronal failure, which results in axon degeneration finally. The molecular testing of spastin gene is available in the institution of the authors since January, 2014. The experience gained with the examination of the first eleven patients is described in this article. After polymerase chain reaction, Sanger sequencing was performed to examine the 17 exons of the spastin gene. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect greater rearrangements in the spastin gene. Eight of the patients were examined in the genetic counseling clinic of the authors and after detailed phenotype assessment spastin gene testing was obtained. The other three patients were referred to the laboratory from different outpatient clinics. Out of the 11 examined patients, four different pathogenic mutations were found in 5 patients. The first Hungarian data, gained with the examination of spastin gene are presented in this article. The five patients, in whom mutations were detected, represent 45.5% of all tested patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia, which is similar to those published in the international literature. Molecular testing and subsequent detailed genotype-phenotype correlations of the Hungarian patients may serve valuable new information about the disease, which later on may influence our therapeutic possibilities and decisions.

  12. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

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    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  13. [Prophylactic use of icatibant before tracheal intubation of a patient with hereditary angioedema type III. (A literature review of perioperative management of patients with hereditary angioedema type III)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri Clavero, F; González Uriarte, A; Tamayo Medel, G; Gamboa Setién, P M

    2014-01-01

    Type III hereditary angioedema is a rare familial disorder that has recently been described as a separate condition. Triggers for episodes of angioedema include surgery, dental procedures, and tracheal intubation maneuvers. Since episodes affecting the upper airway are potentially life-threatening, prophylactic treatment is recommended in these situations. The use of icatibant (Firazyr(®)), for prevention of angioedema prior to tracheal intubation, is reported in a patient with type iii hereditary angioedema. A literature review on the anesthetic management of this condition was conducted. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members...... of the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, requesting information regarding patients with HNPCC-associated SBC and germ line mismatch repair gene mutations. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 85 HNPCC patients with identified mismatch repair gene mutations and SBCs. SBC was the first...... HNPCC-associated malignancy in 14 of 41 (34.1%) patients for whom a personal history of HNPCC-associated cancers was available. The study population harbored 69 different germ line mismatch repair gene mutations, including 31 mutations in MLH1, 34 in MSH2, 3 in MSH6, and 1 in PMS2. We compared...

  15. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, M E; Curtis, A; Williams, O; Marchuk, D; Bhattacharya, S S; Burn, J

    1994-01-01

    A locus causing hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) has recently been mapped to 9q34 in four families and designated HHT1. In this paper, the results of a linkage study showing genetic heterogeneity in four families in whom HHT is segregating are reported. All the previously reported 9q34 linked families contain at least one affected member with a symptomatic pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We postulate that clinical heterogeneity may also be a feature of HHT with a significantly higher predisposition to symptomatic PAVMs associated with the HHT1 linked families. PMID:7891373

  16. Hereditary xanthinuria. Evidence for enhanced hypoxanthine salvage.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, F A; Puig, J G; Jiménez, M L; Fox, I H

    1987-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there is an enhanced rate of hypoxanthine salvage in two siblings with hereditary xanthinuria. We radiolabeled the adenine nucleotide pool with [8-14C]adenine and examined purine nucleotide degradation after intravenous fructose. The cumulative excretion of radioactivity during a 5-d period was 9.7% and 9.1% of infused radioactivity in the enzyme-deficient patients and 6.0 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SE) in four normal subjects. Fructose infusion increased urinary radioac...

  17. Asymptomatic hereditary xanthinuria: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, A; Murakami, E; Hiwada, K; Sato, Y; Kawachi, M; Kono, N

    1990-01-01

    A 22-year-old man with hereditary xanthinuria is reported. A biochemical study of the patient showed elevated serum levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine with concomitant increases in urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine. The xanthine oxidase activity in the duodenal mucosa of the patient was about 1.5% of normal value. Urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine of his parents and his eldest brother were significantly higher than the corresponding normal values, but the values were much less than those of the patient. The results suggested that the patient was homozygote, and his parents and his eldest brother were heterozygotes.

  18. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia and severe respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Halawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucoepithelial disruption of the skin, hair and mucous membranes. It results from defective gap junction formation and leads to non-scarring alopecia, mucosal erythema, perineal erythematous intertrigo, involvement of the conjunctival mucosa, and pulmonary disease. We present a case of severe respiratory distress in an initially healthy full term infant born to a mother with HMD. This infant later developed signs and symptoms of HMD. A high index of suspicion for pulmonary infection with atypical organism is essential in infants with a family history of HMD who present with respiratory distress.

  19. Attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal; Bleiker, Eveline; Aaronson, Neil; Vriends, Annette; Ausems, Margreet; Jansweijer, Maaike; Wagner, Anja; Sijmons, Rolf; van den Ouweland, Ans; van der Luijt, Rob; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Ruijs, Marielle; Verhoef, Senno

    2009-01-01

    The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for hereditary cancer is subject to on-going debate, particularly among professionals. This study evaluates the attitude towards PGD and attitude-associated characteristics of those concerned: family members with a hereditary cancer predisposition.

  20. Learning Hereditary and Reductive Prolog Programs from Entailment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Rao, M. R. K. Krishna

    In this paper we study exact learning of Prolog programs from entailment and present an algorithm to learn two rich classes of Prolog programs namely hereditary and reductive Prolog programs. These classes contain standard Prolog programs with and without recursion like append, merge, split, delete, member, prefix, suffix, length, add, etc. Additionally our algorithm learns the hereditary Prolog programs in polynomial time.

  1. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive

  2. Methylation profiles of hereditary and sporadic ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Guus M.; Suijkerbuijk, Karijn P. M.; Bart, Joost; Vooijs, Marc; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    Aims: Tumour suppressor gene silencing through promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in oncogenesis. Carcinogenesis of hereditary cancers usually differs from that of their sporadic counterparts, but methylation has hardly been studied in hereditary ovarian cancer. The aim of this study

  3. National mutation study among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B

    2014-01-01

    carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing....... Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominantly inherited vascular disease characterized by the presence of mucocutaneous telangiectasia and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). The clinical diagnosis of HHT is based on the Curaçao criteria. About 85% of HHT patients...

  4. Prevalence of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in patients with colorectal cancer in Iran: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Esmaeilzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the world, and hereditary factors and family history are responsible for the incidence and development of the disease in 20 to 30% of cases. Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, is the most common hereditary form of CRC that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This study consisted of a systematic literature review of research articles that described the prevalence of HNPCC in Iranian patients with CRC. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Scopus, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases to identify relevant articles that describe HNPCC or Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC in Iran. For this purpose, a keyword search of the following terms was employed: (((Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer OR HNPCC OR Lynch syndrome AND (colorectal cancer OR familial colorectal cancer OR colon cancer OR rectal cancer OR bowel cancer AND IRAN. All eligible documents were collected, and the desired data were qualitatively analyzed.Result: Of the 67 articles that were found via the initial database search, only 12 were deemed to be of relevance to the current study. These articles included a total population of 3237 and this sample was selected and qualitatively analyzed. The findings of the review revealed that the frequency of mutation in MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6 genes varied between 23.1% and 62.5% among the studied families. This indicated that HNPCC is linked with up to 5.5% of the total cases of colorectal cancers in Iran.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the hereditary form of HNPCC or Lynch syndrome is significantly high among patients with CRC in Iran

  5. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers...

  6. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  7. Genetics of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Carsten C; Hensen, Erik F; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Maier, Wolfgang; van Nederveen, Francien H; Suárez, Carlos; Kunst, Henricus P; Rodrigo, Juan P; Takes, Robert P; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to give an overview on hereditary syndromes associated with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGs). Our methods were the review and discussion of the pertinent literature. About one third of all patients with HNPGs are carriers of germline mutations. Hereditary HNPGs have been described in association with mutations of 10 different genes. Mutations of the genes succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD), succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 2 gene (SDHAF2), succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC), and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are the cause of paraganglioma syndromes (PGLs) 1, 2, 3, and 4. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), and transmembrane protein 127 (TMEM127) gene mutations also harbor the risk for HNPG development. HNPGs in patients with rearranged during transfection (RET), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and MYC-associated factor X (MAX) gene mutations have been described very infrequently. All patients with HNPGs should be offered a molecular genetic screening. This screening may usually be restricted to mutations of the genes SDHD, SDHB, and SDHC. Certain clinical parameters can help to set up the order in which those genes should be tested. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. HEREDITARY FRUCTOSE INTOLERANCE – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Brecelj

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary fructose intolerance is a rare inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism that presents with hypoglicemia, metabolic acidosis and liver decompensation when the patient is exposed to fructose. Diagnosis was established by fructose tolerance test in the past and nowadays mostly by determination of deficient enzyme fructose-1phosphate aldolase (aldolase B activity in hepatic tissue or by molecular genetic means if the mutation is known. Treatment involves elimination (in infants or reduction of fructose and sucrose from the diet and results in improvement in the patient’s clinical status and liver disease.Results. This article presents a patient with hereditary fructose intolerance who was diagnosed 18 years ago on the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Ljubljana Children’s Hospital. At that time oral fructose tolerance test was used to diagnose the disorder. When she was 17 we performed liver biopsy. The enzyme determination showed the absence of aldolase B activity.Conclusions. Only cooperation of different experts enables recognition of rare metabolic disorders which must be prompt to prevent further damage.

  9. Hereditary xanthinuria: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T S

    1993-05-01

    Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare disorder characterized by the replacement of uric acid by xanthine and hypoxanthine in urine. Two cases of classic hereditary xanthinuria in Taiwan are herein reported. Case 1: a 30-year-old woman was by chance found to have hypouricemia. Urine and plasma purines were checked through the use of high performance liquid chromatography. Urine excretion of uric acid was 0.029 mumol (0.005 mg)/mg creatinine (30 mumol/24 hr); xanthine 1.9 mumol/mg creatinine (1935 mumol/24 hr); and hypoxanthine 0.58 mumol/mg creatinine (587 mumol/24 hr). Plasma xanthine was 9.3 mumol/L; hypoxanthine 5.8 mumol/L; and uric acid 0.5 mumol/L (0.001 mg/dL). Case 2: a brother of case 1 had a previous history of urolithiasis. Urine excretion of uric acid was 0.15 mumol (0.025 mg)/mg creatinine (189 mumol/24 hr); xanthine 1.3 mumol/mg creatinine (1620 mumol/24 hr); and hypoxanthine 0.22 mumol/mg creatinine (276 mumol/24 hr).

  10. Hereditary xanthinuria. Evidence for enhanced hypoxanthine salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, F A; Puig, J G; Jiménez, M L; Fox, I H

    1987-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that there is an enhanced rate of hypoxanthine salvage in two siblings with hereditary xanthinuria. We radiolabeled the adenine nucleotide pool with [8-14C]adenine and examined purine nucleotide degradation after intravenous fructose. The cumulative excretion of radioactivity during a 5-d period was 9.7% and 9.1% of infused radioactivity in the enzyme-deficient patients and 6.0 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SE) in four normal subjects. Fructose infusion increased urinary radioactivity to 7.96 and 9.16 X 10(6) cpm/g creatinine in both patients and to 4.73 +/- 0.69 X 10(6) cpm/g creatinine in controls. The infusion of fructose increased total urinary purine excretion to a mean of 487% from low-normal baseline values in the patients and to 398 +/- 86% in control subjects. In the enzyme-deficient patients, the infusion of fructose elicited an increase of plasma guanosine from undetectable values to 0.7 and 0.9 microM. With adjustments made for intestinal purine loss, these data support the hypothesis that there is enhanced hypoxanthine salvage in hereditary xanthinuria. Degradation of guanine nucleotides to xanthine bypasses the hypoxanthine salvage pathway and may explain the predominance of this urinary purine compound in xanthinuria.

  11. Multi-gene panel testing for hereditary cancer predisposition in unsolved high-risk breast and ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Beth; Adams, Sophie B; Sittler, Taylor; van den Akker, Jeroen; Chan, Salina; Leitner, Ofri; Ryan, Lauren; Gil, Elad; van 't Veer, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Many women with an elevated risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer have previously tested negative for pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Among them, a subset has hereditary susceptibility to cancer and requires further testing. We sought to identify specific groups who remain at high risk and evaluate whether they should be offered multi-gene panel testing. We tested 300 women on a multi-gene panel who were previously enrolled in a long-term study at UCSF. As part of their long-term care, all previously tested negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 either by limited or comprehensive sequencing. Additionally, they met one of the following criteria: (i) personal history of bilateral breast cancer, (ii) personal history of breast cancer and a first or second degree relative with ovarian cancer, and (iii) personal history of ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal carcinoma. Across the three groups, 26 women (9%) had a total of 28 pathogenic mutations associated with hereditary cancer susceptibility, and 23 women (8%) had mutations in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2. Ashkenazi Jewish and Hispanic women had elevated pathogenic mutation rates. In addition, two women harbored pathogenic mutations in more than one hereditary predisposition gene. Among women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer who have previously tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, we identified three groups of women who should be considered for subsequent multi-gene panel testing. The identification of women with multiple pathogenic mutations has important implications for family testing.

  12. Hereditary angioedema: what the gastroenterologist needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available M Aamir Ali, Marie L Borum Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Up to 93% of patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE experience recurrent abdominal pain. Many of these patients, who often present to emergency departments, primary care physicians, general surgeons, or gastroenterologists, are misdiagnosed for years and undergo unnecessary testing and surgical procedures. Making the diagnosis of HAE can be challenging because symptoms and attack locations are often inconsistent from one episode to the next. Abdominal attacks are common and can occur without other attack locations. An early, accurate diagnosis is central to managing HAE. Unexplained abdominal pain, particularly when accompanied by swelling of the face and extremities, suggests the diagnosis of HAE. A family history and radiologic imaging demonstrating edematous bowel also support an HAE diagnosis. Once HAE is suspected, C4 and C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH laboratory studies are usually diagnostic. Patients with HAE may benefit from recently approved specific treatments, including plasma-derived C1-INH or recombinant C1-INH, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, or a kallikrein inhibitor as first-line therapy and solvent/detergent-treated or fresh frozen plasma as second-line therapy for acute episodes. Short-term or long-term prophylaxis with nanofiltered C1-INH or attenuated androgens will prevent or reduce the frequency and severity of episodes. Gastroenterologists can play a critical role in identifying and treating patients with HAE, and should have a high index of suspicion when encountering patients with recurrent, unexplained bouts of abdominal pain. Given the high rate of abdominal attacks in HAE, it is important for gastroenterologists to appropriately diagnose and promptly recognize and treat HAE, or refer patients with HAE to an allergist. Keywords: hereditary angioedema, abdominal pain, diagnosis

  13. Iron metabolism in mynah birds (Gracula religiosa) resembles human hereditary haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, A; Hendriks, H G; Klaren, P H M; Dorrestein, G M; van Dijk, J E; Marx, J J M

    2003-12-01

    Iron overload is a very frequent finding in several animal species and a genetic predisposition is suggested. In one of the most commonly reported species with susceptibility for iron overload (mynah bird), it was recently shown that the cause of this pathophysiology is high uptake and retention of dietary iron. Here we compare susceptible (mynahs) with non-susceptible avian species (chickens) by evaluating iron uptake at the intestinal absorptive cell level. Enterocytes from mynahs and chickens were isolated and uptake of Fe(II) and Fe(III) was studied in vitro. It was found that Fe(III) uptake is much lower than Fe(II) uptake for both species. Although liver iron, present only in hepatocytes, was at least 10-fold higher in mynahs than chickens, enterocyte Fe(II) uptake was considerably higher in mynahs. Fe(II) uptake showed saturation at the studied concentrations in both species. Kinetic studies revealed a three-fold increase in Vmax for mynahs. Calculated values for the uptake kinetics of the probable membrane transporter suggest that mynah bird enterocytes have a significantly higher limiting uptake rate, due to the possible increase in the number of transporters when compared with chicken enterocytes. The susceptibility of this species is due to intestinal iron uptake despite hepatic iron accumulation, implicating a 'mis-sensing' of body iron similarly to human hereditary haemochromatosis.

  14. Outcome of 24 years national surveillance in different hereditary colorectal cancer subgroups leading to more individualised surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Lars Joachim; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The benefits of colonic surveillance in Lynch syndrome and Amsterdam-positive (familial CRC type X familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX)) families are clear; only...... the interval between colonoscopies is debated. The potential benefits for families not fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria are uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of colonic surveillance in different hereditary subgroups and to evaluate the surveillance programmes. METHODS: A prospective......, observational study on the outcome of colonic surveillance in different hereditary subgroups based on 24 years of surveillance data from the national Danish HNPCC register. RESULTS: We analysed 13 444 surveillance sessions, including 8768 incidence sessions and 20 450 years of follow-up. CRC was more incident...

  15. Gait evolution in a family with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Stéphane; Turcot, Katia; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Lascombes, Pierre; De Coulon, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    The degree of disability in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia has been reported variable even in members of the same family (same gene mutation). Moreover, it has been established that patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia should be treated differently from cerebral palsy patients due to the progressive nature of this disease. However, the gait evolution of hereditary spastic paraplegia showing onset symptoms at an early age has been described as stable. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the walking ability and the influence of treatments on gait evolution in a family with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Clinical gait analyses were performed in six hereditary spastic paraplegia patients from the same family with a follow-up of 4-15 years. Based on the gait deviation index, results showed a large variation of walking ability in these patients and no statistical difference between the first and last examination. In fact, three patients have improved their gait (from childhood to adolescence) whereas three patients worsened their gait. Gait alterations in a family with hereditary spastic paraplegia are heterogeneous. Gait evolution in hereditary spastic paraplegia with early symptoms had a tendency to improve gait until adolescence with adapted treatments and to decline in the adulthood. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced life expectancy seen in hereditary diseases which predispose to early-onset tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Evans DGR; Ingham SL

    2013-01-01

    D Gareth R Evans,1 Sarah Louise Ingham21Genetic Medicine, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Central Manchester Foundation Trust, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2Centre for Health Informatics, Institute of Population Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: There are several hereditary diseases that are a predisposition to early-onset tumors. These include syndromic conditions like neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, Gorli...

  17. Incidence of hereditary amyloidosis and autoinflammatory diseases in Sweden: endemic and imported diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of progressive diseases caused by tissue deposition of misfolded proteins. According to the International Classification of Diseases, hereditary amyloidosis is divided into neuropathic and non-neuropathic forms. In Sweden, neuropathic heredofamilial amyloidosis has been identified as familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a fatal disease that is treated by liver transplantation. The non-neuropathic form includes familial autoinflammatory d...

  18. Developmental pattern of the hip in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Park, Kwang-Won; Oh, Chang-Seon; Ahn, Yeong-Seub; Kang, Qing-Lin; Jung, Sung-Taek; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Background Coxa valga is a common clinical feature of hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). The current study aimed to determine the unique developmental pattern of the hip in patients with HME and evaluate the factors that influence its progression. Methods Thirty patients (57 hips) with HME were divided into two groups according to the Hilgenreiner epiphyseal angle (HEA). Twenty-two patients (44 hips) including 13 men and 9 women were assigned to group 1 (HEA

  19. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTIONS FOR THE PATIENTS WITH HEREDITARY SPASTIC PARAPARESIS– AN EXPLORATORY CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Asir John Samuel; Vencita Priyanka Aranha; Trapthi Kamath; Monika Pokhrel

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose:Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetic disorder characterised by progressiveweakness and spasticity of the lower limbs. To date, the structured rehabilitation programme for thepatientwith HSP is not documented. The objective of the study is to illustrate the effectiveness of the structured 8-week intensive rehabilitation programme (SEIRP).Case description:Two middle aged adult patients with HSPwere included in this case reports. Both of them were brothers and ...

  20. [The broad phenotypic spectrum of SCA-3: hereditary spastic paraplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quiroga, Sergio A; González-Morón, Dolores; Arakaki, Tomoko; Garreto, Nélida; Kauffman, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is the most frequent dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxia. A marked phenotypic variability is a characteristic of this disorder that could involve non-cerebellar presentations. Based on several case reports describing pyramidal dysfunction as the main symptom at onset, a clinical form resembling hereditary spastic paraplegia has been proposed. We report here two further cases of MJD patients whose initial clinical presentation suggested hereditary spastic paraplegia, and a summary of the main findings of previously similar published reports. Our findings lent support to the proposal of a MJD subtype distinguished by a marked pyramidal dysfunction at onset, simulating a clinical picture of hereditary spastic paraplegia.

  1. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat them. Some examples include staphylococci ("staph") and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Sometimes there may be more than one type ... seen more frequently than others. For instance, most urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by the bacterium ...

  2. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases Shingles Sickle Cell Anemia Sjögren Syndrome Staph Infections and MRSA Stroke Testicular Cancer Thalassemia Thyroid ... used to treat them. Some examples include staphylococci ("staph") and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Sometimes there may be more ...

  3. Dementia in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blöndal, H; Guomundsson, G; Benedikz, Eirikur

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen cases with verified Hereditary Cystatin C Amyloid Angiopathy are presented. All of the cases had one or more cerebrovascular insults starting at the age of 20-41 years and survived from 10 days to 23 years after the first insult. Progressive dementia was a prominent clinical feature...... in seventeen cases of whom two presented with dementia. At the last examination the majority had severe dementia and severely abnormal EEG. Anti-cystatin C positive amyloid vascular and perivascular infiltrates were found. The resulting damage to the microvasculature of the brain and secondary hemorrhages...... and infarctions were considered to be an adequate explanation for the dementia in these cases. Skin biopsies can now probably be used to demonstrate cystatin C positive amyloid deposits conclusively in the tissues of these patients....

  4. Skin deposits in hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Gudmundsson, G

    1990-01-01

    . Skin from 12 individuals who served as controls and skin from 14 close relatives of the patients was negative for amyloid. Punch biopsy of the skin is a simple procedure which is of value for the diagnosis of HCCA, even before the appearance of clinical symptoms. This method might also be of use......Clinically normal skin from 47 individuals aged 9-70 years was investigated. Cystatin C amyloid deposits were found in various locations of the skin by light and/or electron microscopy, in all 12 patients with a clinical history of hereditary cystatin C amyloidosis (HCCA). Six asymptomatic...... individuals, who had the Alu 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker reported to cosegregate with the disease, also had cystatin C amyloid deposits in the skin. Three asymptomatic individuals (age 17-46) belonging to the HCCA families were without amyloid in the skin but had Alu 1 RFLP marker...

  5. [Hereditary ichthyosis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Almendra, Nadia; Aranibar Duran, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary ichthyoses are a group of genetic disorders of cornification, which are characterised by hyperkeratosis and scaling. The new classification identifies 36 types of ichthyosis, which are subdivided according to their frequency, pattern of inheritance and extracutaneous involvement. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, since genetic studies are not available in our setting. Treatment is symptomatic and management should be performed by a multidisciplinary team. In this article, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of different types of ichthyosis are reviewed, taking into account the nomenclature and modifications presented in the new classification. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wu Chang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease that primarily affects the optic nerve, causing bilateral vision loss in juveniles and young adults. A 12-year-old boy had complained of blurred vision in both eyes for more than 1 year. His best-corrected visual acuity was 0.08 in the right eye and 0.1 in the left. Ophthalmologic examination showed bilateral optic disc hyperemia and margin blurring, peripapillary telangiectasis, and a relative afferent pupil defect in his right eye. Fluorescein angiography showed no stain or leakage around the optic disc in the late phase. Visual field analysis showed central scotoma in the left eye and a near-total defect in the right. Upon examination of the patient's mitochondrial DNA, a point mutation at nucleotide position 11778 was found, and the diagnosis of LHON was confirmed. Coenzyme Q10 was used to treat the patient.

