WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptibility environmental exposures

  1. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  2. Genes and pathways underlying susceptibility to impaired lung function in the context of environmental tobacco smoke exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K; Vonk, J M; Imboden, M; Lahousse, L; Hofman, A; Brusselle, G G; Probst-Hensch, N M; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies aiming to assess genetic susceptibility for impaired lung function levels upon exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have thus far focused on candidate-genes selected based on a-priori knowledge of potentially relevant biological pathways, such as glutathione

  3. Molecular epidemiology of acute leukemia in children: causal model, interaction of three factors-susceptibility, environmental exposure and vulnerability period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    Acute leukemias have a huge morphological, cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms associated with susceptibility. Every leukemia presents causal factors associated with the development of the disease. Particularly, when three factors are present, they result in the development of acute leukemia. These phenomena are susceptibility, environmental exposure and a period that, for this model, has been called the period of vulnerability. This framework shows how the concepts of molecular epidemiology have established a reference from which it is more feasible to identify the environmental factors associated with the development of leukemia in children. Subsequently, the arguments show that only susceptible children are likely to develop leukemia once exposed to an environmental factor. For additional exposure, if the child is not susceptible to leukemia, the disease does not develop. In addition, this exposure should occur during a time window when hematopoietic cells and their environment are more vulnerable to such interaction, causing the development of leukemia. This model seeks to predict the time when the leukemia develops and attempts to give a context in which the causality of childhood leukemia should be studied. This information can influence and reduce the risk of a child developing leukemia. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Environmental Arsenic Exposure, Genetic Polymorphisms of Susceptible Genes, and Skin Cancers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-I Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency in the capability of xenobiotic detoxification and arsenic methylation may be correlated with individual susceptibility to arsenic-related skin cancers. We hypothesized that glutathione S-transferase (GST M1, T1, and P1, reactive oxygen species (ROS related metabolic genes (NQO1, EPHX1, and HO-1, and DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XPD, hOGG1, and ATM together may play a role in arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. We conducted a case-control study consisting of 70 pathologically confirmed skin cancer patients and 210 age and gender matched participants with genotyping of 12 selected polymorphisms. The skin cancer risks were estimated by odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI using logistic regression. EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTT1 null genotypes were associated with skin cancer risk (OR = 2.99, 95% CI = 1.01–8.83; OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.99–4.27; OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.00–3.02, resp.. However, none of these polymorphisms showed significant association after considering arsenic exposure status. Individuals carrying three risk polymorphisms of EPHX1 Tyr113His, XPD C156A, and GSTs presented a 400% increased skin cancer risk when compared to those with less than or equal to one polymorphism. In conclusion, GSTs, EPHX1, and XPD are potential genetic factors for arsenic-induced skin cancers. The roles of these genes for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis need to be further evaluated.

  5. The Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Cancer: Risk from Environmental Exposures and Genetic Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    significantly associated with any of the exposure variables under investigation. DDE was weakly positively related to quetelet index (r=O. 14). A somewhat...stronger positive association with quetelet index was observed for congener 118 (r=0.20). Inverse associations with quetelet index were found for...lactation and quetelet index) and upon observed associations with the outcome variables in previous analyses. Some of the organochlorines under

  6. A novel environmental exposure index and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer in non-smokers and non-drinkers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingjun; Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Liu, Fengqiong; Liu, Fangping; Huang, Jiangfeng; Wu, Junfeng; Lin, Lisong; Qiu, Yu; Cai, Lin

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the collective effect of environmental factors and its interaction with familial susceptibility on oral cancer among non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND). A hospital-based case-control study, including 319 oral cancer patients and 994 frequency-matched controls, was conducted in Fujian, China. We raised a weighed environmental exposure index according to nine significant environmental factors obtained from multivariable logistic regression model. And then, the index was classified into three categories according to the tertiles of controls (2.43). Multiplicative and additive interactions were evaluated between environmental exposure index and family cancer history. Our results showed that environmental exposure index was associated with an increased risk of oral cancer especially for those with family cancer history. Compared to subjects with low environmental exposure index and without family cancer history, those with high index and family cancer history showed the highest magnitude of OR in oral cancer risk (OR 10.40, 95% CI 5.46-19.80). Moreover, there was a multiplicative interaction between environmental exposure index and family cancer history for the risk of oral cancer (P oral cancer among NSND and may interact with family cancer history. Further studies are warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.

  8. New applications of biological monitoring for environmental exposure and susceptibility monitoring. Report of the 7th International Symposium on Biological Monitoring in Occupational and Environmental Health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Validated biological monitoring methods are used in large-scale monitoring programmes involving determination of ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as metals and pesticides. Some programmes focus on children's exposure, and policies to prevent adverse health effects. Most of these initiatives

  9. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed in regards to disease etiology. PMID:24657180

  10. Both inherited susceptibility and environmental exposure determine the low-density lipoprotein-subfraction pattern distribution in healthy Dutch families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, J. de; Swinkels, D.W.; Haan, A.F.J. de; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H. (University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1992-12-01

    A lipoprotein profile characterized by a predominance of small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. To investigate whether genetic factors are involved in determining this heavy LDL subfraction pattern, this study was undertaken with the aim of resolving the effects that major genes, multifactorial heritability, and environmental exposures have on the LDL subfraction pattern. In a random sample of 19 healthy Dutch families including 162 individuals, the distribution of the LDL subfraction pattern was determined by density gradient ultracentrifugation. For each subject a specific LDL subfraction profile was observed, characterized by the relative contribution of the three major LDL subfractions - LDL1 (d = 1.030-1.033 g/ml), LDL2 (d = 1.033-1.040 g/ml), and LDL3 (d = 1.040-1.045 g/ml) - to total LDL. A continuous variable, parameter K, was defined to characterize each individual LDL subfraction pattern. Complex segregation analysis of this quantitative trait, under a model which includes a major locus, polygenes, and both common and random environment, was applied to analyze the distribution of the LDL subfraction pattern in these families. The results indicate that the LDL subfraction pattern, described by parameter K, is controlled by a major autosomal, highly penetrant, recessive allele with a population frequency of .19 and an additional multifactorial inheritance component. The results indicate that genetic influences as well as environmental exposure, sex, age and hormonal status in women are important in determining the distribution of the LDL subfraction patterns in this population and that these influences may contribute to the explanation of familial clustering of coronary heart disease. 40 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Environmental epigenetics in metal exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Zamudio, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that chronic exposure to arsenite, nickel, chromium and cadmium increases cancer incidence in individuals, the molecular mechanisms underlying their ability to transform cells remain largely unknown. Carcinogenic metals are typically weak mutagens, suggesting that genetic-based mechanisms may not be primarily responsible for metal-induced carcinogenesis. Growing evidence shows that environmental metal exposure involves changes in epigenetic marks, which may lead to a possible link between heritable changes in gene expression and disease susceptibility and development. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of metal exposure affecting epigenetic marks and discuss establishment of heritable gene expression in metal-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:21610324

  12. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  13. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Alison J; Mooney, Sandra; Kapoor, Shiv S; White, Kimberly M R; Bearer, Cynthia; El Metwally, Dina

    2015-10-01

    Children interact with the physical environment differently than adults, and are uniquely susceptible to environmental toxicants. Routes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and target organ toxicities vary as children grow and develop. This article summarizes the sources of exposure and known adverse effects of toxicants that are ubiquitous in our environment, including tobacco smoke, ethanol, solvents, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Preventive strategies that may be used in counseling children and their families are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...

  15. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  16. Chlorine gas exposure increases susceptibility to invasive lung fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Melissa A; Doran, Stephen F; Yu, Zhihong; Dunaway, Chad W; Matalon, Sadis; Steele, Chad

    2013-06-01

    Chlorine (Cl₂) is a highly irritating and reactive gas with potential occupational and environmental hazards. Acute exposure to Cl₂ induces severe epithelial damage, airway hyperreactivity, impaired alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary edema in the presence of heightened inflammation and significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. Herein, we investigated whether Cl₂ exposure affected the lung antimicrobial immune response leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Mice exposed to Cl₂ and challenged intratracheally 24 h thereafter with the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus demonstrated an >500-fold increase in A. fumigatus lung burden 72 h postchallenge compared with A. fumigatus mice exposed to room air. Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice also demonstrated significantly higher lung resistance following methacholine challenge and increased levels of plasma proteins (albumin and IgG) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Despite enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs of Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice, these cells (>60% of which were neutrophils) demonstrated a profound impairment in generating superoxide. Significantly higher A. fumigatus burden in the lungs of Cl₂ exposed mice correlated with enhanced production of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL3. Surprisingly, however, Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice had a specific impairment in the production of IL-17A and IL-22 in the lungs compared with mice exposed to room air and challenged with A. fumigatus. In summary, our results indicate that Cl₂ exposure markedly impairs the antimicrobial activity and inflammatory reactivity of myeloid cells in the lung leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens.

  17. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  18. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle during the perinatal period. On postnatal day (PND) 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200 µA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating an attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression from a focally stimulated limbic site stands in contrast to our previous finding of increase

  19. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  20. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, linking observed liver abnormality in the offspring to environmental exposure of their parental line. This study also illustrated that oxidative stress and apoptosis appear to be a molecular component of the hepatocyte cell injury. Keywords: Apoptosis, Hepatocyte cell injury, Oxidative stress, Parental transmission ...

  1. Environmental source of arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-09-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  2. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yong Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a recent World Health Organization report, arsenic from contaminated water can be quickly and easily absorbed and depending on its metabolic form, may adversely affect human health. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration regulations for metals found in cosmetics to protect consumers against contaminations deemed deleterious to health; some cosmetics were found to contain a variety of chemicals including heavy metals, which are sometimes used as preservatives. Moreover, developing countries tend to have a growing number of industrial factories that unfortunately, harm the environment, especially in cities where industrial and vehicle emissions, as well as household activities, cause serious air pollution. Air is also an important source of arsenic exposure in areas with industrial activity. The presence of arsenic in airborne particulate matter is considered a risk for certain diseases. Taken together, various potential pathways of arsenic exposure seem to affect humans adversely, and future efforts to reduce arsenic exposure caused by environmental factors should be made.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC INTERACTIONS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS: OXIDATIVE STRESS AS A COMMON SUSCEPTABILITY ATTRIBUTE FOR NON-CANCER RISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individuals compromised with preexisting conditions are likely to be more susceptible to environmental exposures, and the uncertainty factors employed to correct for this concern may not be adequate. Although diseases such as congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary disease;...

  4. An Evolutionary Perspective on Family Studies: Differential Susceptibility to Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Sarah; Belsky, Jay

    2016-12-01

    An evolutionary perspective of human development provides the basis for the differential-susceptibility hypothesis which stipulates that individuals should differ in their susceptibility to environmental influences, with some being more affected than others by both positive and negative developmental experiences and environmental exposures. This paper reviews evidence consistent with this claim while revealing that temperamental and genetic characteristics play a role in distinguishing more and less susceptible individuals. The differential-susceptibility framework under consideration is contrasted to the traditional diathesis-stress view that "vulnerability" traits predispose some to being disproportionately affected by (only) adverse experiences. We raise several issues stimulated by the literature that need to be clarified in further research. Lastly, we suggest that therapy may differ in its effects depending on an individual's susceptibility. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. Early environmental exposure and the development of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C J; Cooper, C

    2006-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex trait with evidence of polygenic inheritance influenced by environmental factors. However, the precise underlying causes of SLE remain unclear. A number of environmental exposures have been associated with lupus or related autoimmune phenomena. Evidence suggests that some environmental exposures need to be present many years before the onset of SLE. Both SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can occur in very young children and this supports the possibility that important environmental factors must be present during or before this time. In addition, the immune pathology, including autoantibody production, in adult lupus may begin years before clinical disease. There is also evidence that the developing immune system demonstrates developmental plasticity and can be permanently altered or 'programmed' by the early environment. We describe how early life environmental influences including infectious exposure may lead to autoantibody production in later life thus beginning the journey that leads to autoimmune diseases such as lupus in susceptible individuals.

  6. Toluene exposure increases aminophylline-induced seizure susceptibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Huan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2003-12-01

    The effects of toluene on the sensitivity to seizures induced by aminophylline were investigated. Mice were pretreated with an ip injection of corn oil or toluene (100-500 mg/kg) followed by a timed intravenous infusion of aminophylline at various time intervals to assess the seizure thresholds and lethal doses. Toluene increased seizure susceptibility to aminophylline in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Toluene-induced enhancement of seizure susceptibility to aminophylline occurred as early as 30 min and persisted for at least 3 days after a single administration of toluene (500 mg/kg). Treatment of benzaldehyde, one of toluene's metabolites, also showed an increase in the susceptibility to aminophylline. The enhancing effect was also observed in caffeine-induced seizures 1 h, but not 1 day after toluene treatment. These results suggest that individuals with toluene exposure may increase the risk for convulsive and even lethal complications associated with the therapeutic use of aminophylline.

  7. Environmental Exposure and Leptospirosis, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael A.S.; Smith, Hannah; Joseph, Priya; Gilman, Robert H.; Bautista, Christian T.; Campos, Kalina J.; Cespedes, Michelle; Klatsky, Peter; Vidal, Carlos; Terry, Hilja; Calderon, Maritza M.; Coral, Carlos; Cabrera, Lilia; Parmar, Paminder S.

    2004-01-01

    Human infection by leptospires has highly variable clinical manifestations, which range from subclinical infection to fulminant disease. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study in Peru to determine potential relationships of environmental context to human exposure to Leptospira and disease associated with seroconversion. Three areas were studied: a flooded, urban slum in the Peruvian Amazon city of Iquitos; rural, peri-Iquitos villages; and a desert shantytown near Lima. Seroprevalence in Belen was 28% (182/650); in rural areas, 17% (52/316); and in a desert shantytown, 0.7% (1/150). Leptospira-infected peridomestic rats were found in all locales. In Belen, 20 (12.4%) of 161 patients seroconverted between dry and wet seasons (an incidence rate of 288/1,000). Seroconversion was associated with history of febrile illness; severe leptospirosis was not seen. Human exposure to Leptospira in the Iquitos region is high, likely related both to the ubiquity of leptospires in the environment and human behavior conducive to transmission from infected zoonotic sources. PMID:15207052

  8. A Drosophila model for toxicogenomics: Genetic variation in susceptibility to heavy metal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors that give rise to variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins remain largely unexplored. Studies on genetic variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins are challenging in human populations, due to the variety of clinical symptoms and difficulty in determining which symptoms causally result from toxic exposure; uncontrolled environments, often with exposure to multiple toxicants; and difficulty in relating phenotypic effect size to toxic dose, especially when symptoms become manifest with a substantial time lag. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model that enables genome-wide studies for the identification of allelic variants that contribute to variation in susceptibility to environmental toxins, since the genetic background, environmental rearing conditions and toxic exposure can be precisely controlled. Here, we used extreme QTL mapping in an outbred population derived from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel to identify alleles associated with resistance to lead and/or cadmium, two ubiquitous environmental toxins that present serious health risks. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with variation in resistance to both heavy metals as well as SNPs associated with resistance specific to each of them. The effects of these SNPs were largely sex-specific. We applied mutational and RNAi analyses to 33 candidate genes and functionally validated 28 of them. We constructed networks of candidate genes as blueprints for orthologous networks of human genes. The latter not only provided functional contexts for known human targets of heavy metal toxicity, but also implicated novel candidate susceptibility genes. These studies validate Drosophila as a translational toxicogenomics gene discovery system.

  9. Biomarkers of environmental toxicity and susceptibility in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Garver, Carolyn R; Adams, James B; Audhya, Tapan; Nataf, Robert; Geier, Mark R

    2009-05-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may result from a combination of genetic/biochemical susceptibilities in the form of a reduced ability to excrete mercury and/or increased environmental exposure at key developmental times. Urinary porphyrins and transsulfuration metabolites in participants diagnosed with an ASD were examined. A prospective, blinded study was undertaken to evaluate a cohort of 28 participants with an ASD diagnosis for Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores, urinary porphyrins, and transsulfuration metabolites. Testing was conducted using Vitamin Diagnostics, Inc. (CLIA-approved) and Laboratoire Philippe Auguste (ISO-approved). Participants with severe ASDs had significantly increased mercury intoxication-associated urinary porphyrins (pentacarboxyporphyrin, precoproporphyrin, and coproporphyrin) in comparison to participants with mild ASDs, whereas other urinary porphyrins were similar in both groups. Significantly decreased plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and sulfate were observed among study participants relative to controls. In contrast, study participants had significantly increased plasma oxidized glutathione (GSSG) relative to controls. Mercury intoxication-associated urinary porphyrins were significantly correlated with increasing CARS scores and GSSG levels, whereas other urinary porphyrins did not show these relationships. The urinary porphyrin and CARS score correlations observed among study participants suggest that mercury intoxication is significantly associated with autistic symptoms. The transsulfuration abnormalities observed among study participants indicate that mercury intoxication was associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased detoxification capacity.

  10. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  11. Environmental Source of Arsenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jin-Yong; Yu, Seung-Do; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that may be a significant risk factor for cancer after exposure to contaminated drinking water, cigarettes, foods, industry, occupational environment, and air. Among the various routes of arsenic exposure, drinking water is the largest source of arsenic poisoning worldwide. Arsenic exposure from ingested foods usually comes from food crops grown in arsenic-contaminated soil and/or irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water. According to a ...

  12. Toxicogenetics: In Search of Host Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelareh eAlam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate and organophospherous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. The aim of this short review is to show that the inconsistencies are related to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of neurotoxicants, individual differences that can be traced to the genetic constitution of the individuals and animals studies, i.e., host-based susceptibility.

  13. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  14. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacon S.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Amazon ecosystem with direct influence in the food chain. These changes in Amazon scenario increase complexity of environmental issue and mercury may become a threat for susceptible exposure groups. This study evaluated mercury exposure scenarios for susceptible groups around the hydroelectric plant to calculate toxicological risk before damming. During the period of 2009 to 2011, about 771 children under 16 years age and 276 female in reproductive age (from 16 to 40 years old were assessed. Besides, regular fish samples (n=1580 were collected for total mercury determination. The mercury concentration in fish ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 mg/kg. For the current scenario the toxicological risk ranged from 3.5 to 24 for mercury for the susceptible groups. Regarding the critical scenario after 3 years flooding, the area is expected to double the risk for the same group, especially for the communities downstream, which may represent a critical situation.

  15. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen Fredenslund, F.; Rasmussen, D.; Mikkelsen, J.

    Miljøprojekt, 306; Hertil hører 5 tekniske bilagsrapporter udgivet som miljøprojekter (Environmental projects) nr. 307-311.......Miljøprojekt, 306; Hertil hører 5 tekniske bilagsrapporter udgivet som miljøprojekter (Environmental projects) nr. 307-311....

  16. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  17. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  18. Exposure to metal ions and susceptibility to dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2001-10-01

    Results from several epidemiologic studies have shown that there are large differences in the prevalence of dental caries from one region to another within the United States as well as in other countries. It has been postulated that the observed differences may be attributed in part at least to exposure to trace elements such as selenium, vanadium, molybdenum, strontium, and lead. Although data from epidemiologic studies usually support this hypothesis, direct evidence is sparse with the possible exception of exposure to lead. Data from several epidemiologic studies and animal-based research support the concept that lead is a caries-promoting element. Lead mimics calcium in several respects and may affect development of teeth and salivary glands, clearly enhancing susceptibility to dental caries. Elevated blood levels are found most commonly in persons residing in inner cities, particularly among the poor. Many states require blood lead level to be monitored in young children. Where feasible, these records should form part of health history and be available to the treating dental practitioner to ensure that extra preventive procedures may be implemented.

  19. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  1. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  2. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way ... Methods: The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, ...

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  4. Environmental exposure to carcinogens in northwestern Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In developing countries, 6% of deaths are due to cancer but cancer prevention is not practiced. Humans can prevent themselves from a number of workplace and environmental carcinogens. Objectives: To assess exposure to carcinogens, risky behaviours and associated preventive methods. Methods: A ...

  5. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  6. Adverse reproductive outcomes from exposure to environmental mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B; Rössner, P; Rubes, J; Topinka, J; Dejmek, J

    1999-07-16

    The effect of environmental pollution on reproductive outcomes has been studied in the research project 'Teplice Program' analyzing the impact of air pollution on human health. Genotoxicity of urban air particles females and males. A study of the effects of PM10 exposure on pregnancy outcomes found the relationship between the intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and PM10 levels over 40 microg/m(3) in the first gestational month (Odds Ratio for 40-50 microg/m(3)50 microg/m(3)=1.9). Selected biomarkers were analyzed in venous blood, cord blood (chromosomal aberrations, comet assay) and placenta (DNA adducts, genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes) of women enrolled in a nested case-control study. DNA adduct levels were higher in polluted vs. control districts, in smoking vs. nonsmoking mothers, and in GSTM1 null genotype, which was more pronounced in polluted district. No effect of air pollution was observed by cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations or by comet assay. The reproductive development of young men was followed by measures of semen quality, adjusted for ambient SO(2) exposure. The analysis identified significant associations with air pollution for sperm, sperm with normal head shape, sperm. Analysis of aneuploidy in human sperm by FISH showed, aneuploidy YY8 was associated with season of heaviest air pollution. These findings are suggestive for an influence of air pollution on YY8 disomy. All these results indicate that air pollution may increase DNA damage in human population, which may be even higher for susceptible groups. Biomarkers of exposure (DNA adducts) and susceptibility (GSTM1 and NAT2) may indicate the risk of presumable low environmental exposure. Pregnancy outcome and semen studies imply that relatively low air pollution (higher than 40 microg PM10/m(3)) can significantly increase the adverse reproductive outcomes affecting both genders.

  7. [Difficulties of the methods for studying environmental exposure and neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Bermúdez-Castro, O; Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Kuri, P; Bustamante-Montes, P; Torres-Meza, V

    1999-01-01

    To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encephalocele) because of problems raised from: a) the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b) the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c) the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d) the assessment of environmental exposures. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a) both paternal and maternal exposures; b) the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c) quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d) the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  8. Media exposure, interactive health literacy, and adolescents' susceptibility to future smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Akira; Kuroda, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have investigated interactive health literacy (IHL)'s relationship with adolescents' smoking-related behavior. This study investigated IHL's association with adolescents' susceptibility to future smoking. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of Japanese students enrolled in public junior high school, grades 7-9 (n=1937), who completed a self-report questionnaire. Variables were grade, gender, media exposure [television (TV), internet, and magazines], IHL (interest in learning about health, understanding what they hear about health, trying to follow what is taught about health), and susceptibility to future smoking. Significant findings were: [1] media exposure was positively associated with adolescents' susceptibility to future smoking (TV: padolescents' susceptibility to future smoking (interest in learning about health: psmoking was found to be marginally stronger than that of media exposure. School health-education programs that promote adolescents' IHL may effectively reduce adolescents' susceptibility to future smoking.

  9. Effect of antibiotic use and mold exposure in infancy on allergic rhinitis in susceptible adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-I; Lee, Eun; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kang, Mi-Jin; Yu, Ho-Sung; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotic use in infancy induces alteration in intestinal microbiota and is associated with the development of allergic diseases. Mold exposure is also associated with allergic diseases. Genetic susceptibility may interact with specific environmental factors in allergic disease development. To investigate independent and combined effects of antibiotic use and mold exposure in infancy on the risk of allergic rhinitis (AR) in adolescents. Data on AR and environmental factors were collected using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire from 7,389 adolescents from Seoul, Korea. TaqMan genotyping was performed for interleukin 13 (IL-13) (rs20541) and Toll-like receptor 4 (rs1927911) polymorphisms in 1,395 adolescents. Age, parental history of AR, antibiotic use in infancy, and pet ownership during pregnancy or infancy were associated with an increased risk of current AR (diagnosis of AR and symptoms of AR within the preceding 12 months). Having older siblings was a protective effect. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for current AR for combined antibiotic use and mold exposure in infancy was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.09). For each factor separately, aORs were 1.25 (95% CI, 1.04-1.50) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.75-1.31), respectively. Antibiotic and mold exposure in infancy, GA or AA genotypes of IL-13 (rs20541) (aOR 4.53; 95% CI, 1.66-12.38; P for interaction = .05), and CT+TT genotype of Toll-like receptor 4 (rs1927911) (aOR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.24-8.26; P for interaction = .18) increased the risk of current AR. Antibiotic use and mold exposure in infancy have additive effects on the risk of current AR in genetically susceptible adolescents. Gene-environment interactions between IL-13 (rs20541) and antibiotics or mold may play a role in AR. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular night-time noise can cause disruptions of sleep structure, vegetative arousals (e.g. increases of blood pressure and heart rate) and increases in stress hormone levels and oxidative stress, which in turn may result in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension. This review focuses on the cardiovascular consequences of environmental noise exposure and stresses the importance of noise mitigation strategies for public health. PMID:24616334

  11. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila T. Kovtun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. Objective . The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively and their changes after cold acclimation. Design . Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days. Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. Results . It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2 tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1 – with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2 – medium and Group 3 – low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Conclusions . Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between

  12. Susceptibility to hypoxia and breathing control changes after short-term cold exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovtun, Lyudmila T; Voevoda, Mikhail I

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is the reduction of oxygen availability due to external or internal causes. There is large individual variability of response to hypoxia. The aim of this study was to define individual and typological features in susceptibility to hypoxia, its interrelation with hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively) and their changes after cold acclimation. Twenty-four healthy men were tested. HVR and HCVR were measured by the rebreathing method during hypoxic and hypercapnic tests, respectively. These tests were carried out in thermoneutral conditions before and after cold exposures (nude, at 13°C, 2 h daily, for 10 days). Susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) was determined as haemoglobin saturation slope during hypoxic test. It was found that HVR and HCVR significantly increased and susceptibility to hypoxia (sSaO2) tended to decrease after cold acclimation. According to sSaO2 results before cold exposures, the group was divided into 3: Group 1--with high susceptibility to hypoxia, Group 2--medium and Group 3--low susceptibility. Analysis of variances (MANOVA) shows the key role of susceptibility to hypoxia and cold exposures and their interrelation. Posterior analysis (Fisher LSD) showed significant difference in susceptibility to hypoxia between the groups prior to cold acclimation, while HVR and HCVR did not differ between the groups. After cold acclimation, susceptibility to hypoxia was not significantly different between the groups, while HCVR significantly increased in Groups 1 and 3, HVR significantly increased in Group 3 and HCVR, HVR did not change in Group 2. Short-term cold exposures caused an increase in functional reserves and improved oxygen supply of tissues in Group 1. Cold exposure hypoxia has caused energy loss in Group 3. Group 2 showed the most appropriate energy conservation reaction mode to cold exposures. No relation was found between the thermoregulation and the susceptibility to hypoxia.

  13. Exposure to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Producer Alexandrium catenella Increases the Susceptibility of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas to Pathogenic Vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Abi-Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France, we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs, was concomitant with the accumulation of PSTs in oyster flesh and the occurrence of C. gigas mortalities. In order to investigate the possible role of toxic algae in this complex disease, we experimentally infected C. gigas oyster juveniles with Vibrio tasmaniensis strain LGP32, a strain associated with oyster summer mortalities, after oysters were exposed to Alexandrium catenella. Exposure of oysters to A. catenella significantly increased the susceptibility of oysters to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. On the contrary, exposure to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense or to the haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea used as a foraging alga did not increase susceptibility to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. This study shows for the first time that A. catenella increases the susceptibility of Crassostrea gigas to pathogenic vibrios. Therefore, in addition to complex environmental factors explaining the mass mortalities of bivalve mollusks, feeding on neurotoxic dinoflagellates should now be considered as an environmental factor that potentially increases the severity of oyster mortality events.

  14. Exposure to the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Producer Alexandrium catenella Increases the Susceptibility of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas to Pathogenic Vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Khalil, Celina; Lopez-Joven, Carmen; Abadie, Eric; Savar, Veronique; Amzil, Zouher; Laabir, Mohamed; Rolland, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-15

    The multifactorial etiology of massive Crassostrea gigas summer mortalities results from complex interactions between oysters, opportunistic pathogens and environmental factors. In a field survey conducted in 2014 in the Mediterranean Thau Lagoon (France), we evidenced that the development of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), was concomitant with the accumulation of PSTs in oyster flesh and the occurrence of C. gigas mortalities. In order to investigate the possible role of toxic algae in this complex disease, we experimentally infected C. gigas oyster juveniles with Vibrio tasmaniensis strain LGP32, a strain associated with oyster summer mortalities, after oysters were exposed to Alexandrium catenella. Exposure of oysters to A. catenella significantly increased the susceptibility of oysters to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. On the contrary, exposure to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense or to the haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea used as a foraging alga did not increase susceptibility to V. tasmaniensis LGP32. This study shows for the first time that A. catenella increases the susceptibility of Crassostrea gigas to pathogenic vibrios. Therefore, in addition to complex environmental factors explaining the mass mortalities of bivalve mollusks, feeding on neurotoxic dinoflagellates should now be considered as an environmental factor that potentially increases the severity of oyster mortality events.

  15. Male infertility and environmental exposure to lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoff, S; Jacob, A; Hurley, I R

    2000-01-01

    Humans are exposed occupationally and environmentally to metal aerosols including lead (Pb2+) and cadmium (Cd2+). These toxicants accumulate in male reproductive organs. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal about effects of Pb2+ and Cd2+ on hormone concentrations, male fertility and sperm parameters. Comparison of Pb2+ and Cd2+ concentrations in fertile and infertile men are problematic. Problem areas include failure to control confounding variables, but genetic polymorphisms as in somatic diseases may modulate Pb2+ and Cd2+ damage. Multiple calcium (Ca2+) and potassium (K+) channel isoforms have been identified in human testes and spermatozoa. These Ca2+ and K+ channels are involved in early events of acrosome reactions. Ca2+ channel are susceptible to Cd2+ poisoning and K+ channels to Pb2+. These channels offer entry paths for metallic toxicants into mature spermatozoa. Ion channel polymorphisms may cause differential sensitivities to Cd2+ and Pb2+, explaining in part prospective blinded studies showing high Cd2+ in varicocele-related human infertility and high Pb2+ in unexplained infertility. In both forms of male infertility the ability to undergo an acrosome reaction decreases. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays for Ca2+ and K+ channel isoforms may identify susceptibility subgroups with lower resistance to environmental exposures.

  16. Environmental exposures due to natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knap, Anthony H; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    The environmental mobilization of contaminants by "natural disasters" is a subject of much interest, however, little has been done to address these concerns, especially in the developing world. Frequencies and predictability of events, both globally and regionally as well as the intensity, vary widely. It is clear that there are greater probabilities for mobilization of modern contaminants in sediments. Over the past 100 years of industrialization many chemicals are buried in riverine, estuarine and coastal sediments. There are a few studies, which have investigated this potential risk especially to human health. Studies that focus on extreme events need to determine the pre-existing baseline, determine the medium to long term fate and transport of contaminants and investigate aquatic and terrestrial pathways. Comprehensive studies are required to investigate the disease pathways and susceptibility for human health concerns.

  17. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  18. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Core, Susan B; Kajon, Adriana E; Excoffon, Katherine J D A

    2012-01-01

    Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3) were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS), mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS), or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection. This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant therapeutics and

  19. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  20. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Susceptibility to Smoking, Perceived Addiction, and Psychobehavioral Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T. C.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Ickes, Melinda J.; Butler, Karen M.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure with susceptibility to smoking, perceived addiction, and psychobehavioral effects of exposure among never- and ever-smoking college students. Participants: Participants were 665 college students at a large, southeastern university in the United States. Methods: This study is…

  1. Influence of exposure patterns of nitrogen dioxide and modifications by ozone on susceptibility to bacterial infectious disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; Blommer, E.J.; House, D.E.; Menache, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) diurnal cycle found in urban communities usually consists of a low basal concentration upon which are superimposed higher-concentration peaks or spikes of short duration. Various components of the environmental-exposure mode were examined to assess effects of urban exposure profiles on susceptibility to infectious pulmonary disease. Mice were exposed to NO/sub 2/ peaks of 4.5 ppm for 1, 3.5, or 7 h, challenged with Streptococcus sp. either immediately or 18 h postexposure, and then observed for mortality. When the streptococcal challenges were immediately after NO/sub 2/ exposure, the mortality rate was directly related to the length of peak exposure, whether or not a basal exposure was used, and all peak lengths significantly increased mortality. When the challenge was delayed for 18 h after the peak exposure, spiked exposure, of 3.5 and 7 h increased mortality to the same degree. If a 1-h peak exposure to 4.5 ppm was superimposed twice daily upon a continuous basal NO/sub 2/ concentration of 1.5 ppm, there was a suggestive trend toward increased mortality near the end of the second week of exposure when challenge occurred immediately after the morning spike.

  2. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problems associated with air-Mn exposure, but medical record reviews for exposed residents are rare in the literature. When medical records and clinical testing are unavailable, examination of residents’ prescribed medication use may be used as a surrogate of health effects associated with Mn. We examined medication use among adult Ohio residents in two towns with elevated air-Mn (n=185) and one unexposed control town (n=90). Study participants recorded medication use in a health questionnaire and brought their currently prescribed medication, over-the-counter and supplement lists to their interview. Two physicians (family and psychiatric medicine) reviewed the provided medication list and developed medical categories associated with the medications used. The exposed (E) and control (C) groups were compared on the established 12 medication and 1 supplement categories using chi-square tests. The significant medication categories were further analyzed using hierarchical binomial logistic regression adjusting for education, personal income, and years of residency. The two groups were primarily white (E:94.6%; C:96.7%) but differed on education (E:13.8; C:15.2 years), residence length in their re

  3. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  4. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and hand tremor in adult community residents. Mn exposed residents were recruited in two Ohio towns: Marietta, a town near a ferro-manganese smelter, and East Liverpool, a town adjacent to a facility processing, crushing, screening, and packaging Mn products.METHODS: Chronic (≥10years) exposure to ambient air Mn in adult residents and effects on neuropsychological and neurological outcomes were investigated. Participants from Marietta (n=100) and East Liverpool (n=86) were combined for analyses. AERMOD dispersion modeling of fixed-site outdoor air monitoring data estimated Mn inhalation over a ten year period. Adult Mn­ exposed residents' psychomotor ability was assessed using Finger Tapping, Hand Dynamometer, Grooved Pegbcard, and the Computerized Adaptive Testing System (CATSYS) Tremor system.Bayesian structural equation modeling was used to assess associations between air-Mn and motor function and tremor .RESULTS: Air-Mn exposure was significantly correlated in bivariate analyses with the tremor test (CATSYS) for intensity, center frequency and harmonic index. The Bayesian path analysis model showed associations of air-Mn with the CATSYS non-dominant center frequency and harmonic ind

  5. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the oognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources. Air-Mn site surface emissions method modeling for total suspended particulate (TSP) ranged from 0.03 to 1.61 µg/m(3) in Marietta and 0.01-6.32 µg/m(3) in East Liverpool. A comprehensive screening test battery of cognitive function, including the domains of abstract thinking, attention/concentration, executive function and memory was administered. The mean age of the participants was 56 years (±10.8 years). Participants were mostly female (59.1) and primarily white (94.6%). Significant relationships (p<0.05) were found between Mn exposure and performance on working and visuospatial memory (e.g., Rey-0 Immediate B3=0.19, Rey-0 Delayed B3=0.16) and verbal skills (e.g., Similarities B3=0.19). Using extensive cognitive testing and computer modeling of 10-plus years of measured air monitoring data, this study suggests that long-term environmental exposure to high levels of air-Mn, the exposure metric of this paper, may result in mild deficits of cognitive function in adult populations. This study addresses research questions under Sustainable and Healthy Communities (2.2.1.6 lessons learned, best practices and stakeholder feedback from community and tribal participa

  6. Occupational and Environmental Lead Exposure in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In spite of the high risk of lead exposure in Nigeria, there is a paucity of data on the occupational and environmental burden of lead exposure and its impact on human health especially its nephrotoxic effects. This study aims to assess the degree of occupational and environmental lead exposure in Port ...

  7. Gut Dysbiosis in Animals Due to Environmental Chemical Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome consists of over 103–104 microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an “organ” in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide. Bacterial virulence factors and metabolites may be transmitted to distal target sites, including the brain. Other potential mechanisms by which gut dysbiosis can affect the host include bacterial-produced metabolites, production of hormones and factors that mimic those produced by the host, and epimutations. All animals, including humans, are exposed daily to various environmental chemicals that can influence the gut microbiome. Exposure to such chemicals might lead to downstream systemic effects that occur secondary to gut microbiome disturbances. Increasing reports have shown that environmental chemical exposures can target both host and the resident gut microbiome. In this review, we will first consider the current knowledge of how endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, heavy metals, air pollution, and nanoparticles can influence the gut microbiome. The second part of the review will consider how potential environmental chemical-induced gut microbiome changes might subsequently induce pathophysiological responses in the host, although definitive evidence for such effects is still lacking. By understanding how these chemicals result in gut dysbiosis, it may open up new remediation strategies in animals, including humans, exposed to such chemicals.

  8. Influence of exposure patterns of nitrogen dioxide and modifications by ozone on susceptibility to bacterial infectious disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.; Blommer, E.J.; House, D.E.; Menache, M.G.; Miller, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    The nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) diurnal cycle found in urban communities usually consists of a low basal concentration upon which are superimposed higher concentration peaks or spikes of short duration. Various components of this environmental exposure mode were examined to assess effects of urban exposure profiles on susceptibility to infectious pulmonary disease. Mice were exposed to NO/sub 2/ peaks of 4.5 ppm for 1, 3.5, or 7 h, challenged with Streptococcus sp. either immediately or 18 h postexposure, and then observed for mortality. When the streptococcal challenges were immediately after NO/sub 2/ exposure, the mortality rate was directly related to the length of peak exposure, whether or not a basal exposure was used, and all peak lengths significantly increased mortality. When the challenge was delayed for 18 h after the peak exposure, spiked exposures of 3.5 and 7 h increased mortality to the same degree. If a 1-h peak exposure to 4.5 ppm was superimposed twice daily upon a continuous basal NO/sub 2/ concentration of 1.5 ppm, there was a suggestive trend toward increased mortality near the end of the second week of exposure when challenge occurred immediately after the morning spike. Studies were also conducted to examine interactions with ozone (O/sub 3/) and NO/sub 2/, since urban air typically contains both of these oxidants. Using various combinations of basal and spiked exposure levels of NO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/, synergistic results were obtained for streptococcal-induced mortality.

  9. Susceptibility to hyperosmotic stress-induced phosphatidylserine exposure increases during red blood cell storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Cluitmans, J.C.A.; Groenen, Y.A.; Werre, J.M.; Willekens, F.L.A.; Novotny, V.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During storage of red blood cell (RBCs) before transfusion, RBCs undergo a series of structural and functional changes that include the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), a potent removal signal. It was postulated that, during blood bank storage, the susceptibility to stress-induced PS

  10. Significance of environmental exposure pathways for technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Gardner, R.H.; Bartell, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques are used to produce a probable range of predicted values from estimates of uncertainty assigned to the parameters of radiological assessment models. This range is used to indicate the uncertainty in the model's prediction. The importance of individual parameters and exposure pathways is determined by their relative contribution to this simulated uncertainty index. The major pathways of exposure to humans resulting from the airborne emissions of /sup 99/Tc involve the consumption of vegetables, vegetable products, and poultry eggs. The most important model parameters are related to the mobility of /sup 99/Tc in soil, the incorporation of /sup 99/Tc into the edible portions of crops, its transfer from vegetation to poultry eggs, and its atmospheric deposition. Uncertainty in the dose for individuals exposed to /sup 99/Tc-contaminated liquid discharges is dominated by the bioaccumulation of this isotope in aquatic food chains and by the possibility that contaminated surface water will be used as a source of drinking water. Results suggest that future reductions in the present estimates of uncertainty will lead to the dismissal of /sup 99/Tc as an environmentally important radionuclide, provided that de minimis dose levels are eventually adopted and releases of /sup 99/Tc from individual nuclear fuel cycle facilities will not be substantially larger than 1 Ci/year to the atmosphere and 100 Ci/year to the aquatic environment. These conclusions do not account for the possibility of a large long-term accumulation and remobilization of /sup 99/Tc in aquatic sediment and/or surface soils. 32 references, 9 tables.