  7. Pulmonary vascular complications of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circo, Sebastian; Gossage, James R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the latest advances and recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary vascular complications associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), pulmonary hypertension associated with high output cardiac failure or liver vascular malformations, haemoptysis, haemothorax and thromboembolic disease. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography has been validated as a screening tool for PAVM in patients with suspected HHT. Advancements in genetic testing support its use in family members at risk as a cost-effective measure. Therapy with bevacizumab in patients with high output cardiac failure and severe liver AVMs showed promising results. PAH tends to be more aggressive in HHT type 2 patients. Patients suffering from this elusive disease should be referred to HHT specialized centres to ensure a standardized and timely approach to diagnosis and management.

  8. Surgical treatment of gastrointestinal hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Min-Hsuan; Chen, Chiung-Nien

    2016-04-01

    A 48-year-old man with a history of gastrointestinal bleeding from Osler-Weber-Rendu disease presented with recurrent hematemesis and tarry stool. He received repeated endoscopic therapy, but profound component therapy was still needed. Because repeated gastrointestinal bleeding was caused by same bleeder, tattoo-assisted laparoscopic gastric wedge resection was carried out. The pathology showed vascular abnormalities that involved gastric mucosal and submucosal layers. After surgery, the blood transfusion for the patient is not seen. Osler-Weber-Rendu is a hereditary disease characterized by vascular abnormalities of the nose, skin, lung, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Management of gastrointestinal bleeding requires medical treatment first, and there are rare reports of surgical treatment. Our pathology findings showed a transmucosal vessel lesion, which had poor response to endoscopic treatment. Surgical intervention may be considered in the patient with gastrointestinal bleeding refractory to endoscopic therapy.

  9. [Hereditary porphyrias and heme related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Hervé; Gouya, Laurent; Deybach, Jean-charles

    2014-06-01

    Hereditary porphyrias comprise a group of eight metabolic disorders of the haem biosynthesis pathway, characterised by acute neurovisceral symptoms and/or skin lesions. Each porphyria is caused by abnormal functioning of a particular enzymatic step, resulting in specific accumulation of heme precursors. Seven porphyrias are due to a partial enzyme deficiency, while a gain-of-function mechanism has recently been identify in a novel porphyria. Acute porphyrias present with severe abdominal pain, nausea, constipation and confusion, and are sometimes complicated by seizures and severe neurological disorders, which may be life-threatening. Cutaneous porphyrias can also be present, with either acute painful photosensitivity or skin fragility and blisters. Rare recessive porphyrias usually manifest in early childhood with either severe chronic neurological symptoms or chronic haemolysis and severe cutaneous photosensitivity. Porphyrias are still under-diagnosed, but recent advances in the pathogenesis and genetics of human porphyrias are leading to better care of these patients and their families.

  10. Mania associated with complicated hereditary spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra B Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP is an inherited group of neurological disorders with progressive lower limb spasticity. HSP can be clinically grouped into pure and complicated forms. Pure HSP is one without any associated neurological/psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Presence of mania or bipolar affective illness with HSP is a rare phenomenon. We report a case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with classical features of HSP with complaints of excessive happiness, irritability, increased self-esteem and decreased sleep since 1 month. The patient also had complex partial seizure ever since he had features of HSP. The patient′s father and younger sister suffer from pure HSP. The patient was diagnosed to have first episode mania with complicated HSP. The details of treatment and possible neurobiology are discussed in this case report.

  11. [Hereditary spastic paraplegia: up to date].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are clinically characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. HSP genetic loci are designated SPG1-72 in order of their discovery. In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). We have identified novel mutations in the C12orf65 gene and the LYST gene in several Japanese families with autosomal recessive HSP. JASPAC will facilitate gene discovery and mechanistic understanding of HSP. The future challenge will be the establishment of treatment of HSP.

  12. [Medico-genetic study of isolates in Uzbekistan. IV. Clinico-biochemical diagnosis of hereditary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, S I; Diachenko, S S; Khannanova, F K; Kuleshov, N P; Khodzhaeva, G K

    1976-01-01

    be examined are determined, as well as concrete tasks and the staff of the expedition. The conclusive stage is the medico-genetic examination proper, including clinical, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic diagnoses of hereditary pathological phenomena. The place of the disposition is a village or a district hospital. More complicated laboratory studies should be performed on the basis of the institution by which the expedition is formed. The results obtained by such expeditions would be important for the investigation of the problems of genogeography, for the discovery of new forms of mutant alleles, for the investigation of the causes and the conditions of the formation of the definite populational structure, of clinical polymorphism of human hereditary diseases.

  13. Routine use of gene panel testing in hereditary breast cancer should be performed with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marcke, Cedric; De Leener, Anne; Berlière, Martine; Vikkula, Miikka; Duhoux, Francois P

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer occurring in women. Ten percent of these cancers are considered hereditary. Among them, 30% are attributed to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes of lower penetrance are also known, explaining together up to 40% of the hereditary risk of breast cancer. New techniques, such as next-generation sequencing, allow the simultaneous analysis of multiple genes in a cost-effective way. As a logical consequence, gene panel testing is entering clinical practice with the promise of personalized care. We however advocate that gene panel testing is not ready for non-specialist clinical use, as it generates many variants of unknown significance and includes more genes than are presently considered clinically useful. We hereby review the data for each gene that can change the risk management of patients carrying a pathogenic variant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inclusion of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the tumour spectrum associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf; Hofstra, Roelof; Hollema, Harmen; Mensink, R; VANDERHOUT, A; Hoekstra, Harald; Kleibeuker, Jan; Molenaar, Willemina; Wijnen, Juul; Fodde, R; Vasen, H; Buys, Carolus

    2000-01-01

    Sarcomas, including the malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFHs), are not known to be part of the tumour spectrum of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as epidemiologically established. Therefore, occurrence of MFH in an HNPCC family may very well be coincidental. HNPCC is associated

  15. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer: Cutaneous lesions & atypical fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Bortoletto

    2017-07-01

    Precis: 27-year-old woman with multiple cutaneous lesions is found to have uterine leiomyomas and undergoes robotic myomectomy. Genetic testing of uterine leiomyomas reveals mutation in fumarate hydratase, etiologic in hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC.

  16. Hereditary Lymphedema of the Leg – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Heinig

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary of hereditary lymphedema is a rare but progressive disease. It is yet not curable. We present a 48-year-old male patient with hereditary lymphedema of his left leg, that was realised by minor trauma (able twist when he was seven years old. He had never been treated for lymphedema but experienced multiple erysipelas during his life. After diagnostic procedures to exclude other causes of leg swelling, the diagnosis of hereditary lymphedema of the leg, stage III was confirmed. We initialized complex decongestive therapy. During two weeks of intensive treatment, the circumference of the left leg could be reduced by 10 cm. This case illustrates the "natural course" hereditary lymphedema. But it raises the hope that even after decades of ignorance, the patients benefits from complex decongestive treatment. Therapeutic nihilism is unnecessary and poses lymphedema patients to risks of infection and secondary malignancies like Stewart-Trewes syndrome.

  17. Genotype–phenotype correlations in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tońska, Katarzyna; Kodroń, Agata; Bartnik, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), acute or subacute vision loss due to retinal ganglion cell death which in the long run leads to optic nerve atrophy is one of the most widely studied maternally inherited diseases caused...

  18. Relapsing Acute Axonal Neuropathy in Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, Anna; Maw, Anna; Ramaswami, Uma; Morley, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    A severe neurological abnormality has not been previously described in individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance, which typically presents early in childhood with severe metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia. We describe a boy who by age five years had required multiple admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit for an aggressive and atypical, relapsing and remitting neuropathy with features of acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). It was later discovered that he also had undiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance, and the severity and frequency of his neurological episodes diminished following an exclusion diet. His asymptomatic younger brother was diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance on screening. He is on a fructose-free diet and has not developed neurological symptoms. Ongoing low-level exposure to fructose prior to diagnosis may have contributed to our patient's neurological dysfunction. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent neurological complications of hereditary fructose intolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiretroviral therapy-induced Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) such as zidovudine and stavudine have known mitochondrial toxicity and can cause mitochondrial myopathies, neuropathies, hyperlactataemia, and can induce mitochondrial genetic disorders. Individuals with the mutation for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), ...

  20. Allelic variants of hereditary prions: The bimodularity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhodeyev, Oleg N; Tarasov, Oleg V; Bondarev, Stanislav A

    2017-01-02

    Modern biology requires modern genetic concepts equally valid for all discovered mechanisms of inheritance, either "canonical" (mediated by DNA sequences) or epigenetic. Applying basic genetic terms such as "gene" and "allele" to protein hereditary factors is one of the necessary steps toward these concepts. The basic idea that different variants of the same prion protein can be considered as alleles has been previously proposed by Chernoff and Tuite. In this paper, the notion of prion allele is further developed. We propose the idea that any prion allele is a bimodular hereditary system that depends on a certain DNA sequence (DNA determinant) and a certain epigenetic mark (epigenetic determinant). Alteration of any of these 2 determinants may lead to establishment of a new prion allele. The bimodularity principle is valid not only for hereditary prions; it seems to be universal for any epigenetic hereditary factor.

  1. Identification of a hereditary system with distributed delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, Arunabha

    1985-01-01

    We study the identification problem that arises in a linear hereditary system with distributed delay. This involves estimating an infinite-dimensional parameter and we use the method of sieves, proposed by Grenander, to solve this problem.

  2. Exome sequencing identifies MAX mutations as a cause of hereditary pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Gracia-Aznárez, Francisco J; Schiavi, Francesca; Landa, Iñigo; Leandro-García, Luis J; Letón, Rocío; Honrado, Emiliano; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Caronia, Daniela; Pita, Guillermo; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Taschin, Elisa; Bobisse, Sara; Pica, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Hernández-Lavado, Rafael; Díaz, José A; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; González-Neira, Anna; Roncador, Giovanna; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Benítez, Javier; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2011-06-19

    Hereditary pheochromocytoma (PCC) is often caused by germline mutations in one of nine susceptibility genes described to date, but there are familial cases without mutations in these known genes. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with hereditary PCC (cases) and identified mutations in MAX, the MYC associated factor X gene. Absence of MAX protein in the tumors and loss of heterozygosity caused by uniparental disomy supported the involvement of MAX alterations in the disease. A follow-up study of a selected series of 59 cases with PCC identified five additional MAX mutations and suggested an association with malignant outcome and preferential paternal transmission of MAX mutations. The involvement of the MYC-MAX-MXD1 network in the development and progression of neural crest cell tumors is further supported by the lack of functional MAX in rat PCC (PC12) cells and by the amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma and suggests that loss of MAX function is correlated with metastatic potential.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling in Hereditary, BRCA1-linked Breast Cancer: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaladava Volha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global analysis of gene expression by DNA microarrays is nowadays a widely used tool, especially relevant for cancer research. It helps the understanding of complex biology of cancer tissue, allows identification of novel molecular markers, reveals previously unknown molecular subtypes of cancer that differ by clinical features like drug susceptibility or general prognosis. Our aim was to compare gene expression profiles in breast cancer that develop against a background of inherited predisposing mutations versus sporadic breast cancer. In this preliminary study we analysed seven hereditary, BRCA1 mutation-linked breast cancer tissues and seven sporadic cases that were carefully matched by histopathology and ER status. Additionally, we analysed 6 samples of normal breast tissue. We found that while the difference in gene expression profiles between tumour tissue and normal breast can be easily recognized by unsupervised algorithms, the difference between those two types of tumours is more discrete. However, by supervised methods of data analysis, we were able to select a set of genes that may differentiate between hereditary and sporadic tumours. The most significant difference concerns genes that code for proteins engaged in regulation of transcription, cellular metabolism, signalling, proliferation and cell death. Microarray results for chosen genes (TOB1, SEPHS2 were validated by real-time RT-PCR.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling in Hereditary, BRCA1-linked Breast Cancer: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Global analysis of gene expression by DNA microarrays is nowadays a widely used tool, especially relevant for cancer research. It helps the understanding of complex biology of cancer tissue, allows identification of novel molecular markers, reveals previously unknown molecular subtypes of cancer that differ by clinical features like drug susceptibility or general prognosis. Our aim was to compare gene expression profiles in breast cancer that develop against a background of inherited predisposing mutations versus sporadic breast cancer. In this preliminary study we analysed seven hereditary, BRCA1 mutation-linked breast cancer tissues and seven sporadic cases that were carefully matched by histopathology and ER status. Additionally, we analysed 6 samples of normal breast tissue. We found that while the difference in gene expression profiles between tumour tissue and normal breast can be easily recognized by unsupervised algorithms, the difference between those two types of tumours is more discrete. However, by supervised methods of data analysis, we were able to select a set of genes that may differentiate between hereditary and sporadic tumours. The most significant difference concerns genes that code for proteins engaged in regulation of transcription, cellular metabolism, signalling, proliferation and cell death. Microarray results for chosen genes (TOB1, SEPHS2) were validated by real-time RT-PCR. PMID:20223001

  5. [Genes beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Katharina; Geigl, Jochen B; Pristauz, Gunda

    2010-11-01

    germline mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are identified in less than 50% of hereditary breast cancer cases. Besides BRCA1/2 further high-risk breast cancer genes are known; however they account only for a small fraction of inherited breast cancer cases. Most of them are involved in rare cancer predisposition syndromes. Moderate and low-risk breast cancer genes confer modest cancer risk up to 10% and may be more relevant due to polygenic inheritance. The majority of hereditary breast cancer cases are still caused by unknown genes. genetic testing of other known genes is not yet routinely performed in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations, but can be recommended in special patients. In case of a calculated high-risk situation, participation in an early-detection screening program should be recommended. genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is heterogeneous and conferred by a large number of identified and yet undetected genes.

  6. Mutation analysis of genes within the dynactin complex in a cohort of hereditary peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, S; Ahmad-Annuar, A; Drew, A P; Shahrizaila, N; Nicholson, G A; Kennerson, M L

    2016-08-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein-dynactin genes are attractive candidates for neurodegenerative disorders given their functional role in retrograde transport along neurons. The cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) gene has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, and dynactin 1 (DCTN1) genes have been implicated in a wide spectrum of disorders including motor neuron disease, Parkinson's disease, spinobulbar muscular atrophy and hereditary spastic paraplegia. However, the involvement of other dynactin genes with inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPN) namely, hereditary sensory neuropathy, hereditary motor neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is under reported. We screened eight genes; DCTN1-6 and ACTR1A and ACTR1B in 136 IPN patients using whole-exome sequencing and high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis. Eight non-synonymous variants (including one novel variant) and three synonymous variants were identified. Four variants have been reported previously in other studies, however segregation analysis within family members excluded them from causing IPN in these families. No variants of disease significance were identified in this study suggesting the dynactin genes are unlikely to be a common cause of IPNs. However, with the ease of querying gene variants from exome data, these genes remain worthwhile candidates to assess unsolved IPN families for variants that may affect the function of the proteins. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of an online family history tool for identifying hereditary and familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, F G J; Aalfs, C M; The, F O; Wientjes, C A; Depla, A C; Mundt, M W; Bossuyt, P M M; Dekker, E

    2017-09-21

    Identifying a hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome or familial CRC (FCC) in a CRC patient may enable the patient and relatives to enroll in surveillance protocols. As these individuals are insufficiently recognized, we evaluated an online family history tool, consisting of a patient-administered family history questionnaire and an automated genetic referral recommendation, to facilitate the identification of patients with hereditary CRC or FCC. Between 2015 and 2016, all newly diagnosed CRC patients in five Dutch outpatient clinics, were included in a trial with a stepped-wedge design, when first visiting the clinic. Each hospital continued standard procedures for identifying patients at risk (control strategy) and then, after a predetermined period, switched to offering the family history tool to included patients (intervention strategy). After considering the tool-based recommendation, the health care provider could decide on and arrange the referral. Primary outcome was the relative number of CRC patients who received screening or surveillance recommendations for themselves or relatives because of hereditary CRC or FCC, provided by genetic counseling. The intervention effect was evaluated using a logit-linear model. With the tool, 46/489 (9.4%) patients received a screening or surveillance recommendation, compared to 35/292 (12.0%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat-analysis, accounting for time trends and hospital effects, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). A family history tool does not necessarily assist in increasing the number of CRC patients and relatives enrolled in screening or surveillance recommendations for hereditary CRC or FCC. Other interventions should be considered.

  8. Targeted high throughput sequencing in hereditary ataxia and spastic paraplegia

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Zafar; Rydning, Siri L.; Wedding, Iselin M.; Koht, Jeanette; Pihlstr?m, Lasse; Rengmark, Aina H.; Henriksen, Sandra P.; Tallaksen, Chantal M. E.; Toft, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia and spastic paraplegia are heterogeneous monogenic neurodegenerative disorders. To date, a large number of individuals with such disorders remain undiagnosed. Here, we have assessed molecular diagnosis by gene panel sequencing in 105 early and late-onset hereditary ataxia and spastic paraplegia probands, in whom extensive previous investigations had failed to identify the genetic cause of disease. Pathogenic and likely-pathogenic variants were identified in 20 probands (19%)...

  9. Hereditary risk factors for the development of gastric cancer in younger patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari Mohammad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that the development of gastric cancer (GC before the age of 50 has a hereditary basis. Blood group A and history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives have been shown to be risk factors for GC. Methods In this case-control study, we enrolled patients with GC who were diagnosed before the age of 50. Patients who were diagnosed as having GC were selected. A total of 534 cases were found; of these, 44 diagnosed before the age of 50 were included in the case group. For the control group, 22 males and 22 females were randomly selected from the remaining subjects, who had diagnoses of GC after the age of 50. All the surviving patients and family members of the dead patients were interviewed about the history of cancer in the family and the age at which other family members developed cancer. The blood group of each subject was also obtained. Results forty-four cases under 50 years old (mean age: 36.2 years and forty-four controls (mean age: 67.1 years were enrolled in the study. At the time of the study, 59.1% of the study group and 50% of the control group were alive (P value = NS. In the study group, 68.1%, 13.6%, 13.6% and 4.5% had blood groups O, A, B and AB, respectively. In the control group the corresponding figures were 27.7%, 63.6%, 6.8% and 4.5%. First or second-degree relatives with cancer, including gastric (the most frequent, breast, lung, gynecological and hematological malignancies, were noted in 54.5% of the cases and 11.4% of the controls (p Conclusions It seems that the development of GC before the age of 50 is likely to be accompanied by familial susceptibility. Interestingly, our study showed a significant correlation between blood group O and the development of gastric cancer under the age of 50.

  10. Hereditary neuropathies: systematization and diagnostics (clinical case of hereditary motor and sensor neuropathy of the IA type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolokolova A.M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the value of routine methods (clinical symptoms, electrophysiological findings and results of DNA analysis in diagnostics of hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type IA in outpatient clinics. Material and Methods. The review of foreign literature is represented. The phenotypic polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity and the difficulties of diagnostics are identified. A family with hereditary motor sensory neuropathy of lAtype is presented, which was diagnosed on the base of available methods in outpatient practice (clinical symptoms, genealogical method, electro-physiological findings and DNA analysis results. Results. Routine algorithm (consistent valuation of clinical symptoms, neurophysiologic findings and the results of DNA analysis helped to verify the diagnosis of hereditary motor sensory neuropathy of lAtype in outpatient practice after more than 20 years of the onset of the disease. Conclusion. The neurologists of outpatient clinics and other specialists must be informed about the availability of diagnostics of hereditary diseases of nervous system.

  11. Genetic Gastric Cancer Susceptibility in the International Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Thomas; Neuhausen, Susan L; Rybak, Christina; Solomon, Ilana; Nehoray, Bita; Blazer, Kathleen; Niell-Swiller, Mariana; Adamson, Aaron W; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Yang, Kai; Sand, Sharon; Castillo, Danielle; Herzog, Josef; Wu, Xiwei; Tao, Shu; Chavez, Tanya; Woo, Yanghee; Chao, Joseph; Mora, Pamela; Horcasitas, Darling; Weitzel, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Few susceptibility genes for gastric cancer have been identified. We sought to identify germline susceptibility genes from participants with gastric cancer from an international hereditary cancer research network. Adults with gastric cancer of any histology, and with a germline DNA sample (n = 51), were retrospectively selected. For those without previously identified germline mutations (n = 43), sequencing was performed for 706 candidate genes. Twenty pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified among 18 participants. Eight of the 18 participants had previous positive clinical testing, including six with CDH1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, and two with pathogenic MSH2 and TP53 variants. Of the remaining 10, six were in BRCA1 DNA damage response pathway genes (ATM, ATR, BRCA2, BRIP1, FANCC, TP53), other variants were identified in CTNNA1, FLCN, SBDS, and GNAS. Participants identified with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were younger at gastric cancer diagnosis than those without, 39.1 versus 48.0 years, and over 50% had a close family member with gastric cancer (p-values < 0.0001). In conclusion, many participants were identified with mutations in clinically-actionable genes. Age of onset and family history of gastric cancer were mutation status predictors. Our findings support multigene panels in identifying gastric cancer predisposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alteration of ornithine metabolism leads to dominant and recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelier, Marie; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Habarou, Florence; Morais, Sara; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Tao, Feifei; Konop, Juliette; Stoll, Marion; Charles, Perrine; Jacoupy, Maxime; Matusiak, Raphaël; Alonso, Isabel; Tallaksen, Chantal; Mairey, Mathilde; Kennerson, Marina; Gaussen, Marion; Schule, Rebecca; Janin, Maxime; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Durand, Christelle M; Depienne, Christel; Calvas, Patrick; Coutinho, Paula; Saudubray, Jean-Marie; Rouleau, Guy; Brice, Alexis; Nicholson, Garth; Darios, Frédéric; Loureiro, José L; Zuchner, Stephan; Ottolenghi, Chris; Mochel, Fanny; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias are heterogeneous neurological disorders characterized by a pyramidal syndrome with symptoms predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Some limited pyramidal involvement also occurs in patients with an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous syndrome due to ALDH18A1 mutations. ALDH18A1 encodes delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), an enzyme that catalyses the first and common step of proline and ornithine biosynthesis from glutamate. Through exome sequencing and candidate gene screening, we report two families with autosomal recessive transmission of ALDH18A1 mutations, and predominant complex hereditary spastic paraplegia with marked cognitive impairment, without any cutaneous abnormality. More interestingly, we also identified monoallelic ALDH18A1 mutations segregating in three independent families with autosomal dominant pure or complex hereditary spastic paraplegia, as well as in two sporadic patients. Low levels of plasma ornithine, citrulline, arginine and proline in four individuals from two families suggested P5CS deficiency. Glutamine loading tests in two fibroblast cultures from two related affected subjects confirmed a metabolic block at the level of P5CS in vivo. Besides expanding the clinical spectrum of ALDH18A1-related pathology, we describe mutations segregating in an autosomal dominant pattern. The latter are associated with a potential trait biomarker; we therefore suggest including amino acid chromatography in the clinico-genetic work-up of hereditary spastic paraplegia, particularly in dominant cases, as the associated phenotype is not distinct from other causative genes. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genetic cause of autosomal recessive hereditary nephropathy in the English Cocker Spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ashley G; Bell, Rebecca J; Lees, George E; Kashtan, Clifford E; Davidson, George S; Murphy, Keith E

    2007-01-01

    Autosomal recessive hereditary nephropathy (ARHN) in the English Cocker Spaniel is caused by a type IV collagen defect, but the underlying mutation is unknown. One hundred thirty-four English Cocker Spaniels (12 with ARHN, 8 obligate carriers, and 114 others), 3 mixed breed dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy (XLHN), and 7 other dogs without hereditary nephropathy were included. Diagnosis of ARHN was based on transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining of kidney. Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to compare COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 mRNA concentrations in the renal cortex from ARHN-affected English Cocker Spaniels, XLHN-affected dogs, and dogs without hereditary nephropathy. The entire coding region of COL4A4 was sequenced in 2 ARHN-affected dogs, 2 obligate carriers, 2 English Cocker Spaniels of unknown status, and 2 healthy mixed breed dogs. The exon containing the mutation was sequenced for all 134 English Cocker Spaniels. Quantitative real time RT-PCR implicated COL4A4 as the gene harboring the mutation, and sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at base 115 as the cause of ARHN in English Cocker Spaniels. This mutation, which causes a premature stop codon in exon 3 of COL4A4, was segregated with clinical status in all affected dogs and obligate carriers. The mutation also was identified in 39 of 114 other English Cocker Spaniels with previously unknown status. The cause of this disease has been identified, and use of a test for the mutation will permit eradication of ARHN in the English Cocker Spaniel.