  11. Modulation of the Genome and Epigenome of Individuals Susceptible to Autism by Environmental Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Koufaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental factors have been implicated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Genetic factors also underlie the differential vulnerability to environmental risk factors of susceptible individuals. Currently the way in which environmental risk factors interact with genetic factors to increase the incidence of ASD is not well understood. A greater understanding of the metabolic, cellular, and biochemical events involved in gene x environment interactions in ASD would have important implications for the prevention and possible treatment of the disorder. In this review we discuss various established and more alternative processes through which environmental factors implicated in ASD can modulate the genome and epigenome of genetically-susceptible individuals.

  12. Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Mehmet; Bakan, Nur Dilek

    2014-05-01

    This article aims to review the geological background of environmental asbestos exposure and the distribution of asbestos-related disease (ARD) in association with naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), and discusses the potential health risks associated with exposure to non-occupational asbestos. With the motion of continental and oceanic plates, in some parts of the world serpentinites in the lower layer of the oceanic plate move into the continental plate and form the so-called ophiolites. Ophiolites consist of soil and rocks containing serpentine-type asbestos. There is an increase in ARDs in regions close to ophiolites. Indoor exposure and outdoor exposure to NOA, outdoor exposure to industrial asbestos and mines, urbanization and construction works in NOA regions are the known sources and types of environmental asbestos exposure. Although there is an expectance of decline in ARDs caused by industrial exposure to asbestos, the environmental exposure to asbestos is still a challenge waiting to be overcome.

  13. Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Stene, Lars Christian; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  14. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  15. Lagged kernel machine regression for identifying time windows of susceptibility to exposures of complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelley H; Bobb, Jennifer F; Lee, Kyu Ha; Gennings, Chris; Claus Henn, Birgit; Bellinger, David; Austin, Christine; Schnaas, Lourdes; Tellez-Rojo, Martha M; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish; Coull, Brent A

    2017-09-06

    The impact of neurotoxic chemical mixtures on children's health is a critical public health concern. It is well known that during early life, toxic exposures may impact cognitive function during critical time intervals of increased vulnerability, known as windows of susceptibility. Knowledge on time windows of susceptibility can help inform treatment and prevention strategies, as chemical mixtures may affect a developmental process that is operating at a specific life phase. There are several statistical challenges in estimating the health effects of time-varying exposures to multi-pollutant mixtures, such as: multi-collinearity among the exposures both within time points and across time points, and complex exposure-response relationships. To address these concerns, we develop a flexible statistical method, called lagged kernel machine regression (LKMR). LKMR identifies critical exposure windows of chemical mixtures, and accounts for complex non-linear and non-additive effects of the mixture at any given exposure window. Specifically, LKMR estimates how the effects of a mixture of exposures change with the exposure time window using a Bayesian formulation of a grouped, fused lasso penalty within a kernel machine regression (KMR) framework. A simulation study demonstrates the performance of LKMR under realistic exposure-response scenarios, and demonstrates large gains over approaches that consider each time window separately, particularly when serial correlation among the time-varying exposures is high. Furthermore, LKMR demonstrates gains over another approach that inputs all time-specific chemical concentrations together into a single KMR. We apply LKMR to estimate associations between neurodevelopment and metal mixtures in Early Life Exposures in Mexico and Neurotoxicology, a prospective cohort study of child health in Mexico City. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Toxicogenetics: in search of host susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Gelareh; Jones, Byron C.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate, and organophosphorous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. Th...

  17. Environmental and occupational exposure to lead | Njoroge | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the status of environmental and occupational lead exposure in selected areas in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Kariobangi North, Babadogo, Waithaka and Pumwani for assessment of environmental exposure to lead (Pb) and Ziwani Jua Kali works for assessment of ...

  18. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  19. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    , and is hampered by gaps in environmental exposure data, especially from industrializing countries. For these reasons, a recently calculated environmental BoD of 5.18% of the total DALYs is likely underestimated. We combined and extended cost calculations for exposures to environmental chemicals, including...... neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...... is that they are available for few environmental chemicals and primarily based on mortality and impact and duration of clinical morbidity, while less serious conditions are mostly disregarded. Our economic estimates based on available exposure information and dose-response data on environmental risk factors need to be seen...

  20. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    is that they are available for few environmental chemicals and primarily based on mortality and impact and duration of clinical morbidity, while less serious conditions are mostly disregarded. Our economic estimates based on available exposure information and dose-response data on environmental risk factors need to be seen......, and is hampered by gaps in environmental exposure data, especially from industrializing countries. For these reasons, a recently calculated environmental BoD of 5.18% of the total DALYs is likely underestimated. We combined and extended cost calculations for exposures to environmental chemicals, including...... neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  1. A Review of the Field on Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-03-04

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child's body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children's unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children's environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children's environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children's exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children's activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children's exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in reducing or

  2. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0

  3. Cadmium in goods - contribution to environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbaeck, B.; Jonsson, Arne [Kalmar Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Natural Science

    1998-03-01

    The total amount of Cd used in Sweden since 1940 is approximately 5000 tonnes, including alloys, fertilizers and impurities in zinc. The stock of Cd in goods in the Swedish anthroposphere is dominated by NiCd-batteries. However, when one considers the degree of exposure to corrosion, Cd stabilizers are dominant. Emissions of Cd from industrial plants and other point sources have been historically important. However, these point source emissions must be seen in relation to the increasingly significant fugitive `consumption emissions`, from the use and/or end-use of various goods. In this study, methods of reconstructing the flows of cadmium (Cd) and estimating the emissions over time are discussed. This is done through studies of the development of production, technology, trade and the longevity of metals in Swedish society. This last part in the chain will form the `consumption emissions` calculated from emission factors giving the proportion of the cadmium content in goods that eventually will reach the environment. The main accumulation of metals in the anthroposphere occurs in urban areas where the influx of metals is greatest. Urban areas probably represent `hot spots` as far as this type of environmental impact is concerned. Extreme Cd concentrations in surface sediments in central Stockholm indicate an ongoing release of Cd from the anthroposphere. The sources are so far unknown, i.e. this Cd flow to the biosphere cannot be explained in terms of deposition or emissions from point sources. Approximately 40 tonnes of Cd in goods are exposed to corrosion in varying degrees. This stock is dominated by Cd in stabilizers and pigments, and as impurities in Zn 15 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Environmental exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woo Jin; Lee, Chang Youl

    2017-01-01

    .... The development and exacerbation of COPD are influenced by environmental factors. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for COPD, and environmental tobacco smoking also contributes to its development...

  5. Cryptobia salmositica: susceptibility of infected rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, to environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, P T; Wehnert, S D

    1986-06-01

    Using the sealed jar technique (also called residual oxygen bioassay), rainbow trout fry infected with Cryptobia salmositica were more susceptible than non-infected fish to environmental hypoxia. The Winkler technique (azide modification) was used to determine the residual dissolved oxygen in the water. Susceptibility of infected fish increased with 1) time after infection and was most evident in 3-7 wk infections, 2) the severity of anemia, and 3) increasing parasitemia. In prolonged infections, susceptibility was reduced when there were decreases in anemia and parasitemia; however, these infected fish were still more susceptible than non-infected fish. The increase in susceptibility of infected fish to hypoxia may be an important contributing factor to mortality of fish in hatcheries where there is inadequate water flow and overcrowding. The sealed jar technique is recommended in future studies on the pathogenesis of parasitic fish diseases, especially if the metabolic and/or respiratory systems are affected by the infection.

  6. Interactions of warming and exposure affect susceptibility to parasite infection in a temperate fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheath, Danny J; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert

    2016-09-01

    Predicting how elevated temperatures from climate change alter host-parasite interactions requires understandings of how warming affects host susceptibility and parasite virulence. Here, the effect of elevated water temperature and parasite exposure level was tested on parasite prevalence, abundance and burden, and on fish growth, using Pomphorhynchus laevis and its fish host Squalius cephalus. At 60 days post-exposure, prevalence was higher at the elevated temperature (22 °C) than ambient temperature (18 °C), with infections achieved at considerably lower levels of exposure. Whilst parasite number was significantly higher in infected fish at 22 °C, both mean parasite weight and parasite burden was significantly higher at 18 °C. There were, however, no significant relationships between fish growth rate and temperature, parasite exposure, and the infection parameters. Thus, whilst elevated temperature significantly influenced parasite infection rates, it also impacted parasite development rates, suggesting warming could have complex implications for parasite dynamics and host resistance.

  7. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnzi K.M. Wright

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to VX in male and female rats during puberty and early adulthood. Pubescent, female rats were less susceptible than both their male and adult counterparts to the lethal effects associated with pc exposure to VX possibly because of hormonal changes during that stage of development. This study emphasizes the need to control for both age and sex when evaluating the toxicological effects associated with nerve agent exposure in the rat model.

  8. Children and the unborn child, Exposure and susceptibility to chemical substances – an evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Thorup, I.; Schnipper, Anette

    Children are at risk of exposure to a lot of high-production-volume synthetic chemical substances which have been introduced into the market within the past 50 years; these chemical substances are used widely in consumer products and are dispersed in the environment. Children as well as the unborn...... child have in some cases appeared to be uniquely vulnerable to chemical toxicants because of their biological growth and development. Furthermore, children may be more heavily exposed than adults to certain chemicals and pollutants in the environment. This report summarises and discusses the current...... knowledge about the biological susceptibility and exposure of chemical substances to children during the embryonic, foetal, and postnatal periods....

  9. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    , metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual......, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time-resolved monitors for exposure to ultrafine PM and PM(2.5,) use of GPS, as well as genomics and proteomics based biomarkers....

  10. The relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, pro-tobacco social influences, and smoking susceptibility among nonsmoking Zambian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel Terungwa; Maliselo, Tino; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the extent of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents would be associated with their overall exposure to pro-tobacco social influences. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate methods from the 2011 Zambia Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The odds of SHS exposure increased with increasing exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements. About 39.5% of the gap in SHS exposure between nonsmokers with low versus high smoking susceptibility was attributable to differences in parental or peer smoking. Sustained efforts are needed to denormalize tobacco use in order to reduce youth susceptibility to tobacco use.

  11. Interactions between environmental factors and melatonin receptor type 1A polymorphism in relation to oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yan Lin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer.Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis.These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  12. The interplay between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease susceptibility: the evidence for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardiotis, Efthimios; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Wilks, Martin F; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M

    2013-05-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra. Several genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Single risk factors are likely to exert relatively minor effects, whereas their interaction may prove to be sufficient to cause PD. In the present review we summarize current knowledge from human genetic association studies regarding the interaction between gene polymorphisms and pesticide exposure in the risk of PD. A number of genetic association studies have investigated joint effects between genes and pesticides on PD risk. They have provided some evidence that genetic susceptibility either in metabolism, elimination and transport of pesticides or in the extent of mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuronal loss may predispose individuals to PD if they have been exposed to pesticides. These findings confirm the importance of considering pesticide-gene interactions in future studies in order to gain a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  14. Current knowledge of environmental exposure in children during the sensitive developmental periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Helena Perlroth

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: This study aims to identify the scientific evidence on the risks and effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in children during sensitive developmental periods. Data source: The search was performed in the Bireme database, using the terms: children's health, environmental exposure, health vulnerability, toxicity pathways and developmental disabilities in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO systems. Data synthesis: Children differ from adults in their unique physiological and behavioral characteristics and the potential exposure to risks caused by several threats in the environment. Exposure to toxic agents is analyzed through toxicokinetic processes in the several systems and organs during the sensitive phases of child development. The caused effects are reflected in the increased prevalence of congenital malformations, diarrhea, asthma, cancer, endocrine and neurological disorders, among others, with negative impacts throughout adult life. Conclusion: To identify the causes and understand the mechanisms involved in the genesis of these diseases is a challenge for science, as there is still a lack of knowledge on children's susceptibility to many environmental contaminants. Prevention policies and more research on child environmental health, improving the recording and surveillance of environmental risks to children's health, should be an ongoing priority in the public health field.

  15. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.; Autrup, H.; Nielsen, P.S.; Baan, R.A.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Steenwinkel, M.J.S.T.; et al.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of secondary biological

  16. Integrating Susceptibility into Environmental Policy: An Analysis of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Chari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA’s analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m3 would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development.

  17. Integrating susceptibility into environmental policy: an analysis of the national ambient air quality standard for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Ramya; Burke, Thomas A; White, Ronald H; Fox, Mary A

    2012-04-01

    Susceptibility to chemical toxins has not been adequately addressed in risk assessment methodologies. As a result, environmental policies may fail to meet their fundamental goal of protecting the public from harm. This study examines how characterization of risk may change when susceptibility is explicitly considered in policy development; in particular we examine the process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set a National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead. To determine a NAAQS, EPA estimated air lead-related decreases in child neurocognitive function through a combination of multiple data elements including concentration-response (CR) functions. In this article, we present alternative scenarios for determining a lead NAAQS using CR functions developed in populations more susceptible to lead toxicity due to socioeconomic disadvantage. The use of CR functions developed in susceptible groups resulted in cognitive decrements greater than original EPA estimates. EPA's analysis suggested that a standard level of 0.15 µg/m(3) would fulfill decision criteria, but by incorporating susceptibility we found that options for the standard could reasonably be extended to lower levels. The use of data developed in susceptible populations would result in the selection of a more protective NAAQS under the same decision framework applied by EPA. Results are used to frame discussion regarding why cumulative risk assessment methodologies are needed to help inform policy development.

  18. Genetic susceptibility to viral exposure may increase the risk of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Michael; Gibson, Catherine S; Maclennan, Alastair H; Goldwater, Paul N; Haan, Eric A; McMichael, Gai; Priest, Kevin; Dekker, Gustaaf A; Hague, William M; Chan, Annabelle; Rudzki, Zbigniew; VAN Essen, Phillipa; Khong, T Yee; Morton, Mark R; Ranieri, Enzo; Scott, Heather; Tapp, Heather; Casey, Graeme

    2009-06-01

    Cytokine polymorphisms may alter the fetal inflammatory response, increasing susceptibility to cerebral palsy (CP). This study investigates associations between selected inflammatory mediator and cytokine gene polymorphisms (Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) Asp299Gly, interleukin-6 G-174C and interleukin-4 C-589T) and CP from 443 CP infants and 883 control infants. Results were correlated with viral nucleic acids in the same samples. At all gestational ages (GA), TLR-4 was associated with a decreased risk of developing CP (homozygous/heterozygous odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.98) and interleukin (IL)-6 was associated with an increased risk of developing hemiplegia (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.83). For infants born 32-36 weeks GA, there was a tenfold increase in the risk of quadriplegic CP with homozygous/heterozygous IL-6 (OR 10.42, 95% CI 1.34-80.82). Viral exposure in combination with IL-4 in preterm infants was associated with a fourfold increased risk of quadriplegia (homozygous/heterozygous OR 4.25, 95% CI 1.21-14.95). In very preterm infants, the absence of detectable viral exposure in combination with IL-4 decreased the risk of developing CP (homozygous/heterozygous OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.76). Polymorphisms in TLR-4 may be associated with a decreased risk of CP. Polymorphisms in IL-6 or IL-4 may act as susceptibility genes, in the presence of viral exposure, for the development of hemiplegic and quadriplegic CP. These associations require confirmation but they suggest a hypothesis for CP causation due to double jeopardy from neurotropic viral exposure and genetic susceptibility to infection.

  19. Current Research and Opportunities to Address Environmental Asbestos Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbestos-related diseases continue to result in approximately 120,000 deaths every year in the United States and worldwide.Although extensive research has been conducted on health effects of occupational exposures to asbestos, many issues related to environmental asbestos exposur...

  20. Chronic environmental exposure to Alternaria tenuis may manifest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxigenic mold exposures are shown to lead to illnesses most of which are just being unraveled. This paper reports the findings in cases of 12 white female office workers who presented with symptoms of neuropsychological illnesses, most likely, due to indoor environmental toxigenic mold exposures. Their major ...

  1. Blood Lead Levels And Potental Environmental Exposures Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead exposure has been associated with intellectual impairment in children in a number of international studies. Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (eBLL ≥ 10ug/dL) of between 5 – 15% has been reported among in Nairobi (UNEP, 2006). However, little is known about potential environmental exposure ...

  2. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-10-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10-5. If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.

  3. Bayesian multinomial probit modeling of daily windows of susceptibility for maternal PM2.5 exposure and congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregn...

  4. Environmentally Sustainable Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entire sample of respondents was 40; however, 15 cases could not be used because these respondents did not complete the questionnaire survey. The remaining 25 were used for the pilot study. The survey included questions on type of work and vehicle; exposure; symptoms such as frequency and severity of wheeze ...

  5. Exposure to Environmental Air Manganese and Medication Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element with natural low levels found in water, food, and air, but due to industrialized processes, both workplace and the environmental exposures to Mn have increased. Recently, environmental studies have reported physical and mental health problem...

  6. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  7. Impacts of CA9 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors on oral-cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Chien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9 is reportedly overexpressed in several types of carcinomas and is generally considered a marker of malignancy. The current study explored the combined effect of CA9 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CA9 gene from 462 patients with oral cancer and 519 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. While the studied SNPs (CA9 rs2071676, rs3829078, rs1048638 and +376 Del were not associated with susceptibility to oral cancer, the GAA haplotype of 3 CA9 SNPs (rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, the four CA9 SNPs combined with betel quid chewing and/or tobacco consumption could robustly elevate susceptibility to oral cancer. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one G allele of CA9 rs2071676 were at higher risk for developing lymph-node metastasis (p = 0.022, compared to those patients homozygous for AA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the haplotype of rs2071676, rs3829078, and rs1048638 combined has potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of CA9 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-quid chewing might alter oral cancer susceptibility and metastasis.

  8. Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijs, M.M.; ten Tusscher, G.W.; Olie, K.; van Teunenbroek, T.; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Vulsma, T.; Bartonova, A.; Krayer von Krauss, M.; Mosoiu, C.; Riojas-Rodriguez, H.; Calamandrei, G.; Koppe, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to

  9. Thyroid hormone metabolism and environmental chemical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijs, Marike M.; ten Tusscher, Gavin W.; Olie, Kees; van Teunenbroek, Tom; van Aalderen, Wim M. C.; de Voogt, Pim; Vulsma, Tom; Bartonova, Alena; Krayer von Krauss, Martin; Mosoiu, Claudia; Riojas-Rodriguez, Horacio; Calamandrei, Gemma; Koppe, Janna G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that have been proven to influence thyroid metabolism both in animal studies and in human beings. In recent years polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also have been found to

  10. Environmental exposure and altered menstrual function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keye, W.R. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of environmental agents and occupational factors on hypothalamic and pituitary function and menstruation are poorly understood. To date, most research related to environment, occupation, and reproduction has focused on pregnancy outcome, not menstrual function. It is imperative, however, that menstrual function be considered as an outcome variable in the study of reproduction and occupation.

  11. Prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure increases allergic asthma risk with methylation changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sonja; Jaffar, Zeina; Cole, Elizabeth; Porter, Virginia; Ferrini, Maria; Postma, Britten; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yang, Mihi; Kim, Yang Jee; Montrose, Luke; Roberts, Kevan; Holian, Andrij; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-07-01

    Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation. Methylation in the promoter regions of allergic inflammation-related genes and genomic DNA was quantified. Exposure to HDM resulted in the onset of allergic lung inflammation, with an increased presence of inflammatory cells, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and airway remodeling. These asthmatic phenotypes were significantly enhanced when the mice had been exposed to in utero ETS. Furthermore, prenatal ETS exposure and subsequent HDM (ETS/HDM)-induced asthmatic phenotypes agree with methylation changes in the selected asthma-related genes, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, INF-γ, and FOXP3. Global DNA methylation was significantly lower in ETS/HDM-exposed mice than that of controls, which coincides with the results observed in lung, spleen, and blood DNAs. Prenatal ETS exposure resulted in a severe increase in allergic inflammatory responses after an HDM challenge, with corresponding methylation changes. Prenatal ETS exposure may influence developmental plasticity and result in altered epigenetic programming, leading to an increased susceptibility to asthma. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:423-433, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Linking the Epigenome with Exposure Effects and Susceptibility: The Epigenetic Seed and Soil Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The epigenome is a dynamic mediator of gene expression that shapes the way that cells, tissues, and organisms respond to their environment. Initial studies in the emerging field of “toxicoepigenetics” have described either the impact of an environmental exposure on t...

  13. Uncovering neurodevelopmental windows of susceptibility to manganese exposure using dentine microspatial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus Henn, Birgit; Austin, Christine; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Gennings, Chris; Horton, Megan K; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2018-02-01

    Associations between manganese (Mn) and neurodevelopment may depend on dose and exposure timing, but most studies cannot measure exposure variability over time well. We apply temporally informative tooth-matrix biomarkers to uncover windows of susceptibility in early life when Mn is associated with visual motor ability in childhood. We also explore effect modification by lead (Pb) and child sex. Participants were drawn from the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology) longitudinal birth cohort studies. We reconstructed dose and timing of prenatal and early postnatal Mn and Pb exposures for 138 children by analyzing deciduous teeth using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was assessed between 6 and 16 years of age using the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). Mn associations with total WRAVMA scores and subscales were estimated with multivariable generalized additive mixed models. We examined Mn interactions with Pb and child sex in stratified models. Levels of dentine Mn were highest in the second trimester and declined steeply over the prenatal period, with a slower rate of decline after birth. Mn was positively associated with visual spatial and total WRAVMA scores in the second trimester, among children with lower (windows in which Mn was associated with visual-spatial abilities. Our results suggest that Mn associations are driven in large part by exposure timing, with beneficial effects found for prenatal levels and toxic effects found for postnatal levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to Advertisements and Susceptibility to Electronic Cigarette Use Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Despite the rapid increase in e-cigarette use among youth, little is known about the social and behavioral factors that have contributed to this rise. We investigated whether young e-cigarette users are susceptible to e-cigarette advertisements. Estimates of e-cigarette use and exposure to e-cigarette advertisements from the 2014 National Young Tobacco Survey were investigated. Factors associated with the prevalence and levels of e-cigarette use were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of all respondents (n = 21,491), 19.8% had tried e-cigarettes and 9.4% were current e-cigarette users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads was prevalent among youth, with 38.6%/29.6%/53.2%/35.4% having medium to high exposure to e-cigarette ads from the Internet/newspapers/stores/TV, respectively. Current use of e-cigarettes among youth was associated with frequent exposure (high vs. low) to e-cigarette advertising from the Internet (odd ratio [OR] = 3.1, p advertisement channels and covariates, greater exposure to e-cigarette ads on the Internet (adjusted OR = 1.9, p advertising regulations and educational campaigns are critically needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, M D; Katz, P P; Yelin, E H; Hammond, S K; Blanc, P D

    2001-01-01

    Because the morbidity and mortality from adult asthma have been increasing, the identification of modifiable environmental exposures that exacerbate asthma has become a priority. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may adversely affect adults with asthma. To study the effects of ETS better, we developed a survey instrument to measure ETS exposure in a cohort of adults with asthma living in northern California, where public indoor smoking is limited. To validate this survey instrument, we used a passive badge monitor that measures actual exposure to ambient nicotine, a direct and specific measure of ETS. In this validation study, we recruited 50 subjects from an ongoing longitudinal asthma cohort study who had a positive screening question for ETS exposure or potential exposure. Each subject wore a passive nicotine badge monitor for 7 days. After the personal monitoring period, we readministered the ETS exposure survey instrument. Based on the survey, self-reported total ETS exposure duration ranged from 0 to 70 hr during the previous 7 days. Based on the upper-range boundary, bars or nightclubs (55 hr) and the home (50 hr) were the sites associated with greatest maximal self-reported exposure. As measured by the personal nicotine badge monitors, the overall median 7-day nicotine concentration was 0.03 microg/m(3) (25th-75th interquartile range 0-3.69 microg/m(3)). Measured nicotine concentrations were highest among persons who reported home exposure (median 0.61 microg/m(3)), followed by work exposure (0.03 microg/m(3)), other (outdoor) exposure (0.025 microg/m(3)), and no exposure (0 microg/m(3); p = 0.03). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between self-reported ETS exposure duration and directly measured personal nicotine concentration during the same 7-day period was 0.47, supporting the survey's validity (p = 0.0006). Compared to persons with no measured exposure, lower-level [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence

  16. Daptomycin exposure precedes infection and/or colonization with daptomycin non-susceptible enterococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Jeremy C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daptomycin non-susceptible enterococci (DNSE are emerging as an important cause of healthcare-associated infection, however little is known about the epidemiology of DNSE. At the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC an increase in the frequency of patients infected and/or colonized with DNSE has occurred. The goals of this study were to evaluate potential factors associated with the development of DNSE colonization and/or infection and to compare the characteristics of patients with prior daptomycin exposure to those without prior daptomycin exposure. Methods The study is a retrospective case-series involving all patients with DNSE infection and/or colonization at UIHC, a 734-bed academic referral center, from June 1, 2005 to June 1, 2011. Results The majority of patients with DNSE colonization and/or infection had prior daptomycin exposure (15 of 25; 60%, a concomitant gastrointestinal process (19 of 25; 76%, or were immunosuppressed (21 of 25; 84%. DNSE infection was confirmed in 17 of 25 (68% patients, including 9 patients with bacteremia. Twelve of 17 (71% patients with DNSE infection had prior daptomycin exposure, including 7 of 9 (78% patients with bacteremia. Compared to patients without prior daptomycin exposure, patients with prior daptomycin exposure were less likely to harbor E. faecalis (0% vs. 33%; p = 0.019. A high proportion of patients (10 of 25; 40% died during their hospitalizations. Most enterococcal isolates were E. faecium (86%, and were vancomycin-resistant (72%. Molecular typing revealed a diverse population of DNSE. Conclusions Prior daptomycin exposure, immunosuppression, and/or a concomitant gastrointestinal process, may be associated with the development of DNSE. PFGE revealed a diverse population of DNSE, which along with both increasing numbers of DNSE detected yearly and increasing annual rates of daptomycin usage, suggests the emergence of DNSE under antimicrobial pressure.

  17. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  18. Exposure to mercury in susceptible population groups living in the former mercury mining town of Idrija, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobal, Alfred B; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Fajon, Vesna; Gibičar, Darija; Miklavčič, Ana; Kocman, David; Kotnik, Jože; Sešek Briški, Alenka; Osredkar, Joško; Krsnik, Mladen; Prezelj, Marija; Knap, Črtomir; Križaj, Bojana; Liang, Lian; Horvat, Milena

    2017-01-01

    500 years of mercury (Hg) mining in the town of Idrija has caused severe pollution in Idrija and its surroundings. Following the closure of the mine in 1995, the environment remains contaminated with Hg. Sources of elemental-, inorganic- and methyl Hg exposure were identified, potential environmental level of exposure to Hg was evaluated and actual internal exposure to Hg was assessed in selected susceptible population groups comprising school-age children and pregnant women living in Idrija and in control groups from rural and urban environments. The study of pregnant women (n=31) was conducted between 2003 and 2008, and the study of school-age children (n=176) in 2008. Potential interaction of Hg with selenium (Se) in plasma was assessed in both study populations, while in pregnant women antioxidative enzyme activity (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) in erythrocytes of maternal and cord blood was also assessed. Actual exposure to Hg as indicated by levels of Hg in children's blood (geometric mean (GM) 0.92µg/L), mother's blood (GM 1.86µg/L), children's urine (GM 1.08µg/g crea.), mother's urine (GM 2.51µg/L), children's hair (GM 241ng/g) and mother's hair (GM 251ng/g) was higher in the two study groups from Idrija than in the control groups from rural areas, but was still at the level of a "normal" population and reflects mainly exposure to elemental Hg (Hg°) from dental amalgam and, to a certain extent atmospheric Hg°. Furthermore, the internal doses of Hg received during pregnancy did not decrease the bioavailability of Se. Based on observation in children, the increase in Se protein expression is suggested to be a consequence of moderately elevated exposure to Hg°. The observed changes in activity of antioxidative enzymes, as biomarkers of oxidative stress, appear to be mainly associated with pregnancy per se and not with an increased exposure to Hg. In view of the continuing increased potential for Hg exposure and the low

  19. Susceptibility of Welded and Non-Welded Titanium Alloys to Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Simulated Concentrated Ground Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, D V; Estill, J C; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2003-10-14

    The engineering barriers for the nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain include a double walled container and a detached drip shield. The material selected to construct the drip shield will be Titanium Grade 7 (Ti Gr 7 or R52400). Ti Gr 7 is highly resistant to corrosion and consequently it is widely used to handle aggressive industrial environments. The model for the degradation of the engineering barriers includes three modes of corrosion, namely general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). The objective of the current research was to characterize the susceptibility of three titanium alloys to EAC in several environmental conditions with varying solution composition, pH and temperature. The susceptibility to EAC was evaluated using constant deformation (deflection) U-bend specimens in both the non-welded and welded conditions. Results show that after more than five years exposure in the vapor and liquid phases of alkaline (pH {approx} 10) and acidic (pH {approx} 3) multi-ionic environments at 60 C and 90 C, most of the specimens were free from EAC. The only specimens that suffered EAC were welded Ti Gr 12 (R53400) exposed to liquid simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C.

  20. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    effects (mutation and cytogenetic damage). Adduct detection at the level of DNA or protein (haemoglobin) was carried out by 32P-postlabelling, immunochemical, HPLC or mass spectrometric methods. Urinary excretion products resulting from DNA damage were also estimated (immunochemical assay, mass......A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  1. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs......Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five......-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment...

  2. Genetic Diversity and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 200 Clinical and Environmental Aspergillus flavus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mojtaba; Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Ansari, Saham; Omran, Saeed Mahdavi; Saber, Sasan; Rafati, Haleh; Zoll, Jan; van der Lee, Henrich A; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2017-05-01

    Aspergillus flavus has been frequently reported as the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis in certain tropical and subtropical countries. Two hundred A. flavus strains originating from clinical and environmental sources and collected between 2008 and 2015 were phylogenetically identified at the species level by analyzing partial β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against antifungals using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution method. In addition, genotyping was performed using a short-tandem-repeat (STR) assay of a panel of six microsatellite markers (A. flavus 2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, and 3C), in order to determine the genetic variation and the potential relationship between clinical and environmental isolates. The geometric means of the minimum inhibitory concentrations/minimum effective concentrations (MICs/MECs) of the antifungals across all isolates were (in increasing order): posaconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; anidulafungin, 0.16 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.29 mg/liter; caspofungin, 0.42 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.64 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 1.10 mg/liter; amphotericin B, 3.35 mg/liter; and flucytosine, 62.97 mg/liter. All of the clinical isolates were genetically different. However, an identical microsatellite genotype was found between a clinical isolate and two environmental strains. In conclusion, posaconazole and anidulafungin showed the greatest in vitro activity among systemic azoles and echinocandins, respectively. However, the majority of the A. flavus isolates showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility of A. flavus was not linked with the clinical or environmental source of isolation. Microsatellite genotyping may suggest an association between clinical and environmental strains, although this requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Fetal exposure to environmental neurotoxins in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Bin Jiang

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, and arsenic (As are recognized neurotoxins in children that particularly affect neurodevelopment and intellectual performance. Based on the hypothesis that the fetal basis of adult disease is fetal toxic exposure that results in adverse outcomes in adulthood, we explored the concentrations of key neurotoxins (i.e., Hg, Pb, Cd, and As in meconium to identify the risk factors associated with these concentrations. From January 2007 to December 2009, 545 mother-infant pairs were recruited. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb and As in the meconium of babies of foreign-born mothers (22.9 and 38.1 µg/kg dry weight, respectively were significantly greater than those of babies of Taiwan-born mothers (17.5 and 33.0 µg/kg dry weight, respectively. Maternal age (≥30 y, maternal education, use of traditional Chinese herbs during pregnancy, and fish cutlet consumption (≥3 meals/wk were risk factors associated with concentrations of key prenatal neurotoxins. The Taiwan government should focus more attention on providing intervention programs for immigrant mothers to help protect the health of unborn babies. Further investigation on how multiple neurotoxins influence prenatal neurodevelopment is warranted.

  4. Association of Environmental Cadmium Exposure with Pediatric Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer Lynn; Schwartz, Joel David; Robert O Wright

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6–12 years of age. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We ...

  5. Children's exposure to environmental pollutants and biomarkers of genetic damage. I. Overview and critical issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Bonassi, Stefano; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade, molecular epidemiological studies have provided new perspectives on studying environmental risks in pediatric populations, based on the growing understanding that children may be more susceptible to toxicants than adults. Protecting children's health is a social priority...... biomarker results into intervention strategies and for integrating them with environmental monitoring and health data, (iv) optimal ways to obtain consent and provide information to children and/or their parents participating in the studies and (v) techniques for the effective communication with policy...... makers and the public. Critical issues in children's environmental research discussed in this paper include specific needs of study design, exposure assessment, sample collection and ethics. Special consideration is given to the autonomy of the child in giving consent, the details and nature...

  6. Developmental exposure to an environmental PCB mixture delays the propagation of electrical kindling from the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L; Gilbert, Mary E

    2017-01-01

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to evaluate the effect of developmental exposure to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture on seizure susceptibility in the rat. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6mg/kg/day of the PCB mixture dissolved in corn oil vehicle 4 weeks prior to mating and continued through gestation and up until postnatal day (PND) 21. On PND 21, pups were weaned, and two males from each litter were randomly selected for the kindling study. As adults, the male rats were implanted bilaterally with electrodes in the basolateral amygdala. For each animal, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds in the amygdala were determined on the first day of testing followed by once daily stimulation at a standard 200μA stimulus intensity until three stage 5 generalized seizures (GS) ensued. Developmental PCB exposure did not affect the AD threshold or total cumulative AD duration, but PCB exposure did increase the latency to behavioral manifestations of seizure propagation. PCB exposed animals required significantly more stimulations to reach stage 2 seizures compared to control animals, indicating attenuated focal (amygdala) excitability. A delay in kindling progression in the amygdala stands in contrast to our previous finding of increased susceptibility to brainstem-mediated audiogenic seizures in PCB-exposed animals in response to a an intense auditory stimulus. These seemingly divergent results are not unexpected given the distinct source, type, and mechanistic underpinnings of these different seizure models. A delay in epileptogenesis following focal amygdala stimulation may reflect a decrease in neuroplasticity following developmental PCB exposure consistent with reductions in use-dependent synaptic plasticity that

  7. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine−1. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI (−0.32, −0.02. Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03, percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23, as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  8. Sublethal triclosan exposure decreases susceptibility to gentamicin and other aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ellen G; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky G

    2011-09-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sublethal biocide concentrations affected antibiotic susceptibility in L. monocytogenes. Exposure of L. monocytogenes strains EGD and N53-1 to sublethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES (containing peroxy acids and hydrogen peroxide) and Triquart Super (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2× the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 μg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity. However, all eight strains became resistant to gentamicin (up to 16-fold increase in MIC) after exposure to sublethal triclosan concentrations. Gentamicin-resistant isolates of strains N53-1 and 4446 were also resistant to other aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Gentamicin resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin is commonly used in listeriosis treatment. The triclosan-induced resistance is, hence, of great concern. Further investigations are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of triclosan.

  9. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ellen G.; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky G.

    2011-01-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sublethal biocide concentrations affected antibiotic susceptibility in L. monocytogenes. Exposure of L. monocytogenes strains EGD and N53-1 to sublethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES (containing peroxy acids and hydrogen peroxide) and Triquart Super (containing quaternary ammonium compound) in four consecutive cultures did not alter the frequency of antibiotic-tolerant isolates, as determined by plating on 2× the MIC for a range of antibiotics. Exposure of eight strains of L. monocytogenes to 1 and 4 μg/ml triclosan did not alter triclosan sensitivity. However, all eight strains became resistant to gentamicin (up to 16-fold increase in MIC) after exposure to sublethal triclosan concentrations. Gentamicin-resistant isolates of strains N53-1 and 4446 were also resistant to other aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. Gentamicin resistance remained at a high level also after five subcultures without triclosan or gentamicin. Aminoglycoside resistance can be caused by mutations in the target site, the 16S rRNA gene. However, such mutations were not detected in the N53-1-resistant isolates. A combination of gentamicin and ampicillin is commonly used in listeriosis treatment. The triclosan-induced resistance is, hence, of great concern. Further investigations are needed to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of triclosan. PMID:21746948

  10. Effects of environmental exposures on the cardiovascular system: prenatal period through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Suzanne M; Gillman, Matthew W; Miller, Tracie L; Herman, Eugene H; Lipshultz, Steven E

    2004-04-01

    Exposures to drugs, chemical and biological agents, therapeutic radiation, and other factors before and after birth can lead to pediatric or adult cardiovascular anomalies. Furthermore, nutritional deficiencies in the perinatal period can cause cardiovascular anomalies. These anomalies may affect heart structure, the conduction system, the myocardium, blood pressure, or cholesterol metabolism. Developmental periods before and after birth are associated with different types of risks. The embryonic period is the critical window of vulnerability for congenital malformations. The fetal period seems to have lifelong effects on coronary heart disease and its precursors. During the weeks immediately after birth, susceptibility to myocardial damage seems to be high. Exposure to cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy in childhood raises the risk of long-term progressive left ventricular dysfunction and other cardiovascular problems. In childhood and adolescence, use of recreational drugs such as cocaine and tobacco poses cardiovascular dangers as well. Where evidence about environmental exposures is limited, we have included models of disease and other exposures that are suggestive of the potential impact of environmental exposures.

  11. The influence of human and environmental exposure factors on personal NO(2) exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron; Jones, Paul; Croghan, Carry; Thornburg, Jonathan; Rodes, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO(2,) passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and community-based measurements allowed for the investigation of NO(2) spatial, temporal, human and environmental factors. The relationships between personal exposures to NO(2) and the factors that influence the relationship with community-based measurements were of interest. Survey data from 136 participants were integrated with exposure findings to allow for mixed model effect analyses. Ultimately, 50 individual factors were selected for examination. NO(2) analyses revealed that season, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and residential gas appliances were strong influencing factors. Only modest associations between community-based measures of nitrogen dioxide and personal exposures impacted by various exposure factors for heating (r=0.44) or non-heating seasons (r=0.34) were observed, indicating that use of ambient-based monitoring as a surrogate of personal exposure might result in sizeable exposure misclassification.

  12. Addressing environmental health Implications of mold exposure after major flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metts, Tricia A

    2008-03-01

    Extensive water damage resulting from major flooding is often associated with mold growth if materials are not quickly and thoroughly dried. Exposure to fungal contamination can lead to several infectious and noninfectious health effects impacting the respiratory system, skin, and eyes. Adverse health effects can be categorized as infections, allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, or toxic-irritant reactions. Workers and building occupants can minimize their exposure to mold by avoiding areas with excessive mold growth, using personal protective equipment, and implementing environmental controls. Occupational health professionals should encourage workers to seek health care if they experience any symptoms that may be linked to mold exposure.

  13. Exposure to and risk awareness of environmental tobacco smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty-one (95.3%) medical students and 1221 (85.9%) non medical students (ƒÓ2=11.80, p=0.001) think that environmental tobacco smoke exposure was harmful to them. Most of the students think that active smoking can cause lung cancer, heart diseases, erectile problems and stroke in smokers but on ...

  14. Environmental exposure to arsenic and chromium in an industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Cuccaro, Francesco; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Quarato, Marco; Baldassarre, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Arsenic and chromium are widespread environmental contaminants that affect global health due to their toxicity and carcinogenicity. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to arsenic and chromium in a population residing in a high-risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to arsenic and chromium in the general population with no occupational exposure to these metals, resident in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitoring techniques. We measured the levels of chromium, inorganic arsenic, and methylated metabolites, in the urine samples of 279 subjects residing in Taranto and neighboring areas. Qualified health staff administered a standardized structured questionnaire investigating lifestyle habits and controlling for confounding factors. The biological monitoring data showed high urinary concentrations of both the heavy metals investigated, particularly Cr. On this basis, it will be necessary to carry out an organized environmental monitoring program, taking into consideration all exposure routes so as to correlate the environmental concentrations of these metals with the biomonitoring results.

  15. Cognitive Function Related to Environmental Exposure to Manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive...