  14. A novel erythroid anion exchange variant (Gly796Arg) of hereditary stomatocytosis associated with dyserythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; De Falco, Luigia; Borgese, Franck; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Avvisati, Rosa Anna; Izzo, Pietro; Piscopo, Carmelo; Guizouarn, Helene; Biondani, Andrea; Pantaleo, Antonella; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Background Stomatocytoses are a group of inherited autosomal dominant hemolytic anemias and include overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, hereditary cryohydrocytosis and familial pseudohyperkalemia. Design and Methods We report a novel variant of hereditary stomatocytosis due to a de novo band 3 mutation (p. G796R-band3 CEINGE) associated with a dyserythropoietic phenotype. Band 3 genomic analysis, measurement at of hematologic parameters and red cell indices and morphological analysis of bone marrow were carried out. We then evaluated the red cell membrane permeability and ion transport systems by functional studies of the patient’s erythrocytes and Xenopus oocytes transfected with mutated band 3. We analyzed the red cell membrane tyrosine phosphorylation profile and the membrane association of the tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn from the Src-family-kinase group, since the activity of the membrane cation transport pathways is related to cyclic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events. Results The patient showed mild hemolytic anemia with circulating stomatocytes together with signs of dyserythropoiesis. Her red cells displayed increased Na+ content with decreased K+content and abnormal membrane cation transport activities. Functional characterization of band 3 CEINGE in Xenopus oocytes showed that the mutated band 3 is converted from being an anion exchanger (Cl−, HCO3−) to being a cation pathway for Na+ and K+. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation of some red cell membrane proteins was observed in diseased erythrocytes. Syk and Lyn membrane association was increased in the patient’s red cells compared to in normal controls, indicating perturbation of phospho-signaling pathways involved in cell volume regulation events. Conclusions Band 3 CEINGE alters function from that of anion exchange to cation transport, affects the membrane tyrosine phosphorylation profile, in particular of band 3 and stomatin, and its presence

  15. Application of gene detection technique in the antenatal diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Gu, M-S; Suo, F; Wang, C-X; Liu, X-H; Liu, F-M

    2017-04-01

    Gene chip and gene sequencing techniques were used to detect the main pathogenic genes in pregnant women with hereditary hearing loss. From May 2015 to May 2016, 1080 pregnant in Xuzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital were enrolled in this study. Women age range was 18 to 40 years. 4 genes and 9 mutation sites, including 4 sites (35delG, 176, 235delC and 299) in GJB2 gene, 2 sites (2168A>G and IVS-7-2A>G) in SLC26A4 (PDS) gene, 2 sites (1494C>T and 1555A>G) in 12s rRNA gene and 1 site (538C>T) in GJB3 gene, were detected using the GeeDom® 9-item hereditary hearing loss gene detection kit. Deafness genes in the husband of the pregnant woman with GJB2 and SLC26A4 positive gene mutations were verified using Sanger sequencing. Fetuses with the same deafness genes as their parents were diagnosed before delivery using amniocentesis. 48 patients (4.45 %) were detected positive for hereditary hearing loss. Most of them (28 cases) were identified with GJB2 gene mutation (1 case with 176 site mutation, 22 cases with 235delC site mutation and 5 cases with 299 site mutation). We had 15 cases of the SLC26A4 gene mutation (3 cases of 2168A>G site mutation and 12 cases of IVS-7-2A>G site mutation), 2 cases of 538C>T site mutation of GJB3 gene and 3 cases of 1555A>G site mutation of 12s rRNA gene. The gene detection technique has a great health-economic significance in screening the main pathogenic genes involved in the hereditary hearing loss.

  16. Therapeutic step-up strategy for management of hereditary pancreatitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, S; Kienbauer, M; Duba, H C; Schöfl, R; Pumberger, W

    2015-04-01

    Various different regimes exist for the treatment of hereditary pancreatitis in childhood. Here, we propose a therapeutic pathway with emphasis on endoscopic and surgical procedures. From 2006 to 2013, 12 patients with a diagnosis of hereditary pancreatitis were prospectively included in a therapeutic step-up schema. The treatment outcome was evaluated and correlated to aetiological factors and pathoanatomic findings. After diagnostic work-up (laboratory data, ultrasound examination, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and genetic testing), all 12 patients underwent early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which was successfully performed in ten children. Obstructive pancreatitis was found in eight children, and required sphincterotomy, dilation and stenting for 12 months. In two children with unsuccessful ERCP, open surgical drainage procedures were performed. After a mean follow-up of 32 months all children are free of recurrence of pancreatitis without any impairment of everyday activities. For children with hereditary pancreatitis, a therapeutic step plan with early ERCP and open surgical drainage procedures in case of impossible or insufficient endoscopic treatment prevents recurring pancreatitis and offers a normal quality of life without any major complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  18. [Hereditary factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliers, E A; Franke, B; Buitelaar, J K

    2005-07-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by concentration problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Disturbances in dopamine and/or noradrenalin neurotransmission are probably the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD. Around 80% of variants of the phenotype can be ascribed to hereditary factors. There are various chromosomal loci containing ADHD genes. They partially overlap the loci found in linkage studies on dyslexia and autism. It seems likely that a number of genetic variants, each with a small effect size, in combination with gene-environment interactions predispose to ADHD. There is a high degree of phenotypical heterogeneity among people with ADHD. Finding endophenotypes may improve the power of genetic studies. Endophenotypes are specific expressions of the underlying pathophysiology, intermediate between gene and phenotype. Neuro-imaging studies in children with ADHD have indicated abnormalities in frontostriatal, temporal and cerebellar volume. Unaffected brothers and sisters show the same cerebral abnormalities, but not the cerebellar abnormalities. These brain abnormalities together with specific neuropsychological features could be ADHD endophenotypes.

  19. Molecular Diagnostic and Pathogenesis of Hereditary Hemochromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paulo C. J. L.; Krieger, Jose E.; Pereira, Alexandre C.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary iron. Without therapeutic intervention, iron overload leads to multiple organ damage such as liver cirrhosis, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, arthritis, hypogonadism and skin pigmentation. Most HH patients carry HFE mutant genotypes: homozygosity for p.Cys282Tyr or p.Cys282Tyr/p.His63Asp compound heterozygosity. In addition to HFE gene, mutations in the genes that encode hemojuvelin (HJV), hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) and ferroportin (SLC40A1) have been associated with regulation of iron homeostasis and development of HH. The aim of this review was to identify the main gene mutations involved in the pathogenesis of type 1, 2, 3 and 4 HH and their genetic testing indication. HFE testing for the two main mutations (p.Cys282Tyr and p.His63Asp) should be performed in all patients with primary iron overload and unexplained increased transferrin saturation and/or serum ferritin values. The evaluation of the HJV p.Gly320Val mutation must be the molecular test of choice in suspected patients with juvenile hemochromatosis with less than 30 years and cardiac or endocrine manifestations. In conclusion, HH is an example that genetic testing can, in addition to performing the differential diagnostic with secondary iron overload, lead to more adequate and faster treatment. PMID:22408404

  20. Molecular Diagnostic and Pathogenesis of Hereditary Hemochromatosis

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    Paulo C. J. L. Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by enhanced intestinal absorption of dietary iron. Without therapeutic intervention, iron overload leads to multiple organ damage such as liver cirrhosis, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, arthritis, hypogonadism and skin pigmentation. Most HH patients carry HFE mutant genotypes: homozygosity for p.Cys282Tyr or p.Cys282Tyr/p.His63Asp compound heterozygosity. In addition to HFE gene, mutations in the genes that encode hemojuvelin (HJV, hepcidin (HAMP, transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2 and ferroportin (SLC40A1 have been associated with regulation of iron homeostasis and development of HH. The aim of this review was to identify the main gene mutations involved in the pathogenesis of type 1, 2, 3 and 4 HH and their genetic testing indication. HFE testing for the two main mutations (p.Cys282Tyr and p.His63Asp should be performed in all patients with primary iron overload and unexplained increased transferrin saturation and/or serum ferritin values. The evaluation of the HJV p.Gly320Val mutation must be the molecular test of choice in suspected patients with juvenile hemochromatosis with less than 30 years and cardiac or endocrine manifestations. In conclusion, HH is an example that genetic testing can, in addition to performing the differential diagnostic with secondary iron overload, lead to more adequate and faster treatment.

  1. Pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis of hereditary angioedema.

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    Zuraw, Bruce L; Christiansen, Sandra C

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) was first described in the 19th century. Over the past 50 years, many details of the pathophysiology and molecular biology of HAE have been elucidated. Two types of HAE, type I and type II, result from mutations in the gene for the broad-spectrum protease inhibitor C1 inhibitor (C1INH). Type I HAE is characterized by low antigenic and functional C1INH levels and type II HAE has normal antigenic but low functional C1INH levels. Type III HAE, by contrast, has normal antigenic and functional C1INH levels. In some families, type III HAE has been linked to mutations in Hageman factor. C1INH is the primary inhibitor of the complement proteases C1r and C1s as well as the contact system proteases activated Hageman factor (coagulation factor XIIa and XIIf) and plasma kallikrein. It is also an inhibitor of plasmin and coagulation factor XIa. The primary mediator of swelling in HAE has now been unequivocally shown to be bradykinin, generated from activation of the plasma contact system. The knowledge gained concerning the underlying mechanisms of the different types of HAE allow the clinician to approach the laboratory diagnosis with confidence and provides opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies.

  2. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer and Risk Reduction.

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    Andrews, Lesley; Mutch, David G

    2017-05-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in a majority of families and 14% of epithelial ovarian cancer cases. Despite next-generation sequencing, other identified genes (Lynch Syndrome, RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1) account for only a small proportion of cases. The risk of ovarian cancer by age 70 is approximately 40% for BRCA1 and 18% for BRCA2. Most of these cancers are high-grade serous cancers that predominantly arise in the fimbriae of the fallopian tube. Ovarian screening does not improve outcomes, so women at high risk are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy around the age of 40, followed by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Specimens should be carefully examined for occult malignancy. Mutation carriers may benefit from newly developed poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors. Genetic testing should only be performed after careful counseling, particularly if testing involves the testing of panels of genes that may identify unsuspected disease predisposition or confusing variants of uncertain significance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The hip in hereditary multiple exostoses.

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    Porter, D E; Benson, M K; Hosney, G A

    2001-09-01

    We defined the characteristics of dysplasia and coxa valga in hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) by radiological analysis of 24 hips in 12 patients. The degree and effect of the 'osteochondroma load' around the hip were quantified. We investigated the pathology of the labrum and the incidence of osteoarthritis and of malignant change in these patients. Coxa valga and dysplasia were common with a median neck-shaft angle of 156 degrees, a median centre-edge angle of 23 degrees and Sharp's acetabular angle of 44 degrees. There was overgrowth of the femoral neck with a significantly greater ratio of the neck/shaft diameter in HME than in the control hips (p coxa valga (p coxa valga. No correlation was found between dysplasia and coxa valga. These data suggest that HME may cause anomalies of the hip as a reflection of a generalised inherited defect, but also support the theory that osteochondromas may themselves precipitate some of the characteristic features of HME around the hip.

  4. Modern diagnostic approach to hereditary xanthinuria.

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    Mraz, Martin; Hurba, Olha; Bartl, Josef; Dolezel, Zdenek; Marinaki, Anthony; Fairbanks, Lynette; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary xanthinuria (HX) is a rare inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO). Missing XDH/XO activity leads to undetectable levels of uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine in serum/urine. The allopurinol loading test has been traditionally used to differentiate between HX types I and II. Final confirmation of HX has been based on the biopsy finding of the absent XDH/XO activity in the small intestine or liver. We present the clinical, biochemical, ultrasound and molecular genetics findings in three new patients with HX and suggest a simple three-step approach to be used for diagnosis, typing and confirmation of HX. In the first step, the diagnosis of HX is determined by extremely low serum/urinary uric acid excessively replaced by xanthine. Second, HX is typed using urinary metabolomics. Finally, the results are confirmed by molecular genetics. We advocate for this safe and non-invasive diagnostic algorithm instead of the traditional allopurinol loading test and intestinal or liver biopsy used in the past.

  5. FROM FAMILIES SYNDROMES TO GENES… THE FIRST CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATIONS OF HEREDITARY SYNDROMES PREDISPOSING TO CANCER: WHAT WAS THE BEGINNING?

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    Charité Ricker, MS, LCGC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessment for hereditary susceptibility to cancer is considered standard of care, as it impacts not only a clinician's understanding of cancer causation but also options for prevention and treatment. The roots of our current knowledge about hereditary cancer syndromes can be traced to early reports of families with striking cancer histories. The purpose of this article is to review the historical timeline of the two most commonly assessed hereditary cancer syndromes, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC and Lynch syndrome (LS. While many individuals identified with these syndromes today come from families similar to those seen in the early historical reports, our understanding of these syndromes, their expression and penetrance, has evolved over the years. In addition, the increased utilization of broad multi-gene panels continues to add to the complexity of defining associated phenotypes. These findings can lead to challenges with translating results to clinical management for patients and families, but also provide an opportunity to continue to gain understanding of the genetic underpinnings of cancer etiology.

  6. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A; Haridy, Nourelhoda A; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P; Korlipara, L V Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W; Lewis, Patrick A; Houlden, Henry

    2016-07-01

    generation sequencing was carried out revealing variants in a number of other known complex spastic paraplegia genes, including five in SPG7 (5/97), four in FA2H (also known as SPG35) (4/97) and two in ZFYVE26/SPG15 Variants were identified in genes usually associated with pure spastic paraplegia and also in the Parkinson's disease-associated gene ATP13A2, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene TPP1 and the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy DNMT1 gene, highlighting the genetic heterogeneity of spastic paraplegia. No plausible genetic cause was identified in 51% of probands, likely indicating the existence of as yet unidentified genes. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  7. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Eleanna; Tucci, Arianna; Manzoni, Claudia; Lynch, David S.; Elpidorou, Marilena; Bettencourt, Conceicao; Chelban, Viorica; Manole, Andreea; Hamed, Sherifa A.; Haridy, Nourelhoda A.; Federoff, Monica; Preza, Elisavet; Hughes, Deborah; Pittman, Alan; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Wiethoff, Sarah; Schottlaender, Lucia; Proukakis, Christos; Morris, Huw; Warner, Tom; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Korlipara, L.V. Prasad; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hardy, John; Wood, Nicholas W.; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    generation sequencing was carried out revealing variants in a number of other known complex spastic paraplegia genes, including five in SPG7 (5/97), four in FA2H (also known as SPG35) (4/97) and two in ZFYVE26/SPG15. Variants were identified in genes usually associated with pure spastic paraplegia and also in the Parkinson’s disease-associated gene ATP13A2, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene TPP1 and the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy DNMT1 gene, highlighting the genetic heterogeneity of spastic paraplegia. No plausible genetic cause was identified in 51% of probands, likely indicating the existence of as yet unidentified genes. PMID:27217339

  8. Hereditary Spherocytosis and Hereditary Elliptocytosis: Aberrant Protein Sorting during Erythroblast Enucleation

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    Salomao, Marcela; Chen, Ke; Villalobos, Jonathan; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2010-02-08

    During erythroblast enucleation, membrane proteins distribute between extruded nuclei and reticulocytes. In hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), deficiencies of membrane proteins, in addition to those encoded by the mutant gene, occur. Elliptocytes, resulting from protein 4.1R gene mutations, lack not only 4.1R but also glycophorin C, which links the cytoskeleton and bilayer. In HS resulting from ankyrin-1 mutations, band 3, Rh-associated antigen, and glycophorin A are deficient. The current study was undertaken to explore whether aberrant protein sorting, during enucleation, creates these membrane-spanning protein deficiencies. We found that although glycophorin C sorts to reticulocytes normally, it distributes to nuclei in 4.1R-deficient HE cells. Further, glycophorin A and Rh-associated antigen, which normally partition predominantly to reticulocytes, distribute to both nuclei and reticulocytes in an ankyrin-1-deficient murine model of HS. We conclude that aberrant protein sorting is one mechanistic basis for protein deficiencies in HE and HS.

  9. Risk factors for cancer in hereditary pancreatitis. International Hereditary Pancreatitis Study Group.

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    Lowenfels, A B; Maisonneuve, P; Whitcomb, D C

    2000-05-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare form of pancreatitis, accounting for approximately 1% of all types of pancreatitis. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disease, with incomplete penetrance. The genetic defect is believed to be caused by mutations in the trypsinogen gene. Patients who inherit the disorder suffer from a form of pancreatitis that resembles other types of pancreatitis, but the age of onset is much earlier. Sixteen biopsy-proven pancreatic cancers have developed in a cohort of 412 patients with a median follow-up period of 18 years (interquartile range, 7 to 30 years) since the onset of symptoms. Compared with the background population, the risk of pancreatic cancer is approximately 50 to 60 times greater than expected. Smoking appears to be an additional risk factor in these patients: Smoking increases the risk of developing pancreatic cancer and lowers the age of onset by approximately 20 years. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are urged to avoid smoking because it greatly increases the risk of pancreatic cancer and to avoid alcohol, a known risk factor for all forms of pancreatitis.

  10. Clinical Spectrum of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Roshan; Al-Murshedi, Fathiya M.; Al-Azri, Faisal M.; Mani, Ranjit; Abdelrahim, Rana A.; Koul, Vivek; Alfutaisi, Amna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the spectrum of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) in children in Oman. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out between January 1994 and August 2011 on children with delayed development, gait disorders and motor handicaps, with signs of symmetrical pyramidal tract involvement. A detailed perinatal and family history, including the age of onset of symptoms, was recorded. The children were labelled as having either the pure or complicated form of HSP based on the established diagnostic criteria. In families with more than one affected child, parents and all other siblings were also examined. Results: Within the study, 74 children from 31 families were diagnosed with HSP. Parental consanguinity was seen in 91% of cases, with 44 children (59.4%) experiencing onset of the disease under one year of age. Complicated HSP was the most common type, seen in 81.1%. Speech involvement, mental retardation, and epilepsy were the most common associated abnormalities. Nonspecific white matter changes and corpus callosum abnormalities were noted in 24.3% of cases on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: The study described clinical features of 74 children with HSP. Autosomal recessive complicated HSP was seen in 81.1% of cases. PMID:23984021

  11. Nationwide epidemiological survey of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Japan.

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    Ueda, Kaori; Morizane, Yuki; Shiraga, Fumio; Shikishima, Keigo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Wakakura, Masato; Nakamura, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy that leads to central loss of vision, predominantly in young males. Most LHON cases have one of three primary point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The annual incidence and prevalence of LHON in Japan are not known. Thus, we estimated the annual incidence of molecularly confirmed LHON in Japan during 2014. Sequential questionnaires were sent to 1397 facilities, which included all of the university hospitals in Japan, and they were certified by either the Japanese Ophthalmological Society or the Japanese Neuro-Ophthalmological Society. We calculated the incidence number (Ir) as the number of patients who developed LHON in 2014 and its 95% confidence interval. We received 861 responses to the first questionnaire, where 49 facilities reported 72 cases (67 were male and 5 were female) of newly developed LHON during 2014. Ir was calculated as 117, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 81 to 153. For the second questionnaire, responses were received from 30 facilities, where the median age at onset was 38 years for males and 30 years for females, and 86.5% of cases possessed the mtDNA ND4/G11778A mutation. Approximately 120 cases of newly developed LHON were reported during 2014 in Japan, and 93.2% were males. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dose - response relationship of bevacizumab in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Nicolas; Dupuis-Girod, Sophie; Ternant, David; Fargeton, Anne-Emmanuelle; Ginon, Isabelle; Faure, Frédéric; Decullier, Evelyne; Roux, Adeline; Carette, Marie-France; Gilbert-Dussardier, Brigitte; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Lacombe, Pascal; Leguy-Seguin, Vanessa; Rivière, Sophie; Corre, Romain; Bailly, Sabine; Paintaud, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), a genetic vascular disorder associated with epistaxis and hepatic shunts, is responsible for high-output cardiac failure in rare cases. Bevacizumab, which targets vascular endothelial growth factor, was shown to decrease both cardiac index (CI) and epistaxis duration in HHT patients with severe liver involvement. The relationship between its serum concentration and change in both CI and epistaxis duration was investigated to design the bevacizumab maintenance dosing regimen of future therapeutic studies. Twenty-five HHT patients with dyspnea and high CI were included in a prospective non-comparative study. They received bevacizumab at a dose of 5 mg/kg per infusion every 14 days for a total of 6 injections. The relationships between bevacizumab serum concentration and both CI and epistaxis duration were described using transit compartments and direct inhibition pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models. The performances of different maintenance regimens were evaluated using simulation. Infusions every 3, 2 and one months were predicted to maintain 41%, 45% and 50% of patients with CI <4 L/min/m(2) at 24 months, respectively. The fraction of patients with <20 min epistaxis per month was predicted to be 34%, 43% and 60%, with infusion every 3, 2 or one months, respectively. Simulations of the effects of different maintenance dosing regimens predict that monthly 5 mg/kg infusions of bevacizumab should allow sustained control of both cardiac index and epistaxis.

  13. The concept of hereditary impairment of brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, H; Neubauer, B A; Petersen, B

    2000-01-01

    The classification of benign partial epilepsies and related conditions includes (besides rolandic epilepsy) atypical benign partial epilepsy, bioelectrical status epilepticus (ESES) and a variety of other syndromes. The broad overlap of the clinical and bioelectrical symptomatology might reflect a pathogenetic background common to these epilepsies. In order to understand the great phenotypic variability, the clinical symptomatology in 56 sibships with focal sharp waves of genetic origin was analyzed. A genetic determination was assumed if, in addition to the index case, at least one sibling or offspring revealed typical focal sharp waves. The 56 index-cases and their 61 sib/offspring/parents showed a broad spectrum of epileptic and non-epileptic conditions ranging from mild selective performance deficits to severe complex mental retardation, from neonatal seizures, febrile convulsions, and simple rolandic epilepsy to severe epilepsies with minor seizures or ESES. The different conditions are not disease entities but sets of variably weighted symptoms of a complex pathogenetic background, in which a genetic disposition to focal anomalies of brain function is of decisive importance. As can be demonstrated by the data, this genetic liability coincides with other widespread genetic traits, expressed in certain EEG patterns, as well as with lesional pathogenetic factors. The biological background of the genetic focal anomaly is currently unknown. The marked age dependence of the symptoms justifies the assumption of an hereditary impairment of brain maturation.