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  17. Digital Quantification of DNA Replication and Chromosome Segregation Enables Determination of Antimicrobial Susceptibility after only 15 Minutes of Antibiotic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schoepp, Nathan G.; Khorosheva, Eugenia M.; Schlappi, Travis S.; Curtis, Matthew S.; Humphries, Romney M.; Hindler, Janet A.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) would decrease misuse and overuse of antibiotics. The “holy grail” of AST is a phenotype-based test that can be performed within a doctor visit. Such a test requires the ability to determine a pathogen’s susceptibility after only a short antibiotic exposure. Herein, digital PCR (dPCR) was employed to test whether measuring DNA replication of the target pathogen through digital single-molecule counting would shorten the required time of antibiot...

  18. Panel 3: conducting environmental surveillance sampling to identify exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, Robert; Parzik, Diana

    2011-07-01

    Environmental sampling technology has improved significantly since Operations Desert Shield and Storm (Gulf War I, August 6, 1990-February 27, 1991). Deployment of U.S. Forces overseas and Joint Service operations have increased, and large numbers of troops are currently deployed for long periods of time. Concerns of adverse health effects from environmental exposures, similar to the concerns about exposures to oil well fires in Gulf War I, continue to occur today. Although progress has been made in developing Joint Service policies for training and conducting environmental sampling, the military doctrine that drives this training and allows for the purchase of updated sampling equipment has been slow to respond to changes, thus resulting in conflicts between current technology and assets available in the field. The military needs to remain flexible to new technology and new requirements, and must standardize doctrine and training across the services, and acquire standardized, state-of-the-art sampling equipment to improve field assets.

  19. Susceptibility of Koi and Yellow Perch to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by experimental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Alexander D.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a novirhabdoviral pathogen that originated in western North America among anadromous Pacific salmonids. Severe disease epidemics in the late 1970s resulting from IHNV's invasion into farmed Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in North America, Asia, and Europe emphasized IHNV's ability to adapt to new hosts under varying rearing conditions. Yellow Perch Perca flavescens and Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio (hereafter, “Koi”) are aquaculture-reared fish that are highly valued in sport fisheries and the ornamental fish trade, respectively, but it is unknown whether these fish species are vulnerable to IHNV infection. In this study, we exposed Yellow Perch, Koi, and steelhead (anadromous Rainbow Trout) to IHNV by intraperitoneal injection (106 PFU/fish) and by immersion (5.7×105 PFU/mL) for 7 h, and monitored fish for 28 d. The extended immersion exposure and high virus concentrations used in the challenges were to determine if the tested fish had any level of susceptibility. After experimental exposure, Yellow Perch and Koi experienced low mortality (35%). Virus was found in dead fish of all species tested and in surviving Yellow Perch by plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), with a higher prevalence in Yellow Perch than Koi. Infectious virus was also detected in Yellow Perch out to 5 d after bath challenge. These findings indicate that Yellow Perch and Koi are highly resistant to IHNV disease under the conditions tested, but Yellow Perch are susceptible to infection and may serve as possible virus carriers.

  20. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Obesity Susceptibility in Adult Male Rat Offspring by Altering Early Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jie; Zhang, Wan-Xia; Rao, Yi-Song; Xue, Jing-Ling; Wang, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Li; Yan, You-E

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate whether perinatal nicotine (NIC) exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis. NIC was sc administered (2.0 mg/kg per day) to pregnant rats from gestational day 9 to the time of weaning (postnatal day 28). At weaning, NIC-exposed male pups had an increased body weight and inguinal sc fat mass and a decreased average cell area of adipocyte, which was accompanied by an overexpression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the epididymal white adipose tissue. Additionally, the hepatic lipogenic gene levels from NIC-exposed male pups were also affected. At 12 and 26 weeks of age, body weight and fat mass were increased, whereas there was no change in food intake in NIC-exposed male offspring. Adipogenic and lipogenic genes, glucose transporter 4, and leptin mRNA levels were increased, whereas adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased in the epididymal white adipose tissue of NIC-exposed males. The hepatic lipogenic gene expression of NIC-exposed males was increased. NIC-exposed male offspring showed normal glycemia and a higher serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function. Furthermore, the NIC-exposed male offspring showed higher serum lipids and Castelli index I and lower nonesterified fatty acid. At 26 weeks, in the ip glucose and insulin tolerance tests, the glucose clearance was delayed, and the area under the curve was higher in the NIC-exposed male offspring. In conclusion, perinatal NIC exposure increased obesity susceptibility in adult male rat offspring by altering early adipogenesis.

  1. Regression calibration for classical exposure measurement error in environmental epidemiology studies using multiple local surrogate exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Thomas F; Wright, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    Environmental epidemiologic studies are often hierarchical in nature if they estimate individuals' personal exposures using ambient metrics. Local samples are indirect surrogate measures of true local pollutant concentrations which estimate true personal exposures. These ambient metrics include classical-type nondifferential measurement error. The authors simulated subjects' true exposures and their corresponding surrogate exposures as the mean of local samples and assessed the amount of bias attributable to classical and Berkson measurement error on odds ratios, assuming that the logit of risk depends on true individual-level exposure. The authors calibrated surrogate exposures using scalar transformation functions based on observed within- and between-locality variances and compared regression-calibrated results with naive results using surrogate exposures. The authors further assessed the performance of regression calibration in the presence of Berkson-type error. Following calibration, bias due to classical-type measurement error, resulting in as much as 50% attenuation in naive regression estimates, was eliminated. Berkson-type error appeared to attenuate logistic regression results less than 1%. This regression calibration method reduces effects of classical measurement error that are typical of epidemiologic studies using multiple local surrogate exposures as indirect surrogate exposures for unobserved individual exposures. Berkson-type error did not alter the performance of regression calibration. This regression calibration method does not require a supplemental validation study to compute an attenuation factor.

  2. Environmental influences on reproductive health: the importance of chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2016-09-15

    Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Because of the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air, and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure, as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes, including polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of significance of environmental factors in landslide susceptibility modeling: Case study Jemma drainage network, Ethiopia

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    Vít Maca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to describe methodology for calculating significance of environmental factors in landslide susceptibility modeling and present result of selected one. As a study area part of a Jemma basin in Ethiopian Highland is used. This locality is highly affected by mass movement processes. In the first part all major factors and their influence are described briefly. Majority of the work focuses on research of other methodologies used in susceptibility models and design of own methodology. This method is unlike most of the methods used completely objective, therefore it is not possible to intervene in the results. In article all inputs and outputs of the method are described as well as all stages of calculations. Results are illustrated on specific examples. In study area most important factor for landslide susceptibility is slope, on the other hand least important is land cover. At the end of article landslide susceptibility map is created. Part of the article is discussion of results and possible improvements of the methodology.

  4. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black

  5. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist’s endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers’ susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist’s endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54. Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74 and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08 were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers’ exposure to the music artist’s small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  6. Exposure to Celebrity-Endorsed Small Cigar Promotions and Susceptibility to Use among Young Adult Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L.; Moore, Roland S.; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H.; Eriksen, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18–35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking. PMID:24371444

  7. Exposure to celebrity-endorsed small cigar promotions and susceptibility to use among young adult cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle L; Moore, Roland S; Pitts, Nicole; Duong, Melissa; Ford, Kentya H; Eriksen, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Small cigar smoking among young adult cigarette smokers may be attributed to their exposure to its advertisements and promotions. We examined the association between exposure to a celebrity music artist's endorsement of a specific brand of small cigars and young adult cigarette smokers' susceptibility to smoking that brand. Venue-based sampling procedures were used to select and survey a random sample of 121 young adult cigarette smokers, aged 18-35. Fourteen percent reported exposure to the artist's endorsement of the small cigar and 45.4% reported an intention to smoke the product in the future. The odds of small cigar smoking susceptibility increased threefold for those who reported exposure to the endorsement compared to those not exposed (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.06 to 12.54). Past 30-day small cigar use (OR = 3.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 8.74) and past 30-day cigar use (OR = 5.08, 95% CI 1.23, 21.08) were also associated with susceptibility to smoke a small cigar. An association between young adult cigarette smokers' exposure to the music artist's small cigar endorsement and their susceptibility to smoke small cigars was found. This association underscores the importance of monitoring small cigar promotions geared toward young people and their impact on small cigar product smoking.

  8. Aggregation of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a consequence of host susceptibility or exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, M; Hakalahti, T; Hudson, P J; Valtonen, E T

    2005-02-01

    By sampling individual rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, at a fish farm we showed that Argulus coregoni were aggregated within their host population. The relative significance of susceptibility and exposure generating the observed pattern was tested using experimental infections. We examined, whether rainbow trout developed protective resistance mechanisms against the louse following a challenge infection and if there was variation between individual trout in their susceptibility to A. coregoni metanauplii. Fish were exposed to 20 A. coregoni for 5, 25, 50, 85 or 120 min and the numbers attaching recorded. Three weeks later, developing argulids were removed and the experiment repeated with a standardized exposure of 20 metanauplii. Prior exposure of fish with A. coregoni did not reduce the total infection intensity compared to naive fish, but fish gained infection more rapidly. We suggest that there is no protective acquired resistance of pre-exposed rainbow trout to subsequent Argulus exposure. The possibility that an immunosuppressive mechanism by argulids was acting enabling the higher attachment rate could be refuted since control individuals, not previously exposed to lice, gained the infection at a similar rate as the fish challenged twice. Our results do not indicate clear differences in susceptibility among individual fish but the transmission of metanauplii on fish seemed to be opportunistic and non-selective. Our results support the view that variation in exposure time, rather than differences in susceptibility of individual hosts, might be the key factor in generating the aggregated distribution of Argulus on their hosts.

  9. Environmental Exposure to Endotoxin and Decreased Risk of Childhood Atopy

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    Tatsuo Sakamoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hygiene hypothesis implies, in immunological terms, that microbial stimulation in early life skews the immune system towards the development of a T helper type 1 (Th1-type lymphocyte population, and away from a T helper type 2 (Th2-type development that is associated with atopy. The hygiene hypothesis originally theorized that increased infections protected against atopy. This theory has evolved since harmful infections may not be as critical as exposure to microbial burden because exposure to microbes can occur in the absence of infections. Despite substantial public hygiene measures in modern metropolitan communities, an atopy-protective effect of endotoxin in these metropolitan environments still occurs. This article is a review of clinical and experimental studies concerning the protective effect of endotoxin exposure on the susceptibility to atopic responses. The discussion includes : (1 factors influencing household endotoxin levels ; (2 recent developments in the potential use of endotoxin for the prevention of atopy and asthma ; (3 association of endotoxin and pets with atopic sensitization and diseases ; (4 animal studies on the protective effects of timing of endotoxin exposure on atopy and asthma and (5 animal studies on the protective effects of endotoxin dose on atopy and asthma.

  10. Integrating mechanistic and polymorphism data to characterize human genetic susceptibility for environmental chemical risk assessment in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to environmental chemicals can vary widely among individuals and between population groups. In human health risk assessment, data on susceptibility can be utilized by deriving risk levels based on a study of a susceptible population and/or an uncertainty factor may be ap...

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

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    Marguerite Cameron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: 1 Streptococcus uberis (n = 70, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28, 3 other Streptococci spp. (n = 35, 4, Lactococcus spp. (n = 32, and 5 Enterococcus spp. (n = 27. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible Streptococcus uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin, with a median of 82%. All Streptococcus dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible and tetracycline (18% susceptible. The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin to 97% (for erythromycin, median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the MIC were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice versa. Generally

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylo-bacter spp. isolated from environmental samples

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    Baserisalehi M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental samples were subjected to determine frequency of occurrence of pathogenic campylobacters in the environment. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was tested to evaluate the level of antibiotic sensitive campylobacters in the environment of investigation. In all, 70 Campylobacter isolates were obtained from water and domestic animal faeces samples using Kapadnis-Baseri device and antimicrobial susceptibility of them was determined by disc diffusion test and E- test. The results indicated that all the isolates of Campylobacter were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and resistant to cefotaxime, cephalexin and ampicillin. Lowest MIC values were observed for ciprofloxacin and gentamicin (2µg/mL and highest MIC values for ampicillin and chloramphinicol (256µg/mL. In general, pathogenic Campylobacter spp. were prevalent in large numbers in the environment, however, they were sensitive to ciprofloxacin.

  13. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... in a birth cohort of 411 infants. Plasma was collected from 356 six-month-old infants and hair samples were collected from 368 one-year-old infants. Concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured by an optimized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method requiring 4 mg hair or 200...

  14. Susceptibility and reactivity in polysensitized individuals following controlled induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Carlsen, Berit C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-01-01

    It is uncertain whether polysensitized patients acquire multiple allergies only because of a high degree of exposure to environmental allergens, or because of being highly susceptible to developing contact allergy.......It is uncertain whether polysensitized patients acquire multiple allergies only because of a high degree of exposure to environmental allergens, or because of being highly susceptible to developing contact allergy....

  15. Epigenetic memory of environmental organisms: a reflection of lifetime stressor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbahai, Leda; Chipman, James K

    2014-04-01

    Both genetic and epigenetic responses of organisms to environmental factors, including chemical exposures, influence adaptation, susceptibility to toxicity and biodiversity. In model organisms, it is established that epigenetic alterations, including changes to the methylome, can create a memory of the received signal. This is partly evidenced through the analysis of epigenetic differences that develop between identical twins throughout their lifetime. The epigenetic marks induce alterations to the gene expression profile, which, in addition to mediating homeostatic responses, have the potential to promote an abnormal physiology either immediately or at a later stage of development, for example leading to an adult onset of disease. Although this has been well established, epigenetic mechanisms are not considered in chemical risk assessment or utilised in the monitoring of the exposure and effects of chemicals and environmental change. In this review, epigenetic factors, specifically DNA methylation, are highlighted as mechanisms of adaptation and response to environmental factors and which, if persistent, have the potential, retrospectively, to reflect previous stress exposures. Thus, it is proposed that epigenetic "foot-printing" of organisms could identify classes of chemical contaminants to which they have been exposed throughout their lifetime. In some cases, the potential for persistent transgenerational modification of the epigenome may also inform on parental germ cell exposures. It is recommended that epigenetic mechanisms, alongside genetic mechanisms, should eventually be considered in environmental toxicity safety assessments and in biomonitoring studies. This will assist in determining the mode of action of toxicants, no observed adverse effect level and identification of biomarkers of toxicity for early detection and risk assessment in toxicology but there are critical areas that remain to be explored before this can be achieved. Copyright © 2013 The

  16. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  17. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

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    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  18. Life-Long Implications of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Barouki, Robert; Bellinger, David C

    2015-01-01

    human exposure situations and outcome assessments. Testing of potential underpinning mechanisms and biomarker development require laboratory animal models and in vitro approaches. Only few large-scale birth cohorts exist, and collaboration between birth cohorts on a global scale should be facilitated...... for research and public health action. The conference highlighted vulnerable exposure windows that can occur as early as the preconception period and epigenetics as a major mechanism than can lead to disadvantageous "reprogramming" of the genome, thereby potentially resulting in transgenerational effects. Stem...... cells can also be targets of environmental stressors, thus paving another way for effects that may last a lifetime. Current testing paradigms do not allow proper characterization of risk factors and their interactions. Thus, relevant exposure levels and combinations for testing must be identified from...

  19. High postnatal susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in response to ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Karina Pires; Heimfarth, Luana; Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Carvalho, Rônan Vivian; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-11-01

    Ethanol exposure to offspring during pregnancy and lactation leads to developmental disorders, including central nervous system dysfunction. In the present work, we have studied the effect of chronic ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on the phosphorylating system associated with the astrocytic and neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins: glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) subunits of low, medium, and high molecular weight (NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively) in 9- and 21-day-old pups. Female rats were fed with 20% ethanol in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The homeostasis of the IF phosphorylation was not altered in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus of 9-day-old pups. However, GFAP, NFL, and NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. PKA had been activated in the hippocampus, and Ser55 in the N-terminal region of NFL was hyperphosphorylated. In addition, JNK/MAPK was activated and KSP repeats in the C-terminal region of NFM were hyperphosphorylated in the hippocampus of 21-day-old pups. Decreased NFH immunocontent but an unaltered total NFH/phosphoNFH ratio suggested altered stoichiometry of NFs in the hippocampus of ethanol-exposed 21-day-old pups. In contrast to the high susceptibility of hippocampal cytoskeleton in developing rats, the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of ethanol-fed adult females was not altered. Disruption of the cytoskeletal homeostasis in neural cells supports the view that regions of the brain are differentially vulnerable to alcohol insult during pregnancy and lactation, suggesting that modulation of JNK/MAPK and PKA signaling cascades target the hippocampal cytoskeleton in a window of vulnerability in 21-day-old pups. Our findings are relevant, since disruption of the cytoskeleton in immature hippocampus could contribute to later hippocampal damage associated with ethanol toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

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    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  1. Environmental Exposure and Risk of Childhood Leukemia: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Erdmann, Friederike

    2016-11-01

    Childhood leukemia is the most common cancer diagnosed in children worldwide. However, only a few causes have been established so far, mainly some genetic syndromes and high doses of ionizing radiation. Major efforts have been undertaken to study the relationship between environmental factors and the risk of childhood leukemia, inspired by geographical variation in incidence rates. Some evidence has emerged for parental occupational exposures to pesticides, whereas there is less evidence for an association with postnatal pesticide exposure. Diagnostic radiation and radon exposure have been suggested but there remains a lack of convincing studies. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields consistently showed a small increase in risk in numerous studies, but bias and confounding cannot be ruled out as possible explanations. From among factors other than environmental and radiation-related, the most promising candidate is abnormal patterns to common infections, but which children are most at risk and the pathways are not fully understood. In conclusion, although childhood leukemia shows some distinct incidence patterns by sex, age, and geography suggesting a role of the environment in its etiology, no major environmental risk factors including radiation have been established as major contributors to the global childhood leukemia burden. Due to the young age at diagnosis and evidence of chromosomal damage before birth in many of the affected children, parental exposures remain of high interest. Although cure rates of childhood leukemia are high in economically developed countries, because of the adverse late effects of the disease and its treatment, identification of modifiable risk factors for implementing primary prevention remains the ultimate goal. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with pediatric dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2008-06-01

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure results in severe dental caries, limited epidemiologic data are available on this issue. We aimed to examine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and dental caries in children 6-12 years of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data, including urine cadmium concentrations and counts of decayed or filled tooth surfaces, from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression to estimate the association between urine cadmium concentrations and caries experience, adjusting these analyses for potential confounders including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Urine cadmium concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.38 ng/mL. Approximately 56% of children had experienced caries in their deciduous teeth, and almost 30% had been affected by caries in their permanent dentition. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in creatinine-corrected cadmium concentrations (0.21 microg/g creatinine) corresponded to a 16% increase in the odds of having experienced caries in deciduous teeth [prevalence odds ratio (OR)=1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.40]. This association was statistically significant in children with low ETS exposure (prevalence OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67). The results from the ZINB regression indicated that, among children with any caries history in their deciduous teeth, an IQR increase in cadmium was associated with 17% increase in the number of decayed or filled surfaces. We observed no association between cadmium and caries experience in permanent teeth. Environmental cadmium exposure may be associated with increased risk of dental caries in deciduous teeth of children.

  3. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  4. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  5. MicroRNA gene polymorphisms and environmental factors increase patient susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Micro RNAs (miRNAs are small RNA fragments that naturally exist in the human body. Through various physiological mechanisms, miRNAs can generate different functions for regulating RNA protein levels and balancing abnormalities. Abnormal miRNA expression has been reported to be highly related to several diseases and cancers. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in miRNAs have been reported to increase patient susceptibility and affect patient prognosis and survival. We adopted a case-control research design to verify the relationship between miRNAs and hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 525 subjects, including 377 controls and 188 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a (rs2910164, miRNA149 (rs2292832, miRNA196 (rs11614913, and miRNA499 (rs3746444 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. The results indicate that people who carry the rs3746444 CT or CC genotypes may have a significantly increased susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.88-4.30. In addition, when combined with environmental risk factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, interaction effects were observed between gene polymorphisms and environmental factors (odds ratio [OR] = 4.69, 95% CI = 2.52-8.70; AOR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.68-6.80. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a significant association exists between miRNA499 SNPs and hepatocellular carcinoma. Gene-environment interactions of miRNA499 polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption might alter hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility.

  6. Combined effects of icam-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens on oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic development.

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    Chiao-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Taiwan, oral cancer has causally been associated with environmental carcinogens. Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, a cell adhesion molecule with a key role in inflammation and immunosurveillance, was implicated in carcinogenesis by facilitating instability in the tumor environment. The current study explored the combined effect of ICAM-1 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility of developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the ICAM-1 gene from 595 patients with oral cancer and 561 non-cancer controls were analyzed by a real-time PCR. We found that the ICAM-1 rs5498 polymorphism and the TAGG or TACG haplotype of 4 ICAM-1 SNPs (rs3093030, rs5491, rs281432, and rs5498 combined were associated with oral-cancer susceptibility. Among 727 smokers, ICAM-1 polymorphisms carriers with the betel-nut chewing habit had a 27.49-36.23-fold greater risk of having oral cancer compared to ICAM-1 wild-type (WT carriers without the betel-nut chewing habit. Among 549 betel-nut chewers, ICAM-1 polymorphisms carriers who smoked had a 9.93-14.27-fold greater risk of having oral cancer compared to those who carried the WT but did not smoke. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least 1 T allele of ICAM-1 rs5491 or 1 G allele of rs281432 were at lower risk of developing an advanced clinical stage (III/IV (p<0.05, compared to those patients with AA or CC homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the ICAM-1 rs5498 SNP and either of 2 haplotypes of 4 SNPs combined have potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environment interactions of ICAM-1 polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-nut chewing might alter oral-cancer susceptibility. ICAM-1 rs5491 and rs281432 may be applied as factors to predict the clinical stage in OSCC patients.

  7. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nature exposure sufficiency and insufficiency: The benefits of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, John R; Durante, Salvatore B

    2018-01-01

    Increasing industrialization, urbanization, and a failure of many world leaders to appreciate the consequences of climate change are deleteriously impacting quality of life as well as diminishing the prospects for long term survival. Economic competitiveness and corporate profitability often pre-empt environmental concerns. The calving of an iceberg in Antarctica and the hurricane activity in the Caribbean during 2017 are unfortunate illustrations of the continuing escalation of environmental issues. We provide historical and current evidence for the importance of Nature Exposure (NE) and introduce the continuum Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) and Insufficiency (NEI). Insufficiency includes impoverished environments (e.g., slums and prisons) where nature exposure is very limited. Nature Exposure Sufficiency (NES) is an optimal amount of exposure to nature where many benefits such as reinvigoration can be obtained by everyone. NES also has several benefits for individuals with various health conditions such as arthritis, dementia, or depression. The benefits of NE are not just derivable from parks, forests, and other natural settings. Interiors of buildings and homes can be enhanced with plants and even pictures or objects from nature. Additionally, there is abundant evidence indicating that virtual and artificial environments depicting nature can provide substantial NE and therefore contribute to general wellbeing. Besides the difficulty in achieving cooperation amongst nations, corporations, and other collectives in developing and implementing long range plans to deal with climate change, there is also sometimes an aversion at the individual level whereby people are unwilling to experience nature due to insects and other discomforts. Such individuals are often averse to supplanting the comforts of home, even temporarily, with inadequate facilities that are seemingly less pleasant than their typical dwellings. We propose using the term Nature Exposure Aversion

  9. Molecular identification, antifungal susceptibility profile, and biofilm formation of clinical and environmental Rhodotorula species isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jorge Meneses; Bizerra, Fernando César; Ferreira, Renata Carmona E; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Rhodotorula species are emergent fungal pathogens capable of causing invasive infections, primarily fungemia. They are particularly problematic in immunosuppressed patients when using a central venous catheter. In this study, we evaluated the species distribution of 51 clinical and 8 environmental Rhodotorula species isolates using the ID32C system and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing and biofilm formation capability using a crystal violet staining assay were performed. Using ITS sequencing as the gold standard, the clinical isolates were identified as follows: 44 R. mucilaginosa isolates, 2 R. glutinis isolates, 2 R. minuta isolates, 2 R. dairenensis isolates, and 1 Rhodosporidium fluviale isolate. The environmental isolates included 7 R. mucilaginosa isolates and 1 R. slooffiae isolate. Using the ID32C system, along with a nitrate assimilation test, only 90.3% of the isolates tested were correctly identified. In the biofilm formation assay, R. mucilaginosa and R. minuta exhibited greater biofilm formation ability compared to the other Rhodotorula species; the clinical isolates of R. mucilaginosa showed greater biofilm formation compared to the environmental isolates (P = 0.04). Amphotericin B showed good in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 μg/ml) against planktonic cells, whereas voriconazole and posaconazole showed poor activity (MIC(50)/MIC(90), 2/4 μg/ml). Caspofungin and fluconazole MICs were consistently high for all isolates tested (≥64 μg/ml and ≥ 4 μg/ml, respectively). In this study, we emphasized the importance of molecular methods to correctly identify Rhodotorula species isolates and non-R. mucilaginosa species in particular. The antifungal susceptibility profile reinforces amphotericin B as the antifungal drug of choice for the treatment of Rhodotorula infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating putative differences in the ability of biofilm formation among different Rhodotorula

  10. Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury among Iranian hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the mercury concentrations in female hairdressers associated with occupational and environmental exposure through cosmetic products and amalgam fillings. Sixty-two hair and nail samples were collected randomly from Iranian hairdressers. Hg level determination was carried out using a LECO, AMA 254, Advanced Mercury Analyzer according to ASTM, standard No. D-6722. The mean mercury levels were 1.15 ± 1.03 ug/g and 1.82 ± 1.12 μg/g in the hair and nail samples, respectively with a positive correlation among them (r=0.98). A significant relation was also observed between Hg levels and the number of amalgam fillings (pmercury concentrations in their hair and nails, suggesting the importance of mercury exposure assessment in hidden, less-explored sources of Hg in the workplace.

  11. Characterization of environmental exposure to mineral sands by PDMS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias da Cunha, K. E-mail: kenya@ird.gov.br; Rickman, R.D. E-mail: rickman@mail.chem.tamu.edu; Barros Leite, C.V. E-mail: cvbl@vdg.fis.puc-rio.br

    2003-04-01

    The risk to human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of metals present in the urine sample of an individual environmentally exposed to mineral sands airborne particles. Aerosol samples were collected at a Brazilian region with high concentration of mineral sands (Buena village), using a six-stage cascade impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) determined indicated that the airborne particulate was in the fine fraction of the aerosols. In order to characterize human exposure to mineral sands dust a sample from one inhabitant was analyzed by PDMS. The analysis of the results shows that the inhabitant incorporated metals from mineral sands and suggests that the source of aerosols is the mineral processing plant located at the village.

  12. Gender-specific increase in susceptibility to metabolic syndrome of offspring rats after prenatal caffeine exposure with post-weaning high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Luo, Hanwen [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wu, Yimeng; He, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Lu [Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Public Health School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-NancyUniversité, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) alters the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolic programming and induces an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome (MS) in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) offspring rats. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the main environmental factors accounting for the incidence of MS. In this study, we aimed to clarify the gender-specific increase in susceptibility to MS in offspring rats after PCE with post-weaning HFD. Maternal Wistar rats were administered with caffeine (120 mg/kg·d) from gestational day 11 until delivery. The offspring rats with normal diet or HFD were euthanized at postnatal week 24, and blood samples were collected. Results showed that PCE not only reduced serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, but also enhanced serum glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol (TCH) concentrations in the offspring rats. Moreover, several interactions among PCE, HFD and gender were observed by a three-way ANOVA analysis. In PCE offspring, HFD could aggravate the degree of increased serum triglyceride level. Meanwhile, serum corticosterone levels of females were decreased more obviously than those of males in PCE offspring. The results also revealed interactions between HFD and gender in the levels of serum ACTH, triglyceride and TCH, which were changed more evidently in female HFD offspring. These results indicate that HFD could exacerbate the dysfunction of lipid metabolism and the susceptibility to MS induced by PCE, and the female offspring are more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine metabolic dysfunction than their male counterparts. - Highlights: • Caffeine induced HPA axis dysfunction in offspring rats fed by high-fat diet (HFD). • Caffeine induced an increased susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. • HFD aggravated susceptibility to metabolic syndrome induced by caffeine. • Female was more sensitive to HFD-induced neuroendocrine

  13. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  14. Susceptibility of the Siberian polecat to subcutaneous and oral Yersinia pestis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, K.T.; Biggins, D.; Carter, L.G.; Chu, M.; Innes, Kim; Wimsatt, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine if the Siberian polecat (Mustela eversmannii) represents a suitable model for the study of plague pathogenesis and prevention in the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), polecats were exposed to 103, 107, or 1010 Yersinia pestis organisms by subcutaneous injection; an additional group was exposed to Y. pestis via ingestion of a plague-killed mouse. Plague killed 88% of polecats exposed to Y. pestis (71% mortality in the 103 group, 100% mortality in the 107 and 1010 groups, and 83% mortality in the mouse-fed group). Within the challenged group, mean day of death post-challenge ranged from 3.6 to 7.6 days; all polecats died on or before day 12 post-challenge. Animals receiving the lowest parenteral dose survived significantly longer than those receiving higher parenteral doses. Within challenged animals, mean survival time was lower in those presenting with significant weight loss by day 3, lethargy, and low fecal output; time to onset of lethargy and other signs was also related to risk of dying and/or plague dose. Six polecats developed serum antibody titers to the Y. pestis F1 protein. Three seropositive polecats survived the initial challenge and a subsequent exposure to a plague-killed mouse, while two seropositive animals later died. This study confirms that the Siberian polecat is susceptible to plague and suggests that this species will offer an appropriate surrogate for black-footed ferrets in future plague studies and related vaccine trials.

  15. Bleaching susceptibility and recovery of Colombian Caribbean corals in response to water current exposure and seasonal upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs.

  16. Bleaching Susceptibility and Recovery of Colombian Caribbean Corals in Response to Water Current Exposure and Seasonal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Pizarro, Valeria; Eidens, Corvin; Wilke, Thomas; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching events are globally occurring more frequently and with higher intensity, mainly caused by increases in seawater temperature. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP) in the Colombian Caribbean, local coral communities are subjected to seasonal wind-triggered upwelling events coinciding with stronger water currents depending on location. This natural phenomenon offers the unique opportunity to study potential water current-induced mitigation mechanisms of coral bleaching in an upwelling influenced region. Therefore, coral bleaching susceptibility and recovery patterns were compared during a moderate and a mild bleaching event in December 2010 and 2011, and at the end of the subsequent upwelling periods at a water current-exposed and -sheltered site of an exemplary bay using permanent transect and labeling tools. This was accompanied by parallel monitoring of key environmental variables. Findings revealed that in 2010 overall coral bleaching before upwelling was significantly higher at the sheltered (34%) compared to the exposed site (8%). Whereas 97% of all previously bleached corals at the water current-exposed site had recovered from bleaching by April 2011, only 77% recovered at the sheltered site, but 12% had died there. In December 2011, only mild bleaching (corals recovered significantly at both sites in the course of upwelling. No differences in water temperatures between sites occurred, but water current exposure and turbidity were significantly higher at the exposed site, suggesting that these variables may be responsible for the observed site-specific mitigation of coral bleaching. This indicates the existence of local resilience patterns against coral bleaching in Caribbean reefs. PMID:24282551

  17. DNA fragile site breakage as a measure of chemical exposure and predictor of individual susceptibility to form oncogenic rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christine E; Dillon, Laura W; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements induced by non-radiation causes contribution to the majority of oncogenic fusions found in cancer. Treatment of human thyroid cells with fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals can cause preferential DNA breakage at the RET gene and generate the RET/PTC1 rearrangement, a common driver mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Here, we demonstrate that treatment with non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals (benzene and diethylnitrosamine) or chemotherapeutic agents (etoposide and doxorubicin) generates significant DNA breakage within RET at levels similar to those generated by fragile site-inducing laboratory chemicals. This suggests that chronic exposure to these chemicals plays a role in the formation of non-radiation associated RET/PTC rearrangements. We also investigated whether the sensitivity of the fragile RET region could predict the likelihood of rearrangement formation using normal thyroid tissues from patients with and without RET/PTC rearrangements. We found that normal cells of patients with thyroid cancer driven by RET/PTC rearrangements have significantly higher blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks at RET than those of patients without RET/PTC rearrangements. This sensitivity of a cancer driver gene suggests for the first time that a DNA breakage test at the RET region could be utilized to evaluate susceptibility to RET/PTC formation. Further, the significant increase of blunt-ended, double-stranded DNA breaks, but not other types of DNA breaks, in normal cells from patients with RET/PTC-driven tumors suggests that blunt-ended double-stranded DNA breaks are a preferred substrate for rearrangement formation, and implicate involvement of the non-homologous end joining pathway in the formation of RET/PTC rearrangements. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biofilm formation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and susceptibility to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiqian, Li; Xiaoming, Pu; Huifang, Shen; Jingxin, Zhang; Ning, Huang; Birun, Lin

    2014-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, most studies on biofilm formation have focused on bacteria and yeasts. So far, biofilm formation by fungal plant pathogen has not been reported. In this study, the biofilm-forming capacity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was evaluated. For biofilm quantification, a colorimetric 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium-hydroxide (XTT) reduction assay was used to observe metabolic activity. Fluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the biofilms have a highly heterogeneous architecture composed of robust hyphae and extracellular polysaccharide materials. Additionally, the influence of physical factors on F. oxysporum biofilm formation and the susceptibility of biofilms to environmental stress was investigated. Biofilms were less susceptible to heat, cold, UV light and three fungicides than were their planktonic counterparts. Our findings may provide a novel perspective on the pathogenic mechanism associated with biofilms of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isotretinoin as a Possible Environmental Trigger to Autoimmunity in Genetically Susceptible Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Nugroho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Isotretinoin is commonly used to treat cystic acne. Definitive mechanisms of action for isotretinoin are not known though despite many side effects having been documented. Various case reports have noted autoimmune diseases succeeding isotretinoin treatment. Case Report. A 16-year-old female presents with symptoms of tremors, lack of focus, sleeplessness, emotional liability, bulging eyes, loose stools, heat intolerance, and missed menstrual periods. Symptoms manifested shortly after the patient finished a course of oral isotretinoin treatment for acne. Physical exam showed resting tremors, bilateral proptosis, hyperactivity, and rapid speech. A diagnosis of Graves’ Disease was made by correlating symptoms, physical exam findings, ultrasound, and positive family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. Conclusion. Emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases depends upon genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Mechanism of action for isotretinoin is not known but the drug may play a role in triggering autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals.

  20. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  1. Fungal exposure in homes of patients with sarcoidosis - an environmental exposure study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlander Matevz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that exposure to moulds (fungi may influence the development of sarcoidosis. To assess the influence of the environmental exposure, a study was undertaken to determine the exposure to fungi in homes of subjects with sarcoidosis. Methods Subjects were patients with clinically established sarcoidosis recruited during the period September 2007 till June 2010. Of these 55 were newly diagnosed and currently under treatment for less than one year, 25 had been treated and had no recurrence and 27 had been treated but had recurrence of the disease. Controls were healthy subjects without any respiratory symptoms (n = 30. Samples of air (about 2.5 m3 were taken in the bedroom of the subjects using a portable pump and cellulose ester filters. The filters were analysed for the content of the enzyme N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA as a marker of fungal cell biomass, using a specific substrate and a fluorescent technique and expressed as NAHA units (U/m3. Results Compared to controls, subjects undergoing treatment of the disease (newly diagnosed or with recurrence had significantly higher activities of NAHA in their homes than controls (33.6 and 39.9 vs 10.0 U/m3, p 3. In homes of subjects with newly diagnosed disease with treatment less than one year, values above 14 NAHA U/m3 were found among 35 out of 55 and among those with recurrent disease among 18 out of 27. Conclusions The higher activities of NAHA enzyme found in homes of subjects with active and recurrent sarcoidosis suggest that exposure to fungi is related to the risk of sarcoidosis. Further environmental studies to assess the importance of this exposure for subjects with sarcoidosis are warranted. The results suggest that remedial actions in homes with high levels of fungi may be justified.

  2. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  3. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  4. Does oral exposure to cadmium and lead mediate susceptibility to colitis? The dark-and-bright sides of heavy metals in gut ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Vignal, Cécile; Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Garat, Anne; Plé, Coline; Foligné, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Although the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known environmental health concerns, their long-term impacts on gut ecology and susceptibility to gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases have not been extensively investigated. We sought to determine whether subchronic oral exposure to Cd or Pb is a risk factor for the development and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mice were exposed to various doses of CdCl2 or PbCl2 in drinking water for 1, 4 or 6 weeks prior to infection with Salmonella, the induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). In human cell-based models, exposure to Cd and Pb is associated with reduced transepithelial electric resistance and changes in bacteria-induced cytokine responses. Although 1- and 6-week exposures did not have clear effects on the response to Salmonella infectious challenges, 1-week short-term treatments with CdCl2 tended to enhance intestinal inflammation in mice. Unexpectedly, subchronic exposure to Cd and (to a lesser extent) Pb significantly mitigated some of the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis and reduced the severity of TNBS colitis in a dose-dependent manner. The possible adaptive and immunosuppressive mechanisms by which heavy metals might reduce intestinal inflammation are explored and discussed.

  5. Bayesian Multinomial Probit Modeling of Daily Windows of Susceptibility for Maternal PM2.5 Exposure and Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joshua L.; Stingone, Jeanette A.; Herring, Amy H.; Luben, Thomas J.; Fuentes, Montserrat; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Langlois, Peter H.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Correa, Adolfo; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on fetal development. In this work, we introduce new methodology for identifying critical periods of development during post-conception gestational weeks 2–8 where elevated exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) adversely impacts development of the heart. Past studies have focused on highly aggregated temporal levels of exposure during the pregnancy and have failed to account for anatomical similarities between the considered congenital heart defects (CHDs). We introduce a multinomial probit model in the Bayesian setting that allows for joint identification of susceptible daily periods during pregnancy for 12 types of CHDs with respect to maternal PM2.5 exposure. We apply the model to a dataset of mothers from the National Birth Defect Prevention Study where daily PM2.5 exposures from post-conception gestational weeks 2–8 are assigned using predictions from the downscaler pollution model. This approach is compared to two aggregated exposure models that define exposure as the average value over post-conception gestational weeks 2–8 and the average over individual weeks respectively. Results suggest an association between increased PM2.5 exposure on post-conception gestational day 53 with the development of pulmonary valve stenosis and exposures during days 50–51 with tetralogy of Fallot. Significant associations are masked when using the aggregated exposure models. Simulation study results suggest the findings are robust to multiple sources of error. The general form of the model allows for different exposures and health outcomes to be considered in future applications. PMID:26853919

  6. Expanding the scope of environmental risk assessment to better include differential vulnerability and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel; Bellinger, David; Glass, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    The central paradigm of the Environmental Protection Agency is risk assessment. We examined how differential responses across population groups could be better integrated into the environmental risk assessment process, providing tools to achieve greater equity in health status in addition to risk reduction. Such integration was difficult with paradigms like reference dose and was easier with consideration of dose-response curves, which incorporated nontrivial effects observed at low doses for common exposures. We identified 6 assumptions implicit in standard chemical risk assessments that should changed: (1) risk independence, (2) risk averaging, (3) risk nontransferability, (4) risk synchrony, (5) risk accumulation and chaining, and (6) quantification of numbers of persons above certain thresholds or limit values sufficient to characterize risk.

  7. An educational intervention to men for reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure in their pregnant wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Zohreh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Loripour, Marzieh; Shams, Nafiseh

    2017-11-27

    To determine the effect of education based on health belief model (HBM) on the level of their pregnant wives' environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE). This interventional randomized study was conducted on 60 cigarette smoking men who have exposed their pregnant wives to smoke during of their pregnancy. The HBM constructs and weekly ETSE were evaluated by using questionnaire. The intervention group received education with emphasis on the risks of cigarette's smoke on the pregnancy. Then right after the training and 6 weeks after that, HBM constructs and 6 weeks after the training the weekly ETSE were evaluated again. Results showed a significant difference between the mean of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and barriers at intake and 6 weeks after the intervention in the intervention group. Also the level of perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived barriers in both groups were significantly different 6 weeks after the intervention compared to intake time. The ETSE was significantly lower in the intervention group 6 weeks after the intervention in comparison to before the intervention and also to the control group. This study showed that education husbands would relatively improve their health beliefs and reduce the ETSE of their pregnant wives.