  14. Hereditary genes and SNPs associated with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Kooshyar Mohammad; Nassiri, Mohammad Reza; Nasiri, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women affecting up to one third of tehm during their lifespans. Increased expression of some genes due to polymorphisms increases the risk of breast cancer incidence. Since mutations that are recognized to increase breast cancer risk within families are quite rare, identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are; BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, PPM1D, CDH1, MLH1, MRE11, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PMS1, PMS2, BRIP1, RAD50, RAD51C, STK11 and BARD1. Presence of SNPs in these genes increases the risk of breast cancer and associated diagnostic markers are among the most reliable for assessing prognosis of breast cancer. In this article we reviewed the hereditary genes of breast cancer and SNPs associated with increasing the risk of breast cancer that were recently were reported from candidate gene, meta-analysis and GWAS studies. SNPs of genes associated with breast cancer can be used as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

  15. Nationwide epidemiological survey of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Japan

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    Kaori Ueda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy that leads to central loss of vision, predominantly in young males. Most LHON cases have one of three primary point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. The annual incidence and prevalence of LHON in Japan are not known. Thus, we estimated the annual incidence of molecularly confirmed LHON in Japan during 2014. Methods: Sequential questionnaires were sent to 1397 facilities, which included all of the university hospitals in Japan, and they were certified by either the Japanese Ophthalmological Society or the Japanese Neuro-Ophthalmological Society. We calculated the incidence number (Ir as the number of patients who developed LHON in 2014 and its 95% confidence interval. Results: We received 861 responses to the first questionnaire, where 49 facilities reported 72 cases (67 were male and 5 were female of newly developed LHON during 2014. Ir was calculated as 117, and the 95% confidence interval ranged from 81 to 153. For the second questionnaire, responses were received from 30 facilities, where the median age at onset was 38 years for males and 30 years for females, and 86.5% of cases possessed the mtDNA ND4/G11778A mutation. Conclusion: Approximately 120 cases of newly developed LHON were reported during 2014 in Japan, and 93.2% were males.

  16. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

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    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  17. [Significance of ophthalmological imaging in common hereditary retinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Kernt, M; Reznicek, L

    2013-03-01

    Over the past years, a significant progress in genetic, functional and imaging diagnostics in hereditary retinal diseases has been made. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as fundus autofluorescence (FAF) allow for high-resolution, non-invasive imaging - from various perspectives - of retinal and choroidal layers of the posterior fundus. Both techniques have gained more and more significance in the diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. Of all patients presented in this review, extensive family history was taken and a clinical ophthalmological examination performed. OCT scans as well as FAF images were acquired and compared to results of other functional and molecular genetic tests in the context of each disease. The presented cases in this review addressing hereditary retinal diseases (Best's disease, Stargardt's disease, cone-rod dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, achromatopsia, and X-linked retinoschisis) show the significance of ophthalmic imaging (OCT + FAF) for a targeted diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. The described imaging techniques (OCT + FAF) are becoming more and more important in the diagnosis of hereditary retinal diseases. Due to increasing availability of the devices, earlier detection of typical morphological changes not seen in clinical fundoscopy is feasible. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Genetic and Clinical Analyses of DOA and LHON in 304 Chinese Patients with Suspected Childhood-Onset Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

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    Li, Yadi; Li, Jie; Jia, Xiaoyun; Xiao, Xueshan; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming

    2017-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA), the most common forms of hereditary optic neuropathy, are easily confused, and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other in the clinic, especially in young children. The present study was designed to survey the mutation spectrum of common pathogenic genes (OPA1, OPA3 and mtDNA genes) and to analyze the genotype-phenotype characteristics of Chinese patients with suspected childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy. Genomic DNA and clinical data were collected from 304 unrelated Chinese probands with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with an age of onset below 14 years. Sanger sequencing was used to screen variants in the coding and adjacent regions of OPA1, OPA3 and the three primary LHON-related mutation sites in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were compared with age-matched controls. We identified 89/304 (29.3%) primary mtDNA mutations related to LHON in 304 probands, including 76 mutations at m.11778 (76/89, 85.4% of all mtDNA mutations), four at m.3460 (4/89, 4.5%) and nine at m.14484 (9/89, 10.1%). This result was similar to the mutation frequency among Chinese patients with LHON of any age. Screening of OPA1 revealed 23 pathogenic variants, including 11 novel and 12 known pathogenic mutations. This study expanded the OPA1 mutation spectrum, and our results showed that OPA1 mutation is another common cause of childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese pediatric patients, especially those with disease onset during preschool age.

  19. Genetic and Clinical Analyses of DOA and LHON in 304 Chinese Patients with Suspected Childhood-Onset Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

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    Yadi Li

    Full Text Available Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON and dominant optic atrophy (DOA, the most common forms of hereditary optic neuropathy, are easily confused, and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other in the clinic, especially in young children. The present study was designed to survey the mutation spectrum of common pathogenic genes (OPA1, OPA3 and mtDNA genes and to analyze the genotype-phenotype characteristics of Chinese patients with suspected childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy. Genomic DNA and clinical data were collected from 304 unrelated Chinese probands with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with an age of onset below 14 years. Sanger sequencing was used to screen variants in the coding and adjacent regions of OPA1, OPA3 and the three primary LHON-related mutation sites in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination and were compared with age-matched controls. We identified 89/304 (29.3% primary mtDNA mutations related to LHON in 304 probands, including 76 mutations at m.11778 (76/89, 85.4% of all mtDNA mutations, four at m.3460 (4/89, 4.5% and nine at m.14484 (9/89, 10.1%. This result was similar to the mutation frequency among Chinese patients with LHON of any age. Screening of OPA1 revealed 23 pathogenic variants, including 11 novel and 12 known pathogenic mutations. This study expanded the OPA1 mutation spectrum, and our results showed that OPA1 mutation is another common cause of childhood-onset hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese pediatric patients, especially those with disease onset during preschool age.

  20. Hereditary Hemochromatosis and Transferrin Receptor 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juxing

    2011-01-01

    Background Multicellular organisms regulate the uptake of calories, trace elements, and other nutrients by complex feedback mechanisms. In the case of iron, the body senses internal iron stores, iron requirements for hematopoiesis, and inflammatory status, and regulates iron uptake by modulating the uptake of dietary iron from the intestine. Both the liver and the intestine participate in the coordination of iron uptake and distribution in the body. The liver senses inflammatory signals and iron status of the organism and secretes a peptide hormone, hepcidin. Under high iron or inflammatory conditions hepcidin levels increase. Hepcidin binds to the iron transport protein, ferroportin (FPN), promoting FPN internalization and degradation. Decreased FPN levels reduce iron efflux out of intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages into the circulation. Derangements in iron metabolism result in either the abnormal accumulation of iron in the body, or in anemias. The identification of the mutations that cause the iron overload disease, hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), or iron-refractory iron-deficiencey anemia has revealed many of the proteins used to regulate iron uptake. Scope of the review In this review we discuss recent data concerning the regulation of iron homeostasis in the body by the liver and how transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) affects this process. Major conclusions TfR2 plays a key role in regulating iron homeostasis in the body. General significance The regulation of iron homeostasis is important. One third of the people in the world are anemic. HH is the most common inherited disease in people of Northern European origin and can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. PMID:21864651

  1. Optimal management of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

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    Garg N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neetika Garg,1 Monica Khunger,2 Arjun Gupta,3 Nilay Kumar4 1Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 3Department of Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance/Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA Abstract: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT, also known by the eponym Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1 or ACVRLK1 (HHT2 genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%–60% of affected individuals, liver (~40%–70%, brain (~10%, and spine (~1%. Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs, presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options. Keywords: arteriovenous

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Hereditary fibrosing poikiloderma with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fibrosis (abbreviated POIKTMP ), is a disorder that affects many ...

  3. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Wijnen, JT; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; Taal, BG; Griffioen, G; Nagengast, FM; MeijersHeijboer, EH; Bertario, L; Varesco, L; Bisgaard, ML; Mohr, J; Fodde, R; Khan, PM

    Background & Aims: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers, The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of

  4. Cancer risk in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer diagnosed by mutation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H. F.; Wijnen, J. T.; Menko, F. H.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Taal, B. G.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. H.; Bertario, L.; Varesco, L.; Bisgaard, M. L.; Mohr, J.; Fodde, R.; Khan, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is characterized by early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of various other cancers. The recent isolation of four mismatch repair genes responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer allows for the identification of carriers within

  5. High prevalence of hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in central Norway: from clinical observation to evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    von Krogh A S; Quist-Paulsen P; Waage A; Langseth Ø O; Thorstensen K; Brudevold R; Tjønnfjord G E; Largiadèr C R; Lämmle B; Kremer Hovinga J A

    2016-01-01

    Essentials The population prevalence of hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is unknown. We studied the prevalence of hereditary TTP and population frequencies of two ADAMTS 13 mutations. A high frequency of hereditary TTP related to ADAMTS 13 mutation c.4143_4144dupA was found. Vicinity of ABO blood group and ADAMTS 13 loci may facilitate screening of ADAMTS 13 mutations. Background Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) caused by ADAMTS 13 mutations is a rare b...

  6. Neuromyelitis optica antibody in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Luciano Mesquita

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica antibody (or aquaporin-4 antibody) is a well established serum marker associated to high-risk neuromyelitis optica syndrome that presents as an inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by the occurrence of bilateral and simultaneous optic neuritis without complete visual recovery or it occurs as an isolated episode of transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. On the other hand, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a primarily hereditary disorder that affects all tissues of the body and its clinical presentation is tissue-specific for the optic nerve and, eventually, it might reach the spinal cord. Overlapping clinical features of neuromyelitis optica and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy may suggest common target organ diseases. The case report described herein emphasizes the coexistence of serum markers of both diseases, and suggests that further investigation of this challenging clinical presentation is warranted to confirm or rule out this association.

  7. Hereditary stomatocytosis: First case report from Valley of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomatocytes are erythrocytes with a central slit or mouth-shaped (stoma area of central pallor when examined on dried smears. In wet preparations, they are uniconcave rather than biconcave, giving them a bowllike appearance. In vitro, stomatocytes are produced by drugs that intercalate into the inner half of the lipid bilayer, thereby expanding the inner lipid surface area relative to that of the outer half of the bilayer. Hereditary stomatocytosis (also known as hereditary hydrocytosis, or overhydrated stomatocytosis refers to a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant hemolytic anemias caused by altered sodium permeability of the red cell membrane. We present the first case report of hereditary stomatocytosis in a 10-year-old male from the valley of Kashmir. Only eight families with this condition have been described worldwide.

  8. Neuromyelitis optica antibody in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mesquita Simão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica antibody (or aquaporin-4 antibody is a well stablished serum marker associated to high-risk neuromyelitis optica syndrome that presents as an inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by the occurrence of bilateral and simultaneous optic neuritis without complete visual recovery or it occurs as an isolated episode of transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions. On the other hand, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a primarily hereditary disorder that affects all tissues of the body and its clinical presentation is tissue-specific for the optic nerve and, eventually, it might reach the spinal cord. Overlapping clinical features of neuromyelitis optica and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy may suggest common target organ diseases. The case report described herein emphasizes the coexistence of serum markers of both diseases, and suggests that further investigation of this challenging clinical presentation is warranted to confirm or rule out this association.

  9. Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations in Individuals With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgelun, Matthew B; Kulke, Matthew H; Fuchs, Charles S; Allen, Brian A; Uno, Hajime; Hornick, Jason L; Ukaegbu, Chinedu I; Brais, Lauren K; McNamara, Philip G; Mayer, Robert J; Schrag, Deborah; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Ng, Kimmie; Kidd, John; Singh, Nanda; Hartman, Anne-Renee; Wenstrup, Richard J; Syngal, Sapna

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Hereditary factors play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, yet the prevalence of germline cancer susceptibility gene mutations in patients with CRC unselected for high-risk features (eg, early age at diagnosis, personal/family history of cancer or polyps, tumor microsatellite instability [MSI], mismatch repair [MMR] deficiency) is unknown. Patients and Methods We recruited 1,058 participants who received CRC care in a clinic-based setting without preselection for age at diagnosis, personal/family history, or MSI/MMR results. All participants underwent germline testing for mutations in 25 genes associated with inherited cancer risk. Each gene was categorized as high penetrance or moderate penetrance on the basis of published estimates of the lifetime cancer risks conferred by pathogenic germline mutations in that gene. Results One hundred five (9.9%; 95% CI, 8.2% to 11.9%) of 1,058 participants carried one or more pathogenic mutations, including 33 (3.1%) with Lynch syndrome (LS). Twenty-eight (96.6%) of 29 available LS CRCs demonstrated abnormal MSI/MMR results. Seventy-four (7.0%) of 1,058 participants carried non-LS gene mutations, including 23 (2.2%) with mutations in high-penetrance genes (five APC, three biallelic MUTYH, 11 BRCA1/2, two PALB2, one CDKN2A, and one TP53), 15 of whom lacked clinical histories suggestive of their underlying mutation. Thirty-eight (3.6%) participants had moderate-penetrance CRC risk gene mutations (19 monoallelic MUTYH, 17 APC*I1307K, two CHEK2). Neither proband age at CRC diagnosis, family history of CRC, nor personal history of other cancers significantly predicted the presence of pathogenic mutations in non-LS genes. Conclusion Germline cancer susceptibility gene mutations are carried by 9.9% of patients with CRC. MSI/MMR testing reliably identifies LS probands, although 7.0% of patients with CRC carry non-LS mutations, including 1.0% with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  10. [Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe two cases of hereditary dyschromatopsia and discuss the efficiency of the color vision tests. The patients were disapproved in different federal public examinations because Ishihara's test diagnosed hereditary dyschromatopsia. Ophthalmological evaluation was normal. No symptoms related to dyschromatopsia were presented. Panels D15 and Roth D 28 were normal. Desaturated D 15 showed deuteranomaly in case one. In the second case the comparative color vision tests showed nonspecific disorder. The diagnosis of dyschromatopsia is complex. The authors recommend comparative color vision tests to complement the Ishihara test for a better understanding of the color deficiency.

  11. Mutator gene and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Chapelle, Albert [Helsingfors, FI; Vogelstein, Bert [Baltimore, MD; Kinzler, Kenneth W [Baltimore, MD

    2008-02-05

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  12. Genetic and biochemical impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity in a family with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and hereditary spastic dystonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, D.D.; Oost, B.A. van [Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands); Went, L.N.; Bruyn, G.W. [Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A rare form of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that is associated with hereditary spastic dystonia has been studied in a large Dutch family. Neuropathy and ophthalmological lesions were present together in some family members, whereas only one type of abnormality was found in others. mtDNA mutations previously reported in LHON were not present. Sequence analysis of the protein-coding mitochondrial genes revealed two previously unreported mtDNA mutations. A heteroplasmic A{yields}G transition at nucleotide position 11696 in the ND4 gene resulted in the substitution of an isoleucine for valine at amino acid position 312. A second mutation, a homoplasmic T{yields}A transition at nucleotide position 14596 in the ND6 gene, resulted in the substitution of a methionine for the isoleucine at amino acid residue 26. Biochemical analysis of a muscle biopsy revealed a severe complex I deficiency, providing a link between these unique mtDNA mutations and this rare, complex phenotype including Leber optic neuropathy. 80 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Targeted therapy for hereditary cancer syndromes: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rishi; Liebe, Sarah; Turski, Michelle L; Vidwans, Smruti J; Janku, Filip; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Munoz, Javier; Schwab, Richard; Rodon, Jordi; Kurzrock, Razelle; Subbiah, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    Cancer genetics has rapidly evolved in the last two decades. Understanding and exploring the several genetic pathways in the cancer cell is the foundation of targeted therapy. Several genomic aberrations have been identified and their role in carcinogenesis is being explored. In contrast to most cancers where these mutations are acquired, patients with hereditary cancer syndromes have inherited genomic aberrations. The understanding of the molecular pathobiology in hereditary cancer syndromes has advanced dramatically. In addition, many molecularly targeted therapies have been developed that could have potential roles in the treatment of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes. In this review, we outline the presentation, molecular biology, and possible targeted therapies for two of the most widely recognized hereditary cancer syndromes -- hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (Lynch syndrome). We will also discuss other syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis and Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53).

  14. TFG associated hereditary spastic paraplegia: an addition to the phenotypic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Huma; Naz, Sadaf

    2017-04-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) constitute movement disorders with extreme lower limb spasticity caused by axonopathies of the upper motor neurons. We describe two siblings affected with a recessive form of movement disorder. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense mutation c.64 C>T (p.Arg22Trp) in TFG as cause of the disorder. Comparison of the phenotype of the patients of this study, with that reported previously, revealed differences in the severity of the disorder as well as new clinical findings. These include presence of clonus, undeveloped speech, and sleep disturbances. Our findings extend the phenotypic spectrum associated with the TFG mutations in HSP.

  15. Guidelines for complex genetic analysis of hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome in slovak population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konecny M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diagnostics of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC has been performed in Slovakia in many different forms before the year 2000. Complex HBOC genetic analysis consists of many steps, including the initial genetic consultation, laboratory testing of genes associated with HBOC, interpretation and report of DNA analysis results, secondary explanatory genetic consultation and recommendation of clinical management for pathological mutation carriers. Many clinicians are participating on this workflow, such as clinical geneticists, laboratory diagnosticians as well as gynaecologists, oncologists or radio-diagnosticians. Currently, genetic testing is still technically and financially demanding and aimed only at selected families or patients who fulfil the defined clinical indication criteria.

  16. Identification of SLC26A4 gene mutations in Iranian families with hereditary hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Kahrizi, Kimia; Mohseni, Marzieh; Nishimura, Carla; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Fischer, Stephanie M.; Dehghani, Atefeh; Sayfati, Morteza; Taghdiri, Maryam; Jamali, Payman; Smith, Richard J. H.; Azizi, Fereydoun; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene at the DFNB4 locus are responsible for Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (DFNB4). This study included 80 nuclear families with two or more siblings segregating presumed autosomal recessive hearing loss. All deaf persons tested negative for mutations in GJB2 at the DFNB1 locus and were therefore screened for autozygosity by descent (ABD) using short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) that flanked SLC26A4. In 12 families, homozygosity for ...

  17. A novel hypothesis for the gene expression for the control of atopic and other hereditary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Okudaira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of RNA polymerase proteins and transcription factor proteins for the expression of genetic information in DNA clearly indicates that the process is influenced by certain proteins in the body and/or in the environment, which is totally opposite to the 'central dogma' of Crick. In this article, we present a working hypothesis (helical hypothesis that may explain the programmed nature of various biological events simply and naturally. Future investigations on the factors that regulate the gene transcription of cytokine clusters, including intereukin (IL-4 and IL-5, may provide an answer for controlling atopic as well as other hereditary (genetic diseases.

  18. Chondrosarcoma secondary to hereditary multiple exostosis treated by extended internal hemiplevectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar Lopes

    Full Text Available The authors report on the case of a 28-year-old patient with extensive chondrosarcoma of the left ischium and pubis involving hip joint, skin, and soft tissue of the gluteal region, secondary to hereditary multiple exostosis submitted to an extended internal Enneking type II and Ill hemipelvectomy. No prosthesis or arthrodesis was used. A few years ago, patients with extensive tumors like this one were treated with interilioabdominal amputation, resulting in a loss of quality of Iife.Two years after the limb-preserving surgery, this patient was disease free, with good functional results, including bipedal ambulation with support.

  19. Multiparametric 3T MRI evaluation of hereditary spastic paraplegia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Priya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP is a rare heterogeneous group of familial neurodegenerative disorders characterized by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and posterior column of the spinal cord. Previously described radiological findings included nonspecific brain abnormalities such as brain atrophy and white matter lesions, as well as atrophy of the corpus callosum and spinal cord. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may reveal reduced concentrations of normal brain metabolites and elevated levels of myoinositol. Diffusion tensor imaging shows increased mean diffusivity and reduced fractional anisotropy in the periventricular white matter, which is compatible with damaged myelinated axons. We present here two cases of HSP in a single family with typical imaging findings.

  20. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  1. Organization and Running of the First Comprehensive Hereditary Cancer Clinic in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar T

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary cancers are thought to account for around 5% of cancers, particularly breast/ovarian and colorectal cancers. In India there is a paucity of data on hereditary cancers and the mutations in some of the common genes linked to hereditary cancers, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, hMSH2 and hMLH1. The country's first comprehensive hereditary cancer clinic was established in February 2002. The article describes the organization and running of the Clinic. It also discusses some of the social issues relevant to the given population in running the Hereditary Cancer Clinic.

  2. High-Risk Palliative Care Patients' Knowledge and Attitudes about Hereditary Cancer Testing and DNA Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, John M; Emidio, Oluwabunmi; Ma, Brittany; Bailey, Lauryn; Smith, Thomas J; Kang, In Guk; Yu, Brandon J; Owodunni, Oluwafemi Patrick; Abusamaan, Mohammed; Razzak, Rab; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2017-12-04

    Even at the end of life, testing cancer patients for inherited susceptibility may provide life-saving information to their relatives. Prior research suggests palliative care inpatients have suboptimal understanding of genetic importance, and testing may be underutilized in this clinical setting. These conclusions are based on limited research. This study aimed to estimate genetic testing prevalence among high-risk palliative care patients in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. We also aimed to understand these patients' understanding of, and attitudes toward, hereditary cancer testing and DNA banking. Palliative care in-patients with cancer completed structured interviews, and their medical records were reviewed. Among patients at high risk for hereditary cancer, we assessed history of genetic testing/DNA banking; and related knowledge and attitudes. Among 24 high-risk patients, 14 (58.3%) said they/their relatives had genetic testing or they had been referred for a genetics consultation. Of the remaining 10 patients, seven (70%) said they would "probably" or "definitely" get tested. Patients who had not had testing were least concerned about the impact of future testing on their family relationships; two (20%) said they were "extremely concerned" about privacy related to genetic testing. Of patients without prior testing, five (50%) said they had heard or read "a fair amount" about genetic testing. No high-risk patients had banked DNA. Overall, 23 (95.8%) said they had heard or read "almost nothing" or "relatively little" about DNA banking. Written materials and clinician discussion were most preferred ways to learn about genetic testing and DNA banking. Overall, this study demonstrates underutilization of genetics services at the end of life continues to be problematic, despite high patient interest.

  3. A CASE OF PERSISTANT INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION IN A 7 YEARS OLD GIRL WITH MULTIPLE HEREDITARY EXOSTOSIS AND CRANIOSTENOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Kuzenkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates a case of rare hereditary syndrome observation — with the multiple hereditary exostosis (MHE syndrome in a 7 years old girl. The article covers hereditary and clinical features and life prognosis of the syndrome.Key words: intracranial hypertension, multiple hereditary exostosis (MHE syndrome, craniostenosis, children.

  4. Sulindac treatment in hereditary non-pollyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, Fleur E. M.; Hollema, Harry; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; van der Sluis, Tineke; Ek, Wytske Boersma-van; Kleibeuker, Jan H.

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, e.g. sulindac have been extensively studied for chemoprevention in familial adenomatous polyposis, but not in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). We evaluated these effects in HNPCC using surrogate end-points for cancer risk. In a randomised

  5. Benefits and risks of danazol in hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Konrad; Bygum, Anette; Hardt, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor deficiency is clinically characterized by relapsing skin swellings, abdominal pain attacks, and life-threatening upper airway obstruction. Treatment with androgens prevents attacks for those with this condition. OBJECTIVE: To examine the...