  8. DNA fingerprinting and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter baumannii isolates: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimizand, Himen; Menbari, Shaho; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Khonsha, Masomeh; Saleh Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to establish antibiotic profile and the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, with considering the effectiveness of control infection measures across three hospitals in the Kurdistan, west part of Iran. Fifty-four A. baumannii isolates were collected from patients and environmental specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns (Antibio-type) were evaluated for 17 different antibiotics and MIC for imipenem was done. Isolates were assessed for the presence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs), class 1 and 2 integrons, and integrated gene cassettes and blaOXA-likefamilies genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) was done for analysing clonality and relativeness of isolates (REP-type). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns distinguished 11 distinct Antibio-types and REP-PCR showed three clusters with 20 subclusters, mostly belonged to two clonal subgroups, A1 and B1. blaOXA-51 and blaOXA-23 were detected in 100% (54/54) and 52% (28/54), respectively, while blaOXA-24-like and blaOXA-58 were not present in isolates. MBLs were not detected, but, however, high rate of imipenem resistance was observed (52%). MIC90 of imipenem was 16 mg/ml. Class 1 integrons were detected in 11% (6/54) of isolates followed by 24% (13/54) of class 2. Both classes of integron genes were detected in 15% (8/54) of isolates. Integrated gene cassettes were in low level (11% of class 1 harboring isolates). Two arrays of gene cassettes were revealed, dfrA5-like and dfrA17-aadA5. Infection control surveillance should be considered as a serious manner, even the superficial eradication of hospital acquired pathogens. MBL genes were not induced carbapenem resistance in studied hospital settings, but blaOXA-51 & 23 contributed in imipenem resistant. Integrons had a little share in resistance of A. baumannii isolates.

  9. Epigenetic: a molecular link between testicular cancer and environmental exposures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, studies in rodents have highlighted links between in utero and/or neonatal exposures to molecules that alter endocrine functions and the development of genital tract abnormalities, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and impaired spermatogenesis. Most of these molecules, called endocrine disrupters (EDs exert estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities. These data led to the hypothesis of the Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome which postulates that these disorders are one clinical entity and are linked by epidemiological and pathophysiological relations. Futhermore, infertility has been stated as a risk factor for testicular cancer. The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past decades. Most of testicular germ cell cancers develop through a pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS from fetal germ cells (primordial germ cell or gonocyte. During their development, fetal germ cells undergo epigenetic modifications. Interestingly, several lines of evidence have shown that gene regulation through epigenetic mechanisms (DNA and histone modifications plays an important role in normal development as well as in various diseases, including testicular cancer.Here we will review chromatin modifications which can affect testicular physiology leading to the development of testicular cancer; and highlight potential molecular pathways involved in these alterations in the context of environmental exposures.

  10. Environmental exposure and risk of uterine leiomyoma: an epidemiologic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Xu, Q; Xu, J; Ren, M L; Cai, Y L

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the relationship between environmental exposure and risk of uterine leiomyoma in women using an epidemiologic survey. We conducted a case-control survey of premenopausal Han women aged 30-50 years in Nanjing. The subjects included 600 patients with uterine leiomyoma confirmed at the Affiliated Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University between February 2010 and June 2012 and 600 patients with non-uterine leiomyoma or healthy volunteers who presented to the above mentioned hospital for physical examination during the same period. We entered the results into a database and explored the relationship between risk factors and prevalence of uterine leiomyoma using univariate or multivariate non-conditional logistic regression analysis. The results showed that patients aged 40-45 years had a high prevalence of uterine leiomyoma. The prevalence of uterine leiomyoma in subjects with an education beyond high school was higher than in those with a high school education or less. Exposure to plastic products (odds ratio [OR]: 1.481; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.046-2.097); exposure to cosmetics and other chemicals (OR: 1.954; 95% CI: 1.479-2.582); and consumption of soybean milk (OR: 2.518; 95% CI: 1.894-3.347), food additives, sweeteners, and preserved food (OR: 3.166, 95% CI: 2.247-4.461) had a significant effect on the occurrence of uterine leiomyoma (p cosmetics, and other chemicals as well as intake of soybean milk, food additives, sweetener, and preserved foods may be risk factors for uterine leiomyoma.

  11. A Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Containing Germinants Reduces Clostridium difficile Spores on Surfaces by Inducing Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-10-01

    Exposing Clostridium difficile spores to germinants in a quaternary ammonium matrix was an effective method to reduce environmental contamination by sensitizing the spores, leaving them susceptible to ambient conditions and enhancing killing by acid, high-intensity visible light, and radiation.

  12. A Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectant Containing Germinants Reduces Clostridium difficile Spores on Surfaces by Inducing Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposing Clostridium difficile spores to germinants in a quaternary ammonium matrix was an effective method to reduce environmental contamination by sensitizing the spores, leaving them susceptible to ambient conditions and enhancing killing by acid, high-intensity visible light, and radiation.

  13. Relationship between lanthanide contents in aquatic turtles and environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, P; Randazzo, L A; D'Angelo, S; Saiano, F; Zuddas, P; Mazzola, S; Cuttitta, A

    2013-05-01

    Trace elements released in the environment during agricultural practices can be incorporated and accumulated in biological fluids and tissues of living organisms. The assessment of these exposures were carried out investigating lanthanide distributions in blood and exoskeleton samples collected from Emys trinacris turtle specimens coming from sites with anthropogenic discharge in western and south Sicily, along migration paths of many bird species from Africa to Europe. The data show a significant (Rxy=0.72; Rxy>0.67; α=0.025) linear relationship between the size of turtle specimens and the lanthanide contents in blood lower than 0.4 μg L(-1) whereas this relationship disappears in blood with higher lanthanide contents. Comparative evaluations of normalised concentrations show that lanthanides fractionate between blood and exoskeleton inducing antithetical lanthanide patterns therein. These features are more evident in specimens with high lanthanide contents in blood, suggesting that lanthanide accumulations in the exoskeleton can represent the physiological response of E. trinacris to environmental and the further confirmation of relationship occurring between the environmental and the biological fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Review of the Field on Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: A Risk Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Penney, Rosalind; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children must be recognized as a sensitive population based on having biological systems and organs in various stages of development. The processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of environmental contaminants within a child’s body are considered less advanced than those of adults, making them more susceptible to disease outcomes following even small doses. Children’s unique activities of crawling and practicing increased hand-to-mouth ingestion also make them vulnerable to greater exposures by certain contaminants within specific environments. Approach: There is a need to review the field of children’s environmental exposures in order to understand trends and identify gaps in research, which may lead to better protection of this vulnerable and sensitive population. Therefore, explored here are previously published contemporary works in the broad area of children’s environmental exposures and potential impact on health from around the world. A discussion of children’s exposure to environmental contaminants is best organized under the last four steps of a risk assessment approach: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment (including children’s activity patterns) and risk characterization. We first consider the many exposure hazards that exist in the indoor and outdoor environments, and emerging contaminants of concern that may help guide the risk assessment process in identifying focus areas for children. A section on special diseases of concern is also included. Conclusions: The field of children’s exposures to environmental contaminants is broad. Although there are some well-studied areas offering much insight into children exposures, research is still needed to further our understanding of exposures to newer compounds, growing disease trends and the role of gene-environment interactions that modify adverse health outcomes. It is clear that behaviors of adults and children play a role in

  15. Episodic ozone exposure in adult and Senescent Brown Norway rats: Acute and delayed cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setting exposure standards for environmental pollutants may consider the aged as a susceptible population but the few published studies assessing susceptibility of the aged to air pollutants are inconsistent. Episodic ozone (O(3)) is more reflective of potential exposures occurri...

  16. Anxiety levels and wild running susceptibility in rats: assessment with elevated plus maze test and predator odor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Hugo Medeiros Garrido; Gouveia, Amauri; de Almeida, Marcos Vinícius; Hoshino, Katsumasa

    2005-02-28

    It is reported in the literature that nearly 20% of rats are susceptible to displays of wild running (WR) behavior when submitted to high intensity acoustic stimulation. Some characteristics of WR suggest that it can be viewed as a panic-like reaction. This work aimed to test whether WR-sensitive rats show higher levels of anxiety in elevated-plus-maze (EPM) and predator-odor exposure paradigms in comparison with WR-resistant ones. Male adult Wistar rats were submitted to two trials of acoustic stimulation (104 dB, 60 s) in order to assess WR susceptibility. Seven WR-sensitive and 15 WR-resistant rats were evaluated by the EPM test. Other 13 WR-sensitive and 18 WR-resistant animals were submitted to the predator-odor exposure test which consisted of a 10 min-session of free exploration in a specific apparatus containing two odoriferous stimuli: cotton swab imbedded with snake cloacal gland secretion or with iguana feces (control). WR-sensitive rats presented a significantly higher closed-to open-arm-entry ratio in the EPM test. All rats responded with anxiety-like behaviors to the predator odor exposure, although the WR-sensitive ones showed a marked behavioral inhibition regardless of the odor condition. We conclude that WR-sensitive rats present elevated levels of anxiety manifested by means of passive behavioral strategies. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulmonary exposure to particles during pregnancy causes increased neonatal asthma susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedulov, Alexey V; Leme, Adriana; Yang, Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles...

  18. Sublethal Triclosan Exposure Decreases Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Aminoglycosides in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Gram, Lone; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt

    2011-01-01

    The human food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is capable of persisting in food processing plants despite cleaning and sanitation and is likely exposed to sublethal biocide concentrations. This could potentially affect susceptibility of the bacterium to biocides and other antimicrobial agents...

  19. Tetrabromobisphenol A – Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jarosiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brominated flame retardants (BFR, including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60% because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5, low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010–2016 referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1:121–134

  20. Fate of triazoles in softwood upon environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Klara; Martinská, Veronika; Sedgeman, Carl A; Kuplic, Paige; Kozliak, Evguenii I; Fisher, Stephen; Kubátová, Alena

    2017-10-01

    Determining the fate of preservatives in commercial wood products is essential to minimize their losses and improve protective impregnation techniques. The fate of triazole fungicides in ponderosa pine wood was investigated in both outdoor and controlled-environment experiments using a representative triazole, tebuconazole (TAZ), which was accompanied by propiconazole (PAZ) in selected experiments. The study was designed to mimic industrial settings used in window frame manufacturing. To investigate the TAZ fate in detail, loosely and strongly bound fractions were differentiated using a multi-step extraction. The loosely bound TAZ fraction extracted through two sonications accounted for 85± 5% of the total TAZ, while the strongly bound TAZ was extracted only with an exhaustive Soxhlet extraction and corresponded to the remaining 15± 5%. A significant fraction (∼80%) of the original TAZ remained in the wood despite a six-month exposure to harsh environmental conditions, maintaining wood preservation and assuring minimal environmental impact. Depletion of loosely bound TAZ was observed from cross-sectional surfaces when exposed to rain, high humidity and sunlight. Water leaching was deemed to be the major route leading to triazole losses from wood. Leaching rate was found to be slightly higher for TAZ than for PAZ. The contribution of bio-, photo- and thermal degradation of triazoles was negligible as both PAZ and TAZ sorbed in wood remained intact. Triazole evaporation was also found to be minor at the moderate temperature (20-25 °C) recorded throughout the outdoor study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [The effects of prenatal environmental exposures on children development and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuman; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    The negative effects of environmental exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and children development have been confirmed. It has been found that environmental exposures during pregnancy have a great influence on the growth and development of fetus, birth outcomes and children's psychology, behavior and neural development. In this review, according to different types of environmental exposures, we focused on the key issues of the fetus or children induced by four aspects of environment exposure, including environmental chemicals, unhealthy life styles and behaviors, stress and other risk factors, and discussed the adverse effects of environmental factors on the growth and development of infants, children's psychology, behavior, social and cognitive, such as birth defects, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, learning disorder and intelligence development and so on. We also suggested that the researches on mechanism of the negative effects of environmental exposure on children's health should be strengthened in the future.

  2. Does oral exposure to cadmium and lead mediate susceptibility to colitis? The dark-and-bright sides of heavy metals in gut ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breton, Jérôme; Daniel, Catherine; Vignal, Cécile; Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Garat, Anne; Plé, Coline; Foligné, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Although the heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are known environmental health concerns, their long-term impacts on gut ecology and susceptibility to gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases have not been extensively investigated...

  3. Traditional and environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure and health symptoms in custodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jennifer L; Cavallari, Jennifer M; Wakai, Sara; Schenck, Paula; Simcox, Nancy; Morse, Tim; Meyer, John D; Cherniack, Martin

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the associations between traditional and environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure and dermal, respiratory, and musculoskeletal symptoms in a population of custodians. We analyzed associations between symptoms and exposure to traditional and environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure among 329 custodians. We observed increased odds of dermal (P cleaning product exposure. We observed significant trends for increased odds of dermal (P = 0.03) and back (P = 0.04) and lower (P = 0.02) extremity musculoskeletal symptoms associated with increased typical environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure. Fewer positive associations and reduced odds of health symptoms associated with environmentally preferable cleaning product exposure suggest that these products may represent a safer alternative to traditional cleaning products. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Acute exposure of mice to high-dose ultrafine carbon black decreases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Stephen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that inhalation of carbonaceous particulate matter from biomass combustion increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia. In vitro studies report that phagocytosis of carbon black by alveolar macrophages (AM impairs killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. We have previously reported high levels of black carbon in AM from biomass smoke-exposed children and adults. We therefore aimed to use a mouse model to test the hypothesis that high levels of carbon loading of AM in vivo increases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Female outbred mice were treated with either intranasal phosphate buffered saline (PBS or ultrafine carbon black (UF-CB in PBS; 500 μg on day 1 and day 4, and then infected with S. pneumoniae strain D39 on day 5. Survival was assessed over 72 h. The effect of UF-CB on AM carbon loading, airway inflammation, and a urinary marker of pulmonary oxidative stress was assessed in uninfected animals. Results Instillation of UF-CB in mice resulted a pattern of AM carbon loading similar to that of biomass-smoke exposed humans. In uninfected animals, UF-CB treated animals had increased urinary 8-oxodG (P = 0.055, and an increased airway neutrophil differential count (P . pneumoniae, whereas morbidity and mortality after infection was reduced in UF-CB treated animals (median survival 48 h vs. 30 h, P . pneumoniae colony forming unit counts, and lower airway levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth-related oncogene (KC/GRO, and interferon gamma. Conclusion Acute high level loading of AM with ultrafine carbon black particles per se does not increase the susceptibility of mice to pneumococcal infection in vivo.

  5. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengshi; Deng, Jing; Su, Congxu; Li, Jun; Wang, Mian; Abuaku, Benjamin Kwaku; Hu, ShiMin; Tan, Hongzhuan; Wen, Shi Wu

    2014-12-01

    To explore the impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene, MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) gene, and gene-environment interactions on the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in non-smokers. A total of 205 TB patients and 216 healthy controls were recruited to participate in this case-control study. PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) technology was leveraged to genotype rs7096206 of MBL genes and rs2273346 and rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes. Demographic data and information on exposures of participants were collected. Unconditioned logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associations between the various factors and TB, and marginal structural linear odds models were used to estimate the interactions. Passive smoking and cooking with solid fuel were associated with the risk of TB, with odds ratios (OR) of 1.58 and 2.93, respectively (pfuel exposure was 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-3.16) and 2.66 (95% CI 1.85-3.47), respectively. The RERI between rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes and cooking with solid fuel exposure was 3.70 (95% CI 2.63-4.78), which was also a positive interaction. However, the RERI between rs6695096 of MASP-2 genes and passive smoking was not statistically significant. Passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel, and polymorphisms of MBL (rs7096206) and MASP-2 (rs6695096) genes were associated with susceptibility to TB in non-smokers, and there were gene-environment interactions among them. Further studies are needed to explore details of the mechanisms of association. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Female rats are less susceptible during puberty to the lethal effects of percutaneous exposure to VX

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Linnzi K. M.; Lee, Robyn B.; Clarkson, Edward D.; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-01

    Nerve agents with low volatility such as VX are primarily absorbed through the skin when released during combat or a terrorist attack. The barrier function of the stratum corneum may be compromised during certain stages of development, allowing VX to more easily penetrate through the skin. However, age-related differences in the lethal potency of VX have yet to be evaluated using the percutaneous (pc) route of exposure. Thus, we estimated the 24 and 48 h median lethal dose for pc exposure to ...

  7. Assessment of the environmental degradation susceptibility of the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin with support of geoprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Rocha Werneck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a thematic exploration of the environmental degradation in the Macaé River Hydrographic Basin. The objective was to provide a cartographic base on relevant issues regarding the Basin, by doing environmental assessment with support of geoprocessing. This aims at providing assistance for public actions in environmental decisions, and suggest applications of data in local and/or regional plannings that may support the development of the Basin Plan. The AHP method – Hierarchic Analytical Process – was used. The resulting map shows the areas of potential environmental degradation, in which those with greater susceptibility are located at the top and middle sections of the river, and the less likely are found on its lower course.

  8. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Fazli, Zohreh; Mazinani, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Over the years, neurotoxicity and cognitive dysfunction have separately been associated with endogenous formaldehyde and reduction of acetylcholine signals. However, a limited number of studies have shown a relationship between cholinergic neurotransmitter and formaldehyde exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the neurological effect on workers from melamine-dish preparation workshop, who were exposed to formaldehyde. A total of 35 formaldehyde-exposed workers were compared with 32 control employees from the food industry. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was conducted using the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 3500 methods. Using the Ellman method, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker for neurotoxicity was analyzed in blood erythrocyte. The effects of alcohol dehydrogenase III (ADH3) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) polymorphism were used to survey the level of AChE activity. In this study, it was found that exposure to airborne formaldehyde increased from 0.024 to 0.74 ppm and the median personnel exposure was 0.057. Induction of AChE activity was observed in formaldehyde-exposed workers as compared with the control group (p formaldehyde. Exposed subjects containing ADH32-2 genotype had higher AChE than others. The findings of this study suggest that the neurotoxic effect of formaldehyde depends on the AChE activity, which is affected by metabolism. It can be concluded that cholinergic signal reduction in cases of cognitive dysfunction could be associated with endogenous formaldehyde.

  9. Effects of maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) during pregnancy on susceptibility to neonatal asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young [Basic Herbal Medicine Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 483 Expo-ro, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Sang [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun-young [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hwa-Young [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung-Youl, E-mail: youl10@hanmail.net [College of Nursing and Health, Kongju National University, 56 Gongju Daehak-ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used as a plasticizer and is widely dispersed in the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy on neonatal asthma susceptibility using a murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA). Pregnant BALB/c mice received DEHP from gestation day 13 to lactation day 21. Their offspring were sensitized on postnatal days (PNDs) 9 and 15 by intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 μg OVA with 200 μg aluminum hydroxide. On PNDs 22, 23 and 24, live pups received an airway challenge of OVA for 30 min. Offspring from pregnant mice that received DEHP showed reductions in inflammatory cell count, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and eotaxin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in total immunoglobulin E and OVA-specific IgE in their plasma compared with offspring from pregnant mice that did not receive DEHP treatment. These results were consistent with histological analysis and immunoblotting. Maternal exposure to DEHP reduces airway inflammation and mucus production in offspring, with a decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lung tissue. This study suggests that maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy reduces asthmatic responses induced by OVA challenge in offspring. These effects were considered to be closely related to the suppression of Th2 immune responses and iNOS expression. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces asthmatic response in pups. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces eosinophilia induced by ovalbumin exposure. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate reduces T-helper type 2 cytokine production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate attenuates airway inflammation and mucus production. • Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung tissue.

  10. Early-life Sodium-exposure Unmasks Susceptibility to Stroke in hyperlipidemic-hypertensive Tg[hCETP]25-Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Julius L.; Viereck, Jason C.; McKee, Ann C.; Hamilton, James A.; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson; Herrera, Victoria L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early-life risk factor exposure increases aortic atherosclerosis and blood pressure in humans and animal models, however, limited insight has been made into end-organ complications. Methods and Results We investigated the effects of early-life Na-exposure (0.23% vs 0.4%NaCl regular-rat chow) on vascular disease outcomes using the inbred, transgenic[hCETP]25 Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rat model of male-predominant coronary atherosclerosis, Tg25. Rather than the expected increased coronary heart disease, fetal 0.4%Na-exposure (≤2g-Na/2000cal/diet/day) induced adult-onset stroke in both sexes (ANOVA Pcerebral cortical hemorrhagic infarctions, microhemorrhages, neuronal ischemia, microvascular injury. Ex-vivo MRI of stroke+ rat brains detected cerebral hemorrhages, microhemorrhages and ischemia with middle cerebral artery-distribution, and cerebellar non-involvement. Ultrasound micro-imaging detected carotid artery disease. Pre-stroke analysis detected neuronal ischemia, and decreased mass of isolated cerebral, but not cerebellar, microvessels. Conclusions Early-life Na-exposure exacerbated hypertension and unmasked stroke susceptibility with greater female vulnerability in hypertensive-hyperlipidemic Tg25-rats. The reproducible modeling in Tg25sp rats of carotid artery disease, cerebral hemorrhagic-infarctions, neuronal ischemia, microhemorrhages, and microvascular alterations suggests a pathogenic spectrum with causal interrelationships. This “mixed-stroke” spectrum could represent paradigms of ischemic-hemorrhagic transformation, and/or a microangiopathic basis for the association of ischemic-lesions, microhemorrhages, and strokes in humans. Altogether, the data reveal early-life Na-exposure as a significant modifier of hypertension and stroke disease-course, hence a potential modifiable prevention target deserving systematic study. PMID:19273719

  11. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Keppler; Ingeborg, Dhooge; Leen, Maes; Annelies, Bockstael; Birgit, Philips; Freya, Swinnen; Bart, Vinck

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES) measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual's susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  12. Cellular immunity and target cell susceptibility in persons with repeated HIV-1 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, R; Hladik, F; Markee, J; Alef, C; Kelley, H; Collier, A; Collier, A; McElrath, M J

    1999-03-01

    We prospectively studied 37 HIV-1 uninfected persons engaging in repeated high risk sexual activity with an HIV-1 infected partner, as well as 18 of their infected partners. Only one subject (3%) demonstrated the homozygous 32-bp deletion delta32delta32 of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5. CD4+ cells from all high risk subjects except the delta32delta32 CCR5 homozygote were susceptible in vitro to both CCR5-dependent and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. Median HIV-1 plasma RNA levels of the infected partners were not significantly different from levels of matched infected controls. Thirteen subjects demonstrated HIV-1 specific CTL at one or more visits, and these activities were more commonly observed in persons with the wild type CCR5 genotype. These results indicate that cellular immunity rather than inheritance of the delta32 CCR5 mutation accounts more often for persistently HIV-1-resistant cases.

  13. Developmental Exposure to an Environmental PCB Mixture Delays the Propagation of Kindling in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental PCB exposure impairs hearing and induces brainstem audiogenic seizures in adult offspring. The degree to which this enhanced susceptibility to seizure is manifest in other brain regions has not been examined. Thus, electrical kindling of the amygdala was used to eva...

  14. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p ... glands of the milk-exposed rats had significantly less terminal end buds (TEBs) than the tap water-exposed controls (p water (p

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility changes in Enterococcus faecalis following various penicillin exposure regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, T L; Zighelboim-Daum, S; Eliopoulos, G M; Wennersten, C; Moellering, R C

    1992-01-01

    Penicillin-"virgin" strains of Enterococcus faecalis collected from a population of individuals with no previous antibiotic exposure were subjected in vitro to penicillin delivered as repeated pulses, stepwise increasing concentrations, or sustained levels of a single concentration. Changes in resistance to penicillin were assessed by determination of MICs, and time-kill studies were performed to evaluate changes in tolerance to the bactericidal effects of penicillin. Isogenic clones, derived...

  16. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 1. Taking an exposure history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lynn; Weir, Erica; Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D

    2002-04-16

    Public concern and awareness are growing about adverse health effects of exposure to environmental contaminants. Frequently patients present to their physicians with questions or concerns about exposures to such substances as lead, air pollutants and pesticides. Most primary care physicians lack training in and knowledge of the clinical recognition, management and avoidance of such exposures. We have found that it can be helpful to use the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) as a tool to identify a patient's history of exposures to potentially toxic environmental contaminants. In this article we discuss why it is important to take a patient's environmental exposure history, when and how to take the history, and how to interpret the findings. Possible routes of exposure and common sources of potentially toxic biological, physical and chemical substances are identified. A case of sick-building syndrome is used to illustrate the use of the mnemonic.

  17. Environmental lithium exposure in the north of Chile - Tissue exposure indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo T. Figueroa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: northern Chile has the highest levels of lithium in surface waters in the world which is reflected in very high lithium levels in the plants and animals that depend on these water systems and consequently in the indigenous population.Methods: the lithium tissue burdens in populations from two valleys in the extreme north of Chile have been studied. The bulk of this report is based on analyses of lithium levels in urine, hair, and breast milk in the population of several villages. Data on serum levels, some of which had been previously published, are included for the sake of completeness. Since this paper reports studies by several groups of workers samples were analysed by a variety of methods. These include atomic emission, atomic absorption, other photospectroscopic techniques and mass spectroscopy.Results: in all samples studied the average lithium level (5.3 ppm was found to be significantly elevated compared to levels reported in the literature and measured in this study for people not exposed to high levels in water and food (0.009-0.228 ppm.Conclusions: the people studied represent a unique longitudinal cohort. The work should provide important insights into the potential neuroprotective effects of lithium also help us set guidelines to assess the risks from high dose environmental exposure.

  18. Child Exposure to Serious Life Events, COMT, and Aggression: Testing Differential Susceptibility Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygen, Beate Wold; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Lydersen, Stian; Guzey, Ismail Cuneyt; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in aggression. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met (COMT), a common, functional polymorphism, has been implicated in aggression and aggression traits, as have childhood experiences of adversity. It is unknown whether these effects are additive or interactional and, in…

  19. Is Lead Exposure in Early Life An Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia? Neurobiological Connections and Testable Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilarte, Tomás R.; Opler, Mark; Pletnikov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is general agreement in the scientific community that schizophrenia is a disorder of neurodevelopmental origin in which both genes and environmental factors come together to produce a schizophrenia phenotype later in life. The challenging questions have been which genes and what environmental factors? Although there is evidence that different chromosome loci and several genes impart susceptibility for schizophrenia; and epidemiological studies point to broad aspects of the environment, only recently there has been an interest in studying gene × environment interactions. Recent evidence of a potential association between prenatal lead (Pb2+) exposure and schizophrenia precipitated the search for plausible neurobiological connections. The most promising connection is that in schizophrenia and in developmental Pb2+ exposure there is strong evidence for hypoactivity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of excitatory amino acid receptors as an underlying neurobiological mechanism in both conditions. A hypofunction of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) complex during critical periods of development may alter neurobiological processes that are essential for brain growth and wiring, synaptic plasticity and cognitive and behavioral outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We also describe on-going proof of concept gene-environment interaction studies of early life Pb2+ exposure in mice expressing the human mutant form of the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC-1) gene, a gene that is strongly associated with schizophrenia and allied mental disorders. PMID:22178136

  20. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li’e

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. METHODS: Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure were determined for all participants. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011. We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022. Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001. However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  2. Early life adverse environmental exposures increases the risk of uterine fibroid development: role of epigenetic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Uterine Fibroids (UF(s, AKA: leiomyoma are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women’s health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and hundreds of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (~85% in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2 and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 repressive mark through Estrogen receptor / Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases / Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12 mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It

  3. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwei; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in

  4. Children's exposure to environmental pollutants and biomarkers of genetic damage. II. Results of a comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Monica; Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) but not sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were found consistently increased in children exposed to environmental pollutants. Meta-analysis of the studies reporting SCE in cord blood showed similar levels of SCE in exposed and in non-exposed newborns. Exposure to airborne......-DNA adducts were found in fetal than in maternal tissue, suggesting a specific susceptibility of the fetus to this class of ubiquitous environmental pollutants. According to these findings, future research and biomonitoring programs on children would greatly benefit from the inclusion of selected biomarkers...... pollutants, soil and drinking water contaminants, mostly increased CA and, to a lesser extent, MN levels in children. The effect of exposure to airborne urban pollutants was consistently reported by field studies measuring DNA, albumin and hemoglobin adducts. Prenatal (in utero) and postnatal exposure...

  5. [Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes of Mexico City: analysis of environmental samples and children and women hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wipfli, Heather; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico no evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes or habitants has been conducted. The objective of this study is to quantify environmental nicotine in Mexico City homes, simultaneously evaluating nicotine levels in children and women. In July 2005 a convenience sample of 41 homes was selected, 20% without smokers, 80% with smokers. Nicotine passive monitors were allocated in homes for one week, obtaining samples of hair from inhabitant non-smoking women and children. Samples were taken to the Johns Hopkins University where nicotine was extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography. A survey of opinions and behaviors related to environmental tobacco smoke was conducted. Environmental nicotine concentrations had a median of 0.08 microg/m3 (IQR 0.01-0.64), in children's hair 0.05 ng/mg (IQR 0.05-0.29), and in women's hair 0.05 ng/mg (IQR 0.05-0.19). Environmental nicotine concentrations and in children's hair were highly correlated (rS=0.49), and increased with the number of smokers at home. The majority of adults surveyed showed support towards measures of environmental tobacco smoke control. Homes are important spaces of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Particularly high levels of exposure were observed in children's hair, attributable to the presence of environmental nicotine at home. Integral preventive activities to eliminate active smoking and to avoid tobacco consumption at home are required.

  6. Arsenic pesticides and environmental pollution: exposure, poisoning, hazards and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Mohammad, Amina El-Hosini; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-08-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid element. Acute high-dose exposure to arsenic can cause severe systemic toxicity and death. Lower dose chronic arsenic exposure can result in subacute toxicity that can include peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy, skin eruptions, and hepatotoxicity. Long-term effects of arsenic exposure include an in Due to the physiologic effects of the arsenic on all body systems, thus, chronic arsenic-poisoned patient is a major nursing challenge. The critical care nurse provides valuable assessment and interventions that prevent major multisystem complications from arsenic toxicity.

  7. Exhaled nitric oxide is associated with acute mountain sickness susceptibility during exposure to normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, M J; Carter, E A; Koehle, M S; Rupert, J L

    2012-01-15

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous signaling molecule that participates in a large variety of physiological functions and may have a role in the pathology of altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS). The effect of normobaric hypoxia on the fraction of exhaled NO ( [Formula: see text] ) is a controversial area of high altitude physiology, with the effect varying widely across studies. We exposed 19 male subjects to normobaric hypoxia for 6h and measured [Formula: see text] and AMS (via Lake Louise Score) each hour. For data analysis, subjects were divided into AMS-positive and AMS-negative groups based on their Lake Louise Scores during exposure. Eighteen subjects completed the study, and the incidence of AMS was 50%. Mean [Formula: see text] was unchanged at hour 1 but was significantly elevated above baseline for the remainder of the normobaric hypoxia exposure (p<0.001). Subjects who developed AMS had a significantly lower mean [Formula: see text] at baseline compared to resistant subjects (p=0.013). Further investigations are warranted to confirm our results and to understand the physiological basis of this association. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer risk associated with inorganic arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate whether the association between breast cancer (BC) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure is modulated by selected polymorphisms in iAs metabolism. A population based case-control (1016/1028) study was conducted in Northern Mexico. Urinary arsenic metabolites were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Metabolites percentages and methylation ratios, were estimated. Genotypes of selected polymorphisms were determined by allelic discrimination. The interaction between polymorphisms and iAs metabolites percentages and methylation ratios on BC was assessed with unconditional logistic regression models. A significant interaction (p=0.002) between MTR c.2756A>G polymorphism and percentage dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on BC was found; BC risk related with %DMA was lower in AG+GG carriers than in AA carriers. No other significant interactions were found. MTR c.2756A>G polymorphism may confer protection for BC associated with iAs exposure. Further research is warranted to elucidate the potential involvement of other polymorphisms in iAs-related BC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  10. Wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms: The confounding effect of concurrent environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Whether or not wind turbines pose a risk to human health is a matter of heated debate. Personal reactions to other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. However, these have not been accounted for in previous studies. We investigated whether there is an association between residential proximity to wind turbines and idiopathic symptoms, after controlling for personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines wind turbines and agricultural odor exposure, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and symptoms and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental co-exposures. Isolated associations reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  12. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Tremor and Motor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) inhalation has been associated with neuropsychological and neurological sequelae in exposed workers. Few environmental epidemiologic studies have examined the potentialy neurotoxic effects of Mn exposure in ambient air on motor function and han...

  13. The Influence of Environmental Exposure to Formaldehyde in Nasal Mucosa of Medical Students during Cadaver Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Hisamitsu

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Temporary abnormalities in the olfaction test and increased nasal mucosal hypersensitivity to histamine were observed in a few students with preexisting allergic rhinitis after environmental exposure of high concentrations of formaldehyde. These effects appeared to be transient.

  14. FIELD DEPLOYABLE TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS THROUGHOUT THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF WILD BIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern about potential for endocrine disrupting chemicals to interfere with normal breeding behaviors of wildlife prompted this study of effects of exposure to environmental estrogens during the breeding cycle of wild birds. The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was selected as...

  15. Assessing the biological impact of exposure to environmental surface waters with cell-based lipidomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental surface waters often contain a variety of chemical contaminants from different sources including wastewater treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations, agricultural runoff and other human-related activities. Exposure to these contaminants may pose a th...

  16. Importance of environmental and biomass dynamics in predicting chemical exposure in ecological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, M.; Semplice, M.; Leander, de F.; Brink, van den P.J.; Guardo, Di A.

    2015-01-01

    In ecological risk assessment, exposure is generally modelled assuming static conditions, herewith neglecting the potential role of emission, environmental and biomass dynamics in affecting bioavailable concentrations. In order to investigate the influence of such dynamics on predicted bioavailable

  17. Measured and modeled personal and environmental NO2 exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Emilie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposure in a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison with measured individual levels, and also combined modeled levels for each subject’s workplace with the levels at their residence to investigate the influence of living and working in different places on individual exposure levels. Methods A GIS-based dispersion model and an emissions database were used to model concentrations of NO2 at the subject’s residence. Modeled levels were then compared with measured levels of NO2. Personal exposure was also modeled based on levels of NO2 at the subject’s residence in combination with levels of NO2 at their workplace during working hours. Results There was a good agreement between measured façade levels and modeled residential NO2 levels (rs = 0.8, p > 0.001; however, the agreement between measured and modeled outdoor levels and measured personal exposure was poor with overestimations at low levels and underestimation at high levels (rs = 0.5, p > 0.001 and rs = 0.4, p > 0.001 even when compensating for workplace location (rs = 0.4, p > 0.001. Conclusion Modeling residential levels of NO2 proved to be a useful method of estimating façade concentrations. However, the agreement between outdoor levels (both modeled and measured and personal exposure was, although significant, rather poor even when compensating for workplace location. These results indicate that personal exposure cannot be fully approximated by outdoor levels and that differences in personal activity patterns or household characteristics should be carefully considered when conducting exposure studies. This is an important finding that may help to correct substantial bias in epidemiological studies.

  18. Measured and modeled personal and environmental NO2 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Oudin, Anna; Ardö, Jonas; Jakobsson, Kristina; Björk, Jonas; Tinnerberg, Håkan

    2012-06-09

    Measured or modeled levels of outdoor air pollution are being used as proxies for individual exposure in a growing number of epidemiological studies. We studied the accuracy of such approaches, in comparison with measured individual levels, and also combined modeled levels for each subject's workplace with the levels at their residence to investigate the influence of living and working in different places on individual exposure levels. A GIS-based dispersion model and an emissions database were used to model concentrations of NO2 at the subject's residence. Modeled levels were then compared with measured levels of NO2. Personal exposure was also modeled based on levels of NO2 at the subject's residence in combination with levels of NO2 at their workplace during working hours. There was a good agreement between measured façade levels and modeled residential NO2 levels (rs = 0.8, p > 0.001); however, the agreement between measured and modeled outdoor levels and measured personal exposure was poor with overestimations at low levels and underestimation at high levels (rs = 0.5, p > 0.001 and rs = 0.4, p > 0.001) even when compensating for workplace location (rs = 0.4, p > 0.001). Modeling residential levels of NO2 proved to be a useful method of estimating façade concentrations. However, the agreement between outdoor levels (both modeled and measured) and personal exposure was, although significant, rather poor even when compensating for workplace location. These results indicate that personal exposure cannot be fully approximated by outdoor levels and that differences in personal activity patterns or household characteristics should be carefully considered when conducting exposure studies. This is an important finding that may help to correct substantial bias in epidemiological studies.

  19. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-20

    The information of the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2015 covers the following issues: selected topics of radiation protection, natural radiation exposure; civilizing (artificial) radiation exposure: nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, uranium mine recultivation, radioactive materials in industry and households, fallout from nuclear weapon testing and reactor accidents; occupational radiation exposure: exposed personnel in nuclear facilities, aviation personnel, radiation accidents; medical radiation exposure: nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy; non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields, UV radiation, optical radiation.

  20. Evaluation of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in the susceptibility to temporary hearing deterioration after music exposure in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keppler Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was to evaluate the predictive role of the olivocochlear efferent reflex strength in temporary hearing deterioration in young adults exposed to music. This was based on the fact that a noise-protective role of the medial olivocochlear (MOC system was observed in animals and that efferent suppression (ES measured using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs is capable of exploring the MOC system. Knowing an individual′s susceptibility to cochlear damage after noise exposure would enhance preventive strategies for noise-induced hearing loss. The hearing status of 28 young adults was evaluated using pure-tone audiometry, transient evoked OAEs (TEOAEs and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs before and after listening to music using an MP3 player during 1 h at an individually determined loud listening level. CAS of TEOAEs was measured before music exposure to determine the amount of ES. Regression analysis showed a distinctive positive correlation between temporary hearing deterioration and the preferred gain setting of the MP3 player. However, no clear relationship between temporary hearing deterioration and the amount of ES was found. In conclusion, clinical measurement of ES, using CAS of TEOAEs, is not correlated with the amount of temporary hearing deterioration after 1 h music exposure in young adults. However, it is possible that the temporary hearing deterioration in the current study was insufficient to activate the MOC system. More research regarding ES might provide more insight in the olivocochlear efferent pathways and their role in auditory functioning.

  1. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fen [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G. [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Parvez, Faruque [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Paul-Brutus, Rachelle [Department of Health Studies, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); The University of Chicago Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Jiang, Jieying [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Islam, Tariqul [U-Chicago Research Bangladesh, Ltd., Dhaka (Bangladesh); Slavkovich, Vesna [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); Rundek, Tatjana [Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City, NY (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  2. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  3. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. Environmental household exposures to asbestos and occurrence of pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoli, D.; Del Nevo, M.; Fiumalbi, C.; Iaia, T.E.; Cristaudo, A.; Comba, P.; Viti, C.; Battista, G. (Unit of Occupational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pisa (Italy))

    1992-01-01

    The authors reviewed the certificates of 39,650 deaths which occurred in the period 1975-1988 in Leghorn and of 45,900 in La Spezia (Italy) in the period 1958-1988. In total 262 cases have been recorded as pleural mesothelioma. The main occupational exposures occurred in the shipbuilding industry. Regarding non-occupational exposures to asbestos, 13 cases of mesothelioma were found in women who had washed the work clothes of their relatives at home; we also found other domestic uses of asbestos which were rarely or never discussed previously in the literature: six cases might be explained by the installation of fireproof or non-conductive materials in the domestic environment. These exposures probably are more frequent than realized until now.

  5. Methodology, inference and causation: environmental lead exposure and childhood intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Factor-Litvak, P

    2001-05-01

    Kaufman's critique of the literature on the associations between lead exposure and child intelligence raises important methodological and inferential points. We address the concerns he raises regarding measuring known and unknown confounders, statistical modeling, reverse causality and quality control. Mismeasurement of potential confounders of the lead-IQ relationship, such as parenting skills, parental intelligence, maternal smoking during pregnancy, or otitis media can either strengthen or weaken the estimated association between exposure and child intelligence. Despite some variability in design and measurement, a series of comprehensive prospective investigations in varied populations, by different sets of investigators, provided consistent replication; taken together these studies point to the conclusion that lead exposure has adverse consequences for child development, and that the deficits are likely to be small in comparison to the contribution of measured social factors.

  6. Environmental exposures and gene regulation in disease etiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thea M. Edwards; John Peterson Myers

    2008-01-01

    .... Exactly how the environment changes gene expression and how this can lead to disease are being explored in a fruitful new approach to environmental health research, representative studies of which are reviewed here...

  7. Reading exposure: a (largely) environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2007-12-01

    It is widely believed that there are reciprocal links between reading achievement and reading exposure: children who read more do better at reading, and reading achievement itself promotes reading. We tested the hypotheses that these links arise because children's genetically influenced reading performance is correlated with their leisure-time reading exposure, and reading exposure, in turn, may have an environmentally mediated effect on later reading performance. The sample consisted of 3039 twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Reading exposure was assessed at age 10 using the Author Recognition Test (ART). Reading performance was assessed at ages 7 and 12 using the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE). ART scores were moderately correlated with TOWRE scores at ages 7 and 12. Shared environmental variance in 7-year TOWRE performance accounted for most of the contribution made by 7-year TOWRE scores to the prediction of 10-year ART scores. Genetic influences on ART scores were modest, but this genetic variance almost completely reflected genetic variance in 7-year TOWRE scores. After controlling for genetic and environmental influences that overlapped between 7-year TOWRE and 10-year ART scores, there was evidence for a separate link between 10-year ART and 12-year TOWRE that was due to shared environmental influences. Genetic influences on early reading achievement contribute to later propensities to seek out reading experiences that might, in turn, reciprocally influence reading achievement through shared environmental paths.

  8. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility in relation to reproductive hormones and pubertal development in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

    2017-11-01

    Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA in samples collected during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. To assess reproductive development among their female children, we measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and assessed sexual maturation, including Tanner staging for breast and pubic hair development and menarche status, at age 8-13 years (n = 120). We used linear and logistic regression to examine measures of trimester-specific in utero exposure as predictors of peripubertal hormone levels and pubertal onset, respectively. In secondary analyses, we evaluated estimated exposure at the midpoint of the first trimester and rates of change in exposure across pregnancy in relation to outcomes. Several phthalate metabolites measured throughout in utero development were associated with higher serum testosterone concentrations, while a number of metabolites measured in the third trimester were associated with higher DHEA-S. For example, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in mean monoethyl phthalate (MEP) levels across pregnancy was associated with 44% higher peripubertal testosterone (95% CI: 13-83%), while an IQR increase in di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) specifically in the third trimester

  9. Urinary porphyrins as biomarkers for arsenic exposure among susceptible populations in Guizhou Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, J.C.; Wang, J.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Zhai, C.; Maddalena, R.; Liu, F.; Moore, M.R. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Health Science

    2005-08-07

    Coal from some areas in Guizhou Province contains elevated levels of arsenic. This has caused arsenicosis in individuals who use arsenic-contaminated coal for the purposes of heating, cooking and drying of food in poorly ventilated dwellings. The population at risk has been estimated to be approximately 200,000 people. We analyzed the porphyrin excretion profile using a HPLC method in urine samples collected from 113 villagers who lived in Xing Ren district, a coal-borne arsenicosis endemic area and from 30 villagers from Xing Yi where arsenicosis is not prevalent. Urinary porphyrins were higher in the arsenic exposed group than those in the control group. The correlation between urinary arsenic and porphyrin concentrations demonstrated the effect of arsenic on heme biosynthesis resulting in increased porphyrin excretion. Both uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin III showed significant increases in the excretion profile of the younger age ({lt} 20 years) arsenic-exposed group, suggesting that porphyrins could be used as early warning biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure in humans. Greater increases of urinary arsenic and porphyrins in women, children and older age groups who spend much of their time indoors suggest that they might be at a higher risk. Whether elevated porphyrins could predict adverse health effects associated with both cancer and non-cancer end-points in chronically arsenic-exposed populations need further investigation.

  10. Developing a Salivary Antibody Multiplex Immunoassay to Measure Human Exposure to Environmental Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The etiology and impacts of human exposure to environmental pathogens are of major concern worldwide and, thus, the ability to assess exposure and infections using cost effective, high-throughput approaches would be indispensable. The principal objective of this work is to devel...

  11. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Tracey, Rebecca; Haque, Md M; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm) that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET), a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates), dioxin (TCDD) and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8). After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation). Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  12. Transgenerational actions of environmental compounds on reproductive disease and identification of epigenetic biomarkers of ancestral exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during fetal development can induce a permanent epigenetic change in the germ line (sperm that then transmits epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in the absence of any subsequent exposure. The epigenetic transgenerational actions of various environmental compounds and relevant mixtures were investigated with the use of a pesticide mixture (permethrin and insect repellant DEET, a plastic mixture (bisphenol A and phthalates, dioxin (TCDD and a hydrocarbon mixture (jet fuel, JP8. After transient exposure of F0 gestating female rats during the period of embryonic gonadal sex determination, the subsequent F1-F3 generations were obtained in the absence of any environmental exposure. The effects on the F1, F2 and F3 generations pubertal onset and gonadal function were assessed. The plastics, dioxin and jet fuel were found to promote early-onset female puberty transgenerationally (F3 generation. Spermatogenic cell apoptosis was affected transgenerationally. Ovarian primordial follicle pool size was significantly decreased with all treatments transgenerationally. Differential DNA methylation of the F3 generation sperm promoter epigenome was examined. Differential DNA methylation regions (DMR were identified in the sperm of all exposure lineage males and found to be consistent within a specific exposure lineage, but different between the exposures. Several genomic features of the DMR, such as low density CpG content, were identified. Exposure-specific epigenetic biomarkers were identified that may allow for the assessment of ancestral environmental exposures associated with adult onset disease.

  13. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  14. Environmental silica in badger lungs: a possible association with susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, D.A.; Kung, I.T.; Or, R.S.

    1985-04-01

    Badger lungs contain dark granular foci (0.2 to 2.0 mm) comprising aggregates of enlarged macrophages containing birefringent crystalline particles. Particles were examined from the lungs of three badgers; many were silicates and a significant number were pure silica (SiO/sub 2/). The particles and the accompanying pathology resembled mixed dust fibrosis and silicosis in humans, diseases associated with increased susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  15. Effects of maternal high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle on susceptibility of adult offspring to ozone exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Schmid, J; Schladweiler, M C; Ledbetter, A; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be manifested by maternal obesity. Thirty-day-old female Long-Evans rats were fed a control (CD) or high-fat (HF) (60% calories) diet for 6 wks and then bred. GD1 rats were then housed with a running wheel (RW) or without a wheel (SED) until parturition, creating four groups of offspring: CD-SED, CD-RW, HF-SED and HF-RW. HF diet was terminated at PND 35 and all offspring were placed on CD. Body weight and %fat of dams were greatest in order; HF-SED > HF-RW > CD-SED > CD-RW. Adult offspring were exposed to O3 for two consecutive days (0.8 ppm, 4 h/day). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT), ventilatory parameters (plethysmography), and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cell counts and protein biomarkers were performed to assess response to O3. Exercise and diet altered body weight and %fat of young offspring. GTT, ventilation and BALF cell counts were exacerbated by O3 with responses markedly exacerbated in males. HF diet and O3 led to significant exacerbation of several BALF parameters: total cell count, neutrophils and lymphocytes were increased in male HF-SED versus CD-SED. Males were hyperglycemic after O3 exposure and exhibited exacerbated GTT responses. Ventilatory dysfunction was also exacerbated in males. Maternal exercise had minimal effects on O3 response. The results of this exploratory study suggest a link between maternal obesity and susceptibility to O3 in their adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

  16. EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INDUCED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WINDFALLS IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF MOLDOVA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINEA V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Windfalls are caused by the interaction of several factors and occur in a meteorological context characterized mainly by high wind speeds. In the present study we tried to develop a method for predicting windfalls in a test region, determining areas of high susceptibility of this climatic risk. For this purpose we evaluated parameters regarding the morphometric (slope, exposition, altitude and morphological (mountain side concavity/convexity, slope break properties of the relief, the types of forest and the soil on which these grow. We gave susceptibility scores for each parameter considered, resulting in a series of classified layers. These were subsequently added up to form the final cartographic material which highlights the vulnerable areas. For validating the results we utilised LandSat images from different time periods. The existence of a major windfalls event in the studied region (March 2002 allowed us to compare the situation before and after the event, and to check if there is a correlation with the model developed in this analysis. On the basis of this study it may be possible to predict the future evolution of trees susceptibility to windfall which could be helpful in establishing silvic measures to be implemented in order to minimize the damage caused by these phenomena.

  17. Magnetic susceptibility of surface soils in the Mu Us Desert and its environmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokang; Lu, Ruijie; Lü, Zhiqiang; Du, Jing; Jia, Feifei; Li, Tengfei; Chen, Lu; Wu, Yongqiu

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility has been widely used as a climatic proxy in paleoclimatic research. In arid and semi-arid regions, the magnetic properties of modern surface soil are significantly influenced by precipitation. This is demonstrated by observed positive correlations between percentage frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd%), which reflects the presence of fine-grained (superparamagnetic, SP) grains produced during weathering and pedogenesis, and regional mean annual precipitation (MAP). To further investigate this relationship, we measured the magnetic properties of 104 surface soil samples collected along two transects (AA and BB) spanning a rainfall gradient across the Mu Us Desert in northern China. There were no systematic trends in magnetic properties along transect BB; the χfd% values remained relatively low and stable, probably reflecting weak pedogenesis and the domination of the magnetic properties by lithology. In contrast, along transect AA there was a significant positive correlation (p modern Mu Us Desert. The results show that the variations of reconstructed precipitation are consistent with those of lithological properties, and they also confirm previous conclusions that paleosol development in the study area is dominated by precipitation. Overall the results further demonstrate the feasibility of using frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility to quantitatively reconstruct regional paleo-precipitation, including within a geographically diverse desert area. In addition, they provide an improved understanding of the main sand provenance in Mu Us Desert.

  18. Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, "Children's Exposure to Environmental Contaminants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alesia; Solo-Gabriele, Helena

    2016-11-09

    Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children's environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children's activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children's environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children's environmental exposure and children's health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  19. Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants: An Editorial Reflection of Articles in the IJERPH Special Issue Entitled, “Children’s Exposure to Environmental Contaminants”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesia Ferguson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children are at increased vulnerability to many environmental contaminants compared to adults due to their unique behavior patterns, increased contaminant intake per body weight, and developing biological systems. Depending upon their age, young children may crawl on the floor and may practice increased hand to mouth activity that may increase their dose-intake of specific contaminants that accumulate in dust and other matrices. Children are also smaller in size than adults, resulting in a greater body burden for a given contaminant dose. Because children undergo rapid transitions through particular developmental stages they are also especially vulnerable during certain growth-related time windows. A Special Issue was organized focused on the latest findings in the field of children’s environmental exposure for these reasons. This editorial introduces articles in this Special Issue and emphasizes their main findings in advancing the field. From the many articles submitted to this Special Issue from around the world, 23 were accepted and published. They focus on a variety of research areas such as children’s activity patterns, improved risk assessment methods to estimate exposures, and exposures in various contexts and to various contaminants. The future health of a nation relies on protecting the children from adverse exposures and understanding the etiology of childhood diseases. The field of children’s environmental exposures must consider improved and comprehensive research methods aimed at introducing mitigation strategies locally, nationally, and globally. We are happy to introduce a Special Issue focused on children’s environmental exposure and children’s health and hope that it contributes towards improved health of children.

  20. Chronic environmental exposure to Alternaria tenuis may manifest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... non-brain damaged functioning was observed. These findings seem to indicate that chronic exposures to Alternaria tenuis, Pullularia pullulans, and Epicoccum nigrum might have neuropsychological effects, and that most likely, only one abnormal antibody to toxigenic mold antigen could have the most dominant adverse ...

  1. Exposure to multiple environmental agents and their effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.; Bolte, G.; Bistrup, M.L.; Busby, C.; Butter, M.; Dorfman, P.; Fucic, A.; Gee, D.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Howard, V.; Kohlhuber, M.; Leijs, M.; Lundqvist, C.; Moshammer, H.; Naginiene, R.; Nicolopoulou-Stamati, P.; Ronchetti, R.; Salines, G.; Schoeters, G.; Tusscher, G. Ten; Wallis, M.K.; Zuurbier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: All children are exposed to multiple physical, chemical and biological challanges that can result in adverse health effects before and after birth. In this context, the danger of multiple exposures cannot be assessed from a single-chemical approach as used in classical toxicology. Aim:

  2. Environmental Exposures and Breast Cancer on Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nested, case-control study to determine if residence in close proximity to hazardous waste sites, toxic release inventory sites, prior land use (for example, farm land), and exposure to various chemicals in drinking water may be associated with breast cancer on Long Island.

  3. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  4. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  5. An investigation of social and pharmacological exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke as possible predictors of perceived nicotine dependence, smoking susceptibility, and smoking expectancies among never-smoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents. Participants included 327 never-smokers aged 11-15 years attending sixth or seventh grade in French language schools in Montréal, Canada. They completed self-report questionnaires measuring their smoking status, social smoke exposure (number of smokers in their environment and number of situations where SHS exposure occurs), and precursors to smoking initiation (smoking expectancies, perceived nicotine dependence, and smoking susceptibility). Each participant provided a saliva sample from which cotinine biomarkers were derived to measure pharmacological exposure to SHS. When predictors were modeled individually, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .05), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .001), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05), whereas number of situations predicted smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01). When predictors were modeled simultaneously, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .01), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05). Social smoke exposure was a predictor for smoking precursors. Pharmacological exposure to SHS did not predict smoking precursors, which may be partly attributable to the low cotinine values observed in our sample. Suggestions for improved pharmacological measurement of SHS and implications for public health are discussed.

  6. An Investigation of Social and Pharmacological Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke as Possible Predictors of Perceived Nicotine Dependence, Smoking Susceptibility, and Smoking Expectancies Among Never-Smoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents. Methods Participants included 327 never-smokers aged 11–15 years attending sixth or seventh grade in French language schools in Montréal, Canada. They completed self-report questionnaires measuring their smoking status, social smoke exposure (number of smokers in their environment and number of situations where SHS exposure occurs), and precursors to smoking initiation (smoking expectancies, perceived nicotine dependence, and smoking susceptibility). Each participant provided a saliva sample from which cotinine biomarkers were derived to measure pharmacological exposure to SHS. Results When predictors were modeled individually, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .05), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .001), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05), whereas number of situations predicted smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01). When predictors were modeled simultaneously, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .01), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05). Conclusions Social smoke exposure was a predictor for smoking precursors. Pharmacological exposure to SHS did not predict smoking precursors, which may be partly attributable to the low cotinine values observed in our sample. Suggestions for improved pharmacological measurement of SHS and implications for public health are discussed. PMID:21622492

  7. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  8. Understanding the link between environmental exposures and health: does the exposome promise too much?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.; Hoek, G.; Katsouyanni, K.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposures affecting human health range from complex mixtures, such as environmental tobacco smoke, ambient particulate matter air pollution and chlorination by products in drinking water, to hazardous chemicals, such as lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benz(a)pyrene.

  9. Evaluation of exposure concentrations used in assessing manufactured nanomaterial environmental hazards: are they relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Patricia A; Klaessig, Frederick; Turco, Ronald F; Priester, John H; Rico, Cyren M; Avila-Arias, Helena; Mortimer, Monika; Pacpaco, Kathleen; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-09-16

    Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly produced and used in consumer goods, yet our knowledge regarding their environmental risks is limited. Environmental risks are assessed by characterizing exposure levels and biological receptor effects. As MNMs have rarely been quantified in environmental samples, our understanding of exposure level is limited. Absent direct measurements, environmental MNM concentrations are estimated from exposure modeling. Hazard, the potential for effects on biological receptors, is measured in the laboratory using a range of administered MNM concentrations. Yet concerns have been raised regarding the "relevancy" of hazard assessments, particularly when the administered MNM concentrations exceed those predicted to occur in the environment. What MNM concentrations are administered in hazard assessments and which are "environmentally relevant"? This review regards MNM concentrations in hazard assessments, from over 600 peer-reviewed articles published between 2008 and 2013. Some administered MNM concentrations overlap with, but many diverge from, predicted environmental concentrations. Other uncertainties influence the environmental relevance of current hazard assessments and exposure models, including test conditions, bioavailable concentrations, mode of action, MNM production volumes, and model validation. Therefore, it may be premature for MNM risk research to sanction information on the basis of concentration "environmental relevance".

  10. [Monitoring occupational exposure to volatile anaesthetics in the operating theatre: environmental and biological measurements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovesti, S; Ferrari, A; Faggiano, D; Vivoli, G

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) and isoflurane were measured in environmental and urinary samples from subjects occupationally exposed to volatile anaesthetics in operating theatres in a hospital in northern Italy. The aim was to establish whether: an automatic analyzer (Brüel & Kjaer 1302 spectrometer) can be used for fixed position sampling ("anaesthetist zone" and "surgeon/instrument nurse zone"); periodic monitoring of anaesthetics will reduce exposure; exposure to N2O and isoflurane is within legal limits; exposure differs between anaesthetists and surgeons/instrument nurses. Exposure to anaesthetics was monitored twice at six-month intervals. In the first test time spent in the operating theatre was noted and exposure levels were measured automatically. In the second test levels were monitored with passive personal sampling devices. Environmental concentrations of N2O determined by the spectrometer were correlated to urinary levels. Urinary levels of N2O calculated from the regression line were the same as those obtained with the personal samplers. Environmental and urinary levels of N2O decreased significantly from the first to second test. In the second sampling 70% of subjects had levels of exposure to N2O and isoflurane within prescribed environmental limits (50 ppm for N2O and 0.5 ppm for isoflurane). At the first test anaesthetists had significantly higher levels of exposure to N2O than surgeons/instrument nurses. The survey demonstrated that: fixed position sampling data related to time spent in the operating theatre can be used to gauge individual exposure levels; exposure levels decrease after tests following implementation of preventive measures; monitoring needs to be repeated because exposure levels often exceed legal limits; occupational exposure decreases when pollution in the anaesthetic zone is reduced.

  11. Environmental and biological monitoring for the identification of main exposure determinants in vineyard mancozeb applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic-Rajcevic, Stefan; Rubino, Federico M; Ariano, Eugenio; Cottica, Danilo; Neri, Sara; Colosio, Claudio

    2017-09-13

    Grapevine is a vulnerable crop to several fungal diseases often requiring the use of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, such as mancozeb. This fungicide has been reported to have goitrogenic, endocrine disrupting, and possibly immunotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure in two scenarios of mancozeb application and analyse the main determinants of exposure in order to better understand their mechanism of influence. Environmental monitoring was performed using a modified Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "patch" methodology and by hand-wash collection, while mancozeb's metabolite, ethylenethiourea (ETU), was measured in 24-h preexposure and postexposure urine samples. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for determination of mancozeb and ETU in different kinds of samples. Closed tractor use resulted in 40 times lower potential exposure compared with open tractor. Coveralls reduced skin exposure 4 and 10 times in case of open and closed tractors, respectively. Gloves used during application resulted in 10 times lower hand exposure in open but increased exposure in closed tractors. This study has demonstrated that exposure to mancozeb is low if safe occupational hygiene procedures are adopted. ETU is confirmed as suitable biological marker of occupational exposure to mancozeb, but the absence of biological exposure limits significantly reduces the possibility to interpret biological monitoring results in occupationally exposed workers.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 13 September 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2017.14.

  12. Adverse respiratory symptoms and environmental exposures among children and adolescents following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth A; Harris, Amy; Perrin, Keith; Bronfin, Daniel R; Ratard, Raoult; Vandyke, Russell; Goldshore, Matthew; Magnus, Manya

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are especially vulnerable to environmental exposures and their respiratory effects. Following Hurricane Katrina in 2005, residents experienced multiple adverse environmental exposures. We characterized the association between upper respiratory symptoms (URS) and lower respiratory symptoms (LRS) and environmental exposures among children and adolescents affected by Hurricane Katrina. We conducted a cross-sectional study following the return of the population to New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina (October 2005 and February 2006) among a convenience sample of children and adolescents attending New Orleans health facilities. We used uni-, bi-, and multivariable analyses to describe participants, exposures, and associations with URS/LRS. Of 1,243 participants, 47% were Caucasian, 50% were male, and 72% were younger than 11 years of age. Multiple environmental exposures were identified during and after the storm and at current residences: roof/glass/storm damage (50%), outside mold (22%), dust (18%), and flood damage (15%). Self-reported URS and LRS (76% and 36%, respectively) were higher after the hurricane than before the hurricane (22% and 9%, respectively, pHurricane Katrina experienced environmental exposures associated with increased prevalence of reported URS and LRS. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term health impacts of Hurricane Katrina.

  13. Environmental Exposure to Endotoxin and Decreased Risk of Childhood Atopy

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo Sakamoto; Soichiro Yata; Izumi Hirose; Masaki Futamura; Masashi Morishita; Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis implies, in immunological terms, that microbial stimulation in early life skews the immune system towards the development of a T helper type 1 (Th1)-type lymphocyte population, and away from a T helper type 2 (Th2)-type development that is associated with atopy. The hygiene hypothesis originally theorized that increased infections protected against atopy. This theory has evolved since harmful infections may not be as critical as exposure to microbial burden because expo...

  14. Combat Exposure Severity as a Moderator of Genetic and Environmental Liability to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erika J.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30–46% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to examine if the effect of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology PTSD were dependent on level of combat exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the U.S. Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Results Biometric modeling revealed that the effect of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Conclusions Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and other environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:24001428

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and its health impacts: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. Therefore, the decrease in smoking prevalence could provide substantial health gains in humans. This article reviews information on environmental tobacco smoke ...

  16. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  17. Environmental Exposure to Manganese in Air: Associations with Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the oognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from indu...

  18. Environmental exposure to manganese in air: Associations with cognitive functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bowler, Rosemarie M.; Kornblith, Erica S.; Gocheva, Vihra V.; Colledge, Michelle A.; Bollweg, George; Kim, Yangho; Beseler, Cheryl L.; Wright, Chris W.; Adams, Shane W.; Lobdell, Danelle T.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential element, can be neurotoxic in high doses. This cross-sectional study explored the cognitive function of adults residing in two towns (Marietta and East Liverpool, Ohio, USA) identified as having high levels of environmental airborne Mn from industrial sources.

  19. Environmental hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  20. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  1. Disparities in Environmental Exposures to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Diabetes Risk in Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Daniel; Becerra, Marisol; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Ard, Kerry; Sargis, Robert M

    2017-11-15

    Burgeoning epidemiological, animal, and cellular data link environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to metabolic dysfunction. Disproportionate exposure to diabetes-associated EDCs may be an underappreciated contributor to disparities in metabolic disease risk. The burden of diabetes is not uniformly borne by American society; rather, this disease disproportionately affects certain populations, including African Americans, Latinos, and low-income individuals. The purpose of this study was to review the evidence linking unequal exposures to EDCs with racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic diabetes disparities in the U.S.; discuss social forces promoting these disparities; and explore potential interventions. Articles examining the links between chemical exposures and metabolic disease were extracted from the U.S. National Library of Medicine for the period of 1966 to 3 December 2016. EDCs associated with diabetes in the literature were then searched for evidence of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic exposure disparities. Among Latinos, African Americans, and low-income individuals, numerous studies have reported significantly higher exposures to diabetogenic EDCs, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, multiple chemical constituents of air pollution, bisphenol A, and phthalates. This review reveals that unequal exposure to EDCs may be a novel contributor to diabetes disparities. Efforts to reduce the individual and societal burden of diabetes should include educating clinicians on environmental exposures that may increase disease risk, strategies to reduce those exposures, and social policies to address environmental inequality as a novel source of diabetes disparities. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  3. Acute Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to systemic SHIV clade C infection in rhesus macaques after mucosal virus exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès-Laurence Chenine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 has never been prospectively tested in a relevant in vivo model.We measured whether pre-existing infection of rhesus monkeys with a parasitic worm would facilitate systemic infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Two groups of animals, one consisting of normal monkeys and the other harboring Schistosoma mansoni, were challenged intrarectally with decreasing doses of R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C. Systemic infection occurred in parasitized monkeys at viral doses that remained sub-infectious in normal hosts. In fact, the 50% animal infectious (AID(50 SHIV-C dose was 17-fold lower in parasitized animals compared to controls (P<0.001. Coinfected animals also had significantly higher peak viral RNA loads than controls (P<0.001, as well as increased viral replication in CD4(+ central memory cells (P = 0.03.Our data provide the first direct evidence that acute schistosomiasis significantly increases the risk of de novo AIDS virus acquisition, and the magnitude of the effect suggests that control of helminth infections may be a useful public health intervention to help decrease the spread of HIV-1.

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure enhances the susceptibility to NMDA-induced generalized tonic-clonic seizures in developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sue J; Lovinger, David M; N'Gouemo, Prosper

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with a higher likelihood of developing generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) in infants and children. However, experimental studies of PAE-related seizures have yielded conflicting results. Here, we investigated the effect of acute PAE on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced seizures in developing rats. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were given an oral dose of either ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) or vehicle on embryonic day 18. The offspring were tested for susceptibility to NMDA-induced seizures on postnatal day 7 (P7), 21 (P21), 35 (P35), and 42 (P42). Specifically, the prevalence and latency of NMDA-induced continuous wild running-like behaviors (CWR), flexion seizures (FS), wild running seizures (WRS), GTCS, and tonic seizures (TS) were recorded and analyzed. N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures consisted of CWR, FS, GTCS, and TS in P21 rats. Thus, GTCS were consistently observed during development. PAE significantly increases the prevalence of GTCS in female and male P7-P21 rats and P7-P35 rats, respectively, but not in older rats. PAE also increases the prevalence of TS in male, but not female P21-P35 rats. The PAE animal model of GTCS may provide a new opportunity to investigate the mechanisms that underlie neuronal hyperexcitability in developing animals prenatally-exposed to alcohol. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Continuous exposure to Plasmodium results in decreased susceptibility and transcriptomic divergence of the Anopheles gambiae immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimopoulos George

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium infection has been shown to compromise the fitness of the mosquito vector, reducing its fecundity and longevity. However, from an evolutionary perspective, the impact of Plasmodium infection as a selective pressure on the mosquito is largely unknown. Results In the present study we have addressed the effect of a continuous Plasmodium berghei infection on the resistance to infection and global gene expression in Anopheles gambiae. Exposure of A. gambiae to P. berghei-infected blood and infection for 16 generations resulted in a decreased susceptibility to infection, altered constitutive expression levels for approximately 2.4% of the mosquito's total transcriptome and a lower basal level of immune genes expression, including several anti-Plasmodium factors. The infection-responsiveness for several defense genes was elevated in the P. berghei exposed mosquito colonies. Conclusion Our study establishes the existence of a selective pressure exerted by the parasite P. berghei on the malaria vector A. gambiae that results in a decreased permissiveness to infection and changes in the mosquito transcriptome regulation that suggest a decreased constitutive immune gene activity but a more potent immune response upon Plasmodium challenge.

  6. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  7. Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Duffy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP. Objective. The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS, which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS, which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems. Design. This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined with a two-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test in SAS (n=325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist. Results. The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems. Conclusion. Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional

  8. Environmental factors regulate Paneth cell phenotype and host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation in Irgm1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, Allison R; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Fee, Brian E; Cantillana, Viviana A; Joyce, Maria J; Gharaibeh, Raad Z; Roy, Sayanty; Fodor, Anthony A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A; Gulati, Ajay S

    2017-12-22

    Crohn's disease (CD) represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. Several susceptibility genes have been linked to CD, though their precise role in the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Immunity-Related GTPase M (IRGM) is an established CD risk allele. We have shown previously that conventionally-raised (CV) mice lacking the IRGM ortholog, Irgm1, exhibit abnormal Paneth cells (PCs) and increased susceptibility to intestinal injury. In the present study, we sought to utilize this model system to determine if environmental conditions impact these phenotypes, as is thought to be the case in human CD. To accomplish this, wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice were re-derived into specific pathogen-free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) conditions. We next assessed how these differential housing environments influenced intestinal injury patterns and epithelial cell morphology and function in wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice. Remarkably, in contrast to CV mice, SPF Irgm1-/- mice showed only a slight increase in susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation. SPF Irgm1-/- mice also displayed minimal abnormalities in PC number, morphology, and antimicrobial peptide expression. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation were also unaffected by Irgm1 in SPF conditions. No microbial differences were observed between wild-type and Irgm1-/- mice, but gut bacterial communities differed profoundly between CV and SPF mice. Specifically, Helicobacter sequences were significantly increased in CV mice; however, inoculating SPF Irgm1-/- mice with H. hepaticus was not sufficient to transmit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In summary, our findings suggest the impact of Irgm1-deficiency on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and epithelial function is critically dependent on environmental influences. This work establishes the importance of Irgm1-/- mice as a model to elucidate host-environment interactions that regulate mucosal homeostasis and

  9. Counseling patients on preventing prenatal environmental exposures--a mixed-methods study of obstetricians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Stotland

    Full Text Available Describe the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of U.S. obstetricians on the topic of prenatal environmental exposures.A national online survey of American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG fellows and 3 focus groups of obstetricians.We received 2,514 eligible survey responses, for a response rate of 14%. The majority (78% of obstetricians agreed that they can reduce patient exposures to environmental health hazards by counseling patients; but 50% reported that they rarely take an environmental health history; less than 20% reported routinely asking about environmental exposures commonly found in pregnant women in the U.S.; and only 1 in 15 reported any training on the topic. Barriers to counseling included: a lack of knowledge of and uncertainty about the evidence; concerns that patients lack the capacity to reduce harmful exposures; and fear of causing anxiety among patients.U.S. obstetricians in our study recognized the potential impact of the environment on reproductive health, and the role that physicians could play in prevention, but reported numerous barriers to counseling patients. Medical education and training, evidence-based guidelines, and tools for communicating risks to patients are needed to support the clinical role in preventing environmental exposures that threaten patient health.

  10. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  11. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

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    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  12. Approaches to handling uncertainty when setting environmental exposure standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    attempts for the first time to cover the full range of issues related to model uncertainties, from the subjectivity of setting up a conceptual model of a given system, all the way to communicating the nature of model uncertainties to non-scientists and accounting for model uncertainties in policy decisions......Mathematical modelling has become in recent years an essential tool for the prediction of environmental change and for the development of sustainable policies. Yet, many of the uncertainties associated with modelling efforts appear poorly understood by many, especially by policy makers. This book...

  13. Exposure to airborne endotoxin in Italian greenhouses: environmental analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioffrè, Angela; Marramao, Antonella; DI Gesu, Ignazio; Samele, Pasquale; Paba, Emilia; Marcelloni, Anna; Chiominto, Alessandra; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-10-19

    The peculiar characteristics of the greenhouses as confined spaces, microclimate and poor air exchange with the outside environment, encourage the development of a large number of biological agents. Endotoxin, is probably a major causative agent of occupational health problems. The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of airborne endotoxin in greenhouses with different cultures. The influence of microclimate was studied in correlation with endotoxin levels and type of cultured vegetables. The data indicate that workers employed greenhouses are exposed to low levels of inhalable endotoxins; endotoxin concentrations do not correlate with the temperature and relative humidity values. A strong correlation between the leaf size and endotoxin concentration was observed. The mean concentration of endotoxins in the air of greenhouses is relatively low, however, there could be peaks of exposure during harvesting and eradication of broadleaf plants.

  14. Genetic Diversity and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 200 Clinical and Environmental Aspergillus flavus Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh-Armaki, M.; Hedayati, M.T.; Ansari, S.; Omran, S.M.; Saber, S.; Rafati, H.; Zoll, J.; Lee, H.A.L. van der; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.; Seyedmousavi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus has been frequently reported as the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis in certain tropical and subtropical countries. Two hundred A. flavus strains originating from clinical and environmental sources and collected between 2008 and 2015 were phylogenetically identified at the

  15. Environmental and Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Human Sperm Parameters: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Perry, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January, 2007 and August, 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  16. Effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liqiong; Li, Peng-Hui; Li, Hua; Colicino, Elena; Colicino, Silvia; Wen, Yi; Zhang, Ruiping; Feng, Xiaotian; Barrow, Timothy M; Cayir, Akin; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Byun, Hyang-Min

    2017-02-01

    Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health. We exposed four groups of male Wistar rats to moderate intensity noise (70-75dB with 20-4000Hz) at night for three days as short-term exposure, and for three weeks as long-term exposure. Noise exposure was limited to 45dB during the daytime. Control groups were exposed to only 45dB, day and night. We measured DNA methylation in the Bdnf, Comt, Crhr1, Mc2r, and Snca genes in tissue from four brain regions of the rats (hippocampus, frontal lobe, medulla oblongata, and inferior colliculus). Further, we measured blood pressure and body weight after long-term noise exposure. We found that environmental noise exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation changes in specific regions of the brain. Changes in DNA methylation are significantly associated with changes in body weight (between Bdnf DNA methylation and Δ body weight: r=0.59, p=0.018; and between LINE-1 ORF DNA methylation and Δ body weight: =-0.80, p=0.0004). We also observed that noise exposure decreased blood pressure (p=0.038 for SBP, p=0.017 for DBP and p 0. 017 for MAP) and decreased body weight (β=-26g, p=0.008). In conclusion, environmental noise exposures can induce changes in DNA methylation in the brain, which may be associated with adverse effects upon metabolic health through modulation of response to stress-related hormones

  17. Occupational and environmental exposures to heavy metals: risk factors for male infertility in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; King, Luke; Nriagu, Jerome O; Kobeissi, Loulou; Hammoud, Najwa; Awwad, Johnny; Abu-Musa, Antoine A; Hannoun, Antoine B

    2008-02-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine whether occupational or environmental exposures, particularly to heavy metals, are associated with male infertility in Lebanon, a war-torn country with a history of environmental degradation. Seventy-four infertile cases and 76 fertile controls were selected from 2 major fertility clinics in Beirut. Data collection involved risk-factor interviews, semen analysis, and blood collection for heavy metal analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that men with reported occupational exposures were twice as likely to be infertile as unexposed men. However, none of the subcategories of infertile men (based on semen analysis results) had significantly higher whole blood concentrations of heavy metals when compared to fertile controls. Blood concentrations were well within the range for referent populations of healthy individuals. Thus, despite Lebanon's poor record of occupational and environmental stewardship, exposure to metal pollutants does not appear to represent an important risk factor for male infertility.

  18. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans to four antifungal drugs determined by two techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, E M P; Prímola, N S; Hamdan, Júnia Soares

    2003-06-01

    A total of 64 Cryptococcus neoformans strains, including clinical and environmental Brazilian isolates var. neoformans and var. gattii, were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole and itraconazole. The tests were performed according to the recommendations of National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards and the method of macrodilution in liquid medium of Shadomy et al. [Manual de Microbiologia Clínica, 4th ed. Buenos Aires: Editorial Medica Panamericana, 1987: 1229-38]. For most drugs there was a significant difference between the readings taken at 24 and 48 h with both methods. When the minimum inhibitory concentrations obtained by the two techniques were compared, significant differences were observed for amphotericin B and fluconazole. Overall, differences in drug susceptibility with respect to the origin of the isolates or the variety of the fungus were not observed. As an exception, the gattii variety exhibited a high resistance rate to amphotericin B when the technique of Shadomy et al. was applied, a fact possibly related to the greater difficulty for treatment of the disease caused by this fungal variety.

  19. Environmental Occurrence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes at a Slaughterhouse Raw Processing Plant in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Claudia; Morar, Adriana; Tîrziu, Emil; Nichita, Ileana; Imre, Mirela; Imre, Kálmán

    2016-10-01

    This survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes isolates in the environment of a pig slaughterhouse raw processing plant complex in western Romania. A total of 97 environmental samples from food contact (n = 60) and nonfood contact (n = 37) surfaces were examined with standard methods. The susceptibility of the isolates to 17 antimicrobial agents was determined with the VITEK 2 automated system. Overall, 25 (25.8%) samples were positive for L. monocytogenes , with recovery rates of 23.3% (n = 14) and 29.7% (n = 11) for food contact and nonfood contact surfaces, respectively. All 25 tested isolates were resistant to benzylpenicillin, imipenem, and fusidic acid. Resistance was observed to oxacillin (23 isolates; 92%), fosfomycin (23 isolates; 92%), clindamycin (22 isolates; 88%), rifampin (14 isolates; 56%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (12 isolates; 48%), tetracycline (11 isolates; 44%), and ciprofloxacin (1 isolate; 4%). No resistance was found to seven tested agents: gentamicin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, and tigecycline. All tested L. monocytogenes isolates were resistant to four to nine antimicrobial agents. These results indicate a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates in this pork-processing environment, providing baseline information for hygienists and public health specialists.

  20. Environmental exposure of a community to airborne trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sheppard A; Simmons, Michael B; Ortiz-Serrano, Margarita; Kendrick, Christine; Gallo, Adrienne; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    School officials and community citizens in Georgia were concerned about the airborne trichloroethylene (TCE) that was emanating from a nearby industrial facility that used TCE as a degreaser. No measurements of airborne TCE in the community were taken by public health officials or the industrial facility. The regulation of release of TCE from this facility was governed, in part, by mathematical model predictions of dispersion into the community. In support of community health concerns, the authors collected a limited number of outdoor and indoor air samples in the affected community, including those from a school, a small business, and three homes, for the analysis of TCE. The mean outdoor air concentration of TCE for all affected sites was 0.96 microg/m3 with a peak TCE concentration of 4.59 microg/m3. The mean indoor air concentration of TCE for all affected sites was 1.40 microg/m3 with a peak TCE concentration of 4.66 microg/m3. All collected air samples were below the guideline level of 5 microg TCE/m3 of air as used by the state of Georgia in the United States, but sample levels were greater than those found in large population studies of TCE in indoor and outdoor air in Minnesota in the United States and in Ottawa in Canada. Additional air samples are needed to better characterize the exposure of the community to TCE.

  1. Aging and environmental exposures alter tissue-specific DNA methylation dependent upon CpG island context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock C Christensen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic control of gene transcription is critical for normal human development and cellular differentiation. While alterations of epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation have been linked to cancers and many other human diseases, interindividual epigenetic variations in normal tissues due to aging, environmental factors, or innate susceptibility are poorly characterized. The plasticity, tissue-specific nature, and variability of gene expression are related to epigenomic states that vary across individuals. Thus, population-based investigations are needed to further our understanding of the fundamental dynamics of normal individual epigenomes. We analyzed 217 non-pathologic human tissues from 10 anatomic sites at 1,413 autosomal CpG loci associated with 773 genes to investigate tissue-specific differences in DNA methylation and to discern how aging and exposures contribute to normal variation in methylation. Methylation profile classes derived from unsupervised modeling were significantly associated with age (P<0.0001 and were significant predictors of tissue origin (P<0.0001. In solid tissues (n = 119 we found striking, highly significant CpG island-dependent correlations between age and methylation; loci in CpG islands gained methylation with age, loci not in CpG islands lost methylation with age (P<0.001, and this pattern was consistent across tissues and in an analysis of blood-derived DNA. Our data clearly demonstrate age- and exposure-related differences in tissue-specific methylation and significant age-associated methylation patterns which are CpG island context-dependent. This work provides novel insight into the role of aging and the environment in susceptibility to diseases such as cancer and critically informs the field of epigenomics by providing evidence of epigenetic dysregulation by age-related methylation alterations. Collectively we reveal key issues to consider both in the construction of reference and disease

  2. Determining the validity of exposure models for environmental epidemiology : predicting electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in environmental epidemiology is the exposure assessment of large populations. Spatial exposure models have been developed that predict exposure to the pollutant of interest for large study sizes. However, the validity of these exposure models is often unknown. In this

  3. Acute Ethanol Exposure Increases the Susceptibility of the Donor Hearts to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Transplantation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Sivakkanan; Weymann, Alexander; Radovits, Tamás; Barnucz, Enikő; Hirschberg, Kristóf; Hegedüs, Peter; Zhou, Yan; Tao, Liang; Páli, Szabolcs; Veres, Gábor; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Background Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1) to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2) to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. Methods Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip). We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (−34±9%) and load-independent (−33±12%) contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47±10%), elongated QT-interval (+38±4%), enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial contractility and relaxation

  4. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiliang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2 to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. METHODS: Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip. We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (-34 ± 9% and load-independent (-33 ± 12% contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47 ± 10%, elongated QT-interval (+38 ± 4%, enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial

  5. Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to environmental factors and the clinicopathologic development of oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which is the fourth most common cancer in Taiwanese men, is associated with environmental carcinogens. The possibility that genetic predisposition in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB-signaling pathways activation is linked to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC requires investigation. The current study examines associations between polymorphisms within promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-κB1 and NFKBIA encoding IkappaBalpha (IκBα with both the susceptibility to develop OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors.Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR for 462 patients with oral cancer and 520 non-cancer controls. We found that NFKB1 -94 ATGG1/ATGG2, -94 ATGG2/ATGG2, and the combination of -94 ATGG1/ATGG2 and ATGG2/ATGG2 genotypes NFKBIA -826 T (CT+TT and -881 G (AG+GG allelic carriages, were more prevalent in OSCC patients than in non-cancer participants. Moreover, we found that NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms seem to be related to susceptibility to develop oral cancer linked to betel nut and tobacco consumption. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one -519 T allele of the NFKBIA gene were at higher risk for developing distant metastasis (P<.05, compared with those patients CC homozygotes.Our results suggest that NFKB1 -94 ATTG2, NFKBIA -826 T, and -881 G alleles are associated with oral carcinogenesis. The combination of NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens appears related to an increased risk of oral cancer. More importantly, the genetic polymorphism of NFKBIA -519 might be a predictive factor for the distal metastasis of OSCC in Taiwanese.