  6. Dementia with non-hereditary cystatin C angiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Blöndal, H; Jóhannesson, G

    1989-01-01

    Brain biopsies from two patients with non-hereditary cerebral hemorrhages and eighty autopsied cases with the clinical diagnosis of dementia are presented. The biopsied cases, both males aged 64 and 59, had a sudden onset of cerebral hemorrhage, mild progressive dementia and cystatin C cerebral...

  7. Visual Rehabilitation of Persons with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudanko, S.-L.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents results of a noncontrolled clinical study of 20 persons with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy who were treated from 1976 to 1990 at the Low Vision Centre of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Handicapped. The importance of early functional visual rehabilitation is emphasized, as is the use of low vision aids to help…

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE Therapeutic avenues for hereditary forms of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chitra

    Key words: retinal disease; retinitis pigmentosa; gene therapy; retinoid; clinical trial; stem cell; cell therapy. Abstract. Hereditary retinal diseases, known as retinal degenerations or dystrophies, are a large group of inherited eye disorders resulting in irreversible visual loss and blindness. They develop due to mutations in one ...

  9. Guidelines for the genetic diagnosis of hereditary recurrent fevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shinar, Y; Obici, L; Aksentijevich, I

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary recurrent fevers (HRFs) are a group of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases characterised by recurrent bouts of fever and serosal inflammation that are caused by pathogenic variants in genes important for the regulation of innate immunity. Discovery of the molecular defects responsible ...

  10. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  11. Report of hereditary gingival fibromatosis in two Nigerian siblings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition with a prevalence of 1:750,000, and can present as an isolated disorder or more rarely as a syndrome component. It is characterised by a slow and progressive enlargement of both maxillary and mandibular 28rganiza with varying severity between ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characterized by progressive muscle stiffness (spasticity) and eventual paralysis of the lower limbs (paraplegia). The spasticity and paraplegia result from degeneration (atrophy) of motor neurons , which are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control muscle movement. Hereditary ...

  13. Mitochondrial processes are impaired in hereditary inclusion body myopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, I.; Novershtern, N.; Itzhaki, Z.; Becker-Cohen, M.; Sadeh, M.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Friedman, N.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM) is an adult onset, slowly progressive distal and proximal myopathy. Although the causing gene, GNE, encodes for a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sialic acid, its primary function in HIBM remains unknown. To elucidate the pathological mechanisms leading

  14. Longitudinal Cerebral Blood Flow Changes during Speech in Hereditary Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidtis, John J.; Strother, Stephen C.; Naoum, Ansam; Rottenberg, David A.; Gomez, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The hereditary ataxias constitute a group of degenerative diseases that progress over years or decades. With principal pathology involving the cerebellum, dysarthria is an early feature of many of the ataxias. Positron emission tomography was used to study regional cerebral blood flow changes during speech production over a 21 month period in a…

  15. Managing oral bleeding in children with hereditary bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevention of traumatic and infective dental conditions is an important part of oral health care in individuals with hereditary bleeding disorders. This would reduce the need for treatment and should reduce the number of emergency visits. Key words: Haemophilia, von Willebrand disease, gingival bleeding, dental ...

  16. Progressive cerebellar atrophy: hereditary ataxias and disorders with spinocerebellar degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, N.I.; Koenig, M.; Dulac, O.L.M.; Sarnat, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The hereditary ataxias with onset in childhood are a group of heterogeneous disorders, usually with autosomal recessive inheritance. In many of them, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows cerebellar atrophy. The most prominent exception to this is Friedreich's ataxia, where MRI shows normal

  17. RECRUITMENT OF PATIENTS WITH HEREDITARY HAEMOCHROMATOSIS AS BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Cukjati

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary haemochromatosis is the most common inherited disorder in white persons with prevalence of about 1 in 200. Therapeutic phlebotomy is an effective treatment for the disease and prevents its sequele. In addition to their altruism, patients with hereditary haemochromatosis have also medical and monetary incentives for blood donation. Current guidelines do not allow haemochromatosis patients to donate blood. About two thirds of patients are eligible as blood donors and about two thirds of therapeutically drawn blood is suitable for transfusion. Therapeutically drawn blood could increase the blood supply by 1.5 to 30%.Conclusions. The number of states that already accept patients with hereditary haemochromatosis as blood donors is increasing. To avoid monetary incentives they offer free phlebotomies for all patients with hereditary haemochromatosis. There have been no reports about higher incidence of transfusion reactions. In Slovenia the number of therapeutic phlebotomy is increasing. We should evaluate the possibilities for recruitment of haemochromatosis patients as blood donors also in our country. It is necessary to modify regulatory restrictions and to ensure that there is no other incentives than altruism for blood donation.

  18. Gene-environment interactions in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Kirkman; P. Yu-Wai-Man (Patrick); A. Korsten (Alex); M. Leonhardt (Miriam); K. Dimitriadis (Konstantin); I.F.M. de Coo (René); T. Klopstock (Thomas); P.F. Chinnery

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLeber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic disorder primarily due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Environmental factors are thought to precipitate the visual failure and explain the marked incomplete penetrance of LHON, but previous small studies have failed to

  19. Intragenic duplication: a novel mutational mechanism in hereditary pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken T; Geisz, Andrea; Brusgaard, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In a hereditary pancreatitis family from Denmark, we identified a novel intragenic duplication of 9 nucleotides in exon-2 of the human cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene (c.63_71dup) which at the amino-acid level resulted in the insertion of 3 amino acids within the activation peptide of cationic...

  20. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  1. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis: report of family case series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hereditary gingival hyperplasia (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by hyperplastic, dense fibrous connective tissue with acanthotic gingival epithelium. A family presented at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Nairobi with a complaint that some of the children developed swollen gums very early in life and that ...

  2. Hereditary primary open angle glaucoma: case study of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a case of hereditary primary open angle glaucoma in a Nigerian family. Method: Six members of an Ibo family from Delta State, Nigeria were interviewed and examined by the authors. Information on age, gender, tribe, history of blindness, eye disease and other medical conditions was recorded.

  3. Hereditary atypical retinitis pigmentosa: case report | Omoti | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents four generations of hereditary atypical (pericentric) retinitis pigmentosa in an Itsekiri family of Warri, Delta state of Nigeria. The patients presented with nyctalopia, waxy disc pallor, arteriolar attenuation, pigment deposits around the optic nerve and visual field loss. The cases were typically mild with ...

  4. Hereditary hemochromatosis and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that the hereditary hemochromatosis genotypes C282Y/C282Y, C282Y/H63D, or C282Y/wild-type are risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective study of 9178 individuals from the Danish...

  5. Mutations in TITF-1 are associated with benign hereditary chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. Breedveld (Guido); A. Guala (Andrea); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.K. Percy; L.S. Dure; P. Harper; W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); L.P. Lazarou; H. van der Linde; B.B.A. de Vries (Bert); M. Joosse (Marijke); M.E. MacDonald; H. Krude; A. Grüters (Annette); J.W.F. van Dongen (Jeroen); C. Danesino (Cesare); P. Heutink (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBenign hereditary chorea (BHC) (MIM 118700) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder. The early onset of symptoms (usually before the age of 5 years) and the observation that in some BHC families the symptoms tend to decrease in adulthood suggests that the disorder

  6. Mutations in TITF-1 are associated with benign hereditary chorea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, GJ; van Dongen, JWF; Danesino, C; Guala, A; Percy, AK; Dure, LS; Harper, P; Lazarou, LP; van der Linde, H; Joosse, M; Gruters, A; MacDonald, ME; de Vries, BBA; Arts, WFM; Oostra, BA; Krude, H; Heutink, P

    2002-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) (MIM 118700) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder. The early onset of symptoms (usually before the age of 5 years) and the observation that in some BHC families the symptoms tend to decrease in adulthood suggests that the disorder results from a developmental

  7. Mutations in TITF-1 are associated with benign hereditary chorea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breedveld, G.J.; Dongen, J.W. van; Danesino, C.; Guala, A.; Percy, A.K.; Dure, L.S.; Harper, P.; Lazarou, L.P.; Linde, H. van der; Joosse, M.; Gruters, A.; MacDonald, M.E.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Arts, P.J.W.; Oostra, B.A.; Krude, H.; Heutink, P.

    2002-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) (MIM 118700) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder. The early onset of symptoms (usually before the age of 5 years) and the observation that in some BHC families the symptoms tend to decrease in adulthood suggests that the disorder results from a developmental

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA typically get open sores (ulcers) on their feet or hands or infections of the soft tissue of the fingertips (whitlows) that are slow to heal. Because affected ... of these sores, they may not seek immediate treatment. Without treatment, ...

  9. Non-recurrent SEPT9 duplications cause hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collie, A.M.; Landsverk, M.L.; Ruzzo, E.; Mefford, H.C.; Buysse, K.; Adkins, J.R.; Knutzen, D.M.; Barnett, K.; Brown Jr., R.H.; Parry, G.J.; Yum, S.W.; Simpson, D.A.; Olney, R.K.; Chinnery, P.F.; Eichler, E.E.; Chance, P.F.; Hannibal, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic copy number variants have been shown to be responsible for multiple genetic diseases. Recently, a duplication in septin 9 (SEPT9) was shown to be causal for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), an episodic peripheral neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance. This

  10. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  11. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  12. On the many faces of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Tijmes, N. T.; Cobben, J. M.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van Nesselrooij, B. P.; Houtman, W. A.; de Kok-Nazaruk, M. M.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder, associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is notorious for its aspecific presentations. Two pedigrees are described with cases that are atypical for LHON with respect to sex, age of onset, interval between

  13. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is an important cause of progressive painless visual loss among young male patients. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of a young patient with a clinical and neurophysiological condition suggestive of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, confirmed by genetic testing. CASE REPORT: We describe a 17-year-old male with progressive bilateral visual loss. Two maternal uncles had had similar patterns of visual loss. The patient had a history of smoking and alcohol abuse. Neuro-ophthalmological examination revealed visual acuity of 20/800 in both eyes, with decreased direct and consensual pupillary light reflexes. Fundus examination demonstrated pale optic discs. The visual evoked potential test showed signs of conduction disturbances in both optic nerves and campimetric study showed complete visual loss in all fields of both eyes. A diagnosis of bilateral optic neuropathy with a clinical suspicion of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy was made. A blood sample was submitted to genetic analysis in relation to the principal mutations of this disorder, and homoplasmic mutation in 11778 was detected, thereby confirming the diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

  14. On the many faces of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, RJ; Tijmes, NT; Cobben, JM; Bolhuis, PA; vanNesselrooij, BPM; Houtman, WA; deKokNazaruk, MM; BleekerWagemakers, EM

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder, associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA, which is notorious for its aspecific presentations. Two pedigrees are described with cases that are atypical for LHON with respect to sex, age of onset, interval between

  15. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, Jan Willem R.; Wong, Kwok H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited optic neuropathy caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is also believed that several epigenetic factors have an influence on the development of LHON. Methods: A case series was observed. Results: Three

  16. Hereditary hemochromatosis: genetic complexity and new diagnostic approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, D.W.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Bergmans, J.; Marx, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 1996, several novel gene defects have been detected, explaining the mechanism and diversity of iron-overload diseases. At least 4 main types of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) have been identified. Surprisingly, genes involved in HH encode for

  17. [Intrathecal baclofen in hereditary spastic paraparesis: benefits and limitations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecq, V; Muller, F; Joseph, P-A; Cuny, E; Mazaux, J-M; Barat, M

    2007-10-01

    Chronic intrathecal delivery of baclofen has been introduced for treatment of severe spinal spasticity. Very little is known about this treatment in hereditary spastic paraparesis. Here we review the benefits and limitations of pump implantation for baclofen delivery in this population. Consecutive patients presenting with hereditary spastic paraparesis were assessed for spasticity (Ashworth and Penn scores), muscular strength and walking (speed, comfort and perimeter length). The effect of intrathecal delivery of baclofen was judged after progressive bolus injections or chronic administration by electrical syringe. The pump implantation was proposed when spasticity scores decreased by 2 or more points, with muscular strength preserved and walking area increased. We investigated 6 patients (3 males; mean age 48 years) with hereditary spastic paraparesis. The mean follow-up was 19 years; for 4 patients who received pump implantation, the mean follow-up was 6.2 years. The mean baclofen daily dose was 75 mug. Satisfaction was high for patients who received implantation early instead of waiting for the natural course of the disease. Some patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis have good functional improvement with chronic intrathecal delivery of baclofen if walking is still possible. Despite the natural history of the disease, functional results are stable during the first 5 years of treatment. The data indicate a possible compromise between decreased spasticity and muscular strengthening with the treatment.

  18. Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Kjeldsen, J

    2000-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding occurs in a number of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and may lead to a high transfusion need. The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding in a geographically well defined HHT population....

  19. Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia in an 11-Year-Old Patient with Flexible Denture: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a rare group of inherited disorders characterized by aplasia or dysplasia of two or more tissues of ectodermal origin such as hair, nails, teeth, and skin. The dental characteristics of this syndrome include anodontia or hypodontia of the primary and/or permanent teeth, hypoplastic conical teeth, and underdevelopment of the alveolar ridges. The options for a definitive treatment plan include fixed, removable or implant-supported prostheses, singly or in combination. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of an 11-year-old boy with hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. Maxillary flexible removable partial denture and mandibular conventional complete denture were fabricated to establish an acceptable masticatory function, speech, and esthetics for the patient.

  20. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: Clinicogenetic lessons from 608 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Rebecca; Wiethoff, Sarah; Martus, Peter; Karle, Kathrin N; Otto, Susanne; Klebe, Stephan; Klimpe, Sven; Gallenmüller, Constanze; Kurzwelly, Delia; Henkel, Dorothea; Rimmele, Florian; Stolze, Henning; Kohl, Zacharias; Kassubek, Jan; Klockgether, Thomas; Vielhaber, Stefan; Kamm, Christoph; Klopstock, Thomas; Bauer, Peter; Züchner, Stephan; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga; Schöls, Ludger

    2016-04-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are genetically driven disorders with the hallmark of progressive spastic gait disturbance. To investigate the phenotypic spectrum, prognostic factors, and genotype-specific differences, we analyzed baseline data from a continuous, prospective cohort. We recruited 608 HSP cases from 519 families of mostly German origin. Clinical severity was assessed by the Spastic Paraplegia Rating Scale. Complicating symptoms were recorded by a standardized inventory. Family history indicated dominant (43%), recessive (10%), and simplex (47%) disease. We observed a significant male predominance, particularly in simplex cases without a genetic diagnosis. Disease severity increased with disease duration. Earlier disease onset was associated with less severe disease. Specific complicating features including cognitive impairment, extrapyramidal or peripheral motor involvement, and ataxia were associated with worse disease severity. Disease severity also depended on the genotype. HSP cases maintained the ability to walk independently for a median disease duration of 22 years. Early onset cases were able to maintain free walking significantly longer and were at less risk to become wheelchair dependent. This cross-sectional cohort study provides the first large-scale data on disease manifestation, progression, and modifying factors, with relevance for counseling of HSP families and planning of future cross-sectional and natural history studies. Later age of onset, specific complicating features, and the SPG11 genotype are strongly associated with more severe disease. Future interventional studies will require stratification for modifiers of disease progression identified in this study. Prospective longitudinal studies will verify progression rates calculated in this baseline analysis. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  1. Life expextancy of parents with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gussem, E M; Edwards, C P; Hosman, A E; Westermann, C J J; Snijder, R J; Faughnan, M E; Mager, J J

    2016-04-22

    Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disease associated with epistaxis, arteriovenous malformations and telangiectasias. Disease complications may result in premature death. We investigated life-expectancies of parents of HHT patients compared with their non-HHT partners using self- or telephone-administered questionnaires sent to their children. Patients were extracted from the databases of 2 participating HHT Centres: the Toronto HHT Database (Toronto, Canada) and the St. Antonius Hospital HHT Database (Nieuwegein, The Netherlands). Two hundred twenty five/407 (55%) of respondents were included creating HHT- (n = 225) and control groups (n = 225) of equal size. Two hundred thirteen/225 (95%) of the HHT group had not been screened for organ involvement of the disease prior to death. The life expectancy in parents with HHT was slightly lower compared to parents without (median age at death 73.3 years in patients versus 76.6 years in controls, p0.018). Parents with ACVRL 1 mutations had normal life expectancies, whereas parents with Endoglin mutations died 7.1 years earlier than controls (p = 0.024). Women with Endoglin mutations lived a median of 9.3 years shorter than those without (p = 0.04). Seven/123 (5%) of deaths were HHT related with a median age at death of 61.5 years (IQ range 54.4-67.7 years). Our study showed that the life expectancy of largely unscreened HHT patients was lower than people without HHT. Female patients with Endoglin mutations were most strikingly at risk of premature death from complications. These results emphasize the importance of referring patients with HHT for screening of organ involvement and timely intervention to prevent complications.

  2. [Hereditary vascular malformations: classification, symptoms, diagnostics and prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, W A; Wölfle, K; Schuster, T; Schlimok, G; Bohndorf, K

    2012-10-01

    The understanding of hereditary vascular anomalies was hampered for a long time by unclear und unspecific terminology. Today, the classification of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) differentiates between vascular tumours (mostly infantile haemangioma) with active endothelial proliferation and regression and vascular malformations (VM), which are defects of the vascular morphogenesis and are distinguished in predominantly venous, arterial, capillary, lymphatic, arteriovenous or combined VM. Symptoms are pain, swelling and restricted movement, accompanied by skin signs like dys-plastic veins and capillary VM (naevus flammeus). Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are related to venous VM. Arteriovenous VM are progressive and can cause ischaemic necroses, in rare cases even a high-output cardiac fail-ure. Lymphatic VM lead to localised swelling, in the long run often to recurrent erysipelas and lymphorroea. Primary imaging is provided by -ul-trasound including flow measurements. Mor-phol-ogy and organ involvement is best delineated by magnetic resonance imaging. Phlebography is used to image deep venous system anomalies and is always accompanied by varicography of the dysplastic parts of the venous VM. Digital subtraction angiography is performed to demon-strate the flow pattern in feeding arteries, the nidus and the drainage veins of arteriovenous VM. Besides size and localisation the prognosis of the patients is determined by the pressure (the high-er the pressure, the poorer the prognosis) and the flow rate (the higher the flow rate, the poorer the prognosis) in the VM. Diagnosis and treatment of these rare diseases are best performed in special-ised, interdisciplinary centres. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  3. Hereditary predisposition to ovarian cancer, looking beyond BRCA1/BRCA2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minion, Lindsey E; Dolinsky, Jill S; Chase, Dana M; Dunlop, Charles L; Chao, Elizabeth C; Monk, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    Genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer is well documented. With the advent of next generation sequencing, hereditary panel testing provides an efficient method for evaluating multiple genes simultaneously. Therefore, we sought to investigate the contribution of 19 genes identified in the literature as increasing the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in a BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative population of patients with a personal history of breast and/or ovarian cancer by means of a hereditary cancer panel. Subjects were referred for multi-gene panel testing between February 2012 and March 2014. Clinical data was ascertained from requisition forms. The incidence of pathogenic mutations (including likely pathogenic), and variant of unknown significance were then calculated for each gene and/or patient cohort. In this cohort of 911 subjects, panel testing identified 67 mutations. With 7.4% of subjects harboring a mutation on this multi-gene panel, the diagnostic yield was increased, compared to testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations alone. In the ovarian cancer probands, the most frequently mutated genes were BRIP1 (n=8; 1.72%) and MSH6 (n=6; 1.29%). In the breast cancer probands, mutations were most commonly observed in CHEK2 (n=9; 2.54%), ATM (n=3; 0.85%), and TP53 (n=3; 0.85%). Although further studies are needed to clarify the exact management of patients with a mutation in each gene, this study highlights information that can be captured with panel testing and provides support for incorporation of panel testing into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P genes included folliculin (FLCN) and fumarate hydratase (FH), which were altered in 1.8% and 1.3% of patients, respectively. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex 2 (TSC2), mesenchymal epithelial transition factor proto-oncogene (MET), and PMS1 homolog 2 (PMS2) had the highest rates of variants of unknown significance, which were identified in 2.7%, 2.2%, and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Early age of onset was the only factor that was identified as predictive of a positive test on multivariate analysis (odds ratio, 0.975; P = .0052) and may be the only identifying characteristic of low-penetrant syndromes, such as those associated with MITF (melanogenesis-associated transcription factor) mutations, which do not have singular histology or a family history of kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Role of detection of microsatellite instability in Chinese with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wang, Shu-Bao

    2006-08-07

    To detect microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer or ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer and to provide criteria for screening the kindreds with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer at molecular level. MSI was detected in the specimens from 20 cases with HNPCC, 20 cases with ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer and 20 cases with sporadic colorectal cancer by means of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism. The positive rate of MSI was 85% (17/20) in HNPCC group, 40% (8/20) in ordinary hereditary colorectal cancer group and 10% (2/20) in the sporadic colorectal cancer group respectively. The differences were significant. The mean ages of the three groups were 43.6, 52.2, and 61.8 years respectively, which increased gradually. The incidence of right hemicolon cancer was 64.7%, 37.5%, and 0% respectively, which decreased gradually and had significant difference. The expression ratio of BAT26 and BAT25 was 94.1% respectively, which was highest in the 5 gene sites studied. The incidence of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma was 70.6% in HNPCC group among high frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H), which was higher than the other two groups, which had 50% and 50% respectively. The incidence of MSI-H is higher in HNPCC group. The detection of MSI is simple and economical and has high correlation with the clinicopathologic feature of HNPCC and can be used as a screening method to detect the germ line mutation of the mismatch repair gene.

  6. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal

  7. Molecular screening of 980 cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with a report on 77 novel OPA1 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Marc; Bonneau, Dominique; Milea, Dan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of molecular screening in 980 patients carried out as part of their work-up for suspected hereditary optic neuropathies. All the patients were investigated for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), by searching for the ten...... primary LHON-causing mtDNA mutations and examining the entire coding sequences of the OPA1 and OPA3 genes, the two genes currently identified in ADOA. Molecular defects were identified in 440 patients (45% of screened patients). Among these, 295 patients (67%) had an OPA1 mutation, 131 patients (30%) had...... an mtDNA mutation, and 14 patients (3%), belonging to three unrelated families, had an OPA3 mutation. Interestingly, OPA1 mutations were found in 157 (40%) of the 392 apparently sporadic cases of optic atrophy. The eOPA1 locus-specific database now contains a total of 204 OPA1 mutations, including 77...

  8. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia: a complex phenotype associated with a new SPG4 gene mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Johnson, B; Koefoed, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...... relatively decreased regional cerebral blood flow in most of the cerebellum. We conclude that this kindred demonstrates a considerable overlap between cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia, emphasizing the marked clinical heterogeneity of HSP associated with spastin mutations...

  9. Re-emergence of hereditary polyneuropathy in scandinavian alaskan malamute dogs-old enemy or new entity? A case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Rohdin, Cecilia; Berendt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    A homozygous mutation has been identified in the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in recent cases of polyneuropathy in Alaskan malamute dogs from the Nordic countries and USA. The objective of the present study was to determine if cases diagnosed 30-40 years ago with polyneuropathy...... in the Alaskan malamute breed in Norway had the same hereditary disease as the recent cases. Fourteen historical cases and 12 recently diagnosed Alaskan malamute dogs with hereditary polyneuropathy, and their parents and littermates (n = 88) were included in this study (total n = 114). After phenotyping...... of historical and recent cases, NDRG1 genotyping was performed using DNA extracted from archived material from five Norwegian dogs affected by the disease in the late 1970s and 1980s. In addition, pedigrees were analysed. Our study concluded that historical and recent phenotypic polyneuropathy cases were...