  6. Environmental isolation, biochemical identification, and antifungal drug susceptibility of Cryptococcus species

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    Valter Luis Iost Teodoro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent years and is considered an important public health problem. Among systemic and opportunistic mycoses, cryptococcosis is distinguished by its clinical importance due to the increased risk of infection in individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Methods To determine the occurrence of pathogenic Cryptococcus in pigeon excrement in the City of Araraquara, samples were collected from nine environments, including state and municipal schools, abandoned buildings, parks, and a hospital. The isolates were identified using classical tests, and susceptibility testing for the antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B independently was also performed. After collection, the excrement samples were plated on Niger agar and incubated at room temperature. Results A total of 87 bird dropping samples were collected, and 66.6% were positive for the genus Cryptococcus. The following species were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans (17.2%, Cryptococcus gattii (5.2%, Cryptococcus ater (3.5%, Cryptococcus laurentti (1.7%, and Cryptococcus luteolus (1.7%. A total of 70.7% of the isolates were not identified to the species level and are referred to as Cryptococcus spp. throughout the manuscript. Conclusions Although none of the isolates demonstrated resistance to antifungal drugs, the identification of infested areas, the proper control of birds, and the disinfection of these environments are essential for the epidemiological control of cryptococcosis.

  7. Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth: clues from environmental exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Heather H.; Collins, James W.; Wright, Robert O.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite advances in medical care, preterm birth and its associated racial/ethnic disparities remain major public health issues. Environmental exposures may contribute to racial disparities in preterm birth. Recent findings Recent work in Iran demonstrated lead levels premature rupture of membranes. Data on air pollution are mixed. A study in California found exposure to nitric oxide species to be associated with preterm birth. However, results from large birth cohorts in the Netherlands found no association. Interestingly, a study in South Korea recently demonstrated that socioeconomic status modifies the association between air pollution and preterm birth. A recent promising study randomized minority pregnant women in Washington DC to cognitive behavioral therapy vs. usual care to decrease exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The investigators reported reductions in ETS exposure and the risk of very preterm birth. Summary Clues about potential mechanisms underlying disparities in preterm birth can be gained from exploring differences in environmental exposures. Investigators should include environmental variables when studying birth outcomes. Such efforts should result in targeted interventions to decrease the incidence of preterm birth and its disparities. PMID:21301340

  8. Polymorphic Variation in Susceptibility and Metabolism of Triclosan-Resistant Mutants of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Strains Obtained after Exposure to Biocides and Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiao, Tânia; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Oggioni, Marco R.; Baquero, Fernando; Martinez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to biocides may result in cross-resistance to other antimicrobials. Changes in biocide and antibiotic susceptibilities, metabolism, and fitness costs were studied here in biocide-selected Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants. E. coli and K. pneumoniae mutants with various degrees of triclosan susceptibility were obtained after exposure to triclosan (TRI), benzalkonium chloride (BKC), chlorhexidine (CHX) or sodium hypochlorite (SHC), and ampicillin or ciprofloxacin. Alterations in antimicrobial susceptibility and metabolism in mutants were tested using Phenotype MicroArrays. The expression of AcrAB pump and global regulators (SoxR, MarA, and RamA) was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and the central part of the fabI gene was sequenced. The fitness costs of resistance were assessed by a comparison of relative growth rates. Triclosan-resistant (TRIr) and triclosan-hypersusceptible (TRIhs) mutants of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were obtained after selection with biocides and/or antibiotics. E. coli TRIr mutants, including those with mutations in the fabI gene or in the expression of acrB, acrF, and marA, exhibited changes in susceptibility to TRI, CHX, and antibiotics. TRIr mutants for which the TRI MIC was high presented improved metabolism of carboxylic acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates. In TRIr mutants, resistance to one antimicrobial provoked hypersusceptibility to another one(s). TRIr mutants had fitness costs, particularly marA-overexpressing (E. coli) or ramA-overexpressing (K. pneumoniae) mutants. TRI, BKC, and CIP exposure frequently yielded TRIr mutants exhibiting alterations in AraC-like global regulators (MarA, SoxR, and RamA), AcrAB-TolC, and/or FabI, and influencing antimicrobial susceptibility, fitness, and metabolism. These various phenotypes suggest a trade-off of different selective processes shaping the evolution toward antibiotic/biocide resistance and influencing other adaptive traits. PMID

  9. Air pollution exposure: a novel environmental risk factor for interstitial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannson, Kerri A; Balmes, John R; Collard, Harold R

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease.

  10. Artificial tritrophic exposure system for environmental risk analysis on aphidophagous predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÉBORA P. PAULA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We evaluated an artificial tritrophic exposure system for use in ecotoxicological evaluations of environmental stressors on aphidophagous predators. It consists of an acrylic tube with a Parafilm M sachet containing liquid aphid diet, into which can be added environmental stressors. Immature Cycloneda sanguinea, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla externa, and adult H. axyridis were reared on Myzus persicae. Larval and pupal development and survival of all species and reproductive parameters of H. axyridis were similar to published results. The system provides a suitable tritrophic exposure route, enables ex-ante evaluation of stressors, and improves the accuracy of the assessment.

  11. Early life exposure to chronic intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during adulthood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonald, Fiona B

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and\\/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  12. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle During Adulthood

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    Fiona B Mcdonald

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH during postnatal development (pCIH causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 hours of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 hrs per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH, where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life.

  13. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior.

  14. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  15. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Di Renzo, GC; Conry, JA; Blake, J.; Defrancesco, MS; Denicola, N; Martin, JN; McCue, KA; Richmond, D; Shah, A.; Sutton, P; Woodruff, TJ; Van Der Poel, SZ; Giudice, LC

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are di...

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Hyperactivity Behavior in Chinese Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmei Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and hyperactivity behaviors in young children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 21,243 participants from all of the kindergartens in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China. Multivariate logistic regression models and hierarchical linear models were employed to assess the associations. After adjusting for potential confounders of gender, preterm birth, birth asphyxiation, etc., prenatal ETS exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity behaviors in young children (OR (95% CI = 1.51 (1.28–1.77; β (95% CI = 0.017 (0.013–0.020. Along with increases in children’s prenatal ETS exposure dose (measured by daily ETS exposure duration, daily cigarette consumption by household members, and overall score of prenatal ETS exposure, the children were also increasingly more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors. Furthermore, children whose mothers had prenatal ETS exposure in any one or more of the pregnancy trimesters were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors as compared with those born to non-exposure mothers (all p < 0.05. Overall, prenatal ETS exposure could be associated with a detrimental impact on offspring’s hyperactivity behaviors, and public health efforts are needed to reduce prenatal ETS exposure.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA EXPOSURE, SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS, AND SELF-EFFICACY ON ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GREEN PRODUCTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iman Khalid A. Qader; Yuserrie Zainuddin

    2011-01-01

    .... This study intends to understand consumers' environmental attitudes towards electronic green products and to identify the effect of three factors, namely, media exposure, safety and health concerns...

  18. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  19. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Issue Paper on Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Pregnant and Lactating Women and Available Exposure Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper provides a summary of information from the published literature related to behavioral and physiological changes during pregnancy and lactation that may affect women’s exposure or susceptibility to environmental contaminants, provides potentially useful exposur...

  1. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  2. Linking high resolution mass spectrometry data with exposure and toxicity forecasts to advance high-throughput environmental monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is a growing need in the field of exposure science for monitoring methods that rapidly screen environmental media for suspect contaminants. Measurement and...

  3. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  4. Environmental responses and phage susceptibility in foodborne pathogens: implications for improving applications in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Thomas; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Bacterial foodborne pathogens can rapidly respond to changes in their environment, granting them the ability to survive under a broad range of conditions. In doing so, they undergo physiological alterations that can influence the efficacy of detection and interventions used in the food industry. As bacteriophage-based applications in food safety are gaining traction, it is crucial that we consider the effect the environment can have on phage-host interactions. This review aims to bridge knowledge of the responses of bacterial foodborne pathogens to changing environmental conditions with our understanding of phage-host interactions. An improved understanding of these intersections will aid in the development of bacteriophage-based products for the detection, biocontrol and biosanitation of foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  6. Issues in using epidemiologic data to estimate cancer risks from environmental chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picciotto, I.-H.; Neutra, R.; Alexeeff, G.; Lipsett, M.; Holtzman, D. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    Quantitative assessment of cancer is an important health policy application of environmental epidemiology. This paper addresses how epidemiology can reduce uncertainty in estimates of cancer risk from environmental exposures. To extrapolate to low levels, epidemiologic studies need well-qualified exposure data, adequate control of confounding, and a positive dose-response trend. In cases such as cadmium and arsenic, a critical issue is the shape of the dose-response curve. The data on arsenic suggest that assumption of linearity may under-estimate risk. Other uncertainties arise in extrapolating from adult males in occupational settings to a heterogeneous population exposed environmentally. Epidemiologic studies with less exposure data or negative findings may be used for a risk assessment based on animal data (e.g., ethylene dibromide, ethylene oxide, and methylene chloride). Then the hypothesized effect level for humans depends on the animal-based potency and estimated human exposures. Therefore, statistical power hinges on study size and on exposure levels (ethylene oxide, methylene chloride, and saccharin). Comparisons of human epidemiologic data and animal bioassays may permit the rejection of models and a narrowing of the range of plausible risks (e.g., ethylene dibromide, cadmium), or suggest that the animal-based assessment is not contradicted by the epidemiologic data (e.g., ethylene oxide, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride).

  7. Awareness and Environmental Exposures Related to Coccidioidomycosis Among Inmates at Two California Prisons, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Purfield, Anne E; Mohle-Boetani, Janet; Wheeler, Charlotte; Park, Benjamin J

    2016-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) is a major cause of illness in inmates in some California prisons. This article discusses an investigation conducted at two prisons to describe potential environmental exposures. The study did not identify modifiable risk factors; limiting the type or duration of outdoor activity in these prisons may not decrease coccidioidomycosis morbidity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Environmental exposure at day care centres: are our children at risk?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the exposure of 5-year old children attending preschool facilities in Pretoria to lead (as an example of an environmental pollutant) in air and surface soil, specifically in relation to their activity patterns....

  9. Early-life exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fuels (such as paraffin, wood, coal and other biomass substances), often in inadequately ventilated homes, contributes to indoor air pollution, a recognised risk factor for respiratory disease.[5] Further, environmental tobacco smoke exposure continues to be problematic despite anti-smoking legislation.[6]. The Drakenstein ...

  10. Environmental Exposure and Design Criteria for Offshore Oil and Gas Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    Oceanic and Atmospheric Admanistration Neil T. Monney , U.S. Naval Academy William M. Nicholson, National Oceanic and Atmosphertc Administ rat ion...Sea Floor Soils . ......................... 186 E. H. Doyle, J.*M. Audibert, R. G. Bea and N. T. Monney Environmental Exposure Conditions Taken into

  11. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  12. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Objectives: Our aim

  13. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Maartje|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344726908; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; van der Mark, Marianne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322848350; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M G; Van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. OBJECTIVES: Our aim

  14. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children's cognitive development and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1) referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2) referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  15. Exposure to widespread environmental toxicants and children’s cognitive development and behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jurewicz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a special attention is focused on prenatal and childhood exposures to a variety of contaminants in the environment, especially toxicants widely present in the environment and their impact on children's health and neurodevelopment. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to several widespread toxicants including: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and gas cooking on children's cognitive development and behavioral problems by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to widespread toxicants and children's development for the last eleven years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco and Toxnet literature bases. The combination of following key words was used: 1 referring to the exposure: pregnancy, prenatal exposure, postnatal exposure, gas cooking, exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, PAHs and 2 referring to outcome: neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, psychomotor development, behavioral problems, cognitive development, mental health, school achievements, learning abilities. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to insult from low levels of exposure to widespread environmental contaminants such as: phthalates, bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, gas cooking. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.

  16. Prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and childhood fat mass in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P; Herring, Amy H; Wolff, Mary S; Calafat, Antonia M; Engel, Stephanie M

    2016-05-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals may alter adipogenesis and energy balance leading to changes in obesity risk. Several studies have evaluated the association of prenatal bisphenol A exposure with childhood body size but only one study of male infants has examined other environmental phenols. Therefore, we assessed associations between prenatal exposure to environmental phenols and fat mass in a prospective birth cohort. We quantified four phenol biomarkers in third trimester maternal spot urine samples in a cohort of women enrolled in New York City between 1998 and 2002 and evaluated fat mass in their children using a Tanita scale between ages 4 and 9years (173 children with 351 total observations). We estimated associations of standard deviation differences in natural log creatinine-standardized phenol biomarker concentrations with percent fat mass using linear mixed effects regression models. We did not observe associations of bisphenol A or triclosan with childhood percent fat mass. In unadjusted models, maternal urinary concentrations of 2,5-dichlorophenol were associated with greater percent fat mass and benzophenone-3 was associated with lower percent fat mass among children. After adjustment, phenol biomarkers were not associated with percent fat mass. However, the association between benzophenone-3 and percent fat mass was modified by child's sex: benzophenone-3 concentrations were inversely associated with percent fat mass in girls (beta=-1.51, 95% CI=-3.06, 0.01) but not boys (beta=-0.20, 95% CI=-1.69, 1.26). Although we did not observe strong evidence that prenatal environmental phenols exposures influence the development of childhood adiposity, the potential antiadipogenic effect of benzophenone-3 in girls may warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Implications for Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Toxins: Consumption Habits of Pregnant Women and Prenatal Nicotine Exposure in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Sarah Emily

    This dissertation provides a discussion of the effects of maternal consumption of environmental toxins, and will hopefully contribute to the prevention and understanding of developmental disorders and physiological deficits. Developing systems are particularly susceptible to toxic insults, and small changes in utero can result in long-term deficits. Chapter one of this dissertation reviews the potential teratogenicity of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, MeHg, PCBs, BPA, and tap water contaminants, so as to characterize the current body of literature detailing the effects and implications of prenatal exposure to toxins. In chapter two, research on maternal consumption habits is presented, with an emphasis on commonly-consumed, potentially-teratogenic substances. Occurrences and frequencies of maternal intake of healthy and unhealthy foods, beverages, and medications in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California were assessed using the Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ). The described study reveals that a proportion of pregnant women consumed BPA, MeHg, caffeine, and alcohol at varied levels during pregnancy. The following chapters provide an in-depth analysis of the postnatal effects of a particular neuroteratogen, nicotine, which has been shown to impart various detrimental postnatal effects on exposed offspring. A CD-1 mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) was used to analyze aspects of the brain and neocortex that may underly some of the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes seen with PNE. Analyses included postnatal measurements of brain weight, brain widths and lengths, development of neocortical circuitry, and cortical thickness measures. Exposed mice were found to exhibit reduced brain and body weights at birth, a phenotype that recovered by postnatal day 10. No changes in neocortical circuity or thickness in sensory and motor areas were found. PNE also resulted in persistent behavioral effects, including

  18. Externalizing problems in late childhood as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure and environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Marini, Victoria A; Berzenski, Sara R; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) predicts externalizing problems in late childhood. Externalizing problems were assessed using caregiver, teacher, and child ratings and a laboratory task when children (N = 179; 74 cocaine exposed) were aged 8-10 years. PCE, environmental risk, sex, neonatal health, other prenatal exposures, and foster care history were examined as predictors of externalizing problems. Multiple regression analyses indicated that PCE, environmental risk, and male sex explained significant variance in externalizing problems in late childhood. Models varied by source of information. PCE predicted externalizing problems for child laboratory behavior and interacted with sex because males with PCE reported more externalizing problems. PCE did not predict caregiver or teacher ratings of externalizing problems. The effect of PCE on externalizing problems may persist into late childhood. The findings highlight the potential importance of including child-based measures of externalizing problems in studies of prenatal exposure.

  19. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli Dubay

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR, and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3. We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010-2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%, IBR (7.9%, Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%, L. i. bratislava (1.0%, L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5% and L. i. hardjo (0.3%. Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119 were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens.

  20. Environmental Factors Influencing White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) Exposure to Livestock Pathogens in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Bryant; Mahoney, Kathleen; Norton, Andrew; Patnayak, Devi; Van Deelen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are commonly exposed to disease agents that affect livestock but environmental factors that predispose deer to exposure are unknown for many pathogens. We trapped deer during winter months on two study areas (Northern Forest and Eastern Farmland) in Wisconsin from 2010 to 2013. Deer were tested for exposure to six serovars of Leptospira interrogans (grippotyphosa, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, bratislava, pomona, and hardjo), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR), and parainfluenza 3 virus (PI3). We used logistic regression to model potential intrinsic (e.g., age, sex) and extrinsic (e.g., land type, study site, year, exposure to multiple pathogens) variables we considered biologically meaningful to exposure of deer to livestock pathogens. Deer sampled in 2010–2011 did not demonstrate exposure to BVDV, so we did not test for BVDV in subsequent years. Deer had evidence of exposure to PI3 (24.7%), IBR (7.9%), Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona (11.7%), L. i. bratislava (1.0%), L. i. grippotyphosa (2.5%) and L. i. hardjo (0.3%). Deer did not demonstrate exposure to L. interrogans serovars canicola and icterohaemorrhagiae. For PI3, we found that capture site and year influenced exposure. Fawns (n = 119) were not exposed to L. i. pomona, but land type was an important predictor of exposure to L. i. pomona for older deer. Our results serve as baseline exposure levels of Wisconsin white-tailed deer to livestock pathogens, and helped to identify important factors that explain deer exposure to livestock pathogens. PMID:26030150

  1. Impacts of microRNA gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility of environmental factors leading to carcinogenesis in oral cancer.

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    Yin-Hung Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been regarded as a critical factor in targeting oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in tumorigenesis. The genetic predisposition of miRNAs-signaling pathways related to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remains unresolved. This study examined the associations of polymorphisms with four miRNAs with the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 895 male subjects, including 425 controls and 470 male oral cancer patients, were selected. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR were used to analyze miRNA146a, miRNA196, miRNA499 and miRNA149 genetic polymorphisms between the control group and the case group. This study determined that a significant association of miRNA499 with CC genotype, as compared to the subjects with TT genotype, had a higher risk (AOR = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.24-16.48 of OSCC. Moreover, an impact of those four miRNAs gene polymorphism on the susceptibility of betel nut and tobacco consumption leading to oral cancer was also revealed. We found a protective effect between clinical stage development (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.94 and the tumor size growth (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28-0.79 in younger patients (age<60. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic polymorphism of miRNA499 is associated with oral carcinogenesis, and the interaction of the miRNAs genetic polymorphism and environmental carcinogens is also related to an increased risk of oral cancer in Taiwanese.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria spp. isolates including Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Bertsch, David; Muelli, Mirjam; Weller, Monika; Uruty, Anaïs; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental Listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. A small fraction of in total 524 Listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. In two cases, a tetracycline resistance phenotype was observed together with a trimethoprim resistance phenotype, namely in a clinical L. monocytogenes strain and in a foodborne L. innocua isolate. Depending on the applied guidelines, a differing number of isolates (n = 2 or n = 20) showed values for ampicillin that are on the edge between intermediate susceptibility and resistance. Transferability of the antibiotic resistance genes from the Listeria donors, elucidated in vitro by filter matings, was demonstrated for genes located on transposons of the Tn916 family and for an unknown clindamycin resistance determinant. Transfer rates of up to 10(-5) transconjugants per donor were obtained with a L. monocytogenes recipient and up to 10(-7) with an Enterococcus faecalis recipient, respectively. Although the prevalence of acquired antibiotic resistance in Listeria isolates from this study was rather low, the transferability of these resistances enables further spread in the future. This endorses the importance of surveillance of L. monocytogenes and other Listeria spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

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    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioassay of Environmental Exposure of Children to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Using 1-Hydroxypyrene

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    Ibrahimi Ghavam Abadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of main air pollutants which are produced by motor vehicles and are known as carcinogens. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the environmental exposure of children to PAHs using urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP measurement. Patients and Methods A total of 260 participants enrolled in the study, aged between 6 - 12 years. Environmental exposure due to urban traffic and tobacco smoke was investigated. Morning and evening urine samples were collected and 1-OHP concentrations were measured. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector, used for sample analysis, and 1-OHP concentrations in urine samples, corrected by urinary creatinine, were determined for PAHs exposure assessment. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and air pollution of the residential area as a measure of heavy traffic and living close to busy highways were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results In general, the results showed that males had higher 1-OHP levels than females (P < 0.05. The total morning levels were 0.47 ± 0.12 µmol/mol crea vs. 0.63 ± 0.15 µmol/mol crea for evening. In the presence of ETS, higher 1-OHP concentrations were observed in morning samples. In addition, living in a polluted area is strongly associated with higher levels of 1-OHP. Conclusions Taking into account that Iran is a developing country with a young population and numerous PAHs sources, environmental exposure to PAHs at these levels can be dangerous for children’s health. Furthermore, PAHs can be declared as national concerning environmental pollutants.

  5. Metabolic profiling detects early effects of environmental and lifestyle exposure to cadmium in a human population

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    Ellis James K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'exposome' represents the accumulation of all environmental exposures across a lifetime. Top-down strategies are required to assess something this comprehensive, and could transform our understanding of how environmental factors affect human health. Metabolic profiling (metabonomics/metabolomics defines an individual's metabolic phenotype, which is influenced by genotype, diet, lifestyle, health and xenobiotic exposure, and could also reveal intermediate biomarkers for disease risk that reflect adaptive response to exposure. We investigated changes in metabolism in volunteers living near a point source of environmental pollution: a closed zinc smelter with associated elevated levels of environmental cadmium. Methods High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (metabonomics was used to acquire urinary metabolic profiles from 178 human volunteers. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were correlated with lifestyle or biological factors. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were also measured, using mass spectrometry, as a marker of systemic oxidative stress. Results Six urinary metabolites, either associated with mitochondrial metabolism (citrate, 3-hydroxyisovalerate, 4-deoxy-erythronic acid or one-carbon metabolism (dimethylglycine, creatinine, creatine, were associated with cadmium exposure. In particular, citrate levels retained a significant correlation to urinary cadmium and smoking status after controlling for age and sex. Oxidative stress (as determined by urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels was elevated in individuals with high cadmium exposure, supporting the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation was causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Conclusions This study shows evidence that an NMR-based metabolic profiling study in an uncontrolled human population is capable of identifying intermediate biomarkers of response to toxicants at true environmental

  6. Susceptibility genes, social environmental risk factors and their interactions in internalizing disorders among mainland Chinese undergraduates.

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    Meng, Xiangfei; Kou, Changgui; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Yaqin; Huang, Yueqin

    2011-07-01

    Analyses of large scale psychiatric epidemiology surveys suggest that common mental disorders can be generalized into two underlying dimensions, internalizing disorders (e.g. depression, and anxiety) and externalizing disorders (e.g. addictions). The present study explores the interactions among the genes (SLC6A4, BDNF, and MAOA) and selected environment factors (G×E), and gene×gene (G×G) interactions for internalizing disorders in the sample of Chinese university students. This is a genetic case control study. 259 undergraduates affected with internalizing disorders and 269 healthy controls were included. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the potential environmental risk factors. G×E interactions were analyzed using the method developed by Mukherjee et al. (2008). Analyses of G×G interactions were conducted by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) (Lou et al., 2007). We have previously reported on the polymorphism information for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on SLC6A4, BDNF, and MAOA genes (Meng et al., 2009; Meng, 2010). We found that an offspring's reported parents' negative mood, subject's unwillingness to express emotion, being an only child, having an unfulfilling relationship with his/her mother, and increased activity and behavior restrictions by his/her father were social environment risk factors for internalizing disorders. No statistically significant interactions were found in the G×E analyses. G×G analyses found that subjects with mutational alleles concurrently on rs10835210 and rs2030324 (BDNF gene) were significantly likely to develop internalizing disorders. Those with one mutated allele on either SNPs were 1.761 times, and those with both mutated alleles were 3.353 times, more likely to develop internalizing disorders. A negative family emotional environment was found to be associated with internalizing disorders. BDNF gene variants were also found to be similarly associated. Using conservative

  7. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  8. In vitro evaluation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to antiseptics and disinfectants: comparison between clinical and environmental isolates

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    Sanae Lanjri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to assess the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates to the antiseptics and disinfectants commonly used, and to the non-approved product. Methods This is a prospective study carried out from February to August 2015, in the Bacteriology department of Mohammed V Military Teaching hospital of Rabat on A.baumannii isolates collected from colonized and/or infected patients and environmental samples. The antiseptics and disinfectants susceptibility testing was assessed using the micromethod validated in our department. The antiseptics and disinfectants studied were: 70% ethyl alcohol, chlorhexidine, povidone-iodine, didecyldimethylammonium chloride and a commercial product which was presented as a hospital disinfectant (non-registered product. Results Povidone-iodine, 0.5% chlorhexidine digluconate, 70% ethyl alcohol and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride in combination with N- (3-aminopropyl -N-dodecylpropane-1, 3-diamine were effective against all the 81 A.baumannii isolates tested, and their logarithmic reduction ≥ 5 were observed in 100% of the isolates in their undiluted form. The strains isolated from patients were more resistant than environmental strains: at a dilution of ½ for 70% ethyl alcohol (37.77% vs 11.11%, p = 0.007 and at a dilution of 1/10 (100% vs 69.44%, p < 0.001 for povidone iodine. The non-registered product was ineffective with a resistance rate of 96.29% at a dilution of 1/50, 45.67% at a dilution of 1/10 and 13.58% in its purest form. Conclusion Our study revealed the effectiveness of the main disinfectants and antiseptics used in Morocco; three antiseptics tested were effective in their purest form against the 81 A.baumannii isolates. Regarding disinfectants, our results showed an efficacy of didecyl dimethyl ammonium at the recommended use concentration and in its purest form. This study emphasizes the need for using disinfectants and antiseptics in dilutions

  9. Impairment of the reproductive potential of male fathead minnows by environmentally relevant exposures to 4-nonylphenolf

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    Schoenfuss, H.L.; Bartell, S.E.; Bistodeau, T.B.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Zintek, Larry; Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    The synthetic organic compound 4-nonylphenol (NP) has been detected in many human-impacted surface waters in North America. In this study, we examined the ability of NP to alter reproductive competence in male fathead minnows after a 28 day flow-through exposure in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations bracketing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency toxicity-based NP chronic exposure criterion of 6.1 ??g NP/L. Exposure to NP at and above the EPA chronic exposure criterion resulted in an induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) within 14 days. However, 7 days after the cessation of exposure, VTG concentrations had dropped more than 50% and few males expressed VTG above the detection threshold. All of the morphological endpoints, including gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, secondary sexual characters, and histopathology, were unaltered by all NP treatments. However, when NP-exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males for access to nest sites and females, most treatments altered the reproductive competence of exposed males. At lower NP concentrations, exposed males out-competed control males, possibly by being primed through the estrogenic NP exposure in a fashion similar to priming by pheromones released from female fathead minnows. At higher NP exposure concentrations, this priming effect was negated by the adverse effects of the exposure and control males out-competed treated males. Results of this study indicate the complexity of endocrine disrupting effects and the need for multiple analysis levels to assess the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is susceptibility to prenatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption non-homogeneous? Tree-structured analysis for the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shan; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Cox, Christopher; Xiao, Fenyuan; Thurston, Sally W; Cernichiari, Elsa; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Georger, Lesley; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2007-11-01

    Studies of the association between prenatal methylmercury exposure from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental test scores in the Seychelles Child Development Study have found no consistent pattern of associations through age 9 years. The analyses for the most recent 9-year data examined the population effects of prenatal exposure, but did not address the possibility of non-homogeneous susceptibility. This paper presents a regression tree approach: covariate effects are treated non-linearly and non-additively and non-homogeneous effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure are permitted among the covariate clusters identified by the regression tree. The approach allows us to address whether children in the lower or higher ends of the developmental spectrum differ in susceptibility to subtle exposure effects. Of 21 endpoints available at age 9 years, we chose the Weschler Full Scale IQ and its associated covariates to construct the regression tree. The prenatal mercury effect in each of the nine resulting clusters was assessed linearly and non-homogeneously. In addition we reanalyzed five other 9-year endpoints that in the linear analysis had a two-tailed p-value <0.2 for the effect of prenatal exposure. In this analysis, motor proficiency and activity level improved significantly with increasing MeHg for 53% of the children who had an average home environment. Motor proficiency significantly decreased with increasing prenatal MeHg exposure in 7% of the children whose home environment was below average. The regression tree results support previous analyses of outcomes in this cohort. However, this analysis raises the intriguing possibility that an effect may be non-homogeneous among children with different backgrounds and IQ levels.

  11. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Conry, Jeanne A; Blake, Jennifer; DeFrancesco, Mark S; DeNicola, Nathaniel; Martin, James N; McCue, Kelly A; Richmond, David; Shah, Abid; Sutton, Patrice; Woodruff, Tracey J; van der Poel, Sheryl Ziemin; Giudice, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-25

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  13. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

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    Jayajit Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  14. Is exposure to cyanobacteria an environmental risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases?

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    Bradley, Walter G.; Borenstein, Amy R.; Nelson, Lorene M.; Codd, Geoffrey A.; Rosen, Barry H.; Stommel, Elijah W.; Cox, Paul Alan

    2013-01-01

    There is a broad scientific consensus that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is caused by gene-environment interactions. Mutations in genes underlying familial ALS (fALS) have been discovered in only 5–10% of the total population of ALS patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to environmental and lifestyle factors that may trigger the cascade of motor neuron death leading to the syndrome of ALS, although exposure to chemicals including lead and pesticides, and to agricultural environments, smoking, certain sports, and trauma have all been identified with an increased risk of ALS. There is a need for research to quantify the relative roles of each of the identified risk factors for ALS. Recent evidence has strengthened the theory that chronic environmental exposure to the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) produced by cyanobacteria may be an environmental risk factor for ALS. Here we describe methods that may be used to assess exposure to cyanobacteria, and hence potentially to BMAA, namely an epidemiologic questionnaire and direct and indirect methods for estimating the cyanobacterial load in ecosystems. Rigorous epidemiologic studies could determine the risks associated with exposure to cyanobacteria, and if combined with genetic analysis of ALS cases and controls could reveal etiologically important gene-environment interactions in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  15. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

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    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

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    Neil McInnes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS or house dust mite allergen (HDM or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS. BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons. There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023. There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures.

  17. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

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    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  18. Birth defects in Iraq and the plausibility of environmental exposure: A review

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    Al-Hadithi Tariq S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increased prevalence of birth defects was allegedly reported in Iraq in the post 1991 Gulf War period, which was largely attributed to exposure to depleted uranium used in the war. This has encouraged further research on this particular topic. This paper reviews the published literature and provided evidence concerning birth defects in Iraq to elucidate possible environmental exposure. In addition to published research, this review used some direct observation of birth defects data from Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatric Hospital in Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq from1st July 2000 through 30th June 2002. In addition to depleted uranium other war-related environmental factors have been studied and linked directly or indirectly with the increasing prevalence of birth defects. However, the reviewed studies and the available research evidence do not provide a clear increase in birth defects and a clear indication of a possible environmental exposure including depleted uranium although the country has been facing several environmental challenges since 1980.

  19. Interleukin-24 as a target cytokine of environmental aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist exposure in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Kuo, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Ho, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Hui-Ti; Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Pinpin

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to environmental aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, such as halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), has great impacts on the development of various lung diseases. As emerging molecular targets for AhR agonists, cytokines may contribute to the inflammatory or immunotoxic effects of environmental AhR agonists. However, general cytokine expression may not specifically indicate environmental AhR agonist exposure. By comparing cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in human lung adenocarcinoma cell line CL5 treated with AhR agonists and the non-AhR agonist polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 39, we identified a target cytokine of environmental AhR agonist exposure of in the lungs. Thirteen cytokine and chemokine genes were altered in the AhR agonists-treated cells, but none were altered in the PCB39-treated cells. Interleukin (IL)-24 was the most highly induced gene among AhR-modulated cytokines. Cotreatment with AhR antagonist completely prevented IL-24 induction by AhR agonists in the CL5 cells. Knockdown AhR expression with short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly reduced benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced IL-24 mRNA levels. We further confirmed that gene transcription, but not mRNA stability, was involved in IL-24 upregulation by BaP. Particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air contains some PAHs and is reported to activate AhR. Oropharyngeal aspiration of PM significantly increased IL-24 levels in lung epithelia and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice 4weeks after treatment. Thus, our data suggests that IL-24 is a pulmonary exposure target cytokine of environmental AhR agonists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  1. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Kozieł, Anna; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Miśkiewicz, Paulina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland.

  2. Residential traffic noise exposure assessment: application and evaluation of European Environmental Noise Directive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Nilsson, Mats E; Stenkvist, Dag; Bellander, Tom; Pershagen, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Digital noise maps produced according to the European Environmental Noise Directive (END) could provide valuable exposure information in noise and health research. However, their usefulness in epidemiological studies has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to apply and evaluate Swedish END maps for assessments of residential traffic noise exposure. END maps from three Swedish cities were used to assess residential traffic noise exposure for a population sample of 2496 men and women included in a national Environmental Health Survey. For each subject, we assessed noise levels manually and automatically at three geographical points, using survey data to locate dwellings within buildings. Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) was used to assess agreement between the noise estimates. To evaluate the maps, we compared the observed and predicted proportions of annoyed residents as a function of noise exposure using survey data and already established exposure-response relationships. The root mean square deviation (r.m.s.) was used to assess the precision of observed estimates. The agreement between the noise estimates ranged from κ=0.4 to 0.8. Generally, there was a high correspondence between observed and predicted exposure-response relationships for noise annoyance, regardless of method and if data on dwelling location within building were used. The best precision was, however, found when we manually corrected the noise level according to the location of the dwelling within buildings (r.m.s.=0.029). Noise maps based on the END appear useful for assessing residential traffic noise exposure, particularly if combined with survey data on dwelling location.

  3. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  4. Acute effects of low-level sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide exposures on the respiratory tract of susceptible subjects in cold environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, R.O.; Randell, J.T.; Haelinen, A.I.; Pennanen, A.S. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland). Div. of Environmental Health; Kosma, V.M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pathology; Pekkarinen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Tukiainen, H. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    1995-12-31

    Several recent epidemiological studies from Finland have suggested that sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) cause adverse health effects in susceptible population groups, such as children and asthmatic patients, at much smaller concentrations than the present guideline values of the World Health Organization. One possible explanation of these findings is that the relatively long winter-time increases the sensitivity of the respiratory tract to irritant pollutants. This hypothesis is supported by experimental human and animal studies, which have shown obstruction and inflammatory changes in the conducting airways after ventilation of cold and dry air. Asthmatic patients are much more sensitive than healthy subjects to the irritating effects of cold and dry air and of air pollutants. The airways of many non-asthmatic a topic subjects are also sensitive to cold air, but these subjects are poorly defined as a potential susceptible population group to air pollutants. The aims of this project are: (1) to construct experimental human and animal facilities and protocols for short-term studies on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} exposures at subfreezing temperatures, (2) to apply advanced lung function methodologies and symptom assessment for characterisation of short-term respiratory responses of asthmatic and a topic subjects to these exposures, (3) to apply well-established pulmonary physiological, cytological and morphological methods for characterisation of short-term responses to and mechanisms of these exposures in the guinea-pig lower airways. (author)

  5. Impact of phthalate and BPA exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility on reproductive hormones and sexual maturation in peripubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

    2017-06-21

    phthalate and BPA exposure and peripubertal measures of male reproductive development are dependent on the timing of that exposure during gestation. These findings suggest that future epidemiological studies relating in utero EDC exposure to pubertal outcomes should consider windows of susceptibility.

  6. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  7. Fish Reproduction Is Disrupted upon Lifelong Exposure to Environmental PAHs Fractions Revealing Different Modes of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs constitute a large family of organic pollutants emitted in the environment as complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on origin. Among a wide range of physiological defects, PAHs are suspected to be involved in disruption of reproduction. In an aquatic environment, the trophic route is an important source of chronic exposure to PAHs. Here, we performed trophic exposure of zebrafish to three fractions of different origin, one pyrolytic and two petrogenic. Produced diets contained PAHs at environmental concentrations. Reproductive traits were analyzed at individual, tissue and molecular levels. Reproductive success and cumulative eggs number were disrupted after exposure to all three fractions, albeit to various extents depending on the fraction and concentrations. Histological analyses revealed ovary maturation defects after exposure to all three fractions as well as degeneration after exposure to a pyrolytic fraction. In testis, hypoplasia was observed after exposure to petrogenic fractions. Genes expression analysis in gonads has allowed us to establish common pathways such as endocrine disruption or differentiation/maturation defects. Taken altogether, these results indicate that PAHs can indeed disrupt fish reproduction and that different fractions trigger different pathways resulting in different effects.

  8. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  9. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nickels

    Full Text Available Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6 and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4. Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16 in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10 in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37 in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98 in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85 in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5, with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17 in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05 in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  10. Testing and environmental exposure of parachute materials for the solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Static tests and evaluation of nonmetallic materials for use in parachutes for recovery of solid rocket boosters used in the space shuttle program are reported. Literature survey and manufacturer and vendor contacts led to the choice of nylon as the fabric most capable of withstanding the extreme loads and environmental conditions during repeated use. The material tests included rupture strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, shrinkage, environmental exposure, and degradation levels. Rinsing and drying procedures were also investigated and a salt-free level for nylon recommended in preparation for reuse. In all possible cases, worst-case conditions were used (e.g., inflation loads, seawater exposure for 3 days per drop-recovery, etc.).

  11. Relation of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure from Environmental Sources to Childhood IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Background Although prenatal methylmercury exposure has been linked to poorer intellectual function in several studies, data from two major prospective, longitudinal studies yielded contradictory results. Associations with cognitive deficits were reported in a Faroe Islands cohort, but few were found in a study in the Seychelles Islands. It has been suggested that co-exposure to another contaminant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may be responsible for the positive findings in the former study and that co-exposure to nutrients in methylmercury-contaminated fish may have obscured and/or protected against adverse effects in the latter. Objectives We aimed to determine the degree to which co-exposure to PCBs may account for the adverse effects of methylmercury and the degree to which co-exposure to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may obscure these effects in a sample of Inuit children in Arctic Québec. Methods IQ was estimated in 282 school-age children from whom umbilical cord blood samples had been obtained and analyzed for mercury and other environmental exposures. Results Prenatal mercury exposure was related to poorer estimated IQ after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The entry of DHA into the model significantly strengthened the association with mercury, supporting the hypothesis that beneficial effects from DHA intake can obscure adverse effects of mercury exposure. Children with cord mercury ≥ 7.5 μg/L were four times as likely to have an IQ score IQ. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to document an association of prenatal mercury exposure with poorer performance on a school-age assessment of IQ, a measure whose relevance for occupational success in adulthood is well established. This association was seen at levels in the range within which many U.S. children of Asian-American background are exposed. Citation Jacobson JL, Muckle G, Ayotte P, Dewailly É, Jacobson SW. 2015. Relation of prenatal methylmercury exposure from

  12. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengshi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel, and polymorphisms of MBL (rs7096206 and MASP-2 (rs6695096 genes were associated with susceptibility to TB in non-smokers, and there were gene–environment interactions among them. Further studies are needed to explore details of the mechanisms of association.

  13. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL HIGH FAT DIET AND SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ADULT OFFSPRING TO OZONE EXPOSURE IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that obesity exacerbates the health effects of air pollutants such as ozone (O3). Maternal inactivity and calorically rich diets lead to offspring that show signs of obesity. Exacerbated O3 susceptibility of offspring could thus be m...

  14. Combining exposure and effect modeling into an integrated probabilistic environmental risk assessment for nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Meesters, Johannes A J; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; van de Meent, Dik; van der Voet, Hilko

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for good environmental risk assessment of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Environmental risk assessment of ENPs has been hampered by lack of data and knowledge about ENPs, their environmental fate, and their toxicity. This leads to uncertainty in the risk assessment. To deal with uncertainty in the risk assessment effectively, probabilistic methods are advantageous. In the present study, the authors developed a method to model both the variability and the uncertainty in environmental risk assessment of ENPs. This method is based on the concentration ratio and the ratio of the exposure concentration to the critical effect concentration, both considered to be random. In this method, variability and uncertainty are modeled separately so as to allow the user to see which part of the total variation in the concentration ratio is attributable to uncertainty and which part is attributable to variability. The authors illustrate the use of the method with a simplified aquatic risk assessment of nano-titanium dioxide. The authors' method allows a more transparent risk assessment and can also direct further environmental and toxicological research to the areas in which it is most needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2958-2967. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  15. DNA strand breaks in the lymphocytes of workers exposed to diisocyanates: indications of individual differences in susceptibility after low-dose and short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, B; Merget, R; Mensing, T; Rabstein, S; Kappler, M; Bracht, A; Haufs, M G; Käfferlein, H U; Brüning, T

    2005-06-01

    Diisocyanates are chemically reactive and induce asthma, but data on genotoxic effects of diisocyanates in humans are limited. The investigation presented here used short term diisocyanate chamber exposure to study DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of 10 healthy individuals and of 42 workers, with airway symptoms, who had previously been exposed to diisocyanates. The alkaline version of the Comet assay was used to analyse DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes. In addition, blood samples of 10 further control individuals without any exposure to diisocyanates were studied. Substances studied were 4,4'-methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI, n=25), 2,4-toluenediisocynate and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate (TDI, n=5), and 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI, n=12), at concentrations between 5 and 30 ppb for 2 h. Lymphocytes isolated from the subjects before exposure and 30 min and 19 h after were used to evaluate DNA damage. No significant changes in DNA strand-break frequencies were measured, as Olive tail moment (OTM), either between groups or before and after diisocyanate exposure. OTM was similar in subjects with an asthmatic reaction (MDI, n=5; TDI, n=1; HDI, n=1) and in subjects without such a reaction. However, a small and susceptible group (about 10% of the individuals studied) could be identified with higher frequencies of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes after chamber exposure. The occurrence of DNA damage in this group may be based on indirect mechanisms such as oxidative stress or apoptosis.

  16. Association of environmental cadmium exposure with periodontal disease in U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O

    2009-05-01

    Periodontal disease is a complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disease that involves degradation of periodontal structures, including alveolar bone. Cadmium adversely affects bone remodeling, and it is therefore possible that environmental Cd exposure may be a risk factor for periodontal-disease-related bone loss. We examined the relationship between environmental Cd exposure and periodontal disease in U.S. adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). We defined periodontal disease as clinical attachment loss of at least 4 mm in > 10% of sites examined. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses to estimate the association between creatinine-corrected urinary Cd levels and periodontal disease. Of the 11,412 participants included in this study, 15.4% had periodontal disease. The age-adjusted geometric mean urine Cd concentration (micrograms per gram creatinine) was significantly higher among participants with periodontal disease [0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.56] than among those without periodontal disease (0.30; 95% CI, 0.28-0.31). Multivariable-adjusted analyses, which included extensive adjustments for tobacco exposure, showed that a 3-fold increase in creatinine-corrected urinary Cd concentrations [corresponding to an increment from the 25th (0.18 microg/g) to the 75th (0.63 microg/g) percentile] was associated with 54% greater odds of prevalent periodontal disease (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.26-1.87). We observed similar results among the subset of participants who had limited exposure to tobacco, but only after removing six influential observations. Environmental Cd exposure was associated with higher odds of periodontal disease.

  17. Human predisposition to cognitive impairment and its relation with environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Pinto, Marina M S; Marinho-Reis, A Paula; Almeida, Agostinho; Ordens, Carlos M; Silva, Maria M V G; Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Moreira, Paula I; Dinis, Pedro A; Diniz, M Luísa; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo A; Condesso de Melo, M Teresa

    2017-03-09

    New lines of evidence suggest that less than 10% of neurodegenerative diseases have a strict genetic aetiology and other factors may be prevalent. Environmental exposures to potentially toxic elements appear to be a risk factor for Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and sclerosis diseases. This study proposes a multidisciplinary approach combining neurosciences, psychology and environmental sciences while integrating socio-economic, neuropsychological, environmental and health data. We present the preliminary results of a neuropsychological assessment carried out in elderly residents of the industrial city of Estarreja. A battery of cognitive tests and a personal questionnaire were administered to the participants. Multivariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used to identify potential relationships between the cognitive status of the participants and environmental exposure to potentially toxic elements. The results suggest a relationship between urinary PTEs levels and the incidence of cognitive disorders. They also point towards water consumption habits and profession as relevant factors of exposure. Linear regression models show that aluminium (R 2 = 38%), cadmium (R 2 = 11%) and zinc (R 2 = 6%) are good predictors of the scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination cognitive test. Median contents (µg/l) in groundwater are above admissible levels for drinking water for aluminium (371), iron (860), manganese (250), and zinc (305). While the World Health Organization does not provide health-based reference values for aluminium, results obtained from this study suggest that it may have an important role in the cognitive status of the elderly. Urine proved to be a suitable biomarker of exposure both to elements with low and high excretion rates.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL MANGANESE EXPOSURE IN RESIDENTS LIVING NEAR A FERROMANGANESE REFINERY IN SOUTHEAST OHIO: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, Erin N.; Heckel, Pamela; Ryan, Patrick; Roda, Sandy; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Sebastian, Kelly; Succop, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, yet is neurotoxic in excess. The majority of Mn research has been conducted on occupationally exposed adults with few studies focused on an environmentally exposed population. Marietta, Ohio is home to one of the largest airborne Mn emission sources in the United States, a ferromanganese refinery. In preparation for a community-based participatory research study, a preliminary pilot study was initiated to characterize the community’s exposure to Mn in a...

  19. Environmental Exposure and Accelerated Testing of Rubber-to-Metal Vulcanized-Bonded Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    applications is that of bonding the rubber to the metal at the time that the rubber is being vulcanized. This is known as vul- canized bonding. Examples of...conditions, probably because of increased crosslinking. Many rubber compounds based on SBR are not particularly resistant to oxidative aging. 2. Heat...AD R-TR-77014 ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND ACCELERATED TESTING OF RUBBER -TO-METAL VULCANIZED BONDED ASSABLIES JOHN A. WILLIAMS AUGUST 1975 A TECHNICAL

  20. Environmental concentrations of fibers with fluoro-edenitic composition and population exposure in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Maria Bruni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The town of Biancavilla (Sicily was included in the National Priorities List of Contaminated Sites due to environmental dispersion of amphibole fibers owing to the extraction of materials from a local quarry. The present report summarizes results from several, hitherto unpublished, environmental surveys carried out in the area, as well as from published analyses of the chemistry and composition of fibers. METHODS. Data included here comprises environmental fiber concentrations by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS analysis in soil, indoor and outdoor air, personal monitoring, as well as a chemical characterization of the fibers. The full chemical structure and spectroscopic characterization of fibers were obtained through a multi-analytical approach: SEM-EDS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, as well as Mössbauer (MS and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopies. RESULTS. Data analyzed provided a spatial and temporal picture of fiber concentrations in Biancavilla, and a qualitative assessment of population exposure. Results suggest that until 2000, the population had been exposed to high levels of amphibole fibers. Mitigation measures adopted since 2001, gradually reduced exposure levels to about 0.10.4 ff/l. Previous studies on fibrous amphiboles from Biancavilla reported considerable chemical variability. Differences in composition, especially concerning the presence of Si, Ca, Fe, and Na, were found both within and between samples. Compared to the previously investigated prismatic fluoro-edenite, these fibrous fluorine amphiboles consistently showed higher average values of Si and Fe content, whereas Ca was significantly lower, which we consider a distinctive characteristic of the fluorine fibrous variety. CONCLUSIONS. The population of Biancavilla had been highly exposed to a suite of fibrous amphiboles for over 50 years. Dust mitigation measures have gradually reduced exposure, but

  1. Effect of environmental exposure to mercury on the functioning of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Cyran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is classified as a heavy metal and thus is commonly referred to as a death metal due to its high toxicity. In the environment it occurs in metallic form or in combination with other compounds. Amidst the sources of exposure to mercury, the most important environmental sources are dental amalgam and mercury vapor from the production of chlorine which is the most important source of occupational exposure. Mercury is easily soluble in fats, so it penetrates through biological membranes. Both - acute and chronic mercury poisoning causes characteristic clinical symptoms. There are several connections between exposure to this metal and toxic effects on the nervous system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system and kidneys. Thus mercury damages the structure of many organs and impairs their function

  2. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...

  3. Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Oulhote, Youssef; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    : polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)), and five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and hair and cord blood mercury concentrations were measured. We used regression (single-pollutants) and structural equation models (SEMs) (multiple-pollutant analyses using latent...... examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs.......77 for DDE, and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99 for mercury), but in multiple pollutant-adjusted SEMs only a positive association between OC exposure and GDM remained significant (change in GDM odds per OC doubling: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86). PCB and overall OC exposure were positively associated with head...

  4. Environmental exposure to human carcinogens in teenagers and the association with DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Carmen; Koppen, Gudrun; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Govarts, Eva; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Loots, Ilse; Nelen, Vera; Sioen, Isabelle; Nawrot, Tim S; Baeyens, Willy; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Boonen, Francis; Ooms, Daniëlla; Wevers, Mai; Jacobs, Griet; Covaci, Adrian; Schettgen, Thomas; Schoeters, Greet

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels. Personal exposure to potentially carcinogenic compounds was measured in urine, namely: chromium, cadmium, nickel, 1-hydroxypyrene as a proxy for exposure to other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), t,t-muconic acid as a metabolite of benzene, 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP), organophosphate pesticide metabolites, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. In blood, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 118 and 156, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were analyzed. Levels of methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in hair. Multiple linear regression models were used to establish exposure-response relationships. Biomarkers of exposure to PAHs and urinary chromium were associated with higher levels of both 8-OHdG in urine and DNA damage detected by the alkaline comet assay. Concentrations of 8-OHdG in urine increased in relation with increasing concentrations of urinary t,t-muconic acid, cadmium, nickel, 2,5-DCP, and DEHP metabolites. Increased concentrations of PFOA in blood were associated with higher levels of DNA damage measured by the alkaline comet assay, whereas DDT was associated in the same direction with the Fpg-modified comet assay. Inverse associations were observed between blood arsenic, hair MeHg, PCB 156 and HCB, and urinary 8-OHdG. The latter exposure biomarkers were also associated with higher fish intake. Urinary nickel and t,t-muconic acid were inversely associated

  5. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows by Justin L. Wilkens and Burton C. Suedel PURPOSE: The Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure...response data for dredging projects where environmental windows (EW) severely restrict dredging operations (Lutz et al. 2012). This technical note...sediments from dredging activities on aquatic resources (Suedel et al. 2008). Environmental windows are most commonly established to protect

  6. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A dietary-wide association study (DWAS of environmental metal exposure in US children and adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Davis

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to toxic metals occurs through diet but few studies have comprehensively examined dietary sources of exposure in US populations.Our goal was to perform a novel dietary-wide association study (DWAS to identify specific dietary sources of lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic exposure in US children and adults.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Intakes Converted to Retail Commodities Database to examine associations between 49 different foods and environmental metal exposure. Using blood and urinary biomarkers for lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, we compared sources of dietary exposure among children to that of adults.Diet accounted for more of the variation in mercury and arsenic than lead and cadmium. For instance we estimate 4.5% of the variation of mercury among children and 10.5% among adults is explained by diet. We identified a previously unrecognized association between rice consumption and mercury in a US study population--adjusted for other dietary sources such as seafood, an increase of 10 g/day of rice consumption was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 3.6, 5.2 increase in blood mercury concentration. Associations between diet and metal exposure were similar among children and adults, and we recapitulated other known dietary sources of exposure.Utilizing this combination of data sources, this approach has the potential to identify and monitor dietary sources of metal exposure in the US population.

  8. Effects of a Television Drama about Environmental Exposure to Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, May G.; Eustis Turf, Elizabeth; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Wells, Kristen; Huang, Grace C.; Beck, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed short-term outcomes of viewing an episode of a prime-time television drama in which a child developed cancer after environmental exposure to an illegal pesticide. The study explored the effects among viewers of feeling transported into a narrative world. Methods. Respondents (n=2,139) to a post-episode Internet panel survey were asked if they had seen the show and asked questions about their demographic information, their frequency of viewing the television show, the degree to which they had felt transported into a narrative world created by the drama, and their knowledge and beliefs about the health effects of environmental exposure. Conversations with key informants from federal agencies and advocacy groups were also held. Results. Episode viewing and narrative transportation were positively associated with knowledge of toxic exposure effects, and transported viewers reported being more likely to report an unusually high number of cancer cases to authorities. The show also appeared to have prompted a clarification of federal pesticide-testing policy. Conclusions. Entertainment Education is a promising strategy for disseminating key points of information about environmental health. PMID:21563723

  9. Effects of environmental enrichment on d-amphetamine self-administration following nicotine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Dustin J; Ewin, Sarah E; Kangiser, Megan M; Pfaff, Markus N

    2017-10-01

    Adolescent nicotine exposure has been shown to lead to further psychostimulant use in adulthood. Previous preclinical research in rats has shown that environmental enrichment may protect against drug abuse vulnerability. The current study was designed to examine whether environmental enrichment can block the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase d-amphetamine self-administration in adulthood. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in either enriched conditions (ECs) or isolated conditions (ICs) and then injected with saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) for 7 days during adolescence. In adulthood rats were allowed to self-administer d-amphetamine under a fixed ratio (FR; 0, 0.006, 0.01, 0.02, 0.06, and 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) and progressive ratio (PR; 0, 0.006, 0.06, and 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) schedule of reinforcement. Nicotine-treated IC rats self-administered more d-amphetamine at 0.006, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/kg/infusion doses compared with their saline-treated IC counterparts regardless of the schedule maintaining behavior. This effect of nicotine was reversed in EC rats on a fixed ratio schedule. These findings indicate that environmental enrichment can limit the ability of adolescent nicotine exposure to increase vulnerability to other psychostimulant drugs, such as d-amphetamine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Science linking environmental contaminant exposures with fertility and reproductive health impacts in the adult female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen

    2008-02-01

    To broadly review the recent literature linking environmental factors and adult female reproductive health for the UCSF-CHE Summit on Environmental Challenges to Reproductive Health and Fertility. Reviewed articles indexed in PubMed from 1999-2007 addressing environment and puberty, menstrual and ovarian function, fertility, and menopause. The strongest evidence of environmental contaminant exposures interfering with healthy reproductive function in adult females is for heavy metals, particularly lead. Compounds that can influence hormone function, including pesticides and persistent pollutants, are also associated with risk. The pattern of effects for these endocrine-active compounds is often complex, with no clear dose response, but alterations in function and poor reproductive health outcomes are observed. From a clinical perspective, most modifiable risk appears to be associated with exposures in unique populations (contaminated fish consumers) or occupational groups (farmworkers). Many compounds have demonstrated increased risks for reproductive health impairment in women, but the literature is largely cross-sectional in nature and too sparse or inconclusive to support causal inference. Reproductive function in adult females is impaired by lead exposure. Pesticides and persistent pollutants can alter hormone function resulting in adverse reproductive health effects. Coordinated research is needed to address contaminant effects across the life span.

  11. Environmental cadmium and lead exposure and anti-Müllerian hormone in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L; Giwercman, A; Toft, G; Jönsson, B A G; Specht, I O

    2016-06-01

    Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum-AMH. The associations between serum-AMH and whole blood cadmium or lead were investigated by general linear models in a population-based sample of 117 pregnant women. The mean concentrations of blood cadmium and lead were 0.71μg/L and 17.4μg/L, respectively. The mean serum-AMH was 17.3pmol/L. No association between lead and AMH was detected. In the cadmium analysis the adjusted mean AMH level (95% CI) in the highest exposure tertile was 12.4 (6.4;23.8) compared to 5.6 (2.7;11.4) in the lowest exposure tertile (p=0.06). The study provides suggestive evidence that environmental exposure to cadmium, but not lead, may alter the level of AMH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental exposure to asbestos and other inorganic fibres using animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornero, Elisa [Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita, Universita del Piemonte Orientale ' A. Avogadro' , Via Bellini 25/g, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: elisa.fornero@mfn.unipmn.it; Belluso, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, CNR-Unita di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Capella, Silvana [Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Universita degli Studi di Torino, Via V. Caluso 35, 10125 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellis, Donata [Servizio di Anatomia, Istologia Patologica e Citodiagnostica, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Bosco, ASLTO2 Piazza Donatori del Sangue 3, 10154 Torino (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio degli Amianti e di altri Particolati Nocivi ' Giovanni Scansetti' , Universita degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    Professional exposure to asbestos fibres is widely recognized as very dangerous to human health and for this reason many countries have banned their commercial uses. People, nevertheless, continue to be exposed to low dose of asbestos from natural and anthropogenic sources still in loco, for which the potential hazard is unknown. The aim of this research is to assess environmental exposure in an area with outcropping serpentinite rocks, which bear asbestos mineralizations, using sentinel animals which are a non-experimental animal model. We studied the burden of inorganic fibres in cattle lungs which come from two areas in Italy's Western Alps bearing serpentinitic outcrops: Susa Valley with a heavy anthropization and Lanzo Valleys, with a minor human impact. The identification and quantification of inorganic fibres were performed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). In comparison to humans, studies of animals have some advantages, such as no occupational exposure or history of smoking and, in the case of cattle, a sedentary life restricted to one region. Results spotlight that over than 35% of inorganic fibres found both in Susa and Lanzo valleys, belong to asbestos mineralogical species (asbestos tremolite/actinolite, chrysotile s.s., asbestos grunerite, crocidolite). We also observed a higher concentration of artificial fibrous products in Susa samples showing a correlation with the level of anthropization. These results confirm that sentinel animals are an excellent model to assess breathable environmental background because it is possible to eliminate some variables, such as unknown occupational exposure.

  13. Impact of Environmental Exposures on the Mutagenicity/Carcinogenicity of Heterocyclic Amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Knize, M G; Bennett, L M; Malfatti, M A; Colvin, M E; Kulp, K S

    2003-12-19

    Carcinogenic heterocyclic amines are produced from overcooked foods and are highly mutagenic in most short-term test systems. One of the most abundant of these amines, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), induces breast, colon and prostate tumors in rats. Human dietary epidemiology studies suggest a strong correlation between either meat consumption or well-done muscle meat consumption and cancers of the colon, breast, stomach, lung and esophagus. For over 20 years our laboratory has helped define the human exposure to these dietary carcinogens. In this report we describe how various environmental exposures may modulate the risk from exposure to heterocyclic amines, especially PhIP. To assess the impact of foods on PhIP metabolism in humans, we developed an LC/MS/MS method to analyze the four major PhIP urinary metabolites following the consumption of a single portion of grilled chicken. Adding broccoli to the volunteers' diet altered the kinetics of PhIP metabolism. At the cellular level we have found that PhIP itself stimulates a significant estrogenic response in MCF-7 cells, but even more interestingly, co-incubation of the cells with herbal teas appear to enhance the response. Numerous environmental chemicals found in food or the atmosphere can impact the exposure, metabolism, and cell proliferation response of heterocyclic amines.

  14. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Shenoy

    Full Text Available Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  15. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. © 2013.

  16. Isotopically modified silver nanoparticles to assess nanosilver bioavailability and toxicity at environmentally relevant exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka D.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Misra, Superb K.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the environmental implications of nanotechnology lies in studying nanoparticle uptake in organisms at environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Typically, high exposure concentrations are needed to trigger measurable effects and to detect accumulation above background. But application of tracer techniques can overcome these limitations. Here we synthesised, for the first time, citrate-coated Ag nanoparticles using Ag that was 99.7 % 109Ag. In addition to conducting reactivity and dissolution studies, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these isotopically modified Ag nanoparticles (109Ag NPs) to a freshwater snail under conditions typical of nature. We showed that accumulation of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs is detectable in the tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis after 24-h exposure to aqueous concentrations as low as 6 ng L–1 as well as after 3 h of dietary exposure to concentrations as low as 0.07 μg g–1. Silver uptake from unlabelled Ag NPs would not have been detected under similar exposure conditions. Uptake rates of 109Ag from 109Ag NPs mixed with food or dispersed in water were largely linear over a wide range of concentrations. Particle dissolution was most important at low waterborne concentrations. We estimated that 70 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration in L. stagnalis at exposures –1 originated from the newly solubilised Ag. Above this concentration, we predicted that 80 % of the bioaccumulated 109Ag concentration originated from the 109Ag NPs. It was not clear if agglomeration had a major influence on uptake rates.

  17. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2012-12-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking, perceived safety of casual smoking, cue-triggered wanting to smoke) and susceptibility to smoking among 9-12 year old never-smoking children (N=778). We collected cross-sectional survey data from children attending 15 Dutch primary schools. Using structural equation modelling, we assessed direct as well as indirect relationships among study variables. The results showed that children who were exposed to more smoking parents, siblings, and peers perceived more pros of smoking. Additionally, parental smoking was associated with higher perceived safety of casual smoking and more cue-triggered wanting to smoke. In turn, perceiving a higher safety of casual smoking and more cue-triggered wanting to smoke were associated with a higher susceptibility to smoking in children. No direct effects of environmental smoking on children's susceptibility to smoking were found. However, parental smoking was associated with children's susceptibility to smoking through children's perceived safety of casual smoking and cue-triggered wanting to smoke. The present study indicates that pre-adolescents may already display favourable smoking-related cognitions and that these cognitions may be an early indicator of a child's vulnerability to smoking. Environmental smoking, particularly parental smoking, is associated with more favourable smoking-related cognitions in never-smoking children. In the intergenerational transmission of smoking from parents to children, children's risk perceptions of smoking and the experience of cue-triggered wanting to smoke may constitute mechanisms of action, which need to be investigated in longitudinal research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression profiling to identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with environmental heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Attafi, Ibraheem M; Famulski, Konrad S; Bakheet, Saleh A; Hafez, Mohammed M; Alsaad, Abdulaziz M S; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman M

    2017-02-01

    Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis. For this purpose, 40 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a heavy metal-polluted area (Mahd Al-Dhahab city, Saudi Arabia) and 20 healthy male volunteers who were residents of a non-heavy metal-polluted area were included in the study. Total RNA was isolated from whole blood using PAXgene Blood RNA tubes and then reversed transcribed and hybridized to the gene array using the Affymetrix U219 GeneChip. Microarray analysis showed about 2129 genes were identified and differentially altered, among which a shared set of 425 genes was differentially expressed in the heavy metal-exposed groups. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that the most altered gene-regulated diseases in heavy metal-exposed groups included hematological and developmental disorders and mostly renal and urological diseases. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction closely matched the microarray data for some genes tested. Importantly, changes in gene-related diseases were attributed to alterations in the genes encoded for protein synthesis. Renal and urological diseases were the diseases that were most frequently associated with the heavy metal-exposed group. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to validate these

  19. Behavioral and environmental determinants of personal exposures to PM 2.5 in EXPOLIS - Helsinki, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Kimmo J.; Hänninen, Otto; Rotko, Tuulia; Edwards, Rufus D.; Moschandreas, Demetrios; Jantunen, Matti J.

    Behavioral and environmental determinants of PM 2.5 personal exposures were analyzed for 201 randomly selected adult participants (25-55 years old) of the EXPOLIS study in Helsinki, Finland. Personal exposure concentrations were higher than respective residential outdoor, residential indoor and workplace indoor concentrations for both smokers and non-smokers. Mean personal exposure concentrations of active smokers (31.0±31.4 μg m -3) were almost double those of participants exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (16.6±11.8 μg m -3) and three times those of participants not exposed to tobacco smoke (9.9±6.2 μg m -3). Mean indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 when a member of the household smoked indoors (20.8±23.9 μg m -3) were approximately 2.5 times the concentrations of PM 2.5 when no smoking was reported (8.2±5.2 μg m -3). Interestingly, however, both mean (8.2 μg m -3) and median (6.9 μg m -3) residential indoor concentrations for non-ETS exposed participants were lower than residential outdoor concentrations (9.5 and 7.3 μg m -3, respectively). In simple linear regression models residential indoor concentrations were the best predictors of personal exposure concentrations. Correlations ( r2) between PM 2.5 personal exposure concentrations of all participants, both smoking and non-smoking, and residential indoor, workplace indoor, residential outdoor and ambient fixed site concentrations were 0.53, 0.38, 0.17 and 0.16, respectively. Predictors for personal exposure concentrations of non-ETS exposed participants identified in multiple regression were residential indoor concentrations, workplace concentrations and traffic density in the nearest street from home, which accounted for 77% of the variance. Subsequently, step-wise regression not including residential and workplace indoor concentrations as input (as these are frequently not available), identified ambient PM 2.5 concentration and home location, as predictors of personal exposure

  20. A comparison of the pulmonary defenses against streptococcal infection in rats and mice following O3 exposure: Differences in disease susceptibility and neutrophil recruitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, M.I.; Selgrade, M.K. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Ozone (O3) exposure reduces alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis in mice and increases their susceptibility to Streptococcus zooepidemicus. O3 exposure also decreases AM phagocytosis in rats but does not result in mortality to infection. To investigate the mechanism of disease protection in rats, antibacterial defenses of two strains of mice and F344 rats were compared. O3 exposure (3 hr, 0.4 or 0.8 ppm) and infection with S. zooepidemicus resulted in a dose-dependent proliferation of bacteria in the lungs of mice and high mortality. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were observed in severely affected individuals 2 or more days postinfection and did not alter the fatal infection. In contrast, microbial inactivation was only impaired in O3-exposed rat lungs during the first 48 hr after infection. In these animals PMNs could be isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid between 6 and 48 hr postinfection with the peak response occurring at 24 hr. Pretreatment with anti-PMN serum eliminated the neutrophil influx and impaired further the bactericidal activity in ozone-exposed rats. The results suggest that inhaled streptococci are cleared normally from the mouse lung by AMs. Following exposure to O3, AM phagocytosis is reduced and the mice develop a fatal infection. The persistence of bacteria in the lungs of O3-exposed rats triggers a transient influx of PMNs whose appearance corresponds with elimination of the bacteria. Differences in antimicrobial defenses between various experimental species and humans need to be better understood in order to predict effects of air pollutants on susceptibility to infection in man.

  1. Perinatal environmental exposures affect mammary development, function, and cancer risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Suzanne E; Reed, Casey; Newbold, Retha R

    2012-01-01

    Puberty is an important transition that enables reproduction of mammalian species. Precocious puberty, specifically early thelarche (the appearance of breast "buds"), in girls of multiple ethnic backgrounds is a major health problem in the United States and other countries. The cause for a continued decrease in the age of breast development in girls is unknown, but environmental factors likely play a major role. Laboratory and epidemiological studies have identified several individual environmental factors that affect breast development, but further progress is needed. Current research needs include increased attention to and recording of prenatal and neonatal environmental exposures, testing of marketed chemicals for effects on the mammary gland, and understanding of the mammary gland-specific mechanisms that are altered by chemicals. Such research is required to halt the increasing trend toward puberty at earlier ages.

  2. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-26

    As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1

  3. Elaboration of a concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Rita; Bunke, Dirk; Moch, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Article 10(1) of the EU Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC (BPD) requires that for the inclusion of an active substance in Annex I, Annex IA or IB, cumulation effects from the use of biocidal products containing the same active substance shall be taken into account, where relevant. The study proves the feasibility of a technical realisation of Article 10(1) of the BPD and elaborates a first concept for the cumulative environmental exposure assessment of biocides. Existing requirements concerning cumulative assessments in other regulatory frameworks have been evaluated and their applicability for biocides has been examined. Technical terms and definitions used in this context were documented with the aim to harmonise terminology with other frameworks and to set up a precise definition within the BPD. Furthermore, application conditions of biocidal products have been analysed to find out for which cumulative exposure assessments may be relevant. Different parameters were identified which might serve as indicators for the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments. These indicators were then integrated in a flow chart by means of which the relevance of cumulative exposure assessments can be checked. Finally, proposals for the technical performance of cumulative exposure assessments within the Review Programme have been elaborated with the aim to bring the results of the project into the upcoming development and harmonization processes on EU level. (orig.)

  4. Exposure Assessment to Environmental Chemicals in Children from Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles C; Orta-Garcia, Sandra T; Rico-Escobar, Edna M; Carrizales-Yañez, Leticia; Del Campo, Jorge D Martin; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Gonzalez-Palomo, Ana K; Piña-Lopez, Iris G; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the human biomonitoring of susceptible populations is a valuable method for the identification of critical contaminants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the exposure profile for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in children living in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (a major manufacturing center in Mexico). In 2012, we evaluated a total of 135 healthy children living in Ciudad Juarez since birth. The total PBDEs levels ranged from nondetectable (Ciudad Juarez is necessary.

  5. Risk-taking behavior among adolescents with prenatal drug exposure and extrauterine environmental adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brittany L; Bann, Carla M; Bauer, Charles R; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Lester, Barry M; Whitaker, Toni M; LaGasse, Linda L; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2013-01-01

    High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Prenatal cocaine exposure predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services is essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes and incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families.

  6. Metal Concentrations in Newcomer Women and Environmental Exposures: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley X. Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Newcomer women from developing countries are recognized to be at risk for elevated exposures to environmental contaminants and associated negative health effects. As such, data on exposure sources and contaminant body burden concentrations is critical in the development of effective public health policies and interventions in support of newcomer health. We conducted a scoping review to gather evidence on important toxic metals of health concern, lead (Pb, mercury (Hg and cadmium (Cd, and their concentrations and potential exposure sources among newcomer women. An initial 420 articles were identified through the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus, many reporting by ethnicity rather than newcomer/immigrant status. Several articles reported metal concentrations for other biomarkers but did not include blood, nor stratify results. From the remainder, we selected a total of 10 articles for full textual review, which reported blood Pb, Hg or Cd levels for newcomer women and/or stratified blood metal results according to foreign birth or country of origin. Three of the articles reported higher Pb, Hg and Cd concentrations in newcomer women compared to their native-borne counterparts. Exposures identified as contributing to elevated Pb, Hg and Cd blood concentrations included: pica behaviour, the use of lead-glazed cookware or eye cosmetics, and fish/shellfish consumption. The review revealed a limited availability of data on metal body burden concentrations, exposure sources and routes among newcomer women specifically. More research is needed to better understand the extent to which newcomer women are disproportionately at risk of elevated metal exposures due to either country of origin or current exposures and to inform relevant, multi-national risk management strategies.

  7. Metal Concentrations in Newcomer Women and Environmental Exposures: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shirley X; Wiseman, Clare L S; Chakravartty, Dolon; Cole, Donald C

    2017-03-08

    Newcomer women from developing countries are recognized to be at risk for elevated exposures to environmental contaminants and associated negative health effects. As such, data on exposure sources and contaminant body burden concentrations is critical in the development of effective public health policies and interventions in support of newcomer health. We conducted a scoping review to gather evidence on important toxic metals of health concern, lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd), and their concentrations and potential exposure sources among newcomer women. An initial 420 articles were identified through the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus, many reporting by ethnicity rather than newcomer/immigrant status. Several articles reported metal concentrations for other biomarkers but did not include blood, nor stratify results. From the remainder, we selected a total of 10 articles for full textual review, which reported blood Pb, Hg or Cd levels for newcomer women and/or stratified blood metal results according to foreign birth or country of origin. Three of the articles reported higher Pb, Hg and Cd concentrations in newcomer women compared to their native-borne counterparts. Exposures identified as contributing to elevated Pb, Hg and Cd blood concentrations included: pica behaviour, the use of lead-glazed cookware or eye cosmetics, and fish/shellfish consumption. The review revealed a limited availability of data on metal body burden concentrations, exposure sources and routes among newcomer women specifically. More research is needed to better understand the extent to which newcomer women are disproportionately at risk of elevated metal exposures due to either country of origin or current exposures and to inform relevant, multi-national risk management strategies.

  8. Mother's environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and externalizing behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Leung, Patrick W L; McCauley, Linda; Ai, Yuexian; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    While the impact of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on child health has been well investigated, the association between maternal passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), or second-hand smoke, and behavioral development of offspring is less clear. This study examines the association between maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy and child behavior problems. Cross-sectional data of 646 mother-child pairs from the Jintan China Cohort Study were used in the analyses. Mother's exposure to tobacco smoking at home, the workplace, and other places during pregnancy (for the determination of maternal ETS exposure) and children's behaviors (via Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed when the children were 5-6 years old. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine associations between maternal exposure to ETS during pregnancy and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, adjusting for potential cofounders including child sex and parental characteristics. 37% of mothers reported ETS during pregnancy. Children of mothers exposed to ETS during pregnancy had higher scores for externalizing and total behavior problems, with 25% of children whose mothers were exposed to ETS compared to 16% of children of unexposed mothers. After adjusting for potential confounders, ETS exposure was associated with a higher risk of externalizing behavior problems in offspring of exposed mothers (OR=2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-3.43). Analysis after multiple imputations and sensitivity analysis further verified the association, but no dose-response relationship was found. ETS exposure, however, was not associated with internalizing or total behavior problems. This study suggests that maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy may impact child behavioral development, particularly externalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  10. Environmental contamination and human exposure to manganese--contribution of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl in unleaded gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, J; Vyskocil, A; Kennedy, G

    1999-01-01

    The organomanganese compound MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl), an antiknock additive in unleaded gasoline, has been used in Canada since 1976. Indeed, Canada is the only country where MMT is almost exclusively used. In October 1995, by court decision the Environmental protection Agency (EPA) granted Ethyl's waiver for the use of MMT in the United States. Paradoxically, in 1997 the federal government of Canada adopted a law (C-29) that banned both the interprovincial trade and the importation for commercial purposes of manganese-based substances, including MMT. However, MMT is currently widely used in Canada because of substantial stockpiling, and six Canadian provinces are challenging the law in the courts. Moreover, MMT has been approved for use in Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Russia, and conditionally, in New Zealand. It has been suggested by some scientists that combustion of MMT may be a significant source of exposure to inorganic Mn in urban areas. The crucial question is whether Mn contamination from industrial sources combined with the additional contamination that would result from the widespread use of MMT would lead to toxic effects. Our research efforts have attempted to assess the environmental/ecosystem Mn contamination arising from the combustion of MMT in abiotic and biotic systems as well as human exposure. The experimental evidence acquired so far provides useful information on certain environmental consequences of the use of MMT as well as raising a number of questions. Our results gave evidence indicating that roadside air, soils, plants, and animals may be contaminated by Mn. As well, some specific groups of the population could have a higher level of exposure to Mn. Nevertheless, the levels of exposure remain below international guide values. Further studies and further characterization of dose-response relationships are thus needed to provide successful implementation of evidence-based risk-assessment approaches.

  11. Mechanistically identified suitable biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility for silicosis and coal-worker's pneumoconiosis: A comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulumian, M.; Borm, P.J.A.; Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Donaldson, K.; Nelson, G.; Murray, J. [NIOH, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Toxicology & Biochemical Research

    2006-09-15

    Clinical detection of silicosis is currently dependent on radiological and lung function abnormalities, both late manifestations of disease. Markers of prediction and early detection of pneumoconiosis are imperative for the implementation of timely intervention strategies. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of the etiology of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) and silicosis was essential in proposing numerous biomarkers that have been evaluated to assess effects following exposure to crystalline silica and/or coal mine dust. Human validation studies have substantiated some of these proposed biomarkers and argued in favor of their use as biomarkers for crystalline silica-and CWP-induced pneumoconiosis. A number of 'ideal' biological markers of effect were identified, namely, Clara cell protein-16 (CC16) (serum), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (monocyte release), interleukin-8 (IL-8) (monocyte release), reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement by chemiluminescence (neutrophil release), 8-isoprostanes (serum), total antioxidant levels measured by total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione S-transferase activity, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (serum). TNF-alpha polymorphism (blood cellular DNA) was identified as a biomarker of susceptibility. Further studies are planned to test the validity and feasibility of these biomarkers to detect either high exposure to crystalline silica and early silicosis or susceptibility to silicosis in gold miners in South Africa.

  12. Exposure to Drinking Water Trihalomethanes and Their Association with Low Birth Weight and Small for Gestational Age in Genetically Susceptible Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic susceptibility to individual trihalomethanes (THM in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nested case-control study of 682 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania and, using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, estimated an internal THM dose. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose, birth outcomes and individual and joint (modifying effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms. THM exposure during entire pregnancy and specific trimesters slightly increased low birth weight (LBW risk. When considering both THM exposure and maternal genotypes, the largest associations were found for third trimester among total THM (TTHM and chloroform-exposed women with the GSTM1–0 genotype (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.36–14.08 and OR: 5.06; 95% CI: 1.50–17.05, respectively. A test of interaction between internal THM dose and GSTM1–0 genotype suggested a modifying effect of exposure to chloroform and bromodichloromethane on LBW risk. However, the effect on small for gestational age (SGA was not statistically significant. These data suggest that THM internal dose may affect foetal growth and that maternal GSTM1 genotype modifies the THM exposure effects on LBW.

  13. Exposure to drinking water trihalomethanes and their association with low birth weight and small for gestational age in genetically susceptible women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danileviciute, Asta; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Vencloviene, Jone; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2012-12-06

    Little is known about genetic susceptibility to individual trihalomethanes (THM) in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a nested case-control study of 682 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania) and, using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, estimated an internal THM dose. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose, birth outcomes and individual and joint (modifying) effects of metabolic gene polymorphisms. THM exposure during entire pregnancy and specific trimesters slightly increased low birth weight (LBW) risk. When considering both THM exposure and maternal genotypes, the largest associations were found for third trimester among total THM (TTHM) and chloroform-exposed women with the GSTM1-0 genotype (OR: 4.37; 95% CI: 1.36-14.08 and OR: 5.06; 95% CI: 1.50-17.05, respectively). A test of interaction between internal THM dose and GSTM1-0 genotype suggested a modifying effect of exposure to chloroform and bromodichloromethane on LBW risk. However, the effect on small for gestational age (SGA) was not statistically significant. These data suggest that THM internal dose may affect foetal growth and that maternal GSTM1 genotype modifies the THM exposure effects on LBW.