  10. [Frequency of hereditary neurologic diseases. A clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, M; Baldini, S; Voltolin, G; Norat, M; Bottacchi, E

    1993-09-01

    The nervous system is affected in 30% of hereditary monogenic disorders and as many as 500 single-gene disorders display major neurologic symptoms. We have studied the frequency of hereditary neurological diseases to assess their importance in daily hospital activity. Only single-gene hereditary diseases with central or peripheral nervous system involvement were considered; thus chromosomal diseases and diseases with multifactorial etiology were excluded. We surveyed admission to in- and out-patient departments of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Dermatology of the Aosta Regional Hospital for the calendar years 1982-1991, collecting 229 cases, 95 women and 134 men. Out-patient departments held 126 patients, the others came from in-patient departments. Admission to the neurological in-patient department were 1.8% of total neurological admissions in the same period. Each diagnosis was assigned to the code number of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-IX Revision, 1975). We found 33 different phenotypes. Most frequent diagnoses were: essential tremor (89 patients), hereditary sensory-motor neuropathy (HSMN) type I (28), Huntington's chorea (13), progressive muscular dystrophy limb-girdle type (8), neurofibromatosis type I (9), HSMN type II (9), spinocerebellar ataxia (9), hereditary spastic paraplegia (7), spinal muscular atrophy type IV (5), myotonic dystrophy (5), cerebellar ataxia (4), HSMN type III (4), spinal muscular atrophy type II and III (3), tuberous sclerosis (3). Essential tremor mostly affected persons in the over-50 age groups. On the contrary, the other neurologic monogenic diseases were diagnosed in all ages with the following age-group breakdown: 0-9, 11%; 10-19, 16%; 20-29, 15%; 30-39, 8%; 40-49, 11%; 50-59, 19%; 60-69, 14%, 70+, 7%. Consistently with the general rule, autosomic recessive diseases have the earliest onset and autosomic dominant ones the latest; HSMN, spinal muscular atrophy and Huntington's chorea were the disorders diagnosed

  11. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes: A Focus on Lynch Syndrome and Associated Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafe, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome that results from germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, leading to an increased lifetime risk of cancer. Colorectal cancer is most commonly identified with Lynch syndrome; however, women with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer (up to 60%), which is the sentinel diagnosis in approximately one-half of the cases. Current screening algorithms are developed on family history and laboratory-based tests, including immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins and microsatellite instability testing. Next-generation sequencing assays are rapidly being incorporated into clinical laboratory practices and have diagnostic applications for hereditary cancer syndromes. Important challenges of next-generation sequencing include interpreting incidental and uncertain findings, counseling before and after testing, and informed consent of patients. Here, with the use of Lynch syndrome in endometrial cancer as a model, some of the applications and intricacies of next-generation sequencing testing for hereditary cancer syndromes are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic and biochemical impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity in a family with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and hereditary spastic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeVries, DD; Went, LN; Bruyn, GW; Scholte, HR; Hofstra, RMW; Bolhuis, PA; vanOost, BA

    A rare form of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that is associated with hereditary spastic dystonia has been studied in a large Dutch family. Neuropathy and ophthalmological lesions were present together in some family members, whereas only one type of abnormality was found in others. mtDNA

  13. Fibroblasts from patients with hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma are abnormally sensitive to the mutagenic effect of simulated sunlight and 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.N.; Greene, M.H.; Corner, R.C.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J.

    1984-02-01

    Because of a possible etiologic link between mutations and carcinogenesis, the authors compared fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of several patients with hereditary cutaneous malignant melanoma and the dysplastic nevus syndrome for sensitivity to the mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effect of broad-spectrum simulated sunlight and of a UV mimetic carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The genetic marker was resistant to 6-thioguanine; loss of colony-forming ability was the assay for cytotoxicity. All five strains tested were more sensitive than normal to the killing effect of 4NQO (slopes of survival curves were 2- to 3-fold steeper), but only one strain was hypersensitive to killing by Sun Lamp radiation. Two strains were tested for mutagenicity. The response of each to the mutagenic action of these agents corresponded to its response to cell killing. Both strains were hypermutable after exposure to 4NQO, but only one showed a higher than normal frequency of mutants induced by simulated sunlight. The finding that nonmalignant fibroblasts from patients with a hereditary variant of malignant fibroblasts from patients with a hereditary variant of malignant melanoma are abnormally susceptible to carcinogen-induced mutations suggests that hypersensitivity to mutagens contributes to risk of melanoma in patients. It also supports the somatic cell mutation hypothesis for the origin of cancer. 46 references, 3 figures.

  14. Hereditary Hemochromatosis Restores the Virulence of Plague Vaccine Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Ciletti, Nancy; Louvel, Helene; Miller, Nathan C.; Elli, Derek; Blaylock, Bill; Mitchell, Anthony; Schroeder, Jay; Krausz, Thomas; Kanabrocki, Joseph; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Nonpigmented Yersinia pestis (pgm) strains are defective in scavenging host iron and have been used in live-attenuated vaccines to combat plague epidemics. Recently, a Y. pestis pgm strain was isolated from a researcher with hereditary hemochromatosis who died from laboratory-acquired plague. We used hemojuvelin-knockout (Hjv−/−) mice to examine whether iron-storage disease restores the virulence defects of nonpigmented Y. pestis. Unlike wild-type mice, Hjv−/− mice developed lethal plague when challenged with Y. pestis pgm strains. Immunization of Hjv−/− mice with a subunit vaccine that blocks Y. pestis type III secretion generated protection against plague. Thus, individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis may be protected with subunit vaccines but should not be exposed to live-attenuated plague vaccines. PMID:22896664

  15. Genetics and Genetic Testing in Hereditary Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Boland, C Richard

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common cancer affecting men and women in the United States. Approximately one-third of CRCs are diagnosed in individuals who have family members also affected with the disease. Although the vast majority of colorectal neoplasms develop as a consequence of somatic genomic alterations arising in individual cells, approximately 5% of all CRCs arise in the setting of germline mutations in genes involved in key cellular processes. To date, multiple genes have been implicated in single-gene hereditary cancer syndromes, many of which are associated with increased risk for CRC, as well as other tumor types. This review outlines the clinical, pathologic, and genetic features of the hereditary cancer syndromes known to be associated with increased risk for CRC and delineates strategies for implementing genetic risk assessments in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Primer for Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Kathleen M; Barkley, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare, autosomal dominant genetic disease that causes abnormal growth of blood vessels and, subsequently, life-threatening arteriovenous malformations in vital organs. Epistaxis may be one of the initial clues that a patient has more serious, generalized arteriovenous malformations. Recommended treatment involves careful evaluation to determine the severity and risk of spontaneous rupture of the malformations and the management of various signs and symptoms. The disease remains undiagnosed in many patients, and health care providers may miss the diagnosis until catastrophic events happen in multiple family members. Prompt recognition of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and early intervention can halt the dangerous course of the disease. Critical care nurses can assist with early diagnosis within families with this genetic disease, thus preventing early death and disability. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  17. Management of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. The Asian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Kwong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations are the most common high penetrant genes associated with an increased lifetime risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. Although genetic testing is standard of care in Western developed countries, there are still variations in availability of genetic testing and risk assessment for HBOC in Asia. Depending on the countries, there are variations in the clinical strategies and cancer management. The Asian BRCA Consortium has grouped together 14 Asian countries and reviewed genetic counselling/testing uptake rates and clinical management options in these countries. Moreover economic factors, healthcare and legal frameworks, and cultural issues affecting the genetic service availability in Asia were discussed. Mutation spectrum, and VUS rates and the increase use of NGS gene panel testing poses more decisional issues in the clinical management of Hereditary Breast cancer in Asia. These will be discussed. Keywords: BRCA1/BRCA2, germline, HBOC, Asia BRCA Consortium, NGS

  18. The role of the complement system in hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csuka, Dorottya; Veszeli, Nóra; Varga, Lilian; Prohászka, Zoltán; Farkas, Henriette

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening disorder, characterized by acute, recurring, and self-limiting edematous episodes of the face, extremities, trunk, genitals, upper airways, or the gastrointestinal tract. HAE may be caused by the deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH-HAE) but another type of the disease, hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH function (nC1-INH-HAE) was also described. The patient population is quite heterogeneous as regards the location, frequency, and severity of edematous attacks, presenting large intra- and inter-individual variation. Here, we review the role of the complement system in the pathomechanism of HAE and also present an overview on the complement parameters having an importance in the diagnosis or in predicting the severity of HAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HEREDITARY OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kotiv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most established risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The purpose of the study was to analyze BRCA1/2 testing in ovarian cancer patients. Materials and methods. We analyzed 222 patients with ovarian cancer (OC who underwent genetic testing. Results. Recurrent Slavic mutations in these genes were detected in 60/222 (27% patients.104 patients lacked any clinical signs of hereditary form of the disease, however BRCA1/2 genetic defects were identified among 11 (11% of these women. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas were characterized by more advanced stage at diagnosis and predominance of high-grade serous histological tumor subtype. Conclusion. These results emphasize the need for BRCA1/2 testing for all patients with OC. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas have clinical and pathological cgaracteristics, which should be considered while planning therapy. 

  20. [An aged case of hereditary xanthinuria with xanthine urinary calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Matsuo, T; Nakao, K

    1991-01-01

    A 74-year-old female with hereditary xanthinuria and xanthine stones is reported. She has a family history of consanguineous parents and a past history of right side nephrectomy due to a xanthine renal stone and vesicolithotomy of 3 bladder stones approximately 5 X 4 X 4 cm in size at the age of 58 and 71, respectively. Her young brother exhibited a slightly elevated urinary excretion of oxypurines. Laboratory examination showed a low serum level (0.3 mg/dl) and urinary excretion (1.56 mg/day) of uric acid, and high plasma and urine levels of oxypurines. No xanthine oxidase activity was detectably in duodenal mucosa by biopsy specimen obtained by duodenofiberscopy. Now she has another stone approximately 5 X 4 X 4 cm in her bladder. There have been are few elderly cases of hereditary xanthinuria with recurrent giant urolithiasis.

  1. Could Ossification of the Achilles Tendon Have a Hereditary Component?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawki Cortbaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ossification of the Achilles tendon (OTA is an unusual clinical condition. It is characterized by the presence of an ossified mass within the fibrocartilaginous substance of the Achilles tendon. The etiology of the ossification of the Achilles tendon is unknown. Review of the literature suggests that its etiology is multifactorial. The major contributing factors are trauma and surgery with other minor causes such as systemic diseases, metabolic conditions, and infections. To our knowledge, no previous reports suggest any genetic/hereditary predisposition in OAT. We report 3 siblings who have OAT with no history of any of the aforementioned predisposing factors. Could OAT have a hereditary component as one of its etiologies?

  2. Hereditary dentine disorders: dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentine dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKie Iain

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hereditary dentine disorders, dentinogenesis imperfecta (DGI and dentine dysplasia (DD, comprise a group of autosomal dominant genetic conditions characterised by abnormal dentine structure affecting either the primary or both the primary and secondary dentitions. DGI is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 8,000, whereas that of DD type 1 is 1 in 100,000. Clinically, the teeth are discoloured and show structural defects such as bulbous crowns and small pulp chambers radiographically. The underlying defect of mineralisation often results in shearing of the overlying enamel leaving exposed weakened dentine which is prone to wear. Currently, three sub-types of DGI and two sub-types of DD are recognised but this categorisation may change when other causative mutations are found. DGI type I is inherited with osteogenesis imperfecta and recent genetic studies have shown that mutations in the genes encoding collagen type 1, COL1A1 and COL1A2, underlie this condition. All other forms of DGI and DD, except DD-1, appear to result from mutations in the gene encoding dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, suggesting that these conditions are allelic. Diagnosis is based on family history, pedigree construction and detailed clinical examination, while genetic diagnosis may become useful in the future once sufficient disease-causing mutations have been discovered. Differential diagnoses include hypocalcified forms of amelogenesis imperfecta, congenital erythropoietic porphyria, conditions leading to early tooth loss (Kostmann's disease, cyclic neutropenia, Chediak-Hegashi syndrome, histiocytosis X, Papillon-Lefevre syndrome, permanent teeth discolouration due to tetracyclines, Vitamin D-dependent and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Treatment involves removal of sources of infection or pain, improvement of aesthetics and protection of the posterior teeth from wear. Beginning in infancy, treatment usually continues into adulthood with a

  3. Alteration of the erythrocyte membrane skeletal ultrastructure in hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, and pyropoikilocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S C; Derick, L H; Agre, P; Palek, J

    1990-07-01

    The membrane skeleton of normal erythrocytes is largely organized into a hexagonal lattice of junctional complexes (JC) crosslinked by spectrin tetramers, and occasional double tetramers and hexamers. To explore possible skeletal alterations in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), elliptocytosis (HE), and pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), we have studied the ultrastructure of the spread membrane skeletons from a subpopulation of HS patients with a partial spectrin deficiency ranging from 43% to 86% of normal levels, and in patients with HPP who, in addition to a mild spectrin deficiency, also carried a mutant spectrin that was dysfunctional, thus reducing the ability of spectrin dimers to assemble into tetramers. Membrane skeletons derived from Triton-treated erythrocyte ghosts were examined by negative staining electron microscopy. HS membrane skeletons contained structural elements, consisting of JC and spectrin filaments similar to the normal skeleton. However, less spectrin filaments interconnected the JC, and the decrease of spectrin filaments attached to JC appeared to correlate with the severity of spectrin deficiency. Only in severe HS associated with severe spectrin deficiency was the loss of spectrin sufficient enough to disrupt the overall skeletal architecture. In contrast, membrane skeletons prepared from red blood cells (RBCs) of subjects with HPP were strikingly different from HS RBCs with a comparable degree of spectrin deficiency. Although HPP RBCs were only mildly deficient in spectrin, their skeletal lattice was grossly disrupted, in contrast to only mild ultrastructural abnormalities of HS membrane skeletons with a nearly identical degree of spectrin deficiency. Skeletons from patients with common mild HE or asymptomatic carriers, carrying the mutant spectrin but having normal spectrin content, exhibited a moderate disruption of the skeletal lattice. We propose that the above differences in skeletal ultrastructure may underlie differences in the biomechanical

  4. Blood pressure follows the kidney: Perinatal influences on hereditary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Koeners, Maarten P; Braam, Branko; Joles, Jaap A

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data strongly suggest that cardiovascular diseases can originate from an aberrant environment during fetal development, a phenomenon referred to as perinatal programming. This review will focus on the role of the kidneys in determining blood pressure, and how (re)programming the renal development can persistently ameliorate hereditary hypertension. By combining physiologic and genomic studies we have discovered some candidate pathways suited for (re)programmin...

  5. HEREDITARY INTRAVENTRICULAR CONDUCTION DISORDERS IN THE FAMILY FROM KRASNOYARSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedigree of the family from Krasnoyarsk city with hereditary disorders of intracardiac conduction was studied. The diagnosis of each family member was verified by electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography , bicycle ergometry , ECG Holter monitoring. The family 10-year follow-up showed familial aggregation of intracardiac conduction disorders in grandson, niece, son of the proband niece, ie, in the III-degree relatives. Family history of III-degree relatives with intracardiac conduction disorders and discordant pathology is identified.

  6. Hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by the PLP1 'rumpshaker mutation'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Kirsten; Giraud, Geneviève; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders characterised by progressive spasticity and weakness in the lower limbs. Mutations in PLP1 on the X chromosome cause spastic paraplegia type 2 (SPG2) or the allelic....... No definite symptoms in the female carriers could be ascribed to the mutation. These data suggest the pathology to be an underlying dysmyelinating disorder in combination with a central axonal degeneration....

  7. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum (India); Raghavendra, Seetharam; Singh, Atampreet; Nair, Muraleedharan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum (India)

    2007-05-15

    We report a 15-year-old boy with autosomal recessive complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia with a thin corpus callosum (HSP-TCC). The involvement of the corpus callosum was characteristic with the genu and body predominantly affected with relative sparing of the splenium. HSP-TCC is being increasingly recognized over a wider geographical area than earlier believed. We now report a case of HSP-TCC from the Indian subcontinent. (orig.)

  8. [Assessment of hereditary defects and dispositions of the horse under animal welfare aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Ch; Steiger, A

    2009-04-01

    Persons involved in equine breeding, namely veterinarians, horse breeders and breeding association judges, often lack of an apropriate consciousness about the relevance of heritability or supposed heritability of common horses diseases, which might play a distinctive role in the aetiology of numerous of these diseases. Executing animal welfare rights in equine breeding, the major concern should focus on an objective evaluation of pain, suffering and damages caused by different hereditary diseases. The basis of assessment for hygienic breeding has to be defi ned according to the actual animal welfare rights throughout guidelines, established by the state and by breeding associations. Hereditary diseases scientifi cally proven as relevant for animal welfare matters or including a potential risk of pain, suffering or damage, should be regarded as essential criterion in horse breeding. In this context following diseases have to be mentioned in particular: Osteochondritis dissecans, deep fl exor tendon contracture in the foal, navicular disease, tarsal osteoarthritis, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Overo-lethal-white- foal-syndrome.

  9. Follow-up of Thalidomide treatment in patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, A; Westermann, C J J; Snijder, R; Disch, F; Mummery, C L; Mager, J J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with a hereditary vascular disorder called Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome (Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, HHT) haemorrhage easily due to weak-walled vessels. Haemorrhage in lungs or brain can be fatal but patients suffer most from chronic and prolonged nosebleeds (epistaxis), the frequency and intensity of which increases with age. Several years ago, it was discovered serendipitously that the drug Thalidomide had beneficial effects on the disease symptoms in several of a small group of HHT patients: epistaxis and the incidence of anaemia were reduced and patients required fewer blood transfusions. In addition, they reported a better quality of life. However, Thalidomide has significant negative side effects, including neuropathy and fatigue. We followed up all HHT patients in the Netherlands who had been taking Thalidomide at the time the original study was completed to find out (i) how many had continued taking Thalidomide and for how long (ii) the nature and severity of any side-effects and (iii) whether side-effects had influenced their decision to continue taking Thalidomide. Only a minority of patients had continued taking the drug despite its beneficial effects on their symptoms and that the side effects were the primary reason to stop. Despite symptom reduction, alternative treatments are still necessary for epistaxis in HHT patients and a large-scale clinical trial is not justified although incidental use in the most severely affected patients can be considered.

  10. Intramuscular viral delivery of paraplegin rescues peripheral axonopathy in a model of hereditary spastic paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirozzi, Marinella; Quattrini, Angelo; Andolfi, Gennaro; Dina, Giorgia; Malaguti, Maria Chiara; Auricchio, Alberto; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2006-01-01

    Degeneration of peripheral motor axons is a common feature of several debilitating diseases including complicated forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. One such form is caused by loss of the mitochondrial energy-dependent protease paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice display a progressive degeneration in several axonal tracts, characterized by the accumulation of morphological abnormal mitochondria. We show that adenoassociated virus–mediated (AAV-mediated) intramuscular delivery of paraplegin halted the progression of neuropathological changes and rescued mitochondrial morphology in the peripheral nerves of paraplegin-deficient mice. One single injection before onset of symptoms improved the motor performance of paraplegin-deficient mice for up to 10 months, indicating that the peripheral neuropathy contributes to the clinical phenotype. This study provides a proof of principle that gene transfer may be an effective therapeutic option for patients with paraplegin deficiency and demonstrates that AAV vectors can be successfully employed for retrograde delivery of an intracellular protein to spinal motor neurons, opening new perspectives for several hereditary axonal neuropathies of the peripheral nerves. PMID:16357941

  11. Prevalence and Genetics of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in the Danish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Thomas; Nørby, Søren; Schwartz, Marianne; Saillard, Juliette; Magalhães, Paulo J; Leroy, David; Kann, Erik C; Duno, Morten

    2016-03-01

    In Denmark, the occurrence of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has continuously been monitored since 1944. We provide here a summary of 70 years of data collection including registered lines and subjects by the end of 2012. Affected individuals were identified from a national register of hereditary eye diseases at the National Eye Clinic (NEC), a tertiary low vision rehabilitation center for the entire Danish population. The assembling of LHON pedigrees was based on the reconstruction of published families and newly diagnosed cases from 1980 to 2012 identified in the files of NEC. Genealogic follow-up on the maternal ancestry of all affected individuals was performed to identify a possible relation to an already known maternal line. A full genotypic characterization of the nation-based LHON cohort is provided. Forty different lines were identified. The number of live affected individuals with a verified mitochondrial DNA mutation was 104 on January 1, 2013, which translates to a prevalence rate of 1:54,000 in the Danish population. Haplogroup distribution as well as mutational spectrum of the Danish LHON cohort do not deviate from those of other European populations. The genealogic follow-up reveals a relatively high turnover among families with approximately 15 newly affected families per century and the dying out of earlier maternal lines.

  12. Identification of SLC26A4 gene mutations in Iranian families with hereditary hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Kimia; Mohseni, Marzieh; Nishimura, Carla; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Fischer, Stephanie M; Dehghani, Atefeh; Sayfati, Morteza; Taghdiri, Maryam; Jamali, Payman; Smith, Richard J H; Azizi, Fereydoun; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2009-06-01

    Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene at the DFNB4 locus are responsible for Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic hereditary hearing loss (DFNB4). This study included 80 nuclear families with two or more siblings segregating presumed autosomal recessive hearing loss. All deaf persons tested negative for mutations in GJB2 at the DFNB1 locus and were, therefore, screened for autozygosity by descent (ABD) using short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) that flanked SLC26A4. In 12 families, homozygosity for STRPs suggested possible ABD in this genomic region. Affected individuals in five families had a positive perchlorate discharge test. Sequence analysis of SLC26A4 identified ten mutations in eight families (T420I, 1197delT, G334V, R409H, T721M, R79X, S448L, L597S, 965insA and L445W), of which, four are novel (T420I, G334V, 965insA and R79X). These results imply that Pendred syndrome is the most prevalent form of syndromic hereditary hearing loss in Iran.

  13. Recent advance in the molecular genetics of Wilson disease and hereditary hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tingxia; Li, Xiaojin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xinyan; Ou, Xiaojuan; Huang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic liver diseases such as Wilson disease (WD) and hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) possess complicated pathogenesis and typical hereditary characteristics with the hallmarks of a deficiency in metal metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding ATPase, Cu + transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B) and hemochromatosis (HFE) or several non-HFE genes are considered to be causative for WD and HH, respectively. Although the identification of novel mutations in ATP7B for WD and HFE or the non-HFE genes for HH has increased, especially with the application of whole genome sequencing technology in recent years, the biological function of the identified mutations, as well as genotype-phenotype correlations remain to be explored. Further analysis of the causative gene mutation would be critical to clarify the mechanisms underlying specific disease phenotypes. In this review, we therefore summarize the recent advances in the molecular genetics of WD and HH including the updated mutation spectrums and the correlation between genotype and phenotype, with an emphasis on biological functional studies of the individual mutations identified in WD and HH. The weakness of the current functional studies and analysis for the clinical association of the individual mutation was also discussed. These works are essential for the understanding of the association between genotypes and phenotypes of these inherited metabolic liver diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Hereditary motor and autonomic neuronopathy 1 maps to chromosome 20q13.2-13.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marques Jr.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The spinal muscular atrophies (SMA or hereditary motor neuronopathies result from the continuous degeneration and death of spinal cord lower motor neurons, leading to progressive muscular weakness and atrophy. We describe a large Brazilian family exhibiting an extremely rare, late-onset, dominant, proximal, and progressive SMA accompanied by very unusual manifestations, such as an abnormal sweating pattern, and gastrointestinal and sexual dysfunctions, suggesting concomitant involvement of the autonomic nervous system. We propose a new disease category for this disorder, `hereditary motor and autonomic neuronopathy', and attribute the term, `survival of motor and autonomic neurons 1' (SMAN1 to the respective locus that was mapped to a 14.5 cM region on chromosome 20q13.2-13.3 by genetic linkage analysis and haplotype studies using microsatellite polymorphic markers. This locus lies between markers D20S120 and D20S173 showing a maximum LOD score of 4.6 at D20S171, defining a region with 33 known genes, including several potential candidates. Identifying the SMAN1 gene should not only improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying lower motor neuron diseases but also help to clarify the relationship between motor and autonomic neurons.

  15. Benign partial epilepsy and related conditions: multifactorial pathogenesis with hereditary impairment of brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doose, H; Baier, W K

    1989-12-01

    The main clinical and bioelectrical features of the benign partial epilepsies and related conditions are described. Based on highly selected groups, the definition of these suggested syndromes disregards the considerable overlap between borderline and intermediate cases. To understand the great phenotypic variability of these epilepsies, the complexity of causal especially genetic factors must be considered. Different genetic traits, expressed in certain EEG patterns, determine the level of cerebral excitability. These hereditary variables are widespread in the general population. Most are polygenic, focal sharp waves possibly autosomal dominant. In individuals, the coincidence of different traits with little or no clinical significance, results in additive effects lowering the seizure threshold and raising the risk of clinical manifestation. The complexity of causal factors, which, potentially include organic brain lesions, account for the wide spectrum of epileptic and non-epileptic conditions ranging from mild selective performance deficits to complex psychomental retardation, and from simple rolandic epilepsy to severe epilepsies with minor seizures or bioelectrical status. These conditions are not "syndromes" in the stricter sense, but sets of variably weighted symptoms of a complex pathogenetic background. A genetic disposition to focal pathogenetic background. A genetic disposition to focal anomalies of brain function is of decisive importance. The biological background is as of yet unknown. The marked age-dependency of symptoms and almost regular disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities at puberty justify the assumption of an hereditary impairment of brain maturation. The hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance awaits appraisal by studies of larger populations and quantitative genetic approaches.

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-10-01

    Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and validation of a simple questionnaire for the identification of hereditary breast cancer in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmero Edenir I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a significant public health problem worldwide and the development of tools to identify individuals at-risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes, where specific interventions can be proposed to reduce risk, has become increasingly relevant. A previous study in Southern Brazil has shown that a family history suggestive of these syndromes may be prevalent at the primary care level. Development of a simple and sensitive instrument, easily applicable in primary care units, would be particularly helpful in underserved communities in which identification and referral of high-risk individuals is difficult. Methods A simple 7-question instrument about family history of breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer, FHS-7, was developed to screen for individuals with an increased risk for hereditary breast cancer syndromes. FHS-7 was applied to 9218 women during routine visits to primary care units in Southern Brazil. Two consecutive samples of 885 women and 910 women who answered positively to at least one question and negatively to all questions were included, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined. Results Of the 885 women reporting a positive family history, 211 (23.8%; CI95%: 21.5–26.2 had a pedigree suggestive of a hereditary breast and/or breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. Using as cut point one positive answer, the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument were 87.6% and 56.4%, respectively. Concordance between answers in two different applications was given by a intra-class correlation (ICC of 0.84 for at least one positive answer. Temporal stability of the instrument was adequate (ICC = 0.65. Conclusion A simple instrument for the identification of the most common hereditary breast cancer syndrome phenotypes, showing good specificity and temporal stability was developed and could be used as a screening tool in primary care to refer at

  18. Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and distal hereditary motor neuronopathy with pyramidal tract signs: synonyms for the same disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonghe, P; Auer-Grumbach, M; Irobi, J; Wagner, K; Plecko, B; Kennerson, M; Zhu, D; De Vriendt, E; Van Gerwen, V; Nicholson, G; Hartung, H-P; Timmerman, V

    2002-06-01

    Autosomal dominant juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare disorder and so far only one family has been reported. Genetic linkage studies mapped the disease locus to chromosome 9q34 (ALS4). The diagnosis of ALS in this family is based on the clinical signs with almost exclusively lower motor neurone pathology in combination with less prominent pyramidal tract signs. Atypical features include normal life expectancy, the absence of bulbar involvement and the symmetrical distal distribution of atrophy and weakness. We performed a molecular genetic study in three families that we had diagnosed as having distal hereditary motor neuronopathy, i.e. distal spinal muscular atrophy or spinal Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome, and found linkage to the ALS4 locus. The clinical phenotype in these three families, of different geographic origin (Austria, Belgium and England), is strikingly similar to the autosomal dominant juvenile ALS family except for a younger onset age in two of the distal hereditary motor neuronopathy families. These data suggest that ALS4 and distal hereditary motor neuronopathy with pyramidal tract signs may be one and the same disorder.

  19. Hereditary spastic paraplegia caused by compound heterozygous mutations outside the motor domain of the KIF1A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, M; Zulehner, G; Hotzy, C; Rath, J; Stogmann, E; Wagner, M; Haack, T B; Strom, T M; Zimprich, A; Zimprich, F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of rare, inherited disorders causing an upper motor neuron syndrome with (complex) or without (pure) additional neurological symptoms. Mutations in the KIF1A gene have already been associated with recessive and dominant forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG30) in a few cases. All family members included in the study were examined neurologically. Whole-exome sequencing was used in affected individuals to identify the responsible candidate gene. Conventional Sanger sequencing was conducted to validate familial segregation. A family of Macedonian origin with two affected siblings, one with slowly progressive and the other one with a more complex and rapidly progressing hereditary spastic paraplegia is reported. In both affected individuals, two novel pathogenic mutations outside the motor domain of the KIF1A gene were found (NM_001244008.1:c.2909G>A, p.Arg970His and c.1214dup, p.Asn405Lysfs*40) that segregate with the disease within the family establishing the diagnosis of autosomal recessive SPG30. This report provides the first evidence that mutations outside the motor domain of the gene can cause (recessive) SPG30 and extends the genotype-phenotype association for KIF1A-related diseases. © 2017 EAN.

  20. Gene Therapy for Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce C; Davis, Janet L; Porciatti, Vittorio; Gonzalez, Phillip; Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Yuan, Huijun; Lalwani, Anil; Lam, Byron L; Guy, John

    2016-03-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder characterized by severe and rapidly progressive visual loss when caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial gene encoding NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4). We have initiated a gene therapy trial to determine the safety and tolerability of escalated doses of an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV) expressing a normal ND4 complementary DNA in patients with a G to A mutation at nucleotide 11778 of the mitochondrial genome. In this prospective open-label trial (NCT02161380), the study drug (self-complementary AAV [scAAV]2(Y444,500,730F)-P1ND4v2) was intravitreally injected unilaterally into the eyes of 5 blind participants with G11778A LHON. Four participants with visual loss for more than 12 months were treated. The fifth participant had visual loss for less than 12 months. The first 3 participants were treated at the low dose of vector (5 × 10(9) vg), and the fourth participant was treated at the medium dose (2.46 × 10(10) vg). The fifth participant with visual loss for less than 12 months received the low dose. Treated participants were followed for 90 to 180 days and underwent ocular and systemic safety assessments along with visual structure and function examinations. Five legally blind patients with G11778A LHON. Loss of visual acuity. Visual acuity as measured by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) eye chart remained unchanged from baseline to 3 months in the first 3 participants. For 2 participants with 90-day follow-up, acuity increased from hand movements to 7 letters in 1 and by 15 letters in 1, representing an improvement equivalent to 3 lines. No one lost vision, and no serious adverse events were observed. Minor adverse events included a transient increase of intraocular pressure (IOP), exposure keratitis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, a sore throat, and a transient increase in neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against AAV2 in 1 participant. All blood samples were negative

  1. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy with progressive sensorineural deafness (Harboyan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harboyan syndrome is a degenerative corneal disorder defined as congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED accompanied by progressive, postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. To date, 24 cases from 11 families of various origin (Asian Indian, South American Indian, Sephardi Jewish, Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Gypsy, Moroccan, Dominican have been reported. More than 50% of the reported cases have been associated with parental consanguinity. The ocular manifestations in Harboyan syndrome include diffuse bilateral corneal edema occurring with severe corneal clouding, blurred vision, visual loss and nystagmus. They are apparent at birth or within the neonatal period and are indistinguishable from those characteristic of the autosomal recessive CHED (CHED2. Hearing deficit in Harboyan is slowly progressive and typically found in patients 10–25 years old. There are no reported cases with prelinglual deafness, however, a significant hearing loss in children as young as 4 years old has been detected by audiometry, suggesting that hearing may be affected earlier, even at birth. Harboyan syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene located at the CHED2 locus on chromosome 20p13-p12, indicating that CHED2 and Harboyan syndrome are allelic disorders. A total of 62 different SLC4A11 mutations have been reported in 98 families (92 CHED2 and 6 Harboyan. All reported cases have been consistent with autosomal recessive transmission. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, detailed ophthalmological assessment and audiometry. A molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is feasible. A variety of genetic, metabolic, developmental and acquired diseases presenting with clouding of the cornea should be considered in the differential diagnosis (Peters anomaly, sclerocornea, limbal dermoids, congenital glaucoma. Audiometry must be performed to differentiate Harboyan syndrome from CHED2. Autosomal recessive types of CHED (CHED2 and

  2. Organization and Running of the First Comprehensive Hereditary Cancer Clinic in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, T; Soumittra, N; Vidubala, E; Sridevi, V; Mahajan, V; Ramanan, SG; Vijaya, S

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary cancers are thought to account for around 5% of cancers, particularly breast/ovarian and colorectal cancers. In India there is a paucity of data on hereditary cancers and the mutations in some of the common genes linked to hereditary cancers, such as BRCA1, BRCA2, hMSH2 and hMLH1. The country's first comprehensive hereditary cancer clinic was established in February 2002. The article describes the organization and running of the Clinic. It also discusses some of the social...

  3. Revised Bethesda Guidelines for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and microsatellite instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umar, Asad; Boland, C Richard; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Syngal, Sapna; de la Chapelle, Albert; Rüschoff, Josef; Fishel, Richard; Lindor, Noralane M; Burgart, Lawrence J; Hamelin, Richard; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hiatt, Robert A; Jass, Jeremy; Lindblom, Annika; Lynch, Henry T; Peltomaki, Païvi; Ramsey, Scott D; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Vasen, Hans F A; Hawk, Ernest T; Barrett, J Carl; Freedman, Andrew N; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is a common autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by early age at onset, neoplastic lesions, and microsatellite instability (MSI...

  4. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC): renal cancer risk, surveillance and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menko, Fred H; Maher, Eamonn R; Schmidt, Laura S; Middelton, Lindsay A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Tomlinson, Ian; Richard, Stéphane; Linehan, W Marston

    2014-12-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene which inactivate the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15 %. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families.

  5. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Renal cancer risk, surveillance and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menko, Fred H.; Maher, Eamonn; Schmidt, Laura S.; Middelton, Lindsay A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Tomlinson, Ian; Richard, Stéphane; Linehan, W. Marston

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene, which inactivates the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA/ Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The estimated lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15%. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families. PMID:25012257

  6. Pulmonary arterial hypertension and portal hypertension in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Valverde, Diana

    2015-03-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease that could be inherited with an autosomal dominant pattern. Mutations in BMPR2 gene are described in over 70% of cases, although other genes are involved in lesser extend in PAH. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is another rare autosomal dominant disease. PAH is a rare complication of HHT that occurs in less than 1% of cases. Liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension is also associated with the presence of PAHs in 1-2% of cases. We present here a patient with HHT who developed PAH shortly after showing portal hypertension. Some genes (BMPR2, ACVRL1, ENG) seem to play an important role in PAH pathogenesis. We analyzed these genes, detecting mutations in BMPR2 gene (c.1021G>A (V341L), c.327G>A (p.Q109Q)), ACVRL1 (c.313+20C>A, c.1502+7A>G) and ENG (c.498G>A (Q166Q)). The patient also had 3 polymorphisms in the TRPC6 gene (c.1-361A>T, c.1-254C>G, c.1-218C>T). The study of these genes will help us to identify and track individuals susceptible for developing PAH associated with other diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Familial Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor with Germline KIT Mutations Accompanying Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekido, Yuki; Ohigashi, Seiji; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Naoki; Suzuki, Koyu; Hirota, Seiichi

    2017-03-01

    Familial gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a rare disease with germline mutations in the c-kit gene (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha gene (PDGFRA). We had encountered multiple GISTs in the stomach and small intestine during a screening of ovarian cancer for a woman with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) with breast cancer susceptibility gene II (BRCA2) mutations. The aim of this study was to examine this case in detail. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with HBOC harboring BRCA2 mutations was found to have multiple tumors in the stomach and small intestine by abdominal screening. All tumors were resected, and KIT gene mutations (p.Trp557Leu and p.Lys558Glu) in exon 11 were detected in all tumors and peripheral blood leukocytes. The patient was diagnosed with familial GIST. This was an extremely rare case in which familial GIST with germline KIT gene mutations co-existed with HBOC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as nurses, psychologists, or social workers). Genetic counseling can help people consider the risks, benefits, and limitations of ... other health care professional trained in genetics can help an individual ... counseling may include discussing recommendations for preventive care and ...

  9. Clinical symptoms according to genotype amongst patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Møller, T R; Brusgaard, K

    2005-01-01

    families. In 14 of the families we identified a disease-causing mutation. Thirty-nine patients (from 10 families) had HHT1 and 16 HHT patients from four families had HHT2. CONCLUSION: Amongst patients with HHT1 genotype the prevalence of PAVM was higher than amongst HHT patients with HHT2 genotype. HHT1......BACKGROUND: Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease, characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including epistaxis, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms. HHT is a genetically...... for PAVM and neurological evaluation. Blood tests were performed for analysis of disease-causing mutation, and clinical manifestations in the HHT subtypes were compared. The survival of the patients was studied in the follow-up period. RESULTS: Included in the study were 73 HHT patients representing 18...

  10. Genetic testing for hereditary cancer predisposition: BRCA1/2, Lynch syndrome, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J; Obeid, E I; Schwartz, S C; Mantia-Smaldone, G; Forman, A D; Daly, M B

    2016-03-01

    Obstetrician/gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists serve an integral role in the care of women at increased hereditary risk of cancer. Their contribution includes initial identification of high risk patients, screening procedures like bimanual exam, trans-vaginal ultrasound and endometrial biopsy, prophylaxis via TAH and/or BSO, and chemoprevention. Further, gynecologists also serve a central role in the management of the secondary repercussions of efforts to mitigate increased cancer risks, including vasomotor symptoms, sexual function, bone health, cardiovascular disease, and mental health. The past several years has seen multiple new high and moderate penetrance genes introduced into the clinical care of women at increased risk of gynecologic malignancy. Awareness of these new genes and the availability of new multi-gene panel tests is critical for providers on the front-line of women's health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS): update on molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Carmen; Taglia, Ilaria; Battisti, Carla; Bianchi, Silvia; Federico, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by giant neuroaxonal swellings (spheroids) within the cerebral white matter (WM). Symptoms are variable and can include cognitive, mental and motor dysfunctions. Patients carry mutations in the protein kinase domain of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) which is a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for microglia development. To date, more than 50 pathogenic variants have been reported in patients with HDLS, including missense, frameshift and non-sense mutations, but also deletions and splice-site mutations, all located in the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain, encoded by exons 12-22. The aim of this paper is to review the literature data about the molecular genetic pattern of HDLS.

  12. Genetic testing for hereditary cancer predisposition: BRCA1/2, Lynch syndrome, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, MJ; Obeid, EI; Schwartz, SC; Mantia-Smaldone, G; Forman, AD; Daly, MB

    2016-01-01

    Obstetrician/gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists serve an integral role in the care of women at increased hereditary risk of cancer. Their contribution includes initial identification of high risk patients, screening procedures like bimanual exam, trans-vaginal ultrasound and endometrial biopsy, prophylaxis via TAH and/or BSO, and chemoprevention. Further, gynecologists also serve a central role in the management of the secondary repercussions of efforts to mitigate increased cancer risks, including vasomotor symptoms, sexual function, bone health, cardiovascular disease, and mental health. The past several years has seen multiple new high and moderate penetrance genes introduced into the clinical care of women at increased risk of gynecologic malignancy. Awareness of these new genes and the availability of new multigene panel tests is critical for providers on the front-line of women’s health. PMID:26812021

  13. Comparative susceptibility to permethrin of two Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from Southern Benin, regarding mosquito sex, physiological status, and mosquito age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: The resistance is a hereditary and dynamic phenomenon which can be due to metabolic mechanisms like overproduction of detoxifying enzymes activity. Many factors influence vector susceptibility to insecticide. Among these factors, there are mosquito sex, mosquito age, its physiological status. Therefore, it is useful to respect the World Health Organization criteria in the assessment of insecticide susceptibility tests in malaria vectors. Otherwise, susceptibility testing is conducted using unfed female mosquitoes aged 3-5 days old. Tests should also be carried out at (25±2 °C and (80±10% relative humidity.

  14. Orthodeoxia without Platypnea in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia in the Presence of a Cerebral Abscess and Multiple Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations: Unusual Complications and Transcatheter Endovascular Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare autosomal-dominant condition affecting visceral blood vessel development. Cerebral and most commonly pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are found in the majority of symptomatic patients. The most common complications include embolic strokes and cerebral abscesses, which have been attributed to abnormal vessel communications. Platypnea orthodeoxia is a rare condition that presents dyspnea and oxygen desaturation when adopting an upright position and is relieved on decubitus. The association between hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and platypnea orthodeoxia has been described in medical literature; however, orthodeoxia as a single entity without platypnea has not been described yet, especially associated with complications of this hereditary condition. We present the case of a 38-year-old male with persistent headaches, in whom a cerebral lesion was detected. Orthostatic tachycardia and severe orthodeoxia without platypnea were evidenced during physical examination. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and underwent cerebral abscess drainage as well as transcatheter endovascular closure of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. For this reason, the concept of platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome needs further revision. Patients presenting refractory hypoxemia should warn physicians to initially evaluate their oxygen saturation measurements during standing and decubitus position, even though platypnea may not be present.

  15. Carbimazole/methimazole embryopathy in siblings: a possible genetic susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Himanshu; Dudding, Tracy

    2013-11-01

    The teratogenic effects of antenatal exposure of antithyroid drugs, carbimazole and methimazole have been well reported in the literature. These comprise of typical facial features and a wide variety of malformations such as choanal atresia, tracheo-esophageal anomalies, congenital heart disease and ectodermal defects. However, the longitudinal studies have failed to establish the consistent teratogenicity of these drugs. we report here two siblings with physical features consistent with carbimazole/methimazole embryopathy. We also describe previously unreported minor dental anomalies in these siblings with antenatal exposure of carbimazole. Generally, only a small proportion of prenatally exposed children have the typical manifestations, and the presence in siblings supports a possible hereditary susceptibility to carbimazole/ methimazole embryopathy. This highlights the importance of recognizing this diagnosis before a subsequent pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  17. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  18. Review: molecular genetics and pathology of hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Craggs, L; Baumann, M; Kalimo, H; Kalaria, R N

    2011-02-01

    Advances in molecular genetics have enabled identification of several monogenic conditions involving small vessels predisposing to ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and diffuse white matter disease. With emphasis on cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), we review the molecular pathogenesis of recently characterized disorders including cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) and the Collagen type IV, alpha 1 (COL4A1)-related disorders. CADASIL remains the most common hereditary small vessel disease (SVD) caused by >190 different mutations in the NOTCH3 gene, which encodes a cell-signalling receptor. Mutant NOTCH3 instigates degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells in small arteries and arterioles leading to recurrent lacunar infarcts. Mutations in the serine protease HTRA1 gene are associated with CARASIL. Aberrant HTRA1 activity results in increased transforming growth factor-β signalling provoking multiple actions including vascular fibrosis and extracellular matrix synthesis. The RVCL disorders characterized by profound retinopathy are associated with mutations in TREX1, which encodes an abundant 3'-5' DNA-specific exonuclease. TREX1 mutations lead to detrimental gain-of-function or insufficient quantities of enzyme. The COL4A1-related disorders are highly variable comprising four major phenotypes with overlapping systemic and central nervous system features including SVD with cerebral haemorrhages in children and adults. Mutant COL4A1 likely disrupts the extracellular matrix resulting in fragile vessel walls. The hereditary SVDs albeit with variable phenotypes demonstrate how effects of different defective genes converge to produce the characteristic arteriopathy and microvascular disintegration leading to vascular cognitive impairment. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and

  19. Multi-gene panel testing improves diagnosis and management of patients with hereditary anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberta; Andolfo, Immacolata; Manna, Francesco; Gambale, Antonella; Marra, Roberta; Rosato, Barbara Eleni; Caforio, Paola; Pinto, Valeria; Pignataro, Piero; Radhakrishnan, Kottayam; Unal, Sule; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Forni, Gian Luca; Iolascon, Achille

    2018-02-03

    Mutations in more than 70 genes cause hereditary anemias (HA), a highly heterogeneous group of rare/low frequency disorders in which we included: hyporegenerative anemias, as congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA) and Diamond-Blackfan anemia; hemolytic anemias due to erythrocyte membrane defects, as hereditary spherocytosis and stomatocytosis; hemolytic anemias due to enzymatic defects. The study describes the diagnostic workflow for HA, based on the development of two consecutive versions of a targeted-NGS panel, including 34 and 71 genes, respectively. Seventy-four probands from 62 unrelated families were investigated. Our study includes the most comprehensive gene set for these anemias and the largest cohort of patients described so far. We obtained an overall diagnostic yield of 64.9%. Despite 54.2% of cases showed conclusive diagnosis fitting well to the clinical suspicion, the multi-gene analysis modified the original clinical diagnosis in 45.8% of patients (nonmatched phenotype-genotype). Of note, 81.8% of nonmatched patients were clinically suspected to suffer from CDA. Particularly, 45.5% of the probands originally classified as CDA exhibited a conclusive diagnosis of chronic anemia due to enzymatic defects, mainly due to mutations in PKLR gene. Interestingly, we also identified a syndromic CDA patient with mild anemia and epilepsy, showing a homozygous mutation in CAD gene, recently associated to early infantile epileptic encephalopathy-50 and CDA-like anemia. Finally, we described a patient showing marked iron overload due to the coinheritance of PIEZO1 and SEC23B mutations, demonstrating that the multi-gene approach is valuable not only for achieving a correct and definitive diagnosis, but also for guiding treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Atypical Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: 18 Year Interval Between Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohden, Kaitlyn L; Tang, Peter H; Lilley, Chrystia C; Lee, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    A 5-year-old boy developed profound loss of vision in his right eye and was found to have a 11778 mitochondrial point mutation consistent with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). He maintained 20/20 vision in the left eye for 18 years until age 23, when he experienced loss of vision in that eye. This 18 year interval between eye involvement in LHON is the longest reported to date and reinforces the variability in presentation and progression seen in this disease.

  1. Differentiating Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy from Normal-Tension Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Fernanda Maria Silveira; de Vasconcellos, José Paulo Cabral; de Melo, Mônica Barbosa; Sartorato, Edi Lúcia; Moura, Frederico Castelo

    2017-04-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by thinning of neuroretinal rim, enlarged cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) and visual field damage. Although raised intraocular pressure is main risk factor for development of glaucoma, it can occur with consistently normal measurements in the intraocular pressure as normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Enlargement of CDR is a classical sign of glaucoma, but it can also result from non-glaucomatous optic neuropathies such as Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We describe a case of LHON with increased CDR, discuss its differential diagnosis with NTG and highlight the reasons for misdiagnoses between these two entities.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Mutation Associated with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Singh, Gurparkash; Lott, Marie T.; Hodge, Judy A.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Elsas, Louis J.; Nikoskelainen, Eeva K.

    1988-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited disease resulting in optic nerve degeneration and cardiac dysrhythmia. A mitochondrial DNA replacement mutation was identified that correlated with this disease in multiple families. This mutation converted a highly conserved arginine to a histidine at codon 340 in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene and eliminated an Sfa NI site, thus providing a simple diagnostic test. This finding demonstrated that a nucleotide change in a mitochondrial DNA energy production gene can result in a neurological disease.

  3. Hereditary spastic paraplegias: membrane traffic and the motor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Craig; O'Kane, Cahir J; Reid, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary movement is a fundamental way in which animals respond to, and interact with, their environment. In mammals, the main CNS pathway controlling voluntary movement is the corticospinal tract, which encompasses connections between the cerebral motor cortex and the spinal cord. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a group of genetic disorders that lead to a length-dependent, distal axonopathy of fibres of the corticospinal tract, causing lower limb spasticity and weakness. Recent work aimed at elucidating the molecular cell biology underlying the HSPs has revealed the importance of basic cellular processes — especially membrane trafficking and organelle morphogenesis and distribution— in axonal maintenance and degeneration.

  4. Synthetic dural graft septoplasty in epistaxis from hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt B, Wilfred; Guerra, Claudia Patricia

    2013-07-01

    It is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder, which has a variety of clinical manifestations, with epistaxis being one of the most common. Many treatment options exist for epistaxis, but with no consensus on which is the method of choice. We describe the case of a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) secondary epistaxis with septoplasty managed with synthetic hard graft, which improved intensity and frequency of bleeding episodes. This technique is a variant of the septodermoplasty described by several authors, but the use of synthetic dura can help in obtaining better results and avoid taking skin grafts from other sites different from the surgical site.

  5. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Bringing the Lab to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Nailyn; Lessell, Simmons; Cestari, Dean M

    2016-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was the first clinically characterized mitochondrial disorder. Since its first description in 1871, much has been discovered regarding the genetics and pathophysiology of the disease. This has enabled the development of in vitro cell and animal models that can be used to try to determine not only the effects of the genetic mutation upon the clinical phenotype but to also test potential novel therapies. Treatments for LHON have ranged from vitamins and minerals to immunosuppressants and, more recently, targeted gene therapy. This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical features of LHON with a focus on translational research.

  6. Hereditary properties of Amenability modulo an ideal of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rahimi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate some hereditary properties of amenability modulo an ideal of Banach algebras. We show thatif $(e_{\\alpha}_{\\alpha}$ is a bounded approximate identity modulo $I$ of a Banach algebra $A$ and $X$ is a neo-unital modulo $I$, then $(e_{\\alpha}_{\\alpha}$ is a bounded approximate identity for $X$. Moreover we show that amenability modulo an ideal of a Banach algebra $A$ can be only considered by the neo-unital modulo $I$ Banach algebra over $A$

  7. An ABC of the Warning Signs of Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Ferraroni, Natasha; Olivares, Maria Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency is a genetic disorder that clinically manifests with attacks of angioedema in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mainly in the extremities, abdomen, and upper airway. During attacks, vascular permeability is increased due to increased.......e., the so-called “ABC” of the warning signs of HAE. The letters represent the following: A = Angioedema, B = Bradykinin, C = C1 inhibitor, D = Distress factors, E = Epinephrine nonresponsive, F = Family history, and G = Glottis/Gastrointestinal edema. To avoid fatalities, medical staff and patients...

  8. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome: a family affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jiasian; Kinnear, Ned; Douglass-Molloy, Hannah; Hennessey, Derek Barrry

    2017-01-25

    A 49-year-old woman with cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, flank pain and a family history of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome sought genetic testing. She was found to harbour a fumarate hydratase (FH) genetic mutation and a previously undetected renal tumour. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy, and remains well at follow-up. HLRCC syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disease, with patients at increased risk for cutaneous leiomyomas, early-onset uterine leiomyomas and aggressive renal carcinoma. Although the syndrome may manifest life-threatening complications, outcomes may be improved by preventative family screening and surveillance, compelling early diagnosis. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy - case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana A. Janicijevic Petrovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is a neuro-ophthalmological entity characterized by acute or subacute bilateral, not simultaneous visual loss with centro cekal scotoma and occasional further visual improvement. This rare ophthalmological disease can be accompanied with dyschromatopsia. It is associated with a matrilineal inheritance pattern. Its diagnosis used to be solely clini¬cal, aided by imaging and neuro-physiological studies, until the advent of descriptions of mitochondrial biochemical abnormalities and genetic testing. We describe a case of 24 year old male with progressive painless deterioration of visual acuity and positive family history.

  10. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinical principles and genetic advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John K

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) refers to inherited disorders in which spastic gait is either the only feature or is a major syndrome feature. There are more than 70 genetic types of HSP. Neuropathological studies, albeit limited to only a few genetic types of HSP, have identified axon degeneration involving the distal ends of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis fibers. In this review, the author highlights the clinical and genetic features of HSP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Moyamoya disease in a patient with hereditary spherocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holz, A.; Woldenberg, R.; Miller, D.; Kalina, P.; Black, K.; Lane, E. [Department of Radiology, North Shore University Hospital, New York University School of Medicine, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebral vasculopathy characterized by occlusion of the supraclinoid portion of the internal carotid artery and proximal portions of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Patients develop an extensive collateral network of parenchymal, transdural and leptomeningeal vessels to supply the compromised brain. These collateral channels, also known as ``moyamoya vessels,`` may be seen in a number of disorders which lead to intracranial vascular occlusion. We report a case of MMD in a child with hereditary spherocytosis. (orig.) With 4 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; van Overeem Hansen, Thomas; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-09-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making.

  13. Predisposing genes in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huusko, P. (Pia)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, the two major genes predisposing individuals to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, were screened in Finnish and Turkish cancer families. Germline BRCA1 mutations were found in 7% (6/88) and BRCA2 mutations in 6% (5/88) of the Finnish families studied in Oulu. Two distinct BRCA1 (3745delT, 4216nt-2A→G) and three BRCA2 (999delTCAAA, 6503delTT, 9346nt-2A→G) mutations were identified, all of which are recurrently found in Finland....

  14. A case of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G P Prashanth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN -IV, also known as congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, is a very rare condition that presents in infancy with anhidrosis, absence of pain sensation and self -mutilation. Developmental delay and mental retardation are usually present. Ultrastructural study of the peripheral nerves demonstrates loss of the unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We here report a 8 year -old boy with HSAN IV with typical clinical features where the diagnosis was supported by nerve biopsy findings. However, our case was unusual since mental development was normal.

  15. [Xanthine oxidase deficiency (hereditary xanthinuria), molybdenum cofactor deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S; Wada, Y

    1996-12-01

    Hereditary xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, with xanthine oxidase deficiency. Patients often display renal symptoms because they excrete a large amounts of xanthine in urine. An high-fluid-intake, alow-purine-food, and alkalinization of urine are effective in the patients. Molybdenum cofactor is essential for xanthine oxidase, sulfite oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. Patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency display severe neurological symptoms, such as severe convulsions. The patients increase urinary excretions of xanthine and sulfite. Treatments are ineffective for neurological symptoms.

  16. Descriptive Epidemiology, Molecular Biology and Genetics of Hereditary Prostate Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Diem Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer.......A search for markers that can differentiate indolent prostate cancers from more aggressive forms. Assessment of clinical differences between hereditary and sporadicc prostate cancer....

  17. Cuban epidemic optic neuropathy and its relationship to toxic and hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban-Freixas, Rosaralis; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Columbie-Garbey, Yannara; Quevedo, Alina Gonzalez; Garcia, Alberto Gonzalez; Rodríguez, Ramón Cabal

    2010-07-01

    The similarities and differences between toxic/nutritional and hereditary optic neuropathy and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that they have in common are described. This is based on data from the epidemic suffered in Cuba in 1992, which affected the optic nerves of many individuals and the experience of the authors in dealing with various toxic optic neuropathies, as well as Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

  18. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic testing for retinoblastoma compared to other hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Henneman, Lidewij; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Jonker, Marianne A.; Tops, Carli M. J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Redeker, Egbert J. W.; de Die-Smulders, Christine E. M.; Moll, Annette C.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne

    Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands.

  19. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic testing for retinoblastoma compared to other hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Dommering (Charlotte); L. Henneman (Lidewij); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.A. Jonker (Marianne); C. Tops (Carli); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); Mensenkamp, A.R. (Arjen R.); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); E.J.W. Redeker (Egbert); C. de Die-Smulders (Christine); A.C. Moll (Annette); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSince the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the

  20. Uptake of prenatal diagnostic testing for retinoblastoma compared to other hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, C.J.; Henneman, L.; Hout, A.H. van der; Jonker, M.A.; Tops, C.M.; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Luijt, R.B. van der; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Redeker, E.J.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Moll, A.C.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1980s the genetic cause of many hereditary tumor syndromes has been elucidated. As a consequence, carriers of a deleterious mutation in these genes may opt for prenatal diagnoses (PND). We studied the uptake of prenatal diagnosis for five hereditary cancer syndromes in the Netherlands.

  1. Canine hereditary nephropathies : Molecular genetic studies in Norwegian Elkhounds and English Cocker Spaniels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary nephropathies have been described in a variety of dog breeds. The causative mutation has been identified in a minority of canine renal diseases, and these provide useful animal models to study in order to gain knowledge on human nephropathies. In this thesis, canine hereditary

  2. Estimation of EuroQol 5-Dimensions health status utility values in hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aygören-Pürsün, Emel; Bygum, Anette; Beusterien, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate health status utility (preference) weights for hereditary angioedema (HAE) during an attack and between attacks using data from the Hereditary Angioedema Burden of Illness Study in Europe (HAE-BOIS-Europe) survey. Utility measures quantitatively describe the net impact of a...

  3. Surveillance for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - A long-term study on 114 families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappel, WHDTN; Nagengast, FM; Griffioen, G; Menko, FH; Taal, BG; Kleibeuker, JH; Vasen, HF

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Mutation carriers have a 60 to 85 percent risk of developing colorectal cancer. In the Netherlands hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families are monitored in an intensive

  4. A MELAS-associated ND1 mutation causing leber hereditary optic neuropathy and spastic dystonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, L.; Smeets, H.J.M.; Hendrickx, A.; Bettink-Remeijer, M.W.; Maat-Kievit, A.; Schoonderwoerd, K.C.; Sluiter, W.; Coo, I.F.M. de; Hintzen, R.Q.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report a novel mutation that is associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) within the same family affected by spastic dystonia. DESIGN: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by isolated central visual loss. Of patients with LHON, 95%

  5. Hereditary xanthinuria: report on three patients and short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayha, R A; Salti, I S; Arnaout, A; Khatchadurian, A; Uthman, S M

    1977-01-01

    Three patients with hereditary xanthinuria are presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. In two siblings the disease has been asymptomatic; in the third urolithiasis has developed. Xanthine stone formation is the clinical hallmark of the disease. Hereditary xanthinuria seems to be relatively prevalent in Lebanon.

  6. A novel mutation in PLP1 causes severe hereditary spastic paraplegia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noetzli, Leila; Sanz, Pablo G; Brodsky, Gary L; Hinckley, Jesse D; Giugni, Juan C; Giannaula, Rolando J; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Di Paola, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type 2 is a proteolipid protein (PLP1)-related genetic disorder that is characterized by dysmyelination of the central nervous system resulting primarily in limb spasticity, cognitive impairment, nystagmus, and spastic urinary bladder of varying severity. Previously reported PLP1 mutations include duplications, point mutations, or whole gene deletions with a continuum of phenotypes ranging from severe Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to uncomplicated HSP type 2. In this manuscript we report a novel PLP1 missense mutation (c.88G>C) in a family from Argentina. This mutation is in a highly conserved transmembrane domain of PLP1 and the mutant protein was found to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed in vitro. Due to the variable expressivity that characterizes these disorders our report contributes to the knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations of PLP1-related disorders. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Beneficial effects of rapamycin in a Drosophila model for hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiyu; Stern, Michael; McNew, James A

    2017-01-15

    The locomotor deficits in the group of diseases referred to as hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) reflect degeneration of upper motor neurons, but the mechanisms underlying this neurodegeneration are unknown. We established a Drosophila model for HSP, atlastin (atl), which encodes an ER fusion protein. Here, we show that neuronal atl loss causes degeneration of specific thoracic muscles that is preceded by other pathologies, including accumulation of aggregates containing polyubiquitin, increased generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of the JNK-Foxo stress response pathway. We show that inhibiting the Tor kinase, either genetically or by administering rapamycin, at least partially reversed many of these pathologies. atl loss from muscle also triggered muscle degeneration and rapamycin-sensitive locomotor deficits, as well as polyubiquitin aggregate accumulation. These results indicate that atl loss triggers muscle degeneration both cell autonomously and nonautonomously. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. HEREDITARY DISEASES AND SYNDROMES ACCOMPANIED BY FEBRILE CONVULSIONS: CLINICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS AND DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Dadali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide a review of the clinical and genetic characteristics of hereditary diseases and syndromes accompanied by febrile convulsions, which is illustrated by examples of their own observations. The paper sets forth the possibilities and limitations of using current methods for the molecular genetic diagnosis of idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies. The most effective and less expensive technique of molecular genetic analysis is shown to be an exome sequencing test using the panels of genes responsible for the occurrence of diseases with simi1ar clinical symptoms. The paper also presents the structure of the panel of genes responsible for the occurrence of monogenic epilepsies, which has been designed at the Genomed Clinic and includes 448 genetic variants. It also determines the significance of using a chromosomal microarray analysis to diagnose both chromosomal and monogenic diseases accompanied by convulsions. 

  9. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and embolic complications in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Ferreyro, Bruno L; Wainstein, Esteban J; Serra, Marcelo M

    2014-07-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) face higher risk of embolic complications. It is not clear whether poor outcomes are related to PAVM severity or pulmonary symptoms. Furthermore, there is currently no available data on HHT patients in Argentina. We conducted a cross sectional study in a teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We describe baseline characteristics of HHT and compare the prevalence of embolic complications in patients with significant PAVM compared to patients without significant PAVM. One hundred and eight consecutive patients were included. Significant PAVM was defined as: contrast echocardiography grade 2 or greater; bilateral PAVM or feeding artery bigger than 3mm; or previous PAVM treatment. Primary composite outcome was defined as: cerebrovascular accident, cerebral abscess or peripheral embolism. 20% of participants had embolic complications, the most frequent one was stroke. Embolic complications were associated with significant PAVM and respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. THE ROLE OF THE HEREDITARY PREDISPOSITION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AORTA COARCTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Tatarinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of examination of the families of patients with aorta coarctation the factors predisposing to this condition were established. Sixty eight patients with different localization, stenosis degree and extent of aorta coarctation were included into this study. All the patients were performed echocardiography, indirect and direct. Typical coarctation was found in 95,6% of the cases, in 55,9% it was associated with bicuspid aortic valve. The most significant predisposing factors to this anomaly development were compromised hereditary (33,8% and complications during pregnancy (57,4%. According to the received data, during the family planning it is important to examine both parents, as father’s disorders may have more marked impact on aorta coarctation development, than mother’s ones. Children with compromised heredity on congenital heart defects are recommended to be carried out echocardiographic investigation at the early period of time after birth, despite the absence of disorders on intrauterine ultrasound.

  11. [Genetic epidemiological study of Bashkortostan Republic: the diversity of monogenic hereditary diseases in five districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchenko, R A; Murzabaeva, S Sh; Grinberg, Ia I; Galkina, V A; Khlebnikova, O V; Dadali, E L; Fedotov, V P; Khidiiatova, I M; Khusnutdinova, E K; Ginter, E K

    2009-05-01

    The diversity of monogenic hereditary diseases (HDs) (autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), and X-linked diseases) has been studied in five districts of Bashkortostan Republic: Burzyanskii, Abzelilovskii, Baimak, Salavatskii, and Arkhangel'skoe raions. The spectrum of HDs comprised 144 diseases, including 83, 48, and 13 Ad, AR, and X-linked diseases. Most of them were found earlier during studies in ten other regions of Russia (Kirov, Kostroma, Tver', Bryansk, and Rostov oblasts, and Krasnodar krai, and the republics of Adygea, Marii El, Udmurtia, and Chuvashia). Foci of local accumulation of some AD, AR, and X-linked diseases have been found in individual districts. Data on the gene frequencies for the HDs have been used for cluster analysis, which has shown the gene geographic position of Bashkirs among nine ethnic populations of Russia: Russians (Kostroma, Kirov, and Rostov oblasts and Krasnodar krai), Chuvashes (Chuvashia), Adygeans (Adygea), Maris (Marii El), Udmurts (Udmurtia), and Bashkirs (Bashkortostan).

  12. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer: Multidisciplinary Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wilcox

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC is a rare, inherited cancer syndrome with at least one fourth of HDGC patients having an autosomal dominantly inherited mutation of CDH1 (E-Cadherin. Penetrance is relatively high (70–80% lifetime risk for gastric cancer. It is important for pathologists to recognize the syndrome's phenotype in early gastric lesions: patchy intramucosal signet ring cells often associated with pagetoid spread. Due to the insidious nature of this lesion, surveillance is limited and currently prophylactic gastrectomy is an option chosen by many HDGC patients. We present a case report from a multidisciplinary team of authors with a review of the literature that includes the updated guidelines for CDH1 genetic testing.

  13. Prevalence and Genetics of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy in the Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Niels Thomas; Nørby, Søren; Schwartz, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    in the files of NEC. Genealogic follow-up on the maternal ancestry of all affected individuals was performed to identify a possible relation to an already known maternal line. A full genotypic characterization of the nation-based LHON cohort is provided. RESULTS: Forty different lines were identified......PURPOSE: In Denmark, the occurrence of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has continuously been monitored since 1944. We provide here a summary of 70 years of data collection including registered lines and subjects by the end of 2012. METHODS: Affected individuals were identified from....... The number of live affected individuals with a verified mitochondrial DNA mutation was 104 on January 1, 2013, which translates to a prevalence rate of 1:54,000 in the Danish population. CONCLUSIONS: Haplogroup distribution as well as mutational spectrum of the Danish LHON cohort do not deviate from those...

  14. Developmental pattern of the hip in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Park, Kwang-Won; Oh, Chang-Seon; Ahn, Yeong-Seub; Kang, Qing-Lin; Jung, Sung-Taek; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-03-15

    Coxa valga is a common clinical feature of hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). The current study aimed to determine the unique developmental pattern of the hip in patients with HME and evaluate the factors that influence its progression. Thirty patients (57 hips) with HME were divided into two groups according to the Hilgenreiner epiphyseal angle (HEA). Twenty-two patients (44 hips) including 13 men and 9 women were assigned to group 1 (HEA coxa valga and 27 (47.4%) hips had abnormal MP (42.1% were borderline and 5.3% were subluxated). There was a significant difference in the HEA and NSA between the groups (p coxa valga deformity with close follow-up.

  15. l-Thyroxine-responsive drop attacks in childhood benign hereditary chorea: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Shimizu, Kenji; Fujii, Katsunori; Oba, Daiju; Takatani, Tomozumi; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-12-27

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a rare autosomal dominant disease that is characterized by non-progressive chorea with early-childhood-onset, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress. Although tetrabenazine and levodopa are partly effective for chorea and drop attacks in some patients, there is no standard treatment option. We herein describe a childhood case of BHC that presented with l-thyroxine-responsive drop attacks. A genetic analysis revealed an interstitial deletion that included two enhancer regions of NKX2-1, providing genetic confirmation of BHC. This is the first report to inform the connection between thyroid function and drop attacks in BHC. Moreover, our findings identify l-thyroxine as a therapeutic option for the management of drop attacks in BHC. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  17. Fourie susceptible.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.

  18. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  19. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping for hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of inherited, mechanobullous disorders that are caused by mutations in the structural proteins in the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction. Characteristic clinical picture is the presence of blisters at trauma prone areas of the body, which develops at or soon after birth. Availability of specific monoclonal antibodies against the target proteins together with advances in the molecular genetics have led to the revision in the classification of EB. Now four major types of EB are recognized depending upon the level of blister and the location of target protein: EB simplex (epidermolytic, junctional EB (lucidolytic, dystrophic EB (dermolytic and Kindler′s syndrome (mixed cleavage plane. The laboratory tests not only help to confirm the diagnosis of EB but are also an important tool to classify (and subtype EB. These include immunofluorescence antigen mapping (IFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and mutation analysis. IFM is the most preferred method for final diagnosis of EB worldwide. It is relatively easy to perform and results can be obtained rapidly. This article describes the technicalities and significance of IFM in various types of EB.

  20. Localized cystic disease of the kidney: distinction from cystic neoplasms and hereditary polycystic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Chen, Longwen; Deng, Fang-Ming; Melamed, Jonathan; Fan, Rong; Bonsib, Stephen; Zhou, Ming

    2013-04-01

    Cystic changes are common in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic kidney diseases. The most important diagnostic consideration is to rule out cystic neoplasms and hereditary polycystic kidney disease for patient management. Localized cystic disease of the kidney is a rare, nongenetic and nonprogressive cystic disease that may mimic cystic neoplasms or hereditary polycystic disease. However, reports in the literature on its pathologic characteristics are scarce, and most surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with this entity. We report the clinicopathologic characteristics of 9 such cases that mimicked renal neoplasms and were treated surgically. Nine patients, including 5 men and 4 women, had a mean age of 33.3 years (range, 18 to 56 y) at diagnosis. Two patients presented with gross hematuria. In the remaining 7 patients, localized cystic disease was discovered incidentally. None had a personal history of cystic disease of the kidney or other organs or a family history of cystic renal disease. On imaging studies, solitary multilocular cystic lesions were identified in all patients with a mean size of 2.9 cm (range, 0.8 to 6 cm). Of 7 patients with documented Bosniak classification, 4 lesions were class III, and 3 lesions were class II. Follow-up was available in 5 patients, with a mean follow-up time of 14.6 months (range, 5 to 31 mo). No cysts were observed in the ipsilateral and contralateral kidneys during follow-up. Partial and total nephrectomy was performed in 8 and 1 patient, respectively. Grossly, the cystic lesions were not discrete and merged imperceptibly with the adjacent renal parenchyma without a discrete margin or capsule. Microscopically, cystic lesions involved renal papillae in all cases, and the cystic space was continuous with dilated collecting ducts. Cysts were lined with cuboidal or flat epithelial cells identical to those lining the collecting ducts. Significant inflammation was absent. The surrounding renal parenchyma was normal. With this