  14. Dificultades en los métodos de estudio de exposiciones ambientales y defectos del tubo neural Methodological challenges to assess environmental exposures related to neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto

    1999-11-01

    susceptibilidad genética.Objective. To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Results. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encefalocele because of problems raised from: a the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d the assessment of environmental exposures. Conclusions. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a both paternal and maternal exposures; b the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  15. Maternal exposure to carbamazepine at environmental concentrations can cross intestinal and placental barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Gaurav, E-mail: kausgaur@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Huber, David P., E-mail: hubedavi@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Aho, Ken, E-mail: ahoken@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Finney, Bruce, E-mail: finney@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Bearden, Shawn, E-mail: bearshaw@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States); Zarbalis, Konstantinos S., E-mail: kzarbalis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95817 (United States); Institute for Pediatric Regenerative Medicine, Shriners Hospitals for Children, Northern California, 2425 Stockton Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Thomas, Michael A., E-mail: mthomas@isu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Stop 8007, 921 S 8th Ave, Pocatello, ID 83209-8007 (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Psychoactive pharmaceuticals have been found as teratogens at clinical dosage during pregnancy. These pharmaceuticals have also been detected in minute (ppb) concentrations in drinking water in the US, and are environmental contaminants that may be complicit in triggering neurological disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. Previous studies have determined that psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine and carbamazepine) at environmentally relevant concentrations enriched sets of genes regulating development and function of the nervous system in fathead minnows. Altered gene sets were also associated with potential neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subsequent in vitro studies indicated that psychoactive pharmaceuticals altered ASD-associated synaptic protein expression and gene expression in human neuronal cells. However, it is unknown if environmentally relevant concentrations of these pharmaceuticals are able to cross biological barriers from mother to fetus, thus potentially posing risks to nervous system development. The main objective of this study was to test whether psychoactive pharmaceuticals (fluoxetine, venlafaxine, and carbamazepine) administered through the drinking water at environmental concentrations to pregnant mice could reach the brain of the developing embryo by crossing intestinal and placental barriers. We addressed this question by adding {sup 2}H-isotope labeled pharmaceuticals to the drinking water of female mice for 20 days (10 pre-and 10 post–conception days), and quantifying {sup 2}H-isotope enrichment signals in the dam liver and brain of developing embryos using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Significant levels of {sup 2}H enrichment was detected in the brain of embryos and livers of carbamazepine-treated mice but not in those of control dams, or for fluoxetine or venlafaxine application. These results provide the first evidence that carbamazepine in drinking water and at

  16. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  17. Electrostatic Discharge Test of Multi-Junction Solar Array Coupons After Combined Space Environmental Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Hoang, Bao; Funderburk, Victor V.; Wong, Frankie; Gardiner, George

    2010-01-01

    A set of multi-junction GaAs/Ge solar array test coupons were subjected to a sequence of 5-year increments of combined environmental exposure tests. The test coupons capture an integrated design intended for use in a geosynchronous (GEO) space environment. A key component of this test campaign is conducting electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests in the inverted gradient mode. The protocol of the ESD tests is based on the ISO/CD 11221, the ISO standard for ESD testing on solar array panels. This standard is currently in its final review with expected approval in 2010. The test schematic in the ISO reference has been modified with Space System/Loral designed circuitry to better simulate the on-orbit operational conditions of its solar array design. Part of the modified circuitry is to simulate a solar array panel coverglass flashover discharge. All solar array coupons used in the test campaign consist of 4 cells. The ESD tests are performed at the beginning of life (BOL) and at each 5-year environment exposure point. The environmental exposure sequence consists of UV radiation, electron/proton particle radiation, thermal cycling, and ion thruster plume. This paper discusses the coverglass flashover simulation, ESD test setup, and the importance of the electrical test design in simulating the on-orbit operational conditions. Results from 5th-year testing are compared to the baseline ESD characteristics determined at the BOL condition.

  18. Prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts reproduction in F1 female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changqing; Gao, Liying; Flaws, Jodi A

    2017-03-01

    Phthalates are used in a large variety of products, such as building materials, medical devices, and personal care products. Most previous studies on the toxicity of phthalates have focused on single phthalates, but it is also important to study the effects of phthalate mixtures because humans are exposed to phthalate mixtures. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture adversely affects female reproduction in mice. To test this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 dams were orally dosed with vehicle (tocopherol-stripped corn oil) or a phthalate mixture (20 and 200μg/kg/day, 200 and 500mg/kg/day) daily from gestational day 10 to birth. The mixture was based on the composition of phthalates detected in urine samples from pregnant women in Illinois. The mixture included 35% diethyl phthalate, 21% di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 15% dibutyl phthalate, 15% diisononyl phthalate, 8% diisobutyl phthalate, and 5% benzylbutyl phthalate. Female mice born to the exposed dams were subjected to tissue collections and fertility tests at different ages. Our results indicate that prenatal exposure to the phthalate mixture significantly increased uterine weight and decreased anogenital distance on postnatal days 8 and 60, induced cystic ovaries at 13months, disrupted estrous cyclicity, reduced fertility-related indices, and caused some breeding complications at 3, 6, and 9months of age. Collectively, our data suggest that prenatal exposure to an environmentally relevant phthalate mixture disrupts aspects of female reproduction in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of environmental exposure to metals with the risk of hypertension in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weixiang; Jiang, Shunli; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Ke; Wei, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Dayang; Zhou, Hao; Zhong, Rong; Zeng, Qiang; Cheng, Liming; Miao, Xiaoping; Lu, Qing

    2017-12-04

    Hypertension contributes largely to the global burden of disease and mortality. Environmental exposure to metals might be a causative factor for hypertension, but the association remains unclear. The present case-control study of 502 hypertension patients and 502 healthy participants aimed to evaluate the potential relationships between the concentrations of 20 metal in urine and the risk of hypertension in a Chinese population. Multivariate logistic analyses adjusted for potential confounders were performed separately considering the effects of single and multi-metal. We found the increasing trends of urinary Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Sr quartiles and the decreasing trends of urinary V and Rb quartiles with the ORs for hypertension. These dose-response associations were confirmed in the RCS models and remained robust in the multi-metal model. Urinary Hg quartiles were positively associated with the risk of hypertension in the models of single-metal and multi-metal. Urinary Cd quartiles were inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in the multi-metal model. Besides, modification effects of gender, BMI and smoking status on the associations of the exposure to various metals with the risk of hypertension were also suggested in the subgroup analysis. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Cd and Hg might be related with the prevalence of hypertension. Further studies with prospective design should be conducted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Gender-Dependently Increases Heart Susceptibility to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lv, Juanxiu; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo; Xiao, Daliao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adverse stress exposure during the early neonatal period has been shown to cause aberrant development, resulting in an increased risk of adult disease. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) does not alter heart function at rest condition but causes heart dysfunction under stress stimulation later in life. Methods: Saline control or LPS were administered to neonatal rats via intraperitoneal injection. Experiments were conducted in 6 week-old male and female rats. Isolated hearts were perfused in a Langendorff preparation. Results: Neonatal LPS exposure exhibited no effects on the body weight of the developing rats, but induced decreases in the left ventricle (LV) to the body weight ratio in male rats. Neonatal LPS exposure showed no effects on the baseline heart function determined by in vivo and ex vivo experiments, but caused decreases in the post-ischemic recovery of the LV function in male but not female rats. Neonatal LPS-mediated LV dysfunction was associated with an increase in myocardial infarct size and the LDH release in the male rats. Conclusion: The present study provides novel evidence that neonatal immune challenges could induce gender-dependent long-term effects on cardiac development and heart function, which reinforces the notion that adverse stress exposure during the early neonatal period can aggravate heart functions and the development of a heart ischemia-sensitive phenotype later in life.

  1. Differential susceptibility of horizontal and vertical swimming activity to cadmium exposure in a gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus lawrencianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.G.; Estephan, A

    2004-08-25

    In this study two indices of swimming behavior (horizontal and vertical swimming activity) in a gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus lawrencianus) were examined for their sensitivity to Cd exposure. G. lawrencianus were exposed for 72 h to a variety of Cd concentrations [background ({approx}12), 62, 125, 250 and 500 {mu}g l{sup -1}] at 20 ppt. Subsequent to exposure, video surveillance of survivors held within grooved rings or clear boxes was used to assess horizontal swimming activity (percentage of time mobile) and vertical swimming activity (number of surfacings), respectively. Results show that control amphipods were quite active, being mobile {approx}61% of the time, with horizontal swimming activity decreasing (P < 0.01) to {approx}0.3% between a Cd exposure concentration of 125 and 500 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Vertical swimming activity in amphipods was also impacted by Cd exposure (P < 0.001), with the greatest decrease occurring between background ({approx}12 {mu}g l{sup -1}) and 62 {mu}g l{sup -1} (60 versus {approx}26 surfacings, respectively), which is approximately four-fold lower than the estimated 72 h LC{sub 50} (250 {mu}g l{sup -1}) for G. lawrencianus. Based on fluid dynamic considerations, it is speculated that of the two behaviors, vertical swimming activity is more sensitive to Cd exposure because of the presumed greater energetic costs associated with producing enough thrust to attain the lift required to make a vertical ascent into the water.

  2. Responses to occupational and environmental exposures in the U.S. military--World War II to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Erin E

    2011-07-01

    Since the Civil War, a proportion of U.S. service members continues to return from war with new health problems and continues to reference battlefield exposures as the cause. Hence, one of the most pressing public health debates in military policy, the determination of causality and linking of battlefield exposures to health outcomes in veterans, continues. The advances in military environmental and occupational epidemiologic research and Department of Defense policy concerning battlefield exposures are summarized and examples from World War II through the first Gulf War are provided. The limitations associated with the unique battlefield environment, multiple environmental exposures, and the inherent stresses of war, beget challenges for researchers responsible for determining causality. In light of these difficulties, six strategies for addressing environmental exposures and their possible impact on veterans were recommended by the Institute of Medicine post Operation Desert Storm. These strategies, along with their respective progress and remaining gaps, are addressed.

  3. Socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes among persons with sickle cell disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika R Asnani

    Full Text Available There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to clinic. Persons travelled relatively long distances to seek SCD care and those travelling longer had less health maintenance visits. Urban patients had a higher prevalence of significant pain crises (69.4% vs. 55.8%, p value<0.001 and respiratory events (21.2% vs. 14%, p value<0.001. Prevalence of leg ulcers did not vary between rural and urban patients but was higher in males than in females. Females also had lower odds of having respiratory events but there was no sex difference in history of painful crises. Persons with more severe genotypes lived in higher poverty and travelled longer for healthcare services. Persons in areas with higher annual rainfall, higher mean temperatures and living farther from factories had less painful crises and respiratory events. The paper highlights a need for better access to healthcare services for Jamaicans with SCD especially in rural areas of the island. It also reports interesting associations between environmental climatic exposures and health outcomes.

  4. Environmental Exposures and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: What Role Does the Gut-Immune-Brain Axis Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Shannon; Hornig, Mady

    2018-02-08

    Evidence is growing that environmental exposures-including xenobiotics as well as microbes-play a role in the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Underlying mechanisms are likely to be complex, involving the developmentally sensitive interplay of genetic/epigenetic, detoxification, and immune factors. Here, we review evidence supporting a role for environmental factors and disrupted gut-immune-brain axis function in some neuropsychiatric conditions. Studies suggesting the involvement of an altered microbiome in triggering CNS-directed autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disturbances are presented as an intriguing example of the varied mechanisms by which environmentally induced gut-immune-brain axis dysfunction may contribute to adverse brain outcomes. The gut-immune-brain axis is a burgeoning frontier for investigation of neuropsychiatric illness. Future translational research to define individual responses to exogenous exposures in terms of microbiome-dependent skew of the metabolome, immunity, and brain function may serve as a lens for illumination of pathways involved in the development of CNS disease and fuel discovery of novel interventions.

  5. Solar radiation and tidal exposure as environmental drivers of Enhalus acoroides dominated seagrass meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K F Unsworth

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence of a global long-term decline in seagrass meadows that is widely attributed to anthropogenic activity. Yet in many regions, attributing these changes to actual activities is difficult, as there exists limited understanding of the natural processes that can influence these valuable ecosystem service providers. Being able to separate natural from anthropogenic causes of seagrass change is important for developing strategies that effectively mitigate and manage anthropogenic impacts on seagrass, and promote coastal ecosystems resilient to future environmental change. The present study investigated the influence of environmental and climate related factors on seagrass biomass in a large ≈250 ha meadow in tropical north east Australia. Annual monitoring of the intertidal Enhalus acoroides (L.f. Royle seagrass meadow over eleven years revealed a declining trend in above-ground biomass (54% significant overall reduction from 2000 to 2010. Partial Least Squares Regression found this reduction to be significantly and negatively correlated with tidal exposure, and significantly and negatively correlated with the amount of solar radiation. This study documents how natural long-term tidal variability can influence long-term seagrass dynamics. Exposure to desiccation, high UV, and daytime temperature regimes are discussed as the likely mechanisms for the action of these factors in causing this decline. The results emphasise the importance of understanding and assessing natural environmentally-driven change when interpreting the results of seagrass monitoring programs.

  6. Socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes among persons with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight Madden, Jennifer; Reid, Marvin; Greene, Lisa-Gaye; Lyew-Ayee, Parris

    2017-01-01

    There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to clinic. Persons travelled relatively long distances to seek SCD care and those travelling longer had less health maintenance visits. Urban patients had a higher prevalence of significant pain crises (69.4% vs. 55.8%, p value<0.001) and respiratory events (21.2% vs. 14%, p value<0.001). Prevalence of leg ulcers did not vary between rural and urban patients but was higher in males than in females. Females also had lower odds of having respiratory events but there was no sex difference in history of painful crises. Persons with more severe genotypes lived in higher poverty and travelled longer for healthcare services. Persons in areas with higher annual rainfall, higher mean temperatures and living farther from factories had less painful crises and respiratory events. The paper highlights a need for better access to healthcare services for Jamaicans with SCD especially in rural areas of the island. It also reports interesting associations between environmental climatic exposures and health outcomes. PMID:28384224

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and absence from work in women in Nis, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja; Arandelović, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke leads to very serious health effects, especially on the respiratory system. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on absence from work because of respiratory problems in women. The study sample consisted of 497 women aged 40-56 who live in an area with identical outdoor air pollution. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was recorded in 346 women. Data about respiratory symptoms in women were entered into a structured questionnaire. Statistics tests showed no significant difference of living conditions, keeping pets, hereditary predisposition among women. The occurrence of congested nose (OR = 3.47; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.01), nasal secretion (OR = 3.48; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.02) and sinusitis (OR = 2.88; 95% Cl = 1.22-6.89) was significantly higher in women who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Primary health care need for respiratory symptoms due to the effect of passive smoking is higher in the exposed women. Passive smoking can be a risk factor for the appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness in women that causes absence from work.

  8. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium related to reduced susceptibility were identical to mutations detected in E jaecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin. A minimal inhibitory concentration of 8 mug ml(-1) to ciprofloxacin was not associated with any mutations in the gyrA and parC gene...... of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. These two species may be intrinsically less susceptible to ciprofloxacin....

  9. Clinical Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strains with Higher Susceptibility to Environmental Phages than Antibiotic-sensitive Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Li-Kuang; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chang, Kai-Chih; Cheng, Chieh-Chen; Yu, Pei-Ying; Chang, Chih-Hui; Chen, Tren-Yi; Tseng, Chun-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is associated with nosocomial infections worldwide. Here, we used clinically isolated A. baumannii strains as models to demonstrate whether antibiotic resistance is correlated with an increased susceptibility to bacteriophages. In this study, 24 active phages capable of infecting A. baumannii were isolated from various environments, and the susceptibilities of both antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of A. baumannii to different p...

  10. Environmental and occupational particulate matter exposures and ectopic heart beats in welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Fang, Shona C; Eisen, Ellen A; Mittleman, Murray A; Christiani, David C

    2016-07-01

    Links between arrhythmias and particulate matter exposures have been found among sensitive populations. We examined the relationship between personal particulate matter ≤2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) exposures and ectopy in a panel study of healthy welders. Simultaneous ambulatory ECG and personal PM2.5 exposure monitoring with DustTrak Aerosol Monitor was performed on 72 males during work and non-work periods for 5-90 h (median 40 h). ECGs were summarised hourly for supraventricular ectopy (SVE) and ventricular ectopy (VE). PM2.5 exposures both work and non-work periods were averaged hourly with lags from 0 to 7 h. Generalised linear mixed-effects models with a random participant intercept were used to examine the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and the odds of SVE or VE. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess whether relationships differed by work period and among current smokers. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 38 (11) years and were monitored over 2993 person-hours. The number of hourly ectopic events was highly skewed with mean (SD) of 14 (69) VE and 1 (4) SVE. We found marginally significant increases in VE with PM2.5 exposures in the sixth and seventh hour lags, yet no association with SVE. For every 100 μg/m(3) increase in sixth hour lagged PM2.5, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for VE was 1.03 (1.00 to 1.05). Results persisted in work or non-work exposure periods and non-smokers had increased odds of VE associated with PM2.5 as compared with smokers. A small increase in the odds of VE with short-term PM2.5 exposure was observed among relatively healthy men with environmental and occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. DNA methylation is differentially associated with environmental cadmium exposure based on sex and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Shama; Rentschler, Katie M; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Basu, Niladri; Rozek, Laura S

    2016-02-01

    The adverse health effects of cadmium (Cd) are well known in human populations; however, much of what is known about biological mechanisms of Cd comes from in vitro and animal studies. The adverse health outcomes due to high levels of Cd exposure in the population of Mae Sot, Thailand have been extensively characterized. Here, for the first time, this population is being studied in an epigenetic context. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between DNA methylation markers and Cd exposure, taking into account sex and smoking differences, in an adult population at an increased risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from high body burden of Cd. One hundred and sixty-nine residents from known exposure areas of Mae Sot, Thailand and one hundred residents from non-exposed areas nearby were surveyed in 2012. Urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of urinary Cd (UCd) and DNA methylation of Cd-related markers (DNMT3B, MGMT, LINE-1, MT2A). UCd levels were 7 times higher in the exposed compared to the unexposed populations (exposed median: 7.4 μg/L, unexposed median: 1.0 μg/L, p smoking status. In summary, environmental Cd exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation in a sex and smoking dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Climate change impacts on environmental and human exposure to mercury in the arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Jozef M; Banel, Anna; Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Rautio, Arja

    2015-03-31

    This paper reviews information from the literature and the EU ArcRisk project to assess whether climate change results in an increase or decrease in exposure to mercury (Hg) in the Arctic, and if this in turn will impact the risks related to its harmful effects. It presents the state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport to the Arctic, and it discusses the likely environmental fate and exposure effects on population groups in the Arctic under climate change conditions. The paper also includes information about the likely synergy effects (co-benefits) current and new climate change polices and mitigation options might have on mercury emissions reductions in the future. The review concludes that reductions of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible in order to assure lowering the adverse impact of climate change on human health. Scientific information currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether climate change will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to mercury in the Arctic. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between climate change and mercury exposure.

  13. Bone resorption and environmental exposure to cadmium in children: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sughis Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to cadmium has been associated with osteoporosis and fracture risk in women and elderly, but studies in children are lacking. In the present study we investigate the association between markers of bone demineralization [urinary calcium (Ca and deoxypyridinoline (DPD excretion] and urinary cadmium (Cd excretion (as an index of lifetime body burden. Methods 155 schoolchildren from 2 elementary schools in Lahore, Pakistan were included. Urinary Cd was measured as an index of lifetime exposure. We assessed the multivariate-adjusted association of exposure with markers of bone resorption, urinary DPD as well as with Ca excretion. Results Urinary Cd averaged 0.50 nmol/mmol creatinine and was not influenced by age, height, weight and socio-economic status (SES. Independent of gender, age, height, weight and SES a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a 1.72 times (p Conclusions Even in young children, low-level environmental exposure to cadmium is associated with evidence of bone resorption, suggesting a direct osteotoxic effect with increased calciuria. These findings might have clinical relevance at older age.

  14. Does diversity of environmental microbial exposure matter for the occurrence of allergy and asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heederik, Dick; von Mutius, Erika

    2012-07-01

    This review describes the recent literature on microbial exposures and protective effects for asthma and atopy. Certain microorganism-associated molecular patterns have been identified as agents that might influence the development of the immune system, which in turn leads to protective effects for asthma and atopy. Endotoxins from gram-negative bacteria were the first agents associated with a reduced risk for asthma and atopy. In later studies, β(1→3)glucans, extracellular polysaccharides, and muramic acid from, respectively, molds and gram-positive bacteria were associated with a reduced risk of allergy and asthma separately in rural and urban populations. These results already suggested that not just one but several independent microbial signals from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as molds, might play a role in explaining the protective effects. Recently, the diversity of microbial exposure has been associated with such a reduced risk in farmers' children. Surprisingly, the diversity of both fungal and bacterial exposure seemed to have protective effects. These results open new areas of research and create complex challenges. Methodological issues, such as environmental exposure characterization and assessment and elucidation of potential underlying mechanisms, are discussed because these aspects have a major influence on how microbial diversity can be studied in future studies in relation to protective effects for asthma and atopy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How to Determine the Environmental Exposure of PAHs Originating from Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Hilber, Isabel; Gouliarmou, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Biochars are obtained by pyrolyzing biomass materials and are increasingly used within the agricultural sector. Owing to the production process, biochars can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the high mg/kg range, which makes the determination of the environmental exposure of PAHs...... originating from biochars relevant. However, PAH sorption to biochar is characterized by very high (104–106 L/kg) or extreme distribution coefficients (KD) (>106 L/kg), which makes the determination of exposure scientifically and technically challenging. Cyclodextrin extractions, sorptive bioaccessibility...... extractions, Tenax extractions, contaminant traps, and equilibrium sampling were assessed and selected methods used for the determination of bioavailability parameters for PAHs in two model biochars. Results showed that: (1) the KD values of typically 106–109 L/kg made the biochars often act as sinks, rather...

  16. Endotoxins and β-glucans as markers of microbiological contamination--characteristics, detection, and environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Górny, Rafał L

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins and β-glucans are one of the major markers of microbiological contamination. As components of biological aerosols, they are ubiquitous in many environments. Numerous studies performed during the last three decades have proved that exposure to endotoxins and β-glucans could be associated with many diseases and/or adverse health outcomes. The aim of this review is to present the current stage of knowledge regarding endotoxins and β-glucans as biologically active components of aerosols and to characterize the quantitative methods for their detection in environmental samples. The problems of occupational exposure to both these components and their control procedures are also discussed. An overview of the available worldwide and Polish standards and threshold limit values is also given.

  17. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  20. Early-life sodium exposure unmasks susceptibility to stroke in hyperlipidemic, hypertensive heterozygous Tg25 rats transgenic for human cholesteryl ester transfer protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Julius L; Viereck, Jason C; McKee, Ann C; Hamilton, James A; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson; Herrera, Victoria L M

    2009-03-24

    Early-life risk factor exposure increases aortic atherosclerosis and blood pressure in humans and animal models; however, limited insight has been gained as to end-organ complications. We investigated the effects of early-life Na exposure (0.23% versus 0.4% NaCl regular rat chow) on vascular disease outcomes using the inbred, transgenic [hCETP](25) Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rat model of male-predominant coronary atherosclerosis, Tg25. Rather than the expected increase in coronary heart disease, fetal 0.4% Na exposure (cerebral cortical hemorrhagic infarctions, microhemorrhages, neuronal ischemia, and microvascular injury. Ex vivo MRI of stroke-positive rat brains detected cerebral hemorrhages, microhemorrhages, and ischemia with middle cerebral artery distribution and cerebellar noninvolvement. Ultrasound microimaging detected carotid artery disease. Prestroke analysis detected neuronal ischemia and decreased mass of isolated cerebral but not cerebellar microvessels. Early-life Na exposure exacerbated hypertension and unmasked stroke susceptibility, with greater female vulnerability in hypertensive, hyperlipidemic Tg25 rats. The reproducible modeling in stroke-prone Tg25 rats of carotid artery disease, cerebral hemorrhagic infarctions, neuronal ischemia, microhemorrhages, and microvascular alterations suggests a pathogenic spectrum with causal interrelationships. This "mixed-stroke" spectrum could represent paradigms of ischemic-hemorrhagic transformation and/or a microangiopathic basis for the association of ischemic lesions, microhemorrhages, and strokes in humans. Together, the data reveal early-life Na exposure to be a significant modifier of hypertension and stroke disease course and hence a potentially modifiable prevention target that deserves systematic study.

  1. Environmental Factors Affecting Asthma and Allergies: Predicting and Simulating Downwind Exposure to Airborne Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Sprigg, William A.; Nickovic, Slobodan; Huete, Alfredo; Solano, Ramon; Ratana, Piyachat; Jiang, Zhangyan; Flowers, Len; Zelicoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the environmental factors that affect asthma and allergies and work to predict and simulate the downwind exposure to airborne pollen. Using a modification of Dust REgional Atmosphere Model (DREAM) that incorporates phenology (i.e. PREAM) the aim was to predict concentrations of pollen in time and space. The strategy for using the model to simulate downwind pollen dispersal, and evaluate the results. Using MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), to get seasonal sampling of Juniper, the pollen chosen for the study, land cover on a near daily basis. The results of the model are reviewed.

  2. Environmental and physiological effects on grouping of drought-tolerant and susceptible rice varieties related to rice (Oryza sativa) root hydraulics under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Amelia; Wehler, Regina; Grondin, Alexandre; Franke, Rochus; Quintana, Marinell

    2016-05-02

    Root hydraulic limitations (i.e. intra-plant restrictions to water movement) may be related to crop performance under drought, and groupings in the hydraulic function of drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible rice (Oryza sativa) varieties have been previously reported. This study aimed to better understand the environmental and physiological relationships with rice root hydraulics under drought. Xylem sap bleeding rates in the field (gsap g(-1)shoot) were measured on seasonal and diurnal time frames, during which time environmental conditions were monitored and physiological measurements were conducted. Complementary experiments on the effects of vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on root hydraulic conductivity and on transpiration rates of de-rooted tillers were conducted in growth chambers. The diurnal effects on bleeding rate were more closely related to irradiance than VPD, and VPD effects on root hydraulic conductivity measured on 21-day-old plants were due to effects on plant growth including root surface area, maximum root depth and root:shoot ratio. Leaf osmotic potential was related to the grouping of drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible varieties in rice root hydraulics, and these groupings were independent of differences in phenology. Low single-tiller bleeding rates were observed under high evapo-transpirational demand, higher bleeding rates were observed at more negative leaf osmotic potentials in drought-susceptible varieties, and drought-tolerant and susceptible varieties differed in the VPD-induced increase in transpiration rates of de-rooted tillers. Low root suberin amounts in some of the drought-susceptible varieties may have resulted in higher ion transport, as evidenced by higher sap K(+) concentration and higher bleeding rates in those varieties. These results provide evidence of the environmental effects on shoots that can influence root hydraulics. The consistent groupings of drought-tolerant and susceptible varieties suggest that traits

  3. Research Review: Environmental exposures, neurodevelopment, and child mental health - new paradigms for the study of brain and behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia A; Margolis, Amy E

    2016-07-01

    Environmental exposures play a critical role in the genesis of some child mental health problems. We open with a discussion of children's vulnerability to neurotoxic substances, changes in the distribution of toxic exposures, and cooccurrence of social and physical exposures. We address trends in prevalence of mental health disorders, and approaches to the definition of disorders that are sensitive to the subtle effects of toxic exposures. We suggest broadening outcomes to include dimensional measures of autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and child learning capacity, as well as direct assessment of brain function. We consider the impact of two important exposures on children's mental health: lead and pesticides. We argue that longitudinal research designs may capture the cascading effects of exposures across biological systems and the full-range of neuropsychological endpoints. Neuroimaging is a valuable tool for observing brain maturation under varying environmental conditions. A dimensional approach to measurement may be sensitive to subtle subclinical toxic effects, permitting the development of exposure-related profiles and testing of complex functional relationships between brain and behavior. Questions about the neurotoxic effects of chemicals become more pressing when viewed through the lens of environmental justice. Reduction in the burden of child mental health disorders will require longitudinal study of neurotoxic exposures, incorporating dimensional approaches to outcome assessment, and measures of brain function. Research that seeks to identify links between toxic exposures and mental health outcomes has enormous public health and societal value. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. The effects of indoor environmental exposures on pediatric asthma: a discrete event simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood across all socioeconomic classes and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization among children. Asthma exacerbations have been associated with exposure to residential indoor environmental stressors such as allergens and air pollutants as well as numerous additional factors. Simulation modeling is a valuable tool that can be used to evaluate interventions for complex multifactorial diseases such as asthma but in spite of its flexibility and applicability, modeling applications in either environmental exposures or asthma have been limited to date. Methods We designed a discrete event simulation model to study the effect of environmental factors on asthma exacerbations in school-age children living in low-income multi-family housing. Model outcomes include asthma symptoms, medication use, hospitalizations, and emergency room visits. Environmental factors were linked to percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%, which in turn was linked to risk equations for each outcome. Exposures affecting FEV1% included indoor and outdoor sources of NO2 and PM2.5, cockroach allergen, and dampness as a proxy for mold. Results Model design parameters and equations are described in detail. We evaluated the model by simulating 50,000 children over 10 years and showed that pollutant concentrations and health outcome rates are comparable to values reported in the literature. In an application example, we simulated what would happen if the kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans were improved for the entire cohort, and showed reductions in pollutant concentrations and healthcare utilization rates. Conclusions We describe the design and evaluation of a discrete event simulation model of pediatric asthma for children living in low-income multi-family housing. Our model simulates the effect of environmental factors (combustion pollutants and allergens

  5. Environmentally toxicant exposures induced intragenerational transmission of liver abnormalities in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al-Griw

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental toxicants such as chemicals, heavy metals, and pesticides have been shown to promote transgenerational inheritance of abnormal phenotypes and/or diseases to multiple subsequent generations following parental and/ or ancestral exposures. This study was designed to examine the potential transgenerational action of the environmental toxicant trichloroethane (TCE on transmission of liver abnormality, and to elucidate the molecular etiology of hepatocyte cell damage. A total of thirty two healthy immature female albino mice were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: a sham group, which did not receive any treatment; a vehicle group, which received corn oil alone, and TCE treated group (3 weeks, 100 μg/kg i.p., every 4th day. The F0 and F1 generation control and TCE populations were sacrificed at the age of four months, and various abnormalities histpathologically investigated. Cell death and oxidative stress indices were also measured. The present study provides experimental evidence for the inheritance of environmentally induced liver abnormalities in mice. The results of this study show that exposure to the TCE promoted adult onset liver abnormalities in F0 female mice as well as unexposed F1 generation offspring. It is the first study to report a transgenerational liver abnormalities in the F1 generation mice through maternal line prior to gestation. This finding was based on careful evaluation of liver histopathological abnormalities, apoptosis of hepatocytes, and measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and nitric oxide in control and TCE populations. There was an increase in liver histopathological abnormalities, cell death, and oxidative lipid damage in F0 and F1 hepatic tissues of TCE treated group. In conclusion, this study showed that the biological and health impacts of environmental toxicant TCE do not end in maternal adults, but are passed on to offspring

  6. Ozone exposure, vitamin C intake, and genetic susceptibility of asthmatic children in Mexico City: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Macías Hortensia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that asthmatic children with GSTM1 null genotype may be more susceptible to the acute effect of ozone on the small airways and might benefit from antioxidant supplementation. This study aims to assess the acute effect of ozone on lung function (FEF25-75 in asthmatic children according to dietary intake of vitamin C and the number of putative risk alleles in three antioxidant genes: GSTM1, GSTP1 (rs1695, and NQO1 (rs1800566. Methods 257 asthmatic children from two cohort studies conducted in Mexico City were included. Stratified linear mixed models with random intercepts and random slopes on ozone were used. Potential confounding by ethnicity was assessed. Analyses were conducted under single gene and genotype score approaches. Results The change in FEF25-75 per interquartile range (60 ppb of ozone in persistent asthmatic children with low vitamin C intake and GSTM1 null was −91.2 ml/s (p = 0.06. Persistent asthmatic children with 4 to 6 risk alleles and low vitamin C intake showed an average decrement in FEF25-75 of 97.2 ml/s per 60 ppb of ozone (p = 0.03. In contrast in children with 1 to 3 risk alleles, acute effects of ozone on FEF25-75 did not differ by vitamin C intake. Conclusions Our results provide further evidence that asthmatic children predicted to have compromised antioxidant defense by virtue of genetic susceptibility combined with deficient antioxidant intake may be at increased risk of adverse effects of ozone on pulmonary function.

  7. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  8. Environmental mold and mycotoxin exposures elicit specific cytokine and chemokine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Jamie H; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Gavin, Igor M; Donaghey, Thomas C; Molina, Ramon M; Thompson, Khristy J; Chi, Chih-Lin; Gillis, Bruce S; Brain, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Molds can cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. We sought to use isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to understand changes in cytokine and chemokine levels in response to mold and mycotoxin exposures and to link these levels with respiratory symptoms in humans. We did this by utilizing an ex vivo assay approach to differentiate mold-exposed patients and unexposed controls. While circulating plasma chemokine and cytokine levels from these two groups might be similar, we hypothesized that by challenging their isolated white blood cells with mold or mold extracts, we would see a differential chemokine and cytokine release. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from blood from 33 patients with a history of mold exposures and from 17 controls. Cultured PBMCs were incubated with the most prominent Stachybotrys chartarum mycotoxin, satratoxin G, or with aqueous mold extract, ionomycin, or media, each with or without PMA. Additional PBMCs were exposed to spores of Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum. After 18 hours, cytokines and chemokines released into the culture medium were measured by multiplex assay. Clinical histories, physical examinations and pulmonary function tests were also conducted. After ex vivo PBMC exposures to molds or mycotoxins, the chemokine and cytokine profiles from patients with a history of mold exposure were significantly different from those of unexposed controls. In contrast, biomarker profiles from cells exposed to media alone showed no difference between the patients and controls. These findings demonstrate that chronic mold exposures induced changes in inflammatory and immune system responses to specific mold and mycotoxin challenges. These responses can differentiate mold-exposed patients from unexposed controls. This strategy may be a powerful approach to document immune system responsiveness to molds and other inflammation-inducing environmental agents.

  9. Environmental exposure to a major urban wastewater effluent: Effects on the energy metabolism of northern pike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinling, Julie; Houde, Magali; Verreault, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Municipal wastewater effluents (MWWEs) consist of dynamic and complex mixtures of chemical and biological compounds that can alter the health of exposed aquatic organisms. Disturbance of energy metabolism has been reported in fish exposed to MWWEs. However, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the physiological events leading to perturbation of energy balance and thyroid regulation, and associated lipid metabolism. The objective of the present study was to use a set of biomarkers, from gene transcription to body condition, to investigate the effects of a chronic environmental exposure to a major primary MWWE on fatty acid metabolism and thyroid hormone levels in northern pike (Esox lucius) collected from the St. Lawrence River near Montreal (QC, Canada). The exposure of pike to MWWE was examined through determination of a suite of persistent and bioaccumulative halogenated flame retardants in liver as this effluent is a known regional source for these chemicals. Greater hepatic concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, range: 29.6-465ng/g w.w. and 88.8-823ng/g w.w. in females and males, respectively) and other halogenated flame retardants (e.g., dechlorane-related compounds) were determined in fish collected downstream of the MWWE's point of discharge relative to the upstream site. This exposure in male pike was associated with decreased acyl-coA oxidase (acox1) and fatty acid synthase (fasn) mRNA levels as well as a decreased acyl-coA oxidase (ACOX) activity in liver. In female pike, MWWE exposure was associated with lower circulating free and total triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels and a tendency for greater total lipid percentages in liver. Present findings provide evidence that chronic exposure of a top predator fish to MWWE can be related to gender-specific effects on fatty acid metabolism and thyroid hormone homeostasis, and highlight the need for further investigation. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Melissa M.; Painter, Meghan M.; Bartell, Stephen E.; Logue, Amanda; Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2011-01-01

    Antidepressant pharmaceuticals have been reported in wastewater effluent at the nanogram to low microgram-per-liter range, and include bupropion (BUP), fluoxetine (FLX), sertraline (SER), and venlafaxine (VEN). To assess the effects of antidepressants on reproductive anatomy, physiology, and behavior, adult male fathead minnows (Pimeplwles promelas) were exposed for 21 days either to a single concentration of the antidepressants FLX, SER, VEN, or BUP, or to an antidepressant mixture. The data demonstrated that exposure to VEN (305 ng/L and 1104 ng/L) and SER (5.2 ng/L) resulted in mortality. Anatomical alterations were noted within the testes of fish exposed to SER and FLX, both modulators of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Additionally, FLX at 28 ng/L induced vitellogenin in male fish—a common endpoint for estrogenic endocrine disruption. Significant alterations in male secondary sex characteristics were noted with single exposures. Effects of single compound exposures neither carried over, nor became additive in the antidepressant mixtures, and reproductive behavior was not affected. Analysis of brain tissues from the exposed fish suggested increased uptake of FLX, SER and BUP and minimal uptake of VEN when compared to exposure water concentrations. Furthermore, the only metabolite detected consistently in the brain tissues was norfluoxetine. Similar trends of uptake by brain tissue were observed when fish were exposed to antidepressant mixtures. The present study demonstrates that anatomy and physiology, but not reproductive behavior, can be disrupted by exposure to environmental concentrations of some antidepressants. The observation that antidepressant uptake into fish tissues is selective may have consequences on assessing the mode-of-action and effects of these compounds in future studies.

  11. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2012; Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung. Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2012 covers the following issues: Natural radiation exposure; radiation exposure due to civilization (nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, radioactive waste storage, radioactive matter in research, engineering and medicine, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapon tests); occupational radiation exposure; medical radiation exposure; non-ionizing radiation.

  12. The environmental injustice of beauty: framing chemical exposures from beauty products as a health disparities concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Ami R; Shamasunder, Bhavna

    2017-10-01

    The obstetrics-gynecology community has issued a call to action to prevent toxic environmental chemical exposures and their threats to healthy human reproduction. Recent committee opinions recognize that vulnerable and underserved women may be impacted disproportionately by environmental chemical exposures and recommend that reproductive health professionals champion policies that secure environmental justice. Beauty product use is an understudied source of environmental chemical exposures. Beauty products can include reproductive and developmental toxicants such as phthalates and heavy metals; however, disclosure requirements are limited and inconsistent. Compared with white women, women of color have higher levels of beauty product-related environmental chemicals in their bodies, independent of socioeconomic status. Even small exposures to toxic chemicals during critical periods of development (such as pregnancy) can trigger adverse health consequences (such as impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer). In this commentary, we seek to highlight the connections between environmental justice and beauty product-related chemical exposures. We describe racial/ethnic differences in beauty product use (such as skin lighteners, hair straighteners, and feminine hygiene products) and the potential chemical exposures and health risks that are associated with these products. We also discuss how targeted advertising can take advantage of mainstream beauty norms to influence the use of these products. Reproductive health professionals can use this information to advance environmental justice by being prepared to counsel patients who have questions about toxic environmental exposures from beauty care products and other sources. Researchers and healthcare providers can also promote health-protective policies such as improved ingredient testing and disclosure for the beauty product industry. Future clinical and public health research should consider beauty

  13. Evolution of environmental exposure science: Using breath-borne biomarkers for “discovery” of the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to recent research, 70-90% of long-term latency and chronic human disease incidence is attributable to environmental (human exposome) factors through the gene x environment interaction. Environmental exposures are complex and involve many thousands of chemicals, a mult...

  14. Coral Bleaching Susceptibility Is Decreased following Short-Term (1–3 Year Prior Temperature Exposure and Evolutionary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Haslun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral exposed to short periods of temperature stress (≥1.0°C above mean monthly maximum and/or increased frequencies of high temperatures may bolster resilience to global warming associated with climate change. We compared Montastraea cavernosa (Linnaeus, 1767; Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Faviidae from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS and the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS. Thermal stress has been reported frequently within the FKNMS; however, corals in the FGBNMS experience nominal exposures to similar stressors. Corals were exposed to three temperatures (27°C, 31°C, and 35°C for 72 h. Colonies from the FKNMS lost significantly fewer viable and necrotic zooxanthellae under conditions of acute stress (35°C than the FGBNMS colonies. This indicates that the FKNMS corals are less temperature-sensitive than those in the FGBNMS. The observed differences point to greater prior temperature exposure and adaptation in the former versus the latter site when correlated to previous years of thermal exposure.

  15. Are People With a History of Disease More Susceptible to a Short-term Exposure to Asian Dust?: A Case-Crossover Study Among the Elderly in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashi