The susceptibility critical exponent for a nonaqueous ionic binary mixture near a consolute point
Zhang, Kai C.; Briggs, Matthew E.; Gammon, Robert W.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.
1992-01-01
We report turbidity measurements of a nonaqueous ionic solution of triethyl n-hexylammonium triethyl n-hexylboride in diphenyl ether. A classical susceptibility critical exponent gamma = 1.01 +/- 0.01 is obtained over the reduced temperature range t between values of 0.1 and 0.0001. The best fits of the sample transmission had a standard deviation of 0.39 percent over this range. Ising and spherical model critical exponents are firmly excluded. The correlation length amplitude xi sub 0 from fitting is 1.0 +/- 0.2 nm which is much larger than values found in neutral fluids and some aqueous binary mixtures.
Quantum critical Hall exponents
Lütken, C A
2014-01-01
We investigate a finite size "double scaling" hypothesis using data from an experiment on a quantum Hall system with short range disorder [1-3]. For Hall bars of width w at temperature T the scaling form is w(-mu)T(-kappa), where the critical exponent mu approximate to 0.23 we extract from the data is comparable to the multi-fractal exponent alpha(0) - 2 obtained from the Chalker-Coddington (CC) model [4]. We also use the data to find the approximate location (in the resistivity plane) of seven quantum critical points, all of which closely agree with the predictions derived long ago from the modular symmetry of a toroidal sigma-model with m matter fields [5]. The value nu(8) = 2.60513 ... of the localisation exponent obtained from the m = 8 model is in excellent agreement with the best available numerical value nu(num) = 2.607 +/- 0.004 derived from the CC-model [6]. Existing experimental data appear to favour the m = 9 model, suggesting that the quantum Hall system is not in the same universality class as th...
Balakrishnan, K.; Kaul, S. N.
2002-04-01
We report the observation of a linear relationship between the magnetic contribution to Young's modulus, ΔE/E0, and inverse magnetic susceptibility χ-1 for amorphous weak itinerant-electron ferromagnets Fe90Zr10 and Fe91Zr9 in the asymptotic critical region near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic phase transition. The proportionality ΔE(T)/E0~χ-1(T) is shown to provide as accurate a means of determining the asymptotic critical exponent γ and the leading ``correction-to-scaling'' amplitudes for susceptibilty from the ΔE/E0 data as a direct measurement of magnetic susceptibilty does. Similarly, the well-known relation between the magnetic contributions to sound velocity and specific heat is fully exploited to extract accurate estimates for the universal critical amplitude ratio A+/A- and the asymptotic critical exponents α+/- for the specific heat from the sound velocity data. The presently determined values of α+/- and γ, together with the reported value for spontaneous magnetization critical exponent β, not only obey the scaling equalities α+=α- and α+2β+γ=2 but also assert that the atomic magnetic moments in the alloys in question interact with one another through an attractive interaction which decays faster than 1/r5 with the interatomic spacing, r.
Pradeep, U K
2008-10-07
The critical behavior of osmotic susceptibility in an aqueous electrolyte mixture 1-propanol (1P) + water (W) + potassium chloride is reported. This mixture exhibits re-entrant phase transitions and has a nearly parabolic critical line with its apex representing a double critical point (DCP). The behavior of the susceptibility exponent is deduced from static light-scattering measurements, on approaching the lower critical solution temperatures (T(L)'s) along different experimental paths (by varying t) in the one-phase region. The light-scattering data analysis substantiates the existence of a nonmonotonic crossover behavior of the susceptibility exponent in this mixture. For the T(L) far away from the DCP, the effective susceptibility exponent gamma(eff) as a function of t displays a nonmonotonic crossover from its single limit three-dimensional (3D)-Ising value (approximately 1.24) toward its mean-field value with increase in t. While for that closest to the DCP, gamma(eff) displays a sharp, nonmonotonic crossover from its nearly doubled 3D-Ising value toward its nearly doubled mean-field value with increase in t. The renormalized Ising regime extends over a relatively larger t range for the T(L) closest to the DCP, and a trend toward shrinkage in the renormalized Ising regime is observed as T(L) shifts away from the DCP. Nevertheless, the crossover to the mean-field limit extends well beyond t>10(-2) for the T(L)'s studied. The observed crossover behavior is attributed to the presence of strong ion-induced clustering in this mixture, as revealed by various structure probing techniques. As far as the critical behavior in complex or associating mixtures with special critical points (like the DCP) is concerned, our results indicate that the influence of the DCP on the critical behavior must be taken into account not only on the renormalization of the critical exponent but also on the range of the Ising regime, which can shrink with decrease in the influence of the
Accurate Monte Carlo critical exponents for Ising lattices
García, Jorge; Gonzalo, Julio A.
2003-08-01
A careful Monte Carlo investigation of the phase transition very close to the critical point ( T→ Tc, H→0) in relatively large d=3, s= {1}/{2} Ising lattices did produce critical exponents β3 D=0.3126(4)≅5/16, δ3 D-1=0.1997(4)≅1/5 and γ3 D=1.253(4)≅5/4. Our results indicate that, within experimental error, they are given by simple fractions corresponding to the linear interpolations between the respective two dimensional (Onsager) and four dimensional (mean field) critical exponents. An analysis of our inverse susceptibility data χ-1( T) vs. | T- Tc| shows that these data lead to a value of γ3 D compatible with γ‧= γ and Tc=4.51152(12), while γ values obtained recently by high and low temperature series expansions and renormalization group methods are not.
Geometric critical exponents in classical and quantum phase transitions.
Kumar, Prashant; Sarkar, Tapobrata
2014-10-01
We define geometric critical exponents for systems that undergo continuous second-order classical and quantum phase transitions. These relate scalar quantities on the information theoretic parameter manifolds of such systems, near criticality. We calculate these exponents by approximating the metric and thereby solving geodesic equations analytically, near curvature singularities of two-dimensional parameter manifolds. The critical exponents are seen to be the same for both classical and quantum systems that we consider, and we provide evidence about the possible universality of our results.
Critical exponents from AdS/CFT with flavor
Karch, Andreas; O'Bannon, Andy; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2009-09-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the thermodynamics of massive Script N = 2 supersymmetric hypermultiplet flavor fields coupled to Script N = 4 supersymmetric SU(Nc) Yang-Mills theory, formulated on curved four-manifolds, in the limits of large Nc and large 't Hooft coupling. The gravitational duals are probe D-branes in global thermal AdS. These D-branes may undergo a topology-changing transition in the bulk. The D-brane embeddings near the point of the topology change exhibit a scaling symmetry. The associated scaling exponents can be either real- or complex-valued. Which regime applies depends on the dimensionality of a collapsing submanifold in the critical embedding. When the scaling exponents are complex-valued, a first-order transition associated with the flavor fields appears in the dual field theory. Real scaling exponents are expected to be associated with a continuous transition in the dual field theory. For one example with real exponents, the D7-brane, we study the transition in detail. We find two field theory observables that diverge at the critical point, and we compute the associated critical exponents. We also present analytic and numerical evidence that the transition expresses itself in the meson spectrum as a non-analyticity at the critical point. We argue that the transition we study is a true phase transition only when the 't Hooft coupling is strictly infinite.
Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents
Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.
2014-01-01
An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.
Determination of critical exponents of inhomogeneous Gd films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales-Rivera, A., E-mail: arosalesr@unal.edu.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Salazar, N.A. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Hovorka, O.; Idigoras, O.; Berger, A. [CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, Tolosa Hiribidea 76, E-20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain)
2012-08-15
The role of inhomogeneity on the critical behavior is studied for non-epitaxial Gd films. For this purpose, the film inhomogeneity was varied experimentally by annealing otherwise identical samples at different temperatures T{sub AN}=200, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) was used for magnetization M vs. T measurements at different external fields H. A method based upon the linear superposition of different sample parts having different Curie temperatures T{sub C} was used to extract the critical exponents and the intrinsic distribution of Curie temperatures. We found that this method allows extracting reliable values of the critical exponents for all annealing temperatures, which enabled us to study the effects of disorder onto the universality class of Gd films.
Non-mean-field critical exponent in a mean-field model: dynamics versus statistical mechanics.
Ogawa, Shun; Patelli, Aurelio; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y
2014-03-01
Mean-field theory tells us that the classical critical exponent of susceptibility is twice that of magnetization. However, linear response theory based on the Vlasov equation, which is naturally introduced by the mean-field nature, makes the former exponent half of the latter for families of quasistationary states having second order phase transitions in the Hamiltonian mean-field model and its variances, in the low-energy phase. We clarify that this strange exponent is due to the existence of Casimir invariants which trap the system in a quasistationary state for a time scale diverging with the system size. The theoretical prediction is numerically confirmed by N-body simulations for the equilibrium states and a family of quasistationary states.
Skeleton graph expansion of critical exponents in "cultural revolution" years
Hao, Bailin
Kenneth Wilson's Nobel Prize winning breakthrough in the renormalization group theory of phase transition and critical phenomena almost overlapped with the violent "cultural revolution" years (1966-1976) in China. An unexpected chance in 1972 brought the author of these lines close to the Wilson-Fisher є-expansion of critical exponents and eventually led to a joint paper with Lu Yu published entirely in Chinese without any English title and abstract. Even the original acknowledgment was deleted because of mentioning foreign names like Kenneth Wilson and Kerson Huang. In this article I will tell the 40-year old story as a much belated tribute to Kenneth Wilson and to reproduce the essence of our work in English. At the end, I give an elementary derivation of the Callan-Symanzik equation without referring to field theory.
Critical exponent for a damped wave system with fractional integral
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mijing Wu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We shall present the critical exponent $$ F(p, q,\\alpha:=\\max\\big\\{\\alpha+\\frac{(\\alpha+1(p+1}{pq-1}, \\alpha+\\frac{(\\alpha+1(q+1}{pq-1}\\big\\}-\\frac{1}{2} $$ for the Cauchy problem $$\\displaylines{ u_{tt}-u_{xx}+u_t=J_{0|t}^{\\alpha}(|v|^{p}, \\quad (t,x\\in\\mathbb{R}^{+}\\times\\mathbb{R},\\cr v_{tt}-v_{xx}+v_t=J_{0|t}^{\\alpha}(|u|^{q}, \\quad (t, x\\in\\mathbb{R}^{+}\\times\\mathbb{R},\\cr (u(0,x, u_t(0,x=(u_0(x,u_1(x, \\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R},\\cr (v(0,x, v_t(0,x=(v_0(x,v_1(x, \\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R},\\cr }$$ where $p,q\\geq 1$, $pq>1$ and $0<\\alpha<1/2$; that is, the small data global existence of solutions can be derived to the problem above if $F(p, q, \\alpha<0$. Furthermore, in the case of $F(p, q, \\alpha\\geq 0$ the non-existence of global solution can be obtained with the initial data having positive average value.
Truncatable bootstrap equations in algebraic form and critical surface exponents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gliozzi, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 (Italy)
2016-10-10
We describe examples of drastic truncations of conformal bootstrap equations encoding much more information than that obtained by a direct numerical approach. A three-term truncation of the four point function of a free scalar in any space dimensions provides algebraic identities among conformal block derivatives which generate the exact spectrum of the infinitely many primary operators contributing to it. In boundary conformal field theories, we point out that the appearance of free parameters in the solutions of bootstrap equations is not an artifact of truncations, rather it reflects a physical property of permeable conformal interfaces which are described by the same equations. Surface transitions correspond to isolated points in the parameter space. We are able to locate them in the case of 3d Ising model, thanks to a useful algebraic form of 3d boundary bootstrap equations. It turns out that the low-lying spectra of the surface operators in the ordinary and the special transitions of 3d Ising model form two different solutions of the same polynomial equation. Their interplay yields an estimate of the surface renormalization group exponents, y{sub h}=0.72558(18) for the ordinary universality class and y{sub h}=1.646(2) for the special universality class, which compare well with the most recent Monte Carlo calculations. Estimates of other surface exponents as well as OPE coefficients are also obtained.
Cycle-expansion method for the Lyapunov exponent, susceptibility, and higher moments
Charbonneau, Patrick; Li, Yue Cathy; Pfister, Henry D.; Yaida, Sho
2017-09-01
Lyapunov exponents characterize the chaotic nature of dynamical systems by quantifying the growth rate of uncertainty associated with the imperfect measurement of initial conditions. Finite-time estimates of the exponent, however, experience fluctuations due to both the initial condition and the stochastic nature of the dynamical path. The scale of these fluctuations is governed by the Lyapunov susceptibility, the finiteness of which typically provides a sufficient condition for the law of large numbers to apply. Here, we obtain a formally exact expression for this susceptibility in terms of the Ruelle dynamical ζ function for one-dimensional systems. We further show that, for systems governed by sequences of random matrices, the cycle expansion of the ζ function enables systematic computations of the Lyapunov susceptibility and of its higher-moment generalizations. The method is here applied to a class of dynamical models that maps to static disordered spin chains with interactions stretching over a varying distance and is tested against Monte Carlo simulations.
Existence of solutions for elliptic systems with critical Sobolev exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Amster
2002-06-01
Full Text Available We establish conditions for existence and for nonexistence of nontrivial solutions to an elliptic system of partial differential equations. This system is of gradient type and has a nonlinearity with critical growth.
Exact Critical Exponents for the Antiferromagnetic Quantum Critical Metal in Two Dimensions
Schlief, Andres; Lunts, Peter; Lee, Sung-Sik
2017-04-01
Unconventional metallic states which do not support well-defined single-particle excitations can arise near quantum phase transitions as strong quantum fluctuations of incipient order parameters prevent electrons from forming coherent quasiparticles. Although antiferromagnetic phase transitions occur commonly in correlated metals, understanding the nature of the strange metal realized at the critical point in layered systems has been hampered by a lack of reliable theoretical methods that take into account strong quantum fluctuations. We present a nonperturbative solution to the low-energy theory for the antiferromagnetic quantum critical metal in two spatial dimensions. Being a strongly coupled theory, it can still be solved reliably in the low-energy limit as quantum fluctuations are organized by a new control parameter that emerges dynamically. We predict the exact critical exponents that govern the universal scaling of physical observables at low temperatures.
Extracting critical exponents for sequences of numerical data via series extrapolation techniques.
Cöster, Kris; Schmidt, Kai Phillip
2016-08-01
We describe a generic scheme to extract critical exponents of quantum lattice models from sequences of numerical data, which is, for example, relevant for nonperturbative linked-cluster expansions or nonperturbative variants of continuous unitary transformations. The fundamental idea behind our approach is a reformulation of the numerical data sequences as a series expansion in a pseudoparameter. This allows us to utilize standard series expansion extrapolation techniques to extract critical properties such as critical points and critical exponents. The approach is illustrated for the deconfinement transition of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain.
Critical Exponents, Scaling Law, Universality and Renormalization Group Flow in Strong Coupling QED
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
The critical behavior of strongly coupled QED with a chiral-invariant four-fermion interaction (gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model) is investigated through the unquenched Schwinger-Dyson equation including the fermion loop effect at the one-loop level. It is shown that the critical exponents satisfy the (hyper)scaling relations as in the quenched case. However, the respective critical exponent takes the classical mean-field value, and consequently unquenched QED belongs to the same universality class as the zero-charge model. On the other hand, it is pointed out that quenched QED violates not only universality but also weak universality, due to continuously varying critical exponents. Furthermore, the renormalization group flow of constant renormalized charge is given. All the results are consistent with triviality of QED and the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the unquenched case.
Pushpalatha, K.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.
1998-05-01
The surface pressure exerted by a monolayer of organic compounds condensing at electrochemical interfaces is evaluated using a two-dimensional nearest-neighbor Ising model formalism. The experimental critical temperature data of organic adsorbates are employed to obtain the composite short-range interaction energy using Onsager's exact solution. The methodology of obtaining the critical exponents ` δ' and ` γ' pertaining to surface pressure and isothermal compressibility is discussed. These values are consistent with the exponents postulated in other contexts, thereby demonstrating the universality hypothesis.
Statistical properties of a dissipative kicked system: Critical exponents and scaling invariance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.com [CAMTP – Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Robnik, Marko, E-mail: robnik@uni-mb.si [CAMTP – Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatística, Matemática Aplicada e Computação, UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)
2012-01-16
A new universal empirical function that depends on a single critical exponent (acceleration exponent) is proposed to describe the scaling behavior in a dissipative kicked rotator. The scaling formalism is used to describe two regimes of dissipation: (i) strong dissipation and (ii) weak dissipation. For case (i) the model exhibits a route to chaos known as period doubling and the Feigenbaum constant along the bifurcations is obtained. When weak dissipation is considered the average action as well as its standard deviation are described using scaling arguments with critical exponents. The universal empirical function describes remarkably well a phase transition from limited to unlimited growth of the average action. -- Highlights: ► A new universal empirical function is proposed. ► The scaling formalism is used to describe two regimes of dissipation. ► The model exhibits a route to chaos known as period doubling. ► The average action as well as its standard deviation are described using scaling.
Upper and lower critical decay exponents of Ising ferromagnets with long-range interaction.
Horita, Toshiki; Suwa, Hidemaro; Todo, Synge
2017-01-01
We investigate the universality class of the finite-temperature phase transition of the two-dimensional Ising model with the algebraically decaying ferromagnetic long-range interaction, J_{ij}=|r[over ⃗]_{i}-r[over ⃗]_{j}|^{-(d+σ)}, where d (=2) is the dimension of the system and σ is the decay exponent, by means of the order-N cluster-algorithm Monte Carlo method. In particular, we focus on the upper and lower critical decay exponents, the boundaries between the mean-field-universality, intermediate, and short-range-universality regimes. At the critical decay exponents, it is found that the standard Binder ratio of magnetization at the critical temperature exhibits extremely slow convergence as a function of the system size. We propose more effective physical quantities, namely the combined Binder ratio and the self-combined Binder ratio, both of which cancel the leading finite-size corrections of the conventional Binder ratio. Utilizing these techniques, we clearly demonstrate that in two dimensions, the lower and upper critical decay exponents are σ=1 and 7/4, respectively, contrary to the recent Monte Carlo and renormalization-group studies [M. Picco, arXiv:1207.1018; T. Blanchard et al., Europhys. Lett. 101, 56003 (2013)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/101/56003].
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We report the numerically evaluated critical exponents associated with the scaling of generalized fractal dimensions during the transition from order to chaos. The analysis is carried out in detail in the context of unimodal and bimodal maps representing typical one-dimensional discrete dynamical systems. The behavior of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie-Xiong Mo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the phase transitions of black holes with conformal anomaly in canonical ensemble. Some interesting and novel phase transition phenomena have been discovered. It is shown that there are striking differences in both Hawking temperature and phase structure between black holes with conformal anomaly and those without it. Moreover, we probe in detail the dependence of phase transitions on the choice of parameters. The results show that black holes with conformal anomaly have much richer phase structure than those without it. There would be two, only one, or no phase transition points depending on the parameters. The corresponding parameter regions are derived both numerically and graphically. Geometrothermodynamics are built up to examine the phase structure we have discovered. It is shown that Legendre invariant thermodynamic scalar curvature diverges exactly where the specific heat diverges. Furthermore, critical behaviors are investigated by calculating the relevant critical exponents. And we prove that these critical exponents satisfy the thermodynamic scaling laws.
Critical exponents and irreversibility lines of La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 single crystal
Khan, N.; Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Prabhakaran, D.
2013-05-01
We have studied the dynamic and static critical behavior of spin glass transition in insulating La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 single crystal by ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements in the vicinity of its freezing temperature (Tf). The dynamic scaling analysis of the frequency dependence of ac susceptibility data yields the characteristic time constant τ0=1.6(9)×10-12 s, the dynamic critical exponent zν=9.5(2), and a frequency dependence factor K =ΔTf/Tf(Δlogf)=0.017, indicating that the sample enters into a canonical spin-glass phase below Tf = 34.8(2) K. The scaling analysis of non-linear magnetization in the vicinity of Tf through the static scaling hypothesis yields critical exponents β = 0.89(1) and γ = 2.9(1), which match well with that observed for well known three-dimensional (3D) Heisenberg spin glasses. From the longitudinal component of zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetization measurement, we have constructed the H-T phase diagram which represents the field evolution of two characteristic temperatures: the upper one, Tw(H), indicates the onset of spin freezing in a uniform external field H, while the lower one, Ts(H), marks the onset of strong irreversibility of the frozen state. The low field Ts(H) follows the critical line suggested by d'Almeida-Thouless model for canonical spin glass, whereas the Tw(H) exhibits a re-entrant behavior with a maximum in the Tw(H) at a nonzero field above which it follows the Gabay-Toulouse (GT) critical line which is a characteristic of Heisenberg spin glass. The reentrant behavior of the GT line resembles that predicted theoretically for n-component vector spin glasses in the presence of a uniaxial anisotropy field.
Existence of solutions for p-Kirchhoff type problems with critical exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Hamydy
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We study the existence of solutions for the p-Kirchhoff type problem involving the critical Sobolev exponent, $$displaylines{ -Big[gBig(int_Omega|abla u|^pdxBigBig]Delta_pu =lambda f(x,u+|u|^{p^star-2}uquadext{in }Omega,cr u=0quadext{on }partialOmega, }$$ where $Omega$ is a bounded smooth domain of $mathbb{R}^N$, $1
critical Sobolev exponent, $lambda$ is a positive parameter, f and g are continuous functions. The main results of this paper establish, via the variational method. The concentration-compactness principle allows to prove that the Palais-Smale condition is satisfied below a certain level.
Critical exponents in the transition to chaos in one-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
obey the relation λ. µ µ∞ ν. (1) where µ∞ is the value of the control parameter µ at the Feigenbaum point or accumulation point of period doubling transitions andν is the associated critical exponent. In the context of unimodal maps like the logistic map,ν is given by the Huberman–Rudnick (HR) relation ν(z) = ln 2 ln δ(z). (2).
Universal Scaling and Critical Exponents of the Anisotropic Quantum Rabi Model
Liu, Maoxin; Chesi, Stefano; Ying, Zu-Jian; Chen, Xiaosong; Luo, Hong-Gang; Lin, Hai-Qing
2017-12-01
We investigate the quantum phase transition of the anisotropic quantum Rabi model, in which the rotating and counterrotating terms are allowed to have different coupling strengths. The model interpolates between two known limits with distinct universal properties. Through a combination of analytic and numerical approaches, we extract the phase diagram, scaling functions, and critical exponents, which determine the universality class at finite anisotropy (identical to the isotropic limit). We also reveal other interesting features, including a superradiance-induced freezing of the effective mass and discontinuous scaling functions in the Jaynes-Cummings limit. Our findings are extended to the few-body quantum phase transitions with N >1 spins, where we expose the same effective parameters, scaling properties, and phase diagram. Thus, a stronger form of universality is established, valid from N =1 up to the thermodynamic limit.
Karki, Pragalv; Loh, Yen Lee
2016-11-02
We simulate three types of random inductor-capacitor (LC) networks on [Formula: see text] square lattices. We calculate the dynamical conductivity using an equation-of-motion method in which timestep error is eliminated and windowing error is minimized. We extract the critical exponent a such that [Formula: see text] at low frequencies. The results suggest that there are three different universality classes. The [Formula: see text] model, with capacitances from each site to ground, has a = 0.314(4). The [Formula: see text] model, with capacitances along bonds, has a = 0. The [Formula: see text] model, with both types of capacitances, has a = 0.304(1). This implies that classical percolative 2D superconductor-insulator transitions (SITs) generically have [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text]. Therefore, any experiments that give a constant conductivity as [Formula: see text] must be explained in terms of quantum effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Dologlou
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The application of new data in the power law relation between the stress drop of the earthquake and the lead time of the precursory seismic electric signal led to an exponent which falls in the range of the values of critical exponents for fracture and it is in excellent agreement with a previous one found by (Dologlou, 2012. In addition, this exponent is very close to the one reported by Varotsos and Alexopoulos (1984a, which interconnects the amplitude of the precursory seismic electric signals (SES and the magnitude of the impending earthquake. Hence, the hypothesis that underlying dynamic processes evolving to criticality prevail in the pre-focal area when the SES is emitted is significantly supported.
Landau-Ginzburg Limit of Black Hole's Quantum Portrait: Self Similarity and Critical Exponent
Dvali, Gia
2012-01-01
Recently we have suggested that the microscopic quantum description of a black hole is an overpacked self-sustained Bose-condensate of N weakly-interacting soft gravitons, which obeys the rules of 't Hooft's large-N physics. In this note we derive an effective Landau-Ginzburg Lagrangian for the condensate and show that it becomes an exact description in a semi-classical limit that serves as the black hole analog of 't Hooft's planar limit. The role of a weakly-coupled Landau-Ginzburg order parameter is played by N. This description consistently reproduces the known properties of black holes in semi-classical limit. Hawking radiation, as the quantum depletion of the condensate, is described by the slow-roll of the field N. In the semiclassical limit, where black holes of arbitrarily small size are allowed, the equation of depletion is self similar leading to a scaling law for the black hole size with critical exponent 1/3.
Pushpalatha, K.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.
1997-07-01
The evaluation of critical exponent β for two-dimensional condensation of organic adsorbates at the mercury-aqueous solution interface is carried out using spin- {1}/{2} generalized Ising model formalism. The estimated value is in agreement with Onsager's value of 0.125 pertaining to two-dimensional Ising model with nearest neighbour interaction energies.
Critical behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of the uniaxial ferromagnet LiHoF4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beauvillain, P.; Renard, J. P.; Laursen, Ib
1978-01-01
The magnetic susceptibility of two LiHoF4 single crystals has been measured in the range 1.2-4.2 K. Ferromagnetic order occurs at Tc=1.527 K. Above 2.5 K, the susceptibilities parallel and perpendicular to the fourfold c axis are well interpreted by the molecular-field approximation, taking......, the parallel susceptibility is well described by the classical law with logarithmic corrections theoretically predicted by Larkin and Khmel'mitskii for the uniaxial dipolar ferromagnet or by a power law with a critical-exponent value γ=1.05 rather close to 1. The upper limit of the critical region is (Tmax...
Kosaka, Atsushi
2012-01-01
We consider a positive solution of the Emden equation with the critical Sobolev exponent on a geodesic ball in S3. In the case of the Dirichlet boundary condition, Bandle and Peletier [2] proved the precise result on the existence of a positive radial solution. We investigate the same equation with the third kind boundary condition and obtain a more general result. Namely we prove that the existence and the nonexistence of solutions depend on the geodesic radius and the boundary condition. Mo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leonel, Edson D; De Oliveira, Juliano A; Saif, Farhan, E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de EstatIstica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao, UNESP-Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-07-29
Critical exponents that describe a transition from integrability to non-integrability in a two-dimensional, nonlinear and area-preserving map are obtained via localization of the first invariant spanning curve (invariant tori) in the phase space. In a general class of systems, the position of the first invariant tori is estimated by reducing the mapping of the system to the standard mapping where a transition takes place from local to global chaos. The phase space of the mapping shows a large chaotic sea surrounding periodic islands and limited by a set of invariant tori whose position of the first of them depends on the control parameters. The formalism leads us to obtain analytically critical exponents that describe the behaviour of the average variable (action) along the chaotic sea. The result is compared to several models in the literature confirming the approach is of large interest. The formalism used is general and the procedure can be extended to many other different systems. (fast track communication)
Crauel, Hans; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre
1991-01-01
Since the predecessor to this volume (LNM 1186, Eds. L. Arnold, V. Wihstutz)appeared in 1986, significant progress has been made in the theory and applications of Lyapunov exponents - one of the key concepts of dynamical systems - and in particular, pronounced shifts towards nonlinear and infinite-dimensional systems and engineering applications are observable. This volume opens with an introductory survey article (Arnold/Crauel) followed by 26 original (fully refereed) research papers, some of which have in part survey character. From the Contents: L. Arnold, H. Crauel: Random Dynamical Systems.- I.Ya. Goldscheid: Lyapunov exponents and asymptotic behaviour of the product of random matrices.- Y. Peres: Analytic dependence of Lyapunov exponents on transition probabilities.- O. Knill: The upper Lyapunov exponent of Sl (2, R) cocycles:Discontinuity and the problem of positivity.- Yu.D. Latushkin, A.M. Stepin: Linear skew-product flows and semigroups of weighted composition operators.- P. Baxendale: Invariant me...
Operator fidelity susceptibility, decoherence, and quantum criticality
Lu, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zanardi, Paolo
2008-09-01
The extension of the notion of quantum fidelity from the state-space to the operator level can be used to study environment-induced decoherence. The state-dependent operator fidelity susceptibility (OFS), the leading-order term for slightly different operator parameters, is shown to have a nontrivial behavior when the environment is at critical points. Two different contributions to the OFS are identified which have distinct physical origins and temporal dependence. Exact results are obtained for the finite-temperature decoherence caused by a bath described by the Ising model in a transverse field.
Park, Miok; Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk
2017-11-01
Einstein-scalar- U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ . It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α , we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ _c for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α . However, for large values of z and α , the anisotropic phase is not favored.
Barreira, Luís
2017-01-01
This book offers a self-contained introduction to the theory of Lyapunov exponents and its applications, mainly in connection with hyperbolicity, ergodic theory and multifractal analysis. It discusses the foundations and some of the main results and main techniques in the area, while also highlighting selected topics of current research interest. With the exception of a few basic results from ergodic theory and the thermodynamic formalism, all the results presented include detailed proofs. The book is intended for all researchers and graduate students specializing in dynamical systems who are looking for a comprehensive overview of the foundations of the theory and a sample of its applications.
Fidelity susceptibility as holographic PV-criticality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia – Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Myrzakulov, Kairat, E-mail: kairatmyrzakul@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Myrzakulov, Ratbay, E-mail: rmyrzakulov@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General & Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2017-02-10
It is well known that entropy can be used to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. In this paper, we will use complexity to holographically establish a connection among geometry, thermodynamics and information theory. Thus, we will analyze the relation among holographic complexity, fidelity susceptibility, and thermodynamics in extended phase space. We will demonstrate that fidelity susceptibility (which is the informational complexity dual to a maximum volume in AdS) can be related to the thermodynamical volume (which is conjugate to the cosmological constant in the extended thermodynamic phase space). Thus, this letter establishes a relation among geometry, thermodynamics, and information theory, using complexity.
Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review
Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca
2014-05-01
Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This
El-Showk, Sheer; Poland, David; Rychkov, Slava; Simmons-Duffin, David; Vichi, Alessandro
2014-01-01
We use the conformal bootstrap to perform a precision study of the operator spectrum of the critical 3d Ising model. We conjecture that the 3d Ising spectrum minimizes the central charge c in the space of unitary solutions to crossing symmetry. Because extremal solutions to crossing symmetry are uniquely determined, we are able to precisely reconstruct the first several Z2-even operator dimensions and their OPE coefficients. We observe that a sharp transition in the operator spectrum occurs at the 3d Ising dimension Delta_sigma=0.518154(15), and find strong numerical evidence that operators decouple from the spectrum as one approaches the 3d Ising point. We compare this behavior to the analogous situation in 2d, where the disappearance of operators can be understood in terms of degenerate Virasoro representations.
Susceptibilities from a black hole engineered EoS with a critical point
Portillo, Israel
2017-04-01
Currently at the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC experimental efforts are being made to find the QCD critical point. On the theoretical side, the behavior of higher-order susceptibilities of the net-baryon charge from Lattice QCD at µB = 0 may allow us to estimate the position of the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. However, even if the series expansion continues to higher-orders, there is always the possibility to miss the critical point behavior due to truncation errors. An alternative approach is to use a black hole engineered holographic model, which displays a critical point at large densities and matches lattice susceptibilities at µB = 0. Using the thermodynamic data from this black hole model, we obtain the freeze-out points extracted from the net-protons distribution measured at STAR and explore higher order fluctuations at the lowest energies at the beam energy scan to investigate signatures of the critical point.
Scaling exponents of star polymers
von Ferber, Christian; Holovatch, Yurij
2002-01-01
We review recent results of the field theoretical renormalization group analysis on the scaling properties of star polymers. We give a brief account of how the numerical values of the exponents governing the scaling of star polymers were obtained as well as provide some examples of the phenomena governed by these exponents. In particular we treat the interaction between star polymers in a good solvent, the Brownian motion near absorbing polymers, and diffusion-controlled reactions involving p...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mussap Michele
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeasts are a common cause of invasive fungal infections in critically ill patients. Antifungal susceptibility testing results of clinically significant fungal strains are of interest to physicians, enabling them to adopt appropriate strategies for empiric and prophylactic therapies. We investigated the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts isolated over a 2-year period from hospitalised patients with invasive yeast infections. Methods 638 yeasts were isolated from the blood, central venous catheters and sterile fluids of 578 patients on general and surgical intensive care units and surgical wards. Etest strips and Sensititre panels were used to test the susceptibility of the isolates to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole in 13 laboratories centres (LC and two co-ordinating centres (CC. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI reference broth microdilution method was used at the CCs for comparison. Results Etest and Sensititre (LC/CC MIC90 values were, respectively: amphotericin B 0.5/0.38, 1/1 mg/L; anidulafungin 2/1.5 and 1/1 mg/L; caspofungin 1/0.75 and 0.5/0.5 mg/L; fluconazole 12/8 and 16/16 mg/L; itraconazole 1/1.5, 0.5/0.5 mg/L; posaconazole 0.5 mg/L and voriconazole 0.25 mg/L for all. The overall MIC90 values were influenced by the reduced susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis isolates to echinocandins and a reduced or lack of susceptibility of Candida glabrata and Candida krusei to azoles, in particular fluconazole and itraconazole. Comparison of the LC and CC results showed good Essential Agreement (90.3% for Etest and 92.9% for Sensititre, and even higher Categorical Agreement (93.9% for Etest and 96% for Sensititre; differences were observed according to the species, method, and antifungal drug. No cross-resistance between echinocandins and triazoles was detected. Conclusions Our data confirm the different antifungal susceptibility
Cheng, Jia-Ming; Gong, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2017-06-01
It has been found via numerical simulations that the geometric phase (GP) and fidelity susceptibility (FS) across the quantum critical points exhibit some universal scaling laws. Here we propose a singular function expansion method to find their exact singular forms and the related coefficients across the critical points. For models where the gaps are closed and reopened at special points (k0=0 ,π ), scaling laws can be found as a function of the system length N and parameter deviation λ -λc , where λc refers to one of the critical parameters. Although the GP and FS are defined in totally different ways, we find that these two measurements are essentially determined by the same physics, and as a consequence, their coefficients are closely related. Some of these exact relations are found in the anisotropic XY model and extended Ising models. We also show that the constant term in FS may be accompanied by a discontinuous jump across the critical points and, thus, does not have a universal scaling form. These findings should be in contrast to the cases where the gaps are not closed and reopened at the special points, in which some of the above scaling laws may break down as a function of the system length. Finally, we investigate the second-order derivative of GP, which may also exhibit some scaling laws across the critical point. These exact results can greatly enrich our understanding of GP and FS in the characterization of quantum phase transitions and may even find important applications in related physical quantities, such as entanglement, discord, correlation, and quantum Euler numbers, which may also exhibit scaling laws across the critical points.
N. Duarte; L.H. Pardo; M.J. Robin-Abbott
2013-01-01
The objectives of this study were to assess susceptibility to acidification and nitrogen (N) saturation caused by atmospheric deposition to northeastern US forests, evaluate the benefits and shortcomings of making critical load assessments using regional data, and assess the relationship between expected risk (exceedance) and forest health. We calculated the critical...
Fidelity susceptibility in the quantum Rabi model
Wei, Bo-Bo; Lv, Xiao-Chen
2018-01-01
Quantum criticality usually occurs in many-body systems. Recently it was shown that the quantum Rabi model, which describes a two-level atom coupled to a single model cavity field, presents quantum phase transitions from a normal phase to a superradiate phase when the ratio between the frequency of the two-level atom and the frequency of the cavity field extends to infinity. In this work, we study quantum phase transitions in the quantum Rabi model from the fidelity susceptibility perspective. We found that the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility present universal finite-size scaling behaviors near the quantum critical point of the Rabi model if the ratio between frequency of the two-level atom and frequency of the cavity field is finite. From the finite-size scaling analysis of the fidelity susceptibility, we found that the adiabatic dimension of the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility of fourth order in the Rabi model are 4 /3 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, the correlation length critical exponent and the dynamical critical exponent in the quantum critical point of the Rabi model are found to be 3 /2 and 1 /3 , respectively. Since the fidelity susceptibility and the generalized adiabatic susceptibility are the moments of the quantum noise spectrum which are directly measurable by experiments in linear response regime, the scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the Rabi model could be tested experimentally. The simple structure of the quantum Rabi model paves the way for experimentally observing the universal scaling behavior of the fidelity susceptibility at a quantum phase transition.
Passive Scalar Scaling Exponents and Realizability
Kraichnan, R H
1997-01-01
Realizability of the statistics of a temperature field passively advected by a rapidly-varying velocity field is a constraint on the possible inertial-range scaling exponents. Further restrictions on exponents follow if the dissipation conditioned on temperature difference is a smooth, monotonic function. Realizability of the so-called linear ansatz is verified numerically, and the form of the associated probability distribution function is computed. Monotonicity of the conditional mean of dissipation can be sensitive to small changes in the exponents.
Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model
Hagymasi, I.; Itai, K.; Solyom, J.
2012-01-01
We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of $d$-$f$ Coulomb interaction ($U_{df}$) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of $U_{df}$ and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of ...
Prediction errors and local Lyapunov exponents
Kennel, M B; Sidorowich, J J S; Matthew B Kennel; Henry D I Abarbanel
1994-01-01
It is frequently asserted that in a chaotic system two initially close points will separate at an exponential rate governed by the largest global Lyapunov exponent. Local Lyapunov exponents, however, are more directly relevant to predictability. The difference between the local and global Lyapunov exponents, the large variations of local exponents over an attractor, and the saturation of error growth near the size of the attractor---all result in non-exponential scalings in errors at both short and long prediction times, sometimes even obscuring evidence of exponential growth. Failure to observe exponential error scaling cannot rule out deterministic chaos as an explanation. We demonstrate a simple model that quantitatively predicts observed error scaling from the local Lyapunov exponents, for both short and surprisingly long times. We comment on the relevance to atmospheric predictability as studied in the meteorological literature.
Lyapunov Exponents as Functions of a Parameter
Millionshchikov, V. M.
1990-02-01
The author proves the typical nature, in the sense of Baire category, of the upper semicontinuity of the Lyapunov exponents of a family of endomorphisms of a metrized vector bundle, considered as a function of a parameter on which a point of the base of this bundle continuously depends. It is proved that the Lyapunov exponents, as functions of this parameter, belong to the second Baire class. An application of these abstract theorems to the Lyapunov exponents of nonlinear systems of differential equations continuously depending on a parameter is given. Bibliography: 14 titles.
van der Geest, Patrick J; Rijnders, Bart J A; Vonk, Alieke G; Groeneveld, A B Johan
2016-03-01
Invasive Candida spp. infections are increasingly diagnosed in critically ill patients. For initial treatment, an echinocandin is recommended with a possible step-down to fluconazole when the patients' condition is improving and the isolate appears susceptible, but there are no data to support such policy. We studied the safety and efficacy of step-down therapy in critically ill patients with culture proven deep seated or bloodstream infections by C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole. All patients admitted into the intensive care unit from January 2010 to December 2014, who had a culture proven invasive C. albicans infection and received initial treatment with an echinocandin for at least 4 days were included. Data on patient characteristics, treatment and vital outcomes were assessed. Of the 56 patients, 32 received step-down fluconazole therapy, at median day 5, whereas the echinocandin was continued in the other 24. No differences where seen in baseline characteristics or risk factors for invasive C. albicans infection between the two groups. Response rates were similar and no difference where seen in 28-day or 90-day mortality between the groups. Step-down therapy to fluconazole may be safe and effective in critically ill patients with invasive infections by C. albicans, susceptible to fluconazole, who have clinically improved as early as 4 days after start of treatment with an echinocandin. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Mucosal dendritic cells in HIV-1 susceptibility: a critical role for C-type lectin receptors
Hertoghs, Nina; van Pul, Lisa; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.
2017-01-01
Sexual transmission is the major route of HIV-1 infection worldwide. The interaction of HIV-1 with mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) might determine HIV-1 susceptibility as well as initial antiviral immunity controlling virus in the chronic phase. Different DC subsets reside in mucosal tissues and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus
2010-01-01
not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers.......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness....... METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...
Nonlinearly charged Lifshitz black holes for any exponent z>1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Abigail; Ayón-Beato, Eloy [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000, México D.F. (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad Austral de Chile,Valdivia (Chile); González, Hernán A. [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles & International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Hassaïne, Mokhtar [Instituto de Matemática y Física, Universidad de Talca,Casilla 747, Talca (Chile)
2014-06-09
Charged Lifshitz black holes for the Einstein-Proca-Maxwell system with a negative cosmological constant in arbitrary dimension D are known only if the dynamical critical exponent is fixed as z=2(D−2). In the present work, we show that these configurations can be extended to much more general charged black holes which in addition exist for any value of the dynamical exponent z>1 by considering a nonlinear electrodynamics instead of the Maxwell theory. More precisely, we introduce a two-parametric nonlinear electrodynamics defined in the more general, but less known, so-called (H,P)-formalism and obtain a family of charged black hole solutions depending on two parameters. We also remark that the value of the dynamical exponent z=D−2 turns out to be critical in the sense that it yields asymptotically Lifshitz black holes with logarithmic decay supported by a particular logarithmic electrodynamics. All these configurations include extremal Lifshitz black holes. Charged topological Lifshitz black holes are also shown to emerge by slightly generalizing the proposed electrodynamics.
Li, Zhibin; Chen, Yidian; Li, Danning; Huang, Mei
2018-01-01
We investigate the baryon number susceptibilities up to fourth order along different freeze-out lines in a holographic QCD model with a critical end point (CEP), and we propose that the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line can be used as a clean signature to locate the CEP in the QCD phase diagram. On the temperature and baryon chemical potential plane, the cumulant ratio of the baryon number susceptibilities (up to fourth order) forms a ridge along the phase boundary, and develops a sword-shaped “mountain” standing upright around the CEP in a narrow and oblate region. The measurement of baryon number susceptibilities from heavy-ion collision experiments is along the freeze-out line. If the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain, then one can observe the peaked baryon number susceptibilities along the freeze-out line, and the kurtosis of the baryon number distributions has the highest magnitude. The data from the first phase of the beam energy scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider indicates that there should be a peak of the kurtosis of the baryon number distribution at a collision energy of around 5 GeV, which suggests that the freeze-out line crosses the foot of the CEP mountain and the summit of the CEP should be located nearby, around a collision energy of 3–7 GeV. Supported by NSFC (11275213, and 11261130311) (CRC 110 by DFG and NSFC), CAS key project KJCX2-EW-N01, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS
Warren, Joshua L; Son, Ji-Young; Pereira, Gavin; Leaderer, Brian P; Bell, Michelle L
2017-10-19
Identifying periods of increased vulnerability during pregnancy to air pollution with respect to the development of adverse birth outcomes can improve understanding of possible mechanisms of disease development and provide guidelines for protection of the child. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is typically based on the residence at delivery, potentially resulting in exposure misclassification and biasing the estimation of critical windows. In this work, we determine the impact of maternal residential mobility during pregnancy on defining weekly exposure to PM10 and the estimation of windows of susceptibility for term low birth weight utilizing birth cohort datasets from Connecticut (1988-2008) that include information on all residential addresses for each woman between conception and delivery. A simulation study is designed to investigate the impact of increasing levels of mobility on critical window identification. Increased PM10 exposure during pregnancy weeks 16-18 is associated with an increased probability of term low birth weight. Ignoring residential mobility when defining weekly exposure has only minor impact on the identification of critical windows for PM10 and term low birth weight in the data application and simulation study. Critical window identification is robust to exposure misclassification caused by ignoring residential mobility in these Connecticut birth cohorts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Interleukin-17A critically contributes to susceptibility to Riemerella anatipestifer infection
Although IL-17 cytokines play critical roles in host defense immunity, dysregulated expression of these cytokines is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer) is the most important infectious bacterium in the duck industry, and can cause up to...
Tate, Kevin B; Kohl, Zachary F; Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Crossley, Dane A
2015-01-01
Environmental conditions fluctuate dramatically in some reptilian nests. However, critical windows of environmental sensitivity for cardiovascular development have not been identified. Continuous developmental hypoxia has been shown to alter cardiovascular form and function in embryonic snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), and we used this species to identify critical periods during which hypoxia modifies the cardiovascular phenotype. We hypothesized that incubation in 10% O2 during specific developmental periods would have differential effects on the cardiovascular system versus overall somatic growth. Two critical windows were identified with 10% O2 from 50% to 70% of incubation, resulting in relative heart enlargement, either via preservation of or preferential growth of this tissue, while exposure to 10% O2 from 20% to 70% of incubation resulted in a reduction in arterial pressure. The deleterious or advantageous aspects of these embryonic phenotypes in posthatching snapping turtles have yet to be explored. However, identification of these critical windows has provided insight into how the developmental environment alters the phenotype of reptiles and will also be pivotal in understanding its impact on the fitness of egg-laying reptiles.
Explicit predictability and dispersion scaling exponents in fully developed turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmitt, Francois G. [CNRS, UMR 8013 ELICO, Wimereux Marine Station, University of Lille 1, 28 av. Foch, 62930 Wimereux (France)]. E-mail: francois.schmitt@univ-lille1.fr
2005-07-25
We apply a simple method to provide explicit expressions for different scaling exponents in intermittent fully developed turbulence, that before were only given through a Legendre transform. This includes predictability exponents for infinitesimal and noninfinitesimal perturbations, Lagrangian velocity exponents, and dispersion exponents. We obtain also new results concerning inverse statistics corresponding to exit-time moments.
Application of largest Lyapunov exponent analysis on the studies of dynamics under external forces
Odavić, Jovan; Mali, Petar; Tekić, Jasmina; Pantić, Milan; Pavkov-Hrvojević, Milica
2017-06-01
Dynamics of driven dissipative Frenkel-Kontorova model is examined by using largest Lyapunov exponent computational technique. Obtained results show that besides the usual way where behavior of the system in the presence of external forces is studied by analyzing its dynamical response function, the largest Lyapunov exponent analysis can represent a very convenient tool to examine system dynamics. In the dc driven systems, the critical depinning force for particular structure could be estimated by computing the largest Lyapunov exponent. In the dc+ac driven systems, if the substrate potential is the standard sinusoidal one, calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent offers a more sensitive way to detect the presence of Shapiro steps. When the amplitude of the ac force is varied the behavior of the largest Lyapunov exponent in the pinned regime completely reflects the behavior of Shapiro steps and the critical depinning force, in particular, it represents the mirror image of the amplitude dependence of critical depinning force. This points out an advantage of this technique since by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent in the pinned regime we can get an insight into the dynamics of the system when driving forces are applied. Additionally, the system is shown to be not chaotic even in the case of incommensurate structures and large amplitudes of external force, which is a consequence of overdampness of the model and the Middleton's no passing rule.
On critical exponent for the existence and stability properties of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
pseudoplastics. If (p,q) = (2, 2), they are Newtonian fluids. When c = 0, systems of the form (1)–(3) arise in several context in biology and engi- neering (see [10]). It provides a simple model to describe, for instance, the interaction of three diffusing biological species. u,v and w represent the densities of three species. See [11] ...
Higgs Critical Exponents and Conformal Bootstrap in Four Dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antipin, Oleg; Mølgaard, Esben; Sannino, Francesco
2015-01-01
interactions, but differ by developing perturbative interacting fixed points. We investigate the physical properties of the singlet and the adjoint composite operators quadratic in the Higgs field, and discover that the singlet anomalous dimension is substantially larger than the adjoint one. The numerical...
Higgs critical exponents and conformal bootstrap in four dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antipin, Oleg [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mølgaard, Esben; Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins & the Danish Institute for Advanced Study Danish IAS,University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)
2015-06-04
We investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in nonsupersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points within a precise framework. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle interactions, but differ by developing perturbative interacting fixed points. We investigate the physical properties of the singlet and the adjoint composite operators quadratic in the Higgs field, and discover, via a direct computation, that the singlet anomalous dimension is substantially larger than the adjoint one. The numerical bootstrap results are, when possible, compared to our precise findings associated to the four dimensional conformal field theoretical results. To accomplish this, it was necessary to calculate explicitly the crossing symmetry relations for the global symmetry group SU(N)×SU(N).
Critical behavior of the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.; Kunnmann, W.
1971-01-01
Neutron-scattering measurements have been made of the critical parameters of the simple Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS. Values of the critical exponents β and ν and the amplitudes of B and F describing, respectively, the reduced magnetization and the inverse correlation range (above Tc......) are in good accord with theory. The measured values of the exponent γ, describing the static susceptibility, support the recent prediction that γ≈1.40 in a simple nearest-neighbor Heisenberg ferromagnet. The scaling relation between β, ν, and γ is fulfilled...
Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian
Roman Roszko
2015-01-01
Lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian The article focuses on the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality in Polish and Lithuanian. The purpose for comparing and contrasting the lexical exponents of hypothetical modality is not only to identify all the lexemes in both languages but also find the answer to the following question: whether the morphological exponents of hypothetical modality (so-called modus relativus) familiar to the Lithuanian language have/...
Nonlinearity exponents in lightly doped conducting polymers
Talukdar, D.; Nandi, U. N.; Bardhan, K. K.; Bof Bufon, C. C.; Heinzel, T.; de, A.; Mukherjee, C. D.
2011-08-01
The I-V characteristics of four conducting polymer systems such as doped polypyrrole, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polydiacetylene, and polyaniline in as many physical forms have been investigated at different temperatures, quenched disorder, and magnetic fields. Transport data clearly show the existence of a single electric-field scale in each system. Based upon this observation, a phenomenological scaling analysis is performed, leading to the extraction of a numerical value for a nonlinearity exponent called xM which serves to characterize a set of I-V curves. The conductivity starts deviating from an Ohmic value σ0 above an onset electric field Fo which scales according to Fo˜σ0xM. The electric-field-dependent data are shown to be described by the multistep tunneling model of Glazman-Matveev [JETP 67, 1276 (1988)] in a near-perfect manner over nine orders of magnitude in conductivity and five orders of magnitude in electric field. Furthermore, xM is found to possess both positive and negative values lying between -1/2 and 3/4. There is no theory at present for this exponent. Some issues concerning applicability of the Glatzman-Matveev model are discussed.
Compactness results for quasilinear problems with variable exponent on the whole space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olfa Allegue
2011-07-01
Full Text Available In this work we give a compactness result which allows us to prove the point-wise convergence of the gradients of a sequence of solutions to a quasilinear inequality and for an arbitrary open set. This result suggests solutions to many problems, notably nonlinear elliptic problems with critical exponent.
Entropy, specific heat, susceptibility, and Rushbrooke inequality in percolation
Hassan, M. K.; Alam, D.; Jitu, Z. I.; Rahman, M. M.
2017-11-01
We investigate percolation, a probabilistic model for continuous phase transition, on square and weighted planar stochastic lattices. In its thermal counterpart, entropy is minimally low where order parameter (OP) is maximally high and vice versa. In addition, specific heat, OP, and susceptibility exhibit power law when approaching the critical point and the corresponding critical exponents α ,β ,γ respectably obey the Rushbrooke inequality (RI) α +2 β +γ ≥2 . Their analogs in percolation, however, remain elusive. We define entropy and specific heat and redefine susceptibility for percolation and show that they behave exactly in the same way as their thermal counterpart. We also show that RI holds for both the lattices albeit they belong to different universality classes.
Rescattering effects and intermittent exponents in nucleus-nucleus interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pajares, C. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Particulas Elementales)
1991-04-11
It is shown that the rescattering in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides a natural branching mechanism which explains the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the energy, projectile and target. The possibility of finding some new coherent phenomena by studying the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the number of collisions is discussed. (orig.).
Lyapunov Exponents for the Intermittent Transition to Chaos
Hanssen, J; Hanssen, James; Wilcox, Walter
1998-01-01
The dependence of the Lyapunov exponent on the closeness parameter, illustrate two averaging procedures for defining Lyapunov exponents in such systems. First, we develop theoretical expressions for an isolated tangency channel in which the Lyapunov exponent is defined on single channel passes. Numerical simulations were done to compare theory to measurement across a range of $\\epsilon$ values. Next, as an illustration of defining the Lyapunov exponent on many channel passes, a simulation of the intermittent transition in the logistic map is described. The modified theory for the channels is explained and a simple model for the gate entrance rates is constructed. An important correction due to the discrete nature of the iterative flow is identified and incorporated in an improved model. Realistic fits to the data were made for the Lyapunov exponents from the logistic gate and from the full simulation. A number of additional corrections which could improve the treatment of the gates are identified and briefly ...
Universality and criticality of a second-order granular solid-liquid-like phase transition.
Castillo, Gustavo; Mujica, Nicolás; Soto, Rodrigo
2015-01-01
We experimentally study the critical properties of the nonequilibrium solid-liquid-like transition that takes place in vibrated granular matter. The critical dynamics is characterized by the coupling of the density field with the bond-orientational order parameter Q(4), which measures the degree of local crystallization. Two setups are compared, which present the transition at different critical accelerations as a result of modifying the energy dissipation parameters. In both setups five independent critical exponents are measured, associated to different properties of Q(4): the correlation length, relaxation time, vanishing wavenumber limit (static susceptibility), the hydrodynamic regime of the pair correlation function, and the amplitude of the order parameter. The respective critical exponents agree in both setups and are given by ν(⊥)=1,ν(∥)=2,γ=1,η≈0.6-0.67, and β=1/2, whereas the dynamical critical exponent is z=ν(∥)/ν(⊥)=2. The agreement on five exponents is an exigent test for the universality of the transition. Thus, while dissipation is strictly necessary to form the crystal, the path the system undergoes toward the phase separation is part of a well-defined universality class. In fact, the local order shows critical properties while density does not. Being the later conserved, the appropriate model that couples both is model C in the Hohenberg and Halperin classification. The measured exponents are in accord with the nonequilibrium extension to model C if we assume that α, the exponent associated in equilibrium to the specific heat divergence but with no counterpart in this nonequilibrium experiment, vanishes.
Pinning Susceptibility Near the Jamming Transition
Nashed, Samer; Graves, Amy; Goodrich, Carl; Padgett, Elliot; Liu, Andrea
2014-03-01
The study of jamming in the presence of pinned obstacles is of both practical and theoretical interest. In simulations of soft, bidisperse disks and spheres, we pin a small fraction, nf of particles prior to the equilibration process. The presence of pinned particles is known to lower the critical packing fraction, ϕJ, for jamming. Further, around this threshold there is a peak in a quantity which we have termed the ``pinning susceptibility'': χP =limnf --> 0∂PJ(ϕ/,nf) ∂nf . In the thermodynamic limit, we have posited that χP ~| Δϕ | -γP . Finite-size scaling calculations, involving careful fits of PJ to logistic sigmoidal functions, yield a value for the critical exponent, γP. This new exponent is proposed to be independent of inter-particle potential. Its dependence on dimensionality (2 vs. 3 dimensions) will be discussed. Acknowledgement is made to the Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund administered by the American Chemical Society, NSF grant DMR-1062638 and DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER46199.
Allometric exponents do not support a universal metabolic allometry.
White, Craig R; Cassey, Phillip; Blackburn, Tim M
2007-02-01
The debate about the value of the allometric scaling exponent (b) relating metabolic rate to body mass (metabolic rate = a x mass(b)) is ongoing, with published evidence both for and against a 3/4-power scaling law continuing to accumulate. However, this debate often revolves around a dichotomous distinction between the 3/4-power exponent predicted by recent models of nutrient distribution networks and a 2/3 exponent predicted by Euclidean surface-area-to-volume considerations. Such an approach does not allow for the possibility that there is no single "true" exponent. In the present study, we conduct a meta-analysis of 127 interspecific allometric exponents to determine whether there is a universal metabolic allometry or if there are systematic differences between taxa or between metabolic states. This analysis shows that the effect size of mass on metabolic rate is significantly heterogeneous and that, on average, the effect of mass on metabolic rate is stronger for endotherms than for ectotherms. Significant differences between scaling exponents were also identified between ectotherms and endotherms, as well as between metabolic states (e.g., rest, field, and exercise), a result that applies to b values estimated by ordinary least squares, reduced major axis, and phylogenetically correct regression models. The lack of support for a single exponent model suggests that there is no universal metabolic allometry and represents a significant challenge to any model that predicts only a single value of b.
Fidelity susceptibility study of quantum long-range antiferromagnetic Ising chain
Sun, Gaoyong
2017-10-01
We study the fidelity susceptibility of a quantum antiferromagnetic Ising chain with a long-range power-law interaction 1 /rα using the large-scale density matrix renormalization group method. We find that the critical adiabatic dimension μ =2 and the critical exponent of the correlation length ν =1 for arbitrary α >0 , indicating all quantum phase transitions are second-order Ising transitions. In addition, we numerically determine the complete phase diagram for 0 work will shed light on the nature of phase transitions in the quantum long-range antiferromagnetic Ising chain from a quantum information perspective.
On some properties of the discrete Lyapunov exponent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amigo, Jose M. [Centro de Investigacion Operativa, Universidad Miguel Hernandez Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 03202 Elche (Spain)], E-mail: jm.amigo@umh.es; Kocarev, Ljupco [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Institute for Nonlinear Science, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive. La Jolla, CA 92093-0402 (United States)], E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu; Szczepanski, Janusz [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Swietokrzyska 21, 00-049 Warsaw, and Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz (Poland)], E-mail: jszczepa@ippt.gov.pl
2008-10-06
One of the possible by-products of discrete chaos is the application of its tools, in particular of the discrete Lyapunov exponent, to cryptography. In this Letter we explore this question in a very general setting.
A MONTE-CARLO METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE CORRELATION EXPONENT
MIKOSCH, T; WANG, QA
We propose a Monte Carlo method for estimating the correlation exponent of a stationary ergodic sequence. The estimator can be considered as a bootstrap version of the classical Hill estimator. A simulation study shows that the method yields reasonable estimates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z Jalali mola
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The Ising model is one of the simplest models describing the interacting particles. In this work, we calculate the high temperature series expansions of zero field susceptibility of ising model with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interactions on two dimensional kagome lattice. Using the Pade´ approximation, we calculate the susceptibility of critical exponent of ferromagnetic ising model γ ≈ 1.75, which is consistent with universality hypothesis. However, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interaction ising model doesn’t show any transition at finite temperature because of the effect of magnetic frustration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joel Lavinsky
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In the United States, roughly 10% of the population is exposed daily to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace. Twin studies estimate heritability for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL of approximately 36%, and strain specific variation in sensitivity has been demonstrated in mice. Based upon the difficulties inherent to the study of NIHL in humans, we have turned to the study of this complex trait in mice. We exposed 5 week-old mice from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to a 10 kHz octave band noise at 108 dB for 2 hours and assessed the permanent threshold shift 2 weeks post exposure using frequency specific stimuli. These data were then used in a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Efficient Mixed Model Analysis (EMMA to control for population structure. In this manuscript we describe our GWAS, with an emphasis on a significant peak for susceptibility to NIHL on chromosome 17 within a haplotype block containing NADPH oxidase-3 (Nox3. Our peak was detected after an 8 kHz tone burst stimulus. Nox3 mutants and heterozygotes were then tested to validate our GWAS. The mutants and heterozygotes demonstrated a greater susceptibility to NIHL specifically at 8 kHz both on measures of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE and on auditory brainstem response (ABR. We demonstrate that this sensitivity resides within the synaptic ribbons of the cochlea in the mutant animals specifically at 8 kHz. Our work is the first GWAS for NIHL in mice and elucidates the power of our approach to identify tonotopic genetic susceptibility to NIHL.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Dunstan, Sarah J.; Tram, Trinh Thi Bich; Thwaites, Guy E.; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang
2015-01-01
Adjunctive dexamethasone saves lives in the treatment of tuberculous meningitis but this response is influenced by the patient’s LTA4H genotype. Despite less certain benefit, adjunctive dexamethasone is also frequently used in the treatment of pyogenic bacterial meningitis, but the influence of LTA4H genotype on outcomes has not been previously investigated. We genotyped the LTA4H promoter region SNP (rs17525495) in 390 bacterial meningitis patients and 751 population controls. rs17525495 was associated with susceptibility to bacteriologically confirmed bacterial meningitis (P = 0.01, OR 1.27 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.54) but did not influence clinical presentation, disease severity or survival following dexamethasone treatment. PMID:25799317
Lyapunov exponent for pure and random Fibonacci chains
Velhinho, M. T.; Pimentel, I. R.
2000-01-01
We study the Lyapunov exponent for electron and phonon excitations, in pure and random Fibonacci quasicrystal chains, using an exact real-space renormalization-group method, which allows the calculation of the Lyapunov exponent as a function of the energy. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponent on a pure Fibonacci chain has a self-similar structure, characterized by a scaling index that is independent of the energy for the electron excitations, ``diagonal'' or ``off-diagonal'' quasiperiodic, but is a function of the energy for the phonon excitations. This scaling behavior implies the vanishing of the Lyapunov exponent for the states on the spectrum, and hence the absence of localization on the Fibonacci chain, for the various excitations considered. It is also shown that disordered Fibonacci chains, with random tiling that introduces phason flips at certain sites on the chain, exhibit the same Lyapunov exponent as the pure Fibonacci chain, and hence this type of disorder is irrelevant, either in the case of electron or phonon excitations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allard, L.T.; Elerath, J.G.
1976-02-01
This document presents a common cause failure analysis for Critical LMFBR Shutdown Heat Removal Systems. The report is intended to outline a systematic approach to defining areas with significant potential for common causes of failure, and ultimately provide inputs to the reliability prediction model. A preliminary evaluation of postulatd single initiating causes resulting in multiple failures of LMFBR-SHRS items is presented in Appendix C. This document will be periodically updated to reflect new information and activity.
Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.
2000-01-13
The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates.
OBSERVING LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS OF INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.
Ott, William; Rivas, Mauricio A; West, James
2015-12-01
Can Lyapunov exponents of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems be observed by projecting the dynamics into ℝ (N) using a 'typical' nonlinear projection map? We answer this question affirmatively by developing embedding theorems for compact invariant sets associated with C(1) maps on Hilbert spaces. Examples of such discrete-time dynamical systems include time-T maps and Poincaré return maps generated by the solution semigroups of evolution partial differential equations. We make every effort to place hypotheses on the projected dynamics rather than on the underlying infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In so doing, we adopt an empirical approach and formulate checkable conditions under which a Lyapunov exponent computed from experimental data will be a Lyapunov exponent of the infinite-dimensional dynamical system under study (provided the nonlinear projection map producing the data is typical in the sense of prevalence).
Lyapunov exponents from geodesic spread in configuration space
Cerruti-Sola, M; Pettini, M; Cerruti-Sola, Monica; Franzosi, Roberto; Pettini, Marco
1997-01-01
The exact form of the Jacobi -- Levi-Civita (JLC) equation for geodesic spread is here explicitly worked out at arbitrary dimension for the configuration space manifold M_E = {q in R^N | V(q) < E} of a standard Hamiltonian system, equipped with the Jacobi (or kinetic energy) metric g_J. As the Hamiltonian flow corresponds to a geodesic flow on (M_E,g_J), the JLC equation can be used to study the degree of instability of the Hamiltonian flow. It is found that the solutions of the JLC equation are closely resembling the solutions of the standard tangent dynamics equation which is used to compute Lyapunov exponents. Therefore the instability exponents obtained through the JLC equation are in perfect quantitative agreement with usual Lyapunov exponents. This work completes a previous investigation that was limited only to two-degrees of freedom systems.
Universal exponent for transport in mixed Hamiltonian dynamics
Alus, Or; Fishman, Shmuel; Meiss, James D.
2017-09-01
We compute universal distributions for the transition probabilities of a Markov model for transport in the mixed phase space of area-preserving maps and verify that the survival probability distribution for trajectories near an infinite island-around-island hierarchy exhibits, on average, a power-law decay with exponent γ =1.57 . This exponent agrees with that found from simulations of the Hénon and Chirikov-Taylor maps. This provides evidence that the Meiss-Ott Markov tree model describes the transport for mixed systems.
Lyapunov exponents and particle dispersion in drift wave turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, T.S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1996-01-01
The Hasegawa-Wakatani model equations for resistive drift waves are solved numerically for a range of values of the coupling due to the parallel electron motion. The largest Lyapunov exponent, lambda(1), is calculated to quantify the unpredictability of the turbulent flow and compared to other...... characteristic inverse time scales of the turbulence such as the linear growth rate and Lagrangian inverse time scales obtained by tracking virtual fluid particles. The results show a correlation between lambda(1) and the relative dispersion exponent, lambda(p), as well as to the inverse Lagrangian integral time...... contribute most to the relative dispersion of particles. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....
Implementation of Inquiry Strategy on Exponent, Roots and Logarithm
Sulistyowaty, R. K.; Prafianti, R. A.
2017-09-01
The aim of this research is to enhancing students’ learning outcomes on exponent, roots, and logarithm through the implementation of Inquiry strategy. This research is a descriptive qualitative research with classroom action research approach which was done in three cycles. Each cycle consists of 4 steps, those are: planning, acting, observing and reflecting. This research had been conducted with 30 students (17 female and 13 male) studying in the 10th grade. Data was collected from students through documentation, observation, and test. The data was analyzed using descriptive qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings revealed that Inquiry strategy affected students’ learning outcomes on exponent, roots, and logarithm.
Lyapunov exponent for aging process in induction motor
Bayram, Duygu; Ünnü, Sezen Yıdırım; Şeker, Serhat
2012-09-01
Nonlinear systems like electrical circuits and systems, mechanics, optics and even incidents in nature may pass through various bifurcations and steady states like equilibrium point, periodic, quasi-periodic, chaotic states. Although chaotic phenomena are widely observed in physical systems, it can not be predicted because of the nature of the system. On the other hand, it is known that, chaos is strictly dependent on initial conditions of the system [1-3]. There are several methods in order to define the chaos. Phase portraits, Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents are the most common techniques. Lyapunov Exponents are the theoretical indicator of the chaos, named after the Russian mathematician Aleksandr Lyapunov (1857-1918). Lyapunov Exponents stand for the average exponential divergence or convergence of nearby system states, meaning estimating the quantitive measure of the chaotic attractor. Negative numbers of the exponents stand for a stable system whereas zero stands for quasi-periodic systems. On the other hand, at least if one of the exponents is positive, this situation is an indicator of the chaos. For estimating the exponents, the system should be modeled by differential equation but even in that case mathematical calculation of Lyapunov Exponents are not very practical and evaluation of these values requires a long signal duration [4-7]. For experimental data sets, it is not always possible to acquire the differential equations. There are several different methods in literature for determining the Lyapunov Exponents of the system [4, 5]. Induction motors are the most important tools for many industrial processes because they are cheap, robust, efficient and reliable. In order to have healthy processes in industrial applications, the conditions of the machines should be monitored and the different working conditions should be addressed correctly. To the best of our knowledge, researches related to Lyapunov exponents and electrical motors are mostly
Error Exponents for Target-Class Detection with Nuisance Parameters
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Misra, Saswat; Tong, Lang
2007-01-01
...) has at least one unknown component, we use the theory of adaptive tests to prove that there exists a test that achieves the same error exponent as if (gamma, theta) were known in some scenarios, but that there exists no such test in others.
Density-scaling exponents and virial potential-energy correlation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper investigates the relation between the density-scaling exponent γ and the virial potential energy correlation coefficient R at several thermodynamic state points in three dimensions for the generalized (2n, n) Lennard-Jones (LJ) system for n = 4, 9, 12, 18, as well as for the standard n = 6 LJ system in two,three, and ...
Bayesian Estimation of the Logistic Positive Exponent IRT Model
Bolfarine, Heleno; Bazan, Jorge Luis
2010-01-01
A Bayesian inference approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is developed for the logistic positive exponent (LPE) model proposed by Samejima and for a new skewed Logistic Item Response Theory (IRT) model, named Reflection LPE model. Both models lead to asymmetric item characteristic curves (ICC) and can be appropriate because a symmetric…
Analysis of Human Standing Balance by Largest Lyapunov Exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kun Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the relationship between nonlinear dynamic character and individuals’ standing balance by the largest Lyapunov exponent, which is regarded as a metric for assessing standing balance. According to previous study, the largest Lyapunov exponent from centre of pressure time series could not well quantify the human balance ability. In this research, two improvements were made. Firstly, an external stimulus was applied to feet in the form of continuous horizontal sinusoidal motion by a moving platform. Secondly, a multiaccelerometer subsystem was adopted. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this experiment. A new metric, coordinated largest Lyapunov exponent was proposed, which reflected the relationship of body segments by integrating multidimensional largest Lyapunov exponent values. By using this metric in actual standing performance under sinusoidal stimulus, an obvious relationship between the new metric and the actual balance ability was found in the majority of the subjects. These results show that the sinusoidal stimulus can make human balance characteristics more obvious, which is beneficial to assess balance, and balance is determined by the ability of coordinating all body segments.
determination of the power law exponent for southern highlands of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Mgina
ABSTRACT. The 1/7th power law is among the methods that have been used to extrapolate wind speed to the hub heights of wind turbines from the measuring levels. However, it tends to underestimate the actual long-term average wind speeds. In this paper, the power law exponent for Makambako, a site located in the ...
Lyapunov exponents a tool to explore complex dynamics
Pikovsky, Arkady
2016-01-01
Lyapunov exponents lie at the heart of chaos theory, and are widely used in studies of complex dynamics. Utilising a pragmatic, physical approach, this self-contained book provides a comprehensive description of the concept. Beginning with the basic properties and numerical methods, it then guides readers through to the most recent advances in applications to complex systems. Practical algorithms are thoroughly reviewed and their performance is discussed, while a broad set of examples illustrate the wide range of potential applications. The description of various numerical and analytical techniques for the computation of Lyapunov exponents offers an extensive array of tools for the characterization of phenomena such as synchronization, weak and global chaos in low and high-dimensional set-ups, and localization. This text equips readers with all the investigative expertise needed to fully explore the dynamical properties of complex systems, making it ideal for both graduate students and experienced researchers...
Estimation of Hurst Exponent for the Financial Time Series
Kumar, J.; Manchanda, P.
2009-07-01
Till recently statistical methods and Fourier analysis were employed to study fluctuations in stock markets in general and Indian stock market in particular. However current trend is to apply the concepts of wavelet methodology and Hurst exponent, see for example the work of Manchanda, J. Kumar and Siddiqi, Journal of the Frankline Institute 144 (2007), 613-636 and paper of Cajueiro and B. M. Tabak. Cajueiro and Tabak, Physica A, 2003, have checked the efficiency of emerging markets by computing Hurst component over a time window of 4 years of data. Our goal in the present paper is to understand the dynamics of the Indian stock market. We look for the persistency in the stock market through Hurst exponent and fractal dimension of time series data of BSE 100 and NIFTY 50.
Scaling exponents for fracture surfaces in opal glass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez-Guerrero, L., E-mail: guerreroleo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica. Cd. Universitaria s/n, C.P. 66450, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Center of Innovation, Research and Development on Engineering and Technology, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon Monterrey, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Garza, F.J., E-mail: fjgarza@gama.fime.uanl.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Cd. Universitaria s/n, C.P. 66450, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Hinojosa, M., E-mail: hinojosa@gama.fime.uanl.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica. Cd. Universitaria s/n, C.P. 66450, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Center of Innovation, Research and Development on Engineering and Technology, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon Monterrey, C.P. 66600, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)
2010-09-25
We have investigated the scaling properties of fracture surfaces in opal glass. Specimens with two different opacifying particle sizes (1 {mu}m and 0.4 {mu}m) were broken by three-point bending test and the resulting fracture surfaces were analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy. The analysis of the self-affine behavior was performed using the Variable Bandwidth and Height-Height Correlation Methods, and both the roughness exponent, {zeta}, and the correlation length, {xi}, were determined. It was found that the roughness exponent obtained in both samples is {zeta} {approx} 0.8; whereas the correlation length in both fractures is of the order of the particle size, demonstrating the dependence of this self-affine parameter on the microstructure of opal glass.
Lyapunov exponents for complex systems with delayed feedback
Dailyudenko, V F
2003-01-01
Analytical and numerical analysis is implemented for two methods of Lyapunov exponents calculation. The first is based on successive multiplication of functional matrixes corresponding to discrete transformations and calculation of eigenvalues for the obtained matrix. The second approach is based on successive orthogonalization of multiplied matrixes using QR-decomposition. The analytical model for describing functional maps of discrete iterations derived from delay differential equation is proposed, which implements representation of the product matrix through matrixes of canonical form that reduces calculation complexity.
Clustering of Casablanca stock market based on hurst exponent estimates
Lahmiri, Salim
2016-08-01
This paper deals with the problem of Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) topology modeling as a complex network during three different market regimes: general trend characterized by ups and downs, increasing trend, and decreasing trend. In particular, a set of seven different Hurst exponent estimates are used to characterize long-range dependence in each industrial sector generating process. They are employed in conjunction with hierarchical clustering approach to examine the co-movements of the Casablanca Stock Exchange industrial sectors. The purpose is to investigate whether cluster structures are similar across variable, increasing and decreasing regimes. It is observed that the general structure of the CSE topology has been considerably changed over 2009 (variable regime), 2010 (increasing regime), and 2011 (decreasing regime) time periods. The most important findings follow. First, in general a high value of Hurst exponent is associated to a variable regime and a small one to a decreasing regime. In addition, Hurst estimates during increasing regime are higher than those of a decreasing regime. Second, correlations between estimated Hurst exponent vectors of industrial sectors increase when Casablanca stock exchange follows an upward regime, whilst they decrease when the overall market follows a downward regime.
Quantum Lyapunov Exponent of an Atomic Kicked Rotor
Galitski, Victor
2017-04-01
One of the most intriguing phenomena in the studies of classical chaos is the butterfly effect, which manifests itself in that small changes in initial conditions lead to drastically different trajectories. It is characterized by a Lyapunov exponent that measures divergence of the classical trajectories. The question how/if this prototypical effect of classical chaos theory generalizes to quantum systems (where the notion of a trajectory is undefined) has been of interest for decades, but became more popular recently, when it was realized that there exist intriguing connections to string theory and general relativity in some quantum chaotic models. At the center of this activity is the so-called out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) - a quantity that in the classical limit seems to approximate the classical Lyapunov correlator. However, there are very few solvable models where one can actually calculate Lyapunov exponent and/or OTOC. In this talk, I will discuss the standard model of quantum and classical chaos - kicked rotor - calculate the correlator and Lypunov exponents, and show how classical chaos and Lyapunov divergence develop and cross-over to the quantum regime. We will see that the quantum out-of-time-ordered correlator exhibits a clear singularity at the Ehrenfest time, when quantum interference effects sharply kick in: transitioning from a time-independent value to its monotonous decrease with time. In conclusion, I will discuss possible experimental realizations of the model and predicted phenomena in ultracold quantum kicked rotors. NSF-DMR 1613029 and US-ARO.
Meteoroid stream flux densities and the zenith exponent
Molau, Sirko; Barentsen, Geert
2013-01-01
The MetRec software was recently extended to measure the limiting magnitude in real-time, and to determine meteoroid stream flux densities. This paper gives a short overview of the applied algorithms. We introduce the MetRec Flux Viewer, a web tool to visualize activity profiles on- line. Starting from the Lyrids 2011, high-quality flux density profiles were derived from IMO Video Network observations for every major meteor shower. They are often in good agreement with visual data. Analyzing the 2011 Perseids, we found systematic daily variations in the flux density profile, which can be attributed to a zenith exponent gamma > 1.0. We analyzed a number of meteor showers in detail and found zenith exponent variations from shower to shower in the range between 1.55 and 2.0. The average value over all analyzed showers is gamma = 1.75. In order to determine the zenith exponent precisely, the observations must cover a large altitude range (at least 45 degrees).
Quantum criticality and first-order transitions in the extended periodic Anderson model
Hagymási, I.; Itai, K.; Sólyom, J.
2013-03-01
We investigate the behavior of the periodic Anderson model in the presence of d-f Coulomb interaction (Udf) using mean-field theory, variational calculation, and exact diagonalization of finite chains. The variational approach based on the Gutzwiller trial wave function gives a critical value of Udf and two quantum critical points (QCPs), where the valence susceptibility diverges. We derive the critical exponent for the valence susceptibility and investigate how the position of the QCP depends on the other parameters of the Hamiltonian. For larger values of Udf, the Kondo regime is bounded by two first-order transitions. These first-order transitions merge into a triple point at a certain value of Udf. For even larger Udf valence skipping occurs. Although the other methods do not give a critical point, they support this scenario.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badiev, M. K., E-mail: m-zagir@mail.ru; Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
The phase transitions (PTs) and critical properties of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a layered (stacked) triangular lattice have been studied by the Monte Carlo method using a replica algorithm with allowance for the next-nearest-neighbor interactions. The character of PTs is analyzed using the histogram technique and the method of Binder cumulants. It is established that the transition from the disordered to paramagnetic phase in the adopted model is a second-order PT. Static critical exponents of the heat capacity (α), susceptibility (γ), order parameter (β), and correlation radius (ν) and the Fischer exponent η are calculated using the finite-size scaling theory. It is shown that (i) the antiferromagnetic Ising model on a layered triangular lattice belongs to the XY universality class of critical behavior and (ii) allowance for the intralayer interactions of next-nearest neighbors in the adopted model leads to a change in the universality class of critical behavior.
Critical behaviour of the 3D XY-model a Monte Carlo study
Gottlob, Aloysius P.
1993-01-01
We present the results of a study of the three-dimensional $XY$-model on a simple cubic lattice using the single cluster updating algorithm combined with improved estimators. We have measured the susceptibility and the correlation length for various couplings in the high temperature phase on lattices of size up to $L=112$. At the transition temperature we studied the fourth-order cumulant and other cumulant-like quantities on lattices of size up to $L=64$. From our numerical data we obtain for the critical coupling $\\coup_c=0.45420(2)$, and for the static critical exponents $\\gamma /\
Critical behavior of dissipative two-dimensional spin lattices
Rota, R.; Storme, F.; Bartolo, N.; Fazio, R.; Ciuti, C.
2017-04-01
We explore critical properties of two-dimensional lattices of spins interacting via an anisotropic Heisenberg Hamiltonian that are subject to incoherent spin flips. We determine the steady-state solution of the master equation for the density matrix via the corner-space renormalization method. We investigate the finite-size scaling and critical exponent of the magnetic linear susceptibility associated with a dissipative ferromagnetic transition. We show that the von Neumann entropy increases across the critical point, revealing a strongly mixed character of the ferromagnetic phase. Entanglement is witnessed by the quantum Fisher information, which exhibits a critical behavior at the transition point, showing that quantum correlations play a crucial role in the transition.
Universal scaling in disordered systems and nonuniversal exponents
Bardhan, K. K.; Talukdar, D.; Nandi, U. N.; Mukherjee, C. D.
2014-05-01
The effect of an electric field on conduction in a disordered system is an old but largely unsolved problem. Experiments cover a wide variety of systems—amorphous/doped semiconductors, conducting polymers, organic crystals, manganites, composites, metallic alloys, double perovskites—ranging from strongly to weakly localized systems and from strongly to weakly correlated ones. Theories have singularly failed to predict any universal trend resulting in separate theories for separate systems. Here, we discuss a one-parameter scaling that has recently been found to give a systematic account of the field-dependent conductance in two diverse, strongly localized systems of conducting polymers and manganites. Except for a limited number of systems which are described by the hot electron models, the vast majority of different systems in various disorder regimes in two (2D)- and three (2D)-dimensions obey the scaling. The nonlinearity exponent x associated with the scaling was found to be nonuniversal and exhibiting a structure. For 2D weakly localized systems, the nonlinearity exponent x is ≥7 and is roughly inversely proportional to the sheet resistance. The existing theories of weak localization prove to be adequate and a complete scaling function is derived. In a 2D strongly localized system, a temperature-induced scaling-nonscaling transition (SNST) is revealed. For 3D strongly localized systems, the exponent lies between -1 and 1, and surprisingly is quantized (x ≈0.08n). This poses a serious theoretical challenge. Various results are compared with predictions of the existing theories.
Fatigue crack shape prediction based on the stress singularity exponent
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk
488-489, č. 1 (2012), s. 178-181 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics - FDM 2011 /10./. Dubrovník, 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/0867 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100420901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : stress singularity exponent * crack front curvature * vertex singularity * free surface effect Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics
Non-trivial rheological exponents in sheared yield stress fluids.
Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Martens, Kirsten
2017-07-14
In this work we discuss possible physical origins of non-trivial exponents in the athermal rheology of soft materials at low but finite driving rates. A key ingredient in our scenario is the presence of a self-consistent mechanical noise that stems from the spatial superposition of long-range elastic responses to localized plastically deforming regions. We study analytically a mean-field model, in which this mechanical noise is accounted for by a stress diffusion term coupled to the plastic activity. Within this description we show how a dependence of the shear modulus and/or the local relaxation time on the shear rate introduces corrections to the usual mean-field prediction, concerning the Herschel-Bulkley-type rheological response of exponent 1/2. This feature of the mean-field picture is then shown to be robust with respect to structural disorder and partial relaxation of the local stress. We test this prediction numerically on a mesoscopic lattice model that implements explicitly the long-range elastic response to localized shear transformations, and we conclude on how our scenario might be tested in rheological experiments.
Pixel classification based color image segmentation using quaternion exponent moments.
Wang, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Zhi-Fang; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Hong-Liang; Yang, Hong-Ying
2016-02-01
Image segmentation remains an important, but hard-to-solve, problem since it appears to be application dependent with usually no a priori information available regarding the image structure. In recent years, many image segmentation algorithms have been developed, but they are often very complex and some undesired results occur frequently. In this paper, we propose a pixel classification based color image segmentation using quaternion exponent moments. Firstly, the pixel-level image feature is extracted based on quaternion exponent moments (QEMs), which can capture effectively the image pixel content by considering the correlation between different color channels. Then, the pixel-level image feature is used as input of twin support vector machines (TSVM) classifier, and the TSVM model is trained by selecting the training samples with Arimoto entropy thresholding. Finally, the color image is segmented with the trained TSVM model. The proposed scheme has the following advantages: (1) the effective QEMs is introduced to describe color image pixel content, which considers the correlation between different color channels, (2) the excellent TSVM classifier is utilized, which has lower computation time and higher classification accuracy. Experimental results show that our proposed method has very promising segmentation performance compared with the state-of-the-art segmentation approaches recently proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Entropies and Scaling Exponents of Street and Fracture Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Agust Gudmundsson
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Many natural and man-made lineaments form networks that can be analysed through entropy and energy considerations. Here we report the results of a detailed study of the variations in trends and lengths of 1554 named streets and 6004 street segments, forming a part of the evolving street network of the city of Dundee in East Scotland. Based on changes in the scaling exponents (ranging from 0.24 to 3.89, the streets can be divided into 21 populations. For comparison, we analysed 221 active crustal fractures in Iceland that (a are of similar lengths as the streets of Dundee; (b are composed of segments; and (c form evolving networks. The streets and fractures follow power-law size distributions (validated through various statistical tests that can be partly explained in terms of the energies needed for their formation. The entropies of the 21 street populations and 9 fracture populations show strong linear correlations with (1 the scaling exponents (R^{2} = 0.845–0.947 for streets, R^{2} = 0.859 for fractures and with (2 the length ranges, that is, the differences between the longest and shortest streets/fractures, (R^{2} = 0.845–0.906 for streets, R^{2} = 0.927 for fractures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bałanda, Maria [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland); Dubiel, Stanisław M., E-mail: Stanislaw.Dubiel@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Pełka, Robert [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • Sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy was studied by means of AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities. • Re-entrant character of the magnetism has been evidenced. • Curie temperature was found as ∼169 K and the spin-freezing temperature as ∼164 K. • Critical exponents β = 0.6, γ = 1.0 and Δ = 1.6 were determined. • Magnetocaloric effect was investigated. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} intermetallic compound were studied by means of ac and dc magnetic susceptibility and magnetocaloric effect measurements. The compound is a soft magnet yet it was found to behave like a re-entrant spin-glass system. The magnetic ordering temperature was found to be T{sub C} ≈ 170 K, while the spin-freezing temperature was ∼164 K. Its relative shift per decade of ac frequency was 0.002, a value smaller than that typical of canonical spin-glasses. Magnetic entropy change, ΔS, in the vicinity of T{sub C} was determined for magnetic field, H, ranging between 5 and 50 kOe. Analysis of ΔS in terms of the power law yielded the critical exponent, n, vs. temperature with the minimum value of 0.75 at T{sub C}, while from the analysis of a relative shift of the maximum value of ΔS with the field a critical exponent Δ = 1.7 was obtained. Based on scaling laws relationships values of other two exponents viz. β = 0.6 and γ = 1 were determined.
Nonuniversality of roughness exponent of quasistatic fracture surfaces.
Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Allaei, S Mehdi Vaez; Sahimi, Muhammad
2012-02-01
Numerous experiments have indicated that the fracture front (in three dimensions) and crack lines (in two dimensions) in disordered solids and rocklike materials is rough. It has been argued that the roughness exponent ζ is universal. Using extensive simulations of a two-dimensional model, we provide strong evidence that if extended correlations and anisotropy-two features that are prevalent in many materials-are incorporated in the models that are used in the numerical simulation of crack propagation, then ζ will vary considerably with the extent of the correlations and anisotropy. The results are consistent with recent experiments that also indicate deviations of ζ from its supposedly universal value, as well as with the data from rock samples. © 2012 American Physical Society
Computation of entropy and Lyapunov exponent by a shift transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuoka, Chihiro, E-mail: matsuoka.chihiro.mm@ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Hiraide, Koichi [Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)
2015-10-15
We present a novel computational method to estimate the topological entropy and Lyapunov exponent of nonlinear maps using a shift transform. Unlike the computation of periodic orbits or the symbolic dynamical approach by the Markov partition, the method presented here does not require any special techniques in computational and mathematical fields to calculate these quantities. In spite of its simplicity, our method can accurately capture not only the chaotic region but also the non-chaotic region (window region) such that it is important physically but the (Lebesgue) measure zero and usually hard to calculate or observe. Furthermore, it is shown that the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of the Sinai-Ruelle-Bowen measure (the physical measure) coincides with the topological entropy.
Uncertainty exponents for chaotic particle scattering in the magnetotail
Presley, M.; Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F.; Matsuoka, H.
2009-12-01
In chaotic scattering systems such as the magnetotial, small uncertainties in the initial conditions make it difficult to predict whether a given particle will be forward-scattered or back-scattered in its interaction with the field reversal. A particle with initial conditions x0, is said to be ɛ certain if all of the particles with initial conditions x such that |x - x0|proportional to ɛ. For fractal basin boundaries, f(ɛ) is proportional to ɛ^α where α=N-D0 is the uncertainty exponent, N is the dimension of the phase space and D0 is the box counting dimension of the basin boundary. For αmandates a reduction in ɛ by a factor of 10^(1/α) and thus there is a high level of sensitivity to the initial conditions, (a hallmark of chaos.) In this paper we have examine the uncertainty exponent for chaotic particles in the modified Harris model of the magnetotail as a function of both the energy and the normal component of the magnetic field. For each parameter set, we launching 1000 chaotic orbits from the asymptotic region and then follow four additional orbits whose initial conditions vary by ɛ. If all 5 initial conditions scatter in the same direction, the particle is ɛ certain. We then vary ɛ over 7 order of magnitude and determine f(ɛ) as a function of ɛ. We find that the value of α takes on minimum values near discrete resonant energies and that as the normal component of the magnetic field goes to zero, α also goes to zero.
Saha, Debajyoti; Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Sabuj; Janaki, M. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.
2018-01-01
We have carried out a detailed study of scaling region using detrended fractal analysis test by applying different forcing likewise noise, sinusoidal, square on the floating potential fluctuations acquired under different pressures in a DC glow discharge plasma. The transition in the dynamics is observed through recurrence plot techniques which is an efficient method to observe the critical regime transitions in dynamics. The complexity of the nonlinear fluctuation has been revealed with the help of recurrence quantification analysis which is a suitable tool for investigating recurrence, an ubiquitous feature providing a deep insight into the dynamics of real dynamical system. An informal test for stationarity which checks for the compatibility of nonlinear approximations to the dynamics made in different segments in a time series has been proposed. In case of sinusoidal, noise, square forcing applied on fluctuation acquired at P = 0.12 mbar only one dominant scaling region is observed whereas the forcing applied on fluctuation (P = 0.04 mbar) two prominent scaling regions have been explored reliably using different forcing amplitudes indicating the signature of crossover phenomena. Furthermore a persistence long range behavior has been observed in one of these scaling regions. A comprehensive study of the quantification of scaling exponents has been carried out with the increase in amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal, square type of forcings. The scalings exponent is envisaged to be the roughness of the time series. The method provides a single quantitative idea of the scaling exponent to quantify the correlation properties of a signal.
Equifinality and the Scaling Exponent of the Structure Function
Fitton, G. F.; Mezematy, Y.; Schertzer, D. J. M.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.
2014-12-01
In turbulence the structure function is by far the most widely used tool for the empirical analysis of the velocity field. This is due mainly to the work of Kolmogorov (1941) who hypothesised a homogeneous flux of energy and derived the famous 2/3 power law for the second-order structure function; — which corresponds to a 5/3 law for the energy spectrum (Obukhov, 1942). In 1962 Kolmogorov refined his hypothesis to take into account the intermittency of the flux, with the consequence that the exponent ξ(q) of the structure function is not longer proportional to its statistical order q. In this communication, we first show that the refined hypothesis can lead to different models that can have opposite intermittency corrections. Secondly, we demonstrate that the inverse problem, i.e., starting from a given expression of ξ(q) to recover the involved flux leads to an interesting problem of equifinality for the definition of this flux. This is done in particular in the framework of the Fractionally Integrated Flux model that gives a precise meaning to the refined hypothesis. The theoretical and practical consequences are illustrated with the help data analysis and simulations of turbulence in wind farms and urban lakes.
A generalization of the power law distribution with nonlinear exponent
Prieto, Faustino; Sarabia, José María
2017-01-01
The power law distribution is usually used to fit data in the upper tail of the distribution. However, commonly it is not valid to model data in all the range. In this paper, we present a new family of distributions, the so-called Generalized Power Law (GPL), which can be useful for modeling data in all the range and possess power law tails. To do that, we model the exponent of the power law using a non-linear function which depends on data and two parameters. Then, we provide some basic properties and some specific models of that new family of distributions. After that, we study a relevant model of the family, with special emphasis on the quantile and hazard functions, and the corresponding estimation and testing methods. Finally, as an empirical evidence, we study how the debt is distributed across municipalities in Spain. We check that power law model is only valid in the upper tail; we show analytically and graphically the competence of the new model with municipal debt data in the whole range; and we compare the new distribution with other well-known distributions including the Lognormal, the Generalized Pareto, the Fisk, the Burr type XII and the Dagum models.
Regularized semiclassical limits: Linear flows with infinite Lyapunov exponents
Athanassoulis, Agissilaos
2016-08-30
Semiclassical asymptotics for Schrödinger equations with non-smooth potentials give rise to ill-posed formal semiclassical limits. These problems have attracted a lot of attention in the last few years, as a proxy for the treatment of eigenvalue crossings, i.e. general systems. It has recently been shown that the semiclassical limit for conical singularities is in fact well-posed, as long as the Wigner measure (WM) stays away from singular saddle points. In this work we develop a family of refined semiclassical estimates, and use them to derive regularized transport equations for saddle points with infinite Lyapunov exponents, extending the aforementioned recent results. In the process we answer a related question posed by P.L. Lions and T. Paul in 1993. If we consider more singular potentials, our rigorous estimates break down. To investigate whether conical saddle points, such as -|x|, admit a regularized transport asymptotic approximation, we employ a numerical solver based on posteriori error control. Thus rigorous upper bounds for the asymptotic error in concrete problems are generated. In particular, specific phenomena which render invalid any regularized transport for -|x| are identified and quantified. In that sense our rigorous results are sharp. Finally, we use our findings to formulate a precise conjecture for the condition under which conical saddle points admit a regularized transport solution for the WM. © 2016 International Press.
Scaling exponents in space plasmas: a fractional Levy model
Watkins, N. W.; Credgington, D.; Hnat, B.; Chapman, S. C.; Freeman, M. P.; Greenhough, J.
Mandelbrot introduced the concept of fractals to describe the non-Euclidean shape of many aspects of the natural world In the time series context he proposed the use of fractional Brownian motion fBm to model non-negligible temporal persistence the Joseph Effect and Levy flights to quantify large discontinuities the Noah Effect In space physics the effects are manifested as intermittency and long-range correlation well-established features of geomagnetic indices and their solar wind drivers In order to capture and quantify the Noah and Joseph effects in one compact model we propose the application of a bridge -fractional Levy motion fLm -to space physics We perform an initial evaluation of some previous scaling results in this paradigm and show how fLm can model the previously observed exponents physics 0509058 in press Space Science Reviews We discuss the similarities and differences between fLm and ambivalent processes based on fractional kinetic equations e g Brockmann et al Nature 2006 and suggest some new directions for the future
The unitary cover of a finite group and the exponent of the Schur multiplier
Sambonet, Nicola
2013-01-01
For a finite group we introduce a particular central extension, the unitary cover, having minimal exponent among those satisfying the projective lifting property. We obtain new bounds for the exponent of the Schur multiplier relating to subnormal series, and we discover new families for which the bound is the exponent of the group. Finally, we show that unitary covers are controlled by the Zel'manov solution of the restricted Burnside problem for 2-generator groups.
Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis
Radulescu, Vicentiu D
2015-01-01
Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth
Criticality and turbulence in a resistive magnetohydrodynamic current sheet
Klimas, Alexander J.; Uritsky, Vadim M.
2017-02-01
Scaling properties of a two-dimensional (2d) plasma physical current-sheet simulation model involving a full set of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with current-dependent resistivity are investigated. The current sheet supports a spatial magnetic field reversal that is forced through loading of magnetic flux containing plasma at boundaries of the simulation domain. A balance is reached between loading and annihilation of the magnetic flux through reconnection at the current sheet; the transport of magnetic flux from boundaries to current sheet is realized in the form of spatiotemporal avalanches exhibiting power-law statistics of lifetimes and sizes. We identify this dynamics as self-organized criticality (SOC) by verifying an extended set of scaling laws related to both global and local properties of the current sheet (critical susceptibility, finite-size scaling of probability distributions, geometric exponents). The critical exponents obtained from this analysis suggest that the model operates in a slowly driven SOC state similar to the mean-field state of the directed stochastic sandpile model. We also investigate multiscale correlations in the velocity field and find them numerically indistinguishable from certain intermittent turbulence (IT) theories. The results provide clues on physical conditions for SOC behavior in a broad class of plasma systems with propagating instabilities, and suggest that SOC and IT may coexist in driven current sheets which occur ubiquitously in astrophysical and space plasmas.
Bhakta, Mousomi
2014-01-01
We study the existence/nonexistence of positive solution of $$ {\\Delta^2u-\\mu\\frac{u}{|x|^4}=\\frac{|u|^{q_{\\beta}-2}u}{|x|^{\\beta}}\\quad\\textrm{in $\\Omega$,}} $$ when $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain and $N\\geq 5$, $q_{\\beta}=\\frac{2(N-\\beta)}{N-4}$, $0\\leq \\beta
Positive least energy solutions of fractional Laplacian systems with critical exponent
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Qingfang Wang
2016-01-01
...)$ is the first eigenvalue of $(-\\Delta)^s$ with Dirichlet boundary condition. For each fixed $\\beta\\geq\\frac{2s}{N-2s}\\max\\{\\mu_1,\\mu_2\\}$, we show that this system has a positive least energy solution.
Error Exponents of Low-Density Parity-Check Codes on the Binary Erasure Channel
Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier
2006-01-01
We introduce a thermodynamic (large deviation) formalism for computing error exponents in error-correcting codes. Within this framework, we apply the heuristic cavity method from statistical mechanics to derive the average and typical error exponents of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes on the binary erasure channel (BEC) under maximum-likelihood decoding.
The spatial meaning of Pareto's scaling exponent of city-size distribution
Chen, Yanguang
2013-01-01
The scaling exponent of a hierarchy of cities used to be regarded as a fractal parameter. The Pareto exponent was treated as the fractal dimension of size distribution of cities, while the Zipf exponent was treated as the reciprocal of the fractal dimension. However, this viewpoint is not exact. In this paper, I will present a new interpretation of the scaling exponent of rank-size distributions. The ideas from fractal measure relation and the principle of dimension consistency are employed to explore the essence of Pareto's and Zipf's scaling exponents. The Pareto exponent proved to be a ratio of the fractal dimension of a network of cities to the average dimension of city population. Accordingly, the Zipf exponent is the reciprocal of this dimension ratio. On a digital map, the Pareto exponent can be defined by the scaling relation between a map scale and the corresponding number of cities based on this scale. The cities of the United States of America in 1900, 1940, 1960, and 1980 and Indian cities in 1981...
Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages: A study of the Holy Bible translations
Mehri, Ali; Jamaati, Maryam
2017-08-01
Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages, for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. All studied languages in some families have Zipf's exponent lower/higher than unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent. The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language, but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.
Hurst exponent and prediction based on weak-form efficient market hypothesis of stock markets
Eom, Cheoljun; Choi, Sunghoon; Oh, Gabjin; Jung, Woo-Sung
2008-07-01
We empirically investigated the relationships between the degree of efficiency and the predictability in financial time-series data. The Hurst exponent was used as the measurement of the degree of efficiency, and the hit rate calculated from the nearest-neighbor prediction method was used for the prediction of the directions of future price changes. We used 60 market indexes of various countries. We empirically discovered that the relationship between the degree of efficiency (the Hurst exponent) and the predictability (the hit rate) is strongly positive. That is, a market index with a higher Hurst exponent tends to have a higher hit rate. These results suggested that the Hurst exponent is useful for predicting future price changes. Furthermore, we also discovered that the Hurst exponent and the hit rate are useful as standards that can distinguish emerging capital markets from mature capital markets.
Auriti, Cinzia; Prencipe, Giusi; Moriondo, Maria; Bersani, Iliana; Bertaina, Chiara; Mondì, Vito; Inglese, Rita
2017-01-01
The mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a member of the collectin family, belonging to the innate immunity system. Genetic, biologic, and clinical properties of MBL have been widely investigated throughout the last decades, although some interesting aspects of its potential clinical relevance are still poorly understood. Low circulating concentrations of MBL have been associated with increased risk of infection and poor neurologic outcome in neonates. On the other hand, an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response by the neonatal intestine after the exposure to luminal bacteria, leading to an increased production of MBL, may be involved in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about genetic and biologic characteristics of MBL and its role in the susceptibility to infections and to ischemia-reperfusion related tissue injuries to better explore its clinical relevance during the perinatal period and the possible future therapeutic applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cinzia Auriti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The mannose-binding lectin (MBL is a member of the collectin family, belonging to the innate immunity system. Genetic, biologic, and clinical properties of MBL have been widely investigated throughout the last decades, although some interesting aspects of its potential clinical relevance are still poorly understood. Low circulating concentrations of MBL have been associated with increased risk of infection and poor neurologic outcome in neonates. On the other hand, an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response by the neonatal intestine after the exposure to luminal bacteria, leading to an increased production of MBL, may be involved in the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about genetic and biologic characteristics of MBL and its role in the susceptibility to infections and to ischemia-reperfusion related tissue injuries to better explore its clinical relevance during the perinatal period and the possible future therapeutic applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jr-Chuan Huang
Full Text Available The exponent decay in landslide frequency-area distribution is widely used for assessing the consequences of landslides and with some studies arguing that the slope of the exponent decay is universal and independent of mechanisms and environmental settings. However, the documented exponent slopes are diverse and hence data processing is hypothesized for this inconsistency. An elaborated statistical experiment and two actual landslide inventories were used here to demonstrate the influences of the data processing on the determination of the exponent. Seven categories with different landslide numbers were generated from the predefined inverse-gamma distribution and then analyzed by three data processing procedures (logarithmic binning, LB, normalized logarithmic binning, NLB and cumulative distribution function, CDF. Five different bin widths were also considered while applying LB and NLB. Following that, the maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate the exponent slopes. The results showed that the exponents estimated by CDF were unbiased while LB and NLB performed poorly. Two binning-based methods led to considerable biases that increased with the increase of landslide number and bin width. The standard deviations of the estimated exponents were dependent not just on the landslide number but also on binning method and bin width. Both extremely few and plentiful landslide numbers reduced the confidence of the estimated exponents, which could be attributed to limited landslide numbers and considerable operational bias, respectively. The diverse documented exponents in literature should therefore be adjusted accordingly. Our study strongly suggests that the considerable bias due to data processing and the data quality should be constrained in order to advance the understanding of landslide processes.
Setty, V.; Sharma, A.
2013-12-01
Characterization of extreme conditions of space weather is essential for potential mitigation strategies. The non-equilibrium nature of magnetosphere makes such efforts complicated and new techniques to understand its extreme event distribution are required. The heavy tail distribution in such systems can be a modeled using Stable distribution whose stability parameter is a measure of scaling in the cumulative distribution and is related to the Hurst exponent. This exponent can be readily measured in stationary time series using several techniques and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is widely used in the presence of non-stationarities. However DFA has severe limitations in cases with non-linear and atypical trends. We propose a new technique that utilizes nonlinear dynamical predictions as a measure of trends and estimates the Hurst exponents. Furthermore, such a measure provides us with a new way to characterize predictability, as perfectly detrended data have no long term memory akin to Gaussian noise Ab initio calculation of weekly Hurst exponents using the auroral electrojet index AL over a span of few decades shows that these exponents are time varying and so is its fractal structure. Such time series data with time varying Hurst exponents are modeled well using multifractional Brownian motion and it is shown that DFA estimates a single time averaged value for Hurst exponent in such data. Our results show that using time varying Hurst exponent structure, we can (a) Estimate stability parameter, -a measure of scaling in heavy tails, (b) Define and identify epochs when the magnetosphere switches between regimes with and without extreme events, and, (c) Study the dependence of the Hurst exponents on the solar activity.
Chaos and stiffness exponents for short-range Gaussian Ising spin glasses
Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2013-06-01
Two important exponents in spin-glass theory, namely, the chaos (ζ) and stiffness (y) exponents, are studied for Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor Gaussian interactions on different approaches to Bravais lattices. We consider hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff type (both diamond and tress families), with varying fractal dimensions, as well as two lattices of the Wheatstone-bridge family, more specifically, those with fractal dimensions D ≈ 2.32 and D ≈ 3.58. Whenever it is possible to compare, our estimates agree with those obtained from extensive numerical simulations on Bravais lattices, suggesting the present results represent good approximations for these exponents.
Critical properties of a two-dimensional Ising magnet with quasiperiodic interactions.
Alves, G A; Vasconcelos, M S; Alves, T F A
2016-04-01
We address the study of quasiperiodic interactions on a square lattice by using an Ising model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions following a quasiperiodic Fibonacci sequence in both directions of a square lattice. We applied the Monte Carlo method, together with the Metropolis algorithm, to calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the system. We obtained the Edwards-Anderson order parameter q_{EA}, the magnetic susceptibility χ, and the specific heat c in order to characterize the universality class of the phase transition. We also use the finite size scaling method to obtain the critical temperature of the system and the critical exponents β,γ, and ν. In the low-temperature limit we obtained a spin-glass phase with critical temperature around T_{c}≈2.274, and the critical exponents β,γ, and ν, indicating that the quasiperiodic order induces a change in the universality class of the system. Also, we discovered a spin-glass ordering in a two-dimensional system which is rare and, as far as we know, the unique example is an under-frustrated Ising model.
The Ångström Exponent and Turbidity of Soot Component in the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
AOD) show a relatively higher value indicating a polluted ... Keywords: Soot, Ångström exponent, Turbidity, Radiative forcing, Aerosols ..... scattering For UV wavelength g typically falls between 0.6 .... total ozone content from the spectral variation.
Study of critical behavior in ferromagnetic LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bora, Tribedi, E-mail: t.bora@nitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Meghalaya, 793003 (India); Ravi, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 (India)
2016-11-15
The critical exponent behavior of LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} compound in the vicinity of ferromagnetic transition was studied by measuring isothermal dc magnetization and by analyzing them in terms of modified Arrott plot method. The critical exponents β, γ and δ corresponding to the spontaneous magnetization, initial magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization with T{sub C}=186 K were determined to be 0.325±0.006, 1.247±0.066 and 4.823±0.004 respectively and are found to be comparable to the values predicted by 3D Ising model. The obtained result is discussed in terms of presence of strong magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • We have reported the critical exponent study of LaCr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} compound. • It was analyzed in terms of modified Arrott plot method. • The estimated values of β, γ and δ are found to be close to 3D Ising model values.
Electromagnetic scattering on fractional Brownian surfaces and estimation of the Hurst exponent
Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Saillard, Marc
2001-01-01
International audience; Fractional Brownian motion is known to be a realistic model for many natural rough surfaces. It is defined by means of a single parameter, the Hurst exponent, which determines the fractal characteristics of the surface. We propose a method to estimate the Hurst exponent of a fractional Brownian profile from the electromagnetic scattering data. The method is developed in the framework of three usual approximations, with different domains of validity: the Kirchhoff appro...
The recipients of Polish, Greek and Cypriot legal norms. Linguistic exponents
Gortych-Michalak, Karolina
2014-01-01
The paper is dedicated to highlighting and indicating linguistic exponents used for needs to express the recipients of legal rules, which are present in Polish, Greek and Cypriot normative acts. The thesis of the investigation is the suspicion of designation or denotation or different relations existing between linguistic exponents referring to the recipients of legal rules and the real recipients of legal rules. Before the empirical investigations are conducted, some characteristics of legal...
Zeta function for the Lyapunov exponent of a product of random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainieri, R. (Neils Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, Copenhagen O, 2100 (Denmark) Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))
1992-03-30
A cycle expansion for the Lyapunov exponent of a product of random matrices is derived. The formula is nonperturbative and numerically effective, which allows the Lyapunov exponent to be computed to high accuracy. In particular, the free energy and heat capacity are computed for the one-dimensional Ising model with quenched disorder. The formula is derived by using a Bernoulli dynamical system to mimic the randomness.
Critical phenomena for systems under constraint
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Izmailian
2014-09-01
Full Text Available It is well known that the imposition of a constraint can transform the properties of critical systems. Early work on this phemomenon by Essam and Garelick, Fisher, and others, focused on the effects of constraints on the leading critical exponents describing phase transitions. Recent work extended these considerations to critical amplitudes and to exponents governing logarithmic corrections in certain marginal scenarios. Here these old and new results are gathered and summarised. The involutory nature of transformations between the critical parameters describing ideal and constrained systems are also discussed, paying particular attention to matters relating to universality.
Critical Behaviour of Superfluid $^4$He in Aerogel
Moon, K.; Girvin, S. M.
1995-01-01
We report on Monte Carlo studies of the critical behaviour of superfluid $^4$He in the presence of quenched disorder with long-range fractal correlations. According to the heuristic argument by Harris, uncorrelated disorder is irrelevant when the specific heat critical exponent $\\alpha$ is negative, which is the case for the pure $^4$He. However, experiments on helium in aerogel have shown that the superfluid density critical exponent $\\zeta$ changes. We hypothesize that this is a cross-over ...
A bodyweight-dependent allometric exponent for scaling clearance across the human life-span.
Wang, Chenguang; Peeters, Mariska Y M; Allegaert, Karel; Blussé van Oud-Alblas, Heleen J; Krekels, Elke H J; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J
2012-06-01
To explore different allometric equations for scaling clearance across the human life-span using propofol as a model drug. Data from seven previously published propofol studies ((pre)term neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults) were analysed using NONMEM VI. To scale clearance, a bodyweight-based exponential equation with four different structures for the exponent was used: (I) 3/4 allometric scaling model; (II) mixture model; (III) bodyweight-cut-point separated model; (IV) bodyweight-dependent exponent model. Model I adequately described clearance in adults and older children, but overestimated clearance of neonates and underestimated clearance of infants. Use of two different exponents in Model II and Model III showed significantly improved performance, but yielded ambiguities on the boundaries of the two subpopulations. This discontinuity was overcome in Model IV, in which the exponent changed sigmoidally from 1.35 at a hypothetical bodyweight of 0 kg to a value of 0.56 from 10 kg onwards, thereby describing clearance of all individuals best. A model was developed for scaling clearance over the entire human life-span with a single continuous equation, in which the exponent of the bodyweight-based exponential equation varied with bodyweight.
Critical scaling in a pure organic ferromagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paulsen, C. E-mail: paulsen@labs.polycnrs-gre.fr; Souletie, J.; Rey, P
2001-05-01
Pure organic ferromagnets, i.e. materials which contain no metallic centers, are very rare. We report here results of very low temperature AC susceptibility and DC magnetization measurements made on one of these exotic ferromagnets (formula C{sub 13}H{sub 17}N{sub 2}O{sub 3}) based on the spin S=((1)/(2)) free radical NIT (nitronyl nitroxide). A very weak hysteresis has been observed with a coercive field H{sub c}=0.15 Oe at 0.1 K. (T{sub c}{approx_equal}0.44 mK) The single crystal sample appears to be perfectly isotropic, so that measurements along the three crystal axis allow for a self-consistent way to correct for demagnetization effects. Scaling of the data allows us to estimate values for critical exponents {gamma}=1.35 and {beta}=0.33, and a very large critical region is observed, extending up to nearly 10 times T{sub c}.
Stochastic model of Zipf's law and the universality of the power-law exponent.
Yamamoto, Ken
2014-04-01
We propose a stochastic model of Zipf's law, namely a power-law relation between rank and size, and clarify as to why a specific value of its power-law exponent is quite universal. We focus on the successive total of a multiplicative stochastic process. By employing properties of a well-known stochastic process, we concisely show that the successive total follows a stationary power-law distribution, which is directly related to Zipf's law. The formula of the power-law exponent is also derived. Finally, we conclude that the universality of the rank-size exponent is brought about by symmetry between an increase and a decrease in the random growth rate.
Identification of exponent from load-deformation relation for soft materials from impact tests
Ciornei, F. C.; Alaci, S.; Romanu, I. C.; Ciornei, M. C.; Sopon, G.
2018-01-01
When two bodies are brought into contact, the magnitude of occurring reaction forces increase together with the amplitude of deformations. The load-deformation dependency of two contacting bodies is described by a function having the form F = Cxα . An accurate illustration of this relationship assumes finding the precise coefficient C and exponent α. This representation proved to be very useful in hardness tests, in dynamic systems modelling or in considerations upon the elastic-plastic ratio concerning a Hertzian contact. The classical method for identification of the exponent consists in finding it from quasi-static tests. The drawback of the method is the fact that the accurate estimation of the exponent supposes precise identification of the instant of contact initiation. To overcome this aspect, the following observation is exploited: during an impact process, the dissipated energy is converted into heat released by internal friction in the materials and energy for plastic deformations. The paper is based on the remark that for soft materials the hysteresis curves obtained for a static case are similar to the ones obtained for medium velocities. Furthermore, utilizing the fact that for the restitution phase the load-deformation dependency is elastic, a method for finding the α exponent for compression phase is proposed. The maximum depth of the plastic deformations obtained for a series of collisions, by launching, from different heights, a steel ball in free falling on an immobile prism made of soft material, is evaluated by laser profilometry method. The condition that the area of the hysteresis loop equals the variation of kinetical energy of the ball is imposed and two tests are required for finding the exponent. Five collisions from different launching heights of the ball were taken into account. For all the possible impact-pair cases, the values of the exponent were found and close values were obtained.
Bayesian estimation of the self-similarity exponent of the Nile River fluctuation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Benmehdi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the Hurst parameter of Fractional Gaussian Noise (FGN using Bayesian inference. We propose an estimation technique that takes into account the full correlation structure of this process. Instead of using the integrated time series and then applying an estimator for its Hurst exponent, we propose to use the noise signal directly. As an application we analyze the time series of the Nile River, where we find a posterior distribution which is compatible with previous findings. In addition, our technique provides natural error bars for the Hurst exponent.
Effects of length fluctuations on the viscosity exponent in the necklace model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldao, C M [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata-CONICET, Juan B Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Terranova, G R; Martin, H O [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Dean Funes 3350, B7602AYL Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2009-04-24
It is commonly accepted that contour length fluctuations increase the viscosity exponent for chains that diffuse by reptation. We found that length fluctuations in the necklace model can play an unexpected role as they can also decrease this exponent. A detailed analysis of the interplay between the discrete character of the model and how the fluctuations take place is presented in this work. Basically, we found that when fluctuations are symmetric their influence is the expected one; when fluctuations are not symmetric new effects can appear.
Hunt, Allen G.
2016-04-01
Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. Application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law may allow interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.
An Isomorphism between Lyapunov Exponents and Shannon's Channel Capacity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedland, Gerald [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Metere, Alfredo [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-06-07
We demonstrate that discrete Lyapunov exponents are isomorphic to numeric overflows of the capacity of an arbitrary noiseless and memoryless channel in a Shannon communication model with feedback. The isomorphism allows the understanding of Lyapunov exponents in terms of Information Theory, rather than the traditional definitions in chaos theory. The result also implies alternative approaches to the calculation of related quantities, such as the Kolmogorov Sinai entropy which has been linked to thermodynamic entropy. This work provides a bridge between fundamental physics and information theory. It suggests, among other things, that machine learning and other information theory methods can be employed at the core of physics simulations.
Explanation of the values of Hack's drainage basin, river length scaling exponent
Hunt, A. G.
2015-08-01
Percolation theory can be used to find water flow paths of least resistance. The application of percolation theory to drainage networks allows identification of the range of exponent values that describe the tortuosity of rivers in real river networks, which is then used to generate the observed scaling between drainage basin area and channel length, a relationship known as Hack's law. Such a theoretical basis for Hack's law allows interpretation of the range of exponent values based on an assessment of the heterogeneity of the substrate.
Tonachini, Glauco; Schlegel, H. Bernhard
1987-07-01
The Rys polynomial method has been used to evaluate the first derivatives of the two electron integrals and the nuclear electron attraction integrals with respect to the Gaussian exponents. Gradients for the sulfur 6-31 G(d) basis set in HS-, H2S, H3S+, H2S2, H3CSH, H2CS, CS, H2SO, SO2 and SO3 have been evaluated to illustrate the effect of charge, multiple bonding and hypervalency on the basis set exponents.
Quantifying the intermittency independent scaling exponents in the anisotropic solar wind.
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2006-12-01
Solar wind turbulence is dominated by Alfvenic fluctuations with power spectral exponents that somewhat surprisingly evolve toward the Kolmogorov value of -5/3, that of hydrodynamic turbulence. We analyse a 3 year interval of ACE data that is dominated by slow solar wind and show that at 1AU the turbulence decomposes linearly into two coexistent components perpendicular and parallel to the local average magnetic field and determine the distinct intermittency independent scaling exponents. The first of these is consistent with recent predictions for anisotropic MHD and the second shows Kolmogorov-like scaling which we also find in the number and magnetic energy density, and Poynting flux.
Holmlund, K; Holmlund, Kenneth; Minnhagen, Petter
1995-01-01
The dynamics of two dimensional (2D) vortex fluctuations are investigated through simulations of the 2D Coulomb gas model in which vortices are represented by soft disks with logarithmic interactions. The simulations trongly support a recent suggestion that 2D vortex fluctuations obey an intrinsic anomalous dynamics manifested in a long range 1/t-tail in the vortex correlations. A new non-linear IV-exponent a, which is different from the commonly used AHNS exponent, a_AHNS and is given by a = 2a_AHNS - 3, is confirmed by the simulations. The results are discussed in the context of earlier simulations, experiments and a phenomenological description.
Reflection equations and surface critical phenomena
Batchelor, M. T.
1996-01-01
A brief review is given of recent developments in the study of surface critical phenomena from the viewpoint of exactly solved lattice models. These developments include exact results for the polymer adsorption transition and the surface critical exponents of the eight-vertex model.
Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J
2016-01-01
...; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes...
Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl
1996-01-01
If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilitites. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modelling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilitites. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modelling error events in specific codes...
Critical lengths of error events in convolutional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn
1994-01-01
If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...
Critical Lengths of Error Events in Convolutional Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Justesen, Jørn; Andersen, Jakob Dahl
1998-01-01
If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes......If the calculation of the critical length is based on the expurgated exponent, the length becomes nonzero for low error probabilities. This result applies to typical long codes, but it may also be useful for modeling error events in specific codes...
Effect of interband interaction on isotope effect exponent of MgB2 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
com. MS received 22 September 2004; revised 5 January 2006; accepted 24 January 2005. Abstract. The exact formula of Tc's equation and the isotope effect exponent of two- band s-wave superconductors in the weak-coupling limit are ...
High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hölder exponent values (noise or not associated with the other cluster) are clubbed to a nearest possible cluster using the local maximum likelihood analysis. 1. Introduction. The spectral or pixel-based segmentation technique consists of K-Means (Hartigan et al 1979), Fuzzy. C Means (Bezdek et al 1984) and methods of.
External neutron source anomalies analysis using Hurst's exponent for the Myrrha reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: ejunior@con.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Cursos de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeir, RJ (Brazil)
2015-07-01
Anomalous diffusion is usually marked by the non-linear growth of the variance in time, that is, the diffusion will be considered as anomalous if there is a deviation in the behaviour described before. This paper aims to identify anomalies in the neutron flux during the operation of an ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor as a result of a trip that originates in the proton accelerator as per project bases, from two different calculation methods for Hurst exponents. These methods are the R/S Method and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) Method. For that the Myrrha Reactor will be simulated using the SERPENT code and the neutron source will be subjected to a production peak at a given instant. The Hurst exponent has a direct application on determining the order of derivatives in fractional point-kinetics equations and the estimate for the fractional derivative can be related as being twice that of Hurst's exponent, according to the co-variance function in the Gauss' processes. After getting the Hurst's exponent a numerically solution is proposed. This subject being a theme very much in focus nowadays. (author)
Phase space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent for gait kinematic data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Josiński, Henryk [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Świtoński, Adam [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad [Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Aleja Legionów 2, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)
2015-03-10
The authors describe an example of application of nonlinear time series analysis directed at identifying the presence of deterministic chaos in human motion data by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent. The method was previously verified on the basis of a time series constructed from the numerical solutions of both the Lorenz and the Rössler nonlinear dynamical systems.
Predicting Traffic Flow in Local Area Networks by the Largest Lyapunov Exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of network traffic are complex and nonlinear, and chaotic behaviors and their prediction, which play an important role in local area networks (LANs, are studied in detail, using the largest Lyapunov exponent. With the introduction of phase space reconstruction based on the time sequence, the high-dimensional traffic is projected onto the low dimension reconstructed phase space, and a reduced dynamic system is obtained from the dynamic system viewpoint. Then, a numerical method for computing the largest Lyapunov exponent of the low-dimensional dynamic system is presented. Further, the longest predictable time, which is related to chaotic behaviors in the system, is studied using the largest Lyapunov exponent, and the Wolf method is used to predict the evolution of the traffic in a local area network by both Dot and Interval predictions, and a reliable result is obtained by the presented method. As the conclusion, the results show that the largest Lyapunov exponent can be used to describe the sensitivity of the trajectory in the reconstructed phase space to the initial values. Moreover, Dot Prediction can effectively predict the flow burst. The numerical simulation also shows that the presented method is feasible and efficient for predicting the complex dynamic behaviors in LAN traffic, especially for congestion and attack in networks, which are the main two complex phenomena behaving as chaos in networks.
Directional maximum likelihood self-estimation of the path-loss exponent
Hu, Y.; Leus, G.J.T.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang
2016-01-01
The path-loss exponent (PLE) is a key parameter in wireless propagation channels. Therefore, obtaining the knowledge of the PLE is rather significant for assisting wireless communications and networking to achieve a better performance. Most existing methods for estimating the PLE not only require
Using machine learning to replicate chaotic attractors and calculate Lyapunov exponents from data
Pathak, Jaideep; Lu, Zhixin; Hunt, Brian R.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward
2017-12-01
We use recent advances in the machine learning area known as "reservoir computing" to formulate a method for model-free estimation from data of the Lyapunov exponents of a chaotic process. The technique uses a limited time series of measurements as input to a high-dimensional dynamical system called a "reservoir." After the reservoir's response to the data is recorded, linear regression is used to learn a large set of parameters, called the "output weights." The learned output weights are then used to form a modified autonomous reservoir designed to be capable of producing an arbitrarily long time series whose ergodic properties approximate those of the input signal. When successful, we say that the autonomous reservoir reproduces the attractor's "climate." Since the reservoir equations and output weights are known, we can compute the derivatives needed to determine the Lyapunov exponents of the autonomous reservoir, which we then use as estimates of the Lyapunov exponents for the original input generating system. We illustrate the effectiveness of our technique with two examples, the Lorenz system and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky (KS) equation. In the case of the KS equation, we note that the high dimensional nature of the system and the large number of Lyapunov exponents yield a challenging test of our method, which we find the method successfully passes.
Inter-relationship between scaling exponents for describing self-similar river networks
Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock
2015-04-01
Natural river networks show well-known self-similar characteristics. Such characteristics are represented by various power-law relationships, e.g., between upstream length and drainage area (exponent h) (Hack, 1957), and in the exceedance probability distribution of upstream area (exponent É) (Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1992). It is empirically revealed that these power-law exponents are within narrow ranges. Power-law is also found in the relationship between drainage density (the total stream length divided by the total basin area) and specified source area (the minimum drainage area to form a stream head) (exponent η) (Moussa and Bocquillon, 1996). Considering that above three scaling relationships all refer to fundamental measures of 'length' and 'area' of a given drainage basin, it is natural to hypothesize plausible inter-relationship between these three scaling exponents. Indeed, Rigon et al. (1996) demonstrated the relationship between É and h. In this study, we expand this to a more general É-η-h relationship. We approach É-η relationship in an analytical manner while η-h relationship is demonstrated for six study basins in Korea. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Hack, J. T. (1957). Studies of longitudinal river profiles in Virginia and Maryland. US, Geological Survey Professional Paper, 294. Moussa, R., & Bocquillon, C. (1996). Fractal analyses of tree-like channel networks from digital elevation model data. Journal of Hydrology, 187(1), 157-172. Rigon, R., Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., Maritan, A., Giacometti. A., Tarboton, D. G., & Rinaldo, A. (1996). On Hack's Law. Water Resources Research, 32(11), 3367-3374. Rodríguez-Iturbe, I., Ijjasz-Vasquez, E. J., Bras, R. L., & Tarboton, D. G. (1992). Power law distributions of discharge mass and energy in river basins. Water Resources Research, 28(4), 1089-1093.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emlyn Flint
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Contingent claims on underlying assets are typically priced under a framework that assumes, inter alia, that the log returns of the underlying asset are normally distributed. However, many researchers have shown that this assumption is violated in practice. Such violations include the statistical properties of heavy tails, volatility clustering, leptokurtosis and long memory. This paper considers the pricing of contingent claims when the underlying is assumed to display long memory, an issue that has heretofore not received much attention. Aim: We address several theoretical and practical issues in option pricing and implied volatility calibration in a fractional Black–Scholes market. We introduce a novel eight-parameter fractional Black–Scholes-inspired (FBSI model for the implied volatility surface, and consider in depth the issue of calibration. One of the main benefits of such a model is that it allows one to decompose implied volatility into an independent long-memory component – captured by an implied Hurst exponent – and a conditional implied volatility component. Such a decomposition has useful applications in the areas of derivatives trading, risk management, delta hedging and dynamic asset allocation. Setting: The proposed FBSI volatility model is calibrated to South African equity index options data as well as South African Rand/American Dollar currency options data. However, given the focus on the theoretical development of the model, the results in this paper are applicable across all financial markets. Methods: The FBSI model essentially combines a deterministic function form of the 1-year implied volatility skew with a separate deterministic function for the implied Hurst exponent, thus allowing one to model both observed implied volatility surfaces as well as decompose them into independent volatility and long-memory components respectively. Calibration of the model makes use of a quasi-explicit weighted
Extracting Lyapunov exponents from the echo dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates on a lattice
Tarkhov, Andrei E.; Wimberger, Sandro; Fine, Boris V.
2017-08-01
We propose theoretically an experimentally realizable method to demonstrate the Lyapunov instability and to extract the value of the largest Lyapunov exponent for a chaotic many-particle interacting system. The proposal focuses specifically on a lattice of coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in the classical regime describable by the discrete Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We suggest to use imperfect time reversal of the system's dynamics known as the Loschmidt echo, which can be realized experimentally by reversing the sign of the Hamiltonian of the system. The routine involves tracking and then subtracting the noise of virtually any observable quantity before and after the time reversal. We support the theoretical analysis by direct numerical simulations demonstrating that the largest Lyapunov exponent can indeed be extracted from the Loschmidt echo routine. We also discuss possible values of experimental parameters required for implementing this proposal.
Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)
2016-04-15
The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.
Nonuniversality of the Archie exponent due to multifractality of resistivity well logs
Dashtian, Hassan; Yang, Yafan; Sahimi, Muhammad
2015-12-01
Archie's law expresses a relation between the formation factor F of porous media and their porosity ϕ, F∝ϕ-m, where m is the Archie or the cementation exponent. Despite widespread use of Archie's law, the value of m and whether it is universal and independent of the type of reservoir have remained controversial. We analyze various porosity and resistivity logs along 36 wells in six Iranian oil and gas reservoirs using wavelet transform coherence and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. m is estimated for two sets of data: one set contains the resistivity data that include those segments of the well that contain significant clay content and one without. The analysis indicates that the well logs are multifractal and that due to the multifractality the exponent m is nonuniversal. Thus, analysis of the resistivity of laboratory or outcrop samples that are not multifractal yields estimates of m that are not applicable to well logs in oil or gas reservoirs.
Using Largest Lyapunov Exponent to Confirm the Intrinsic Stability of Boiling Water Reactors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos J. Gavilán-Moreno
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs. Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.
Predicted and verified evolution of power-law exponent in product market
Hisano, Ryohei; Mizuno, Takayuki
2011-01-01
Power-law distributions constitute a generic empirical statistical regularity found in many complex systems. A recently developed theory finds that the interplay between one of the most universal ingredient, i.e., stochastic proportional growth, and stochastic birth and death processes, leads to generic power law distributions together with a non-universal exponent which depends explicitly on the characteristics of growth, birth and death. In particular, the theory rationalizes Zipf's law and explains deviations from it, for instance for the distribution of firm and of city sizes. Here, we report the first complete test of the theory, based on the empirical analysis from a real world complex phenomenon, namely the dynamics of market shares in the consumer electronics market. We estimate directly from the data the average growth rate of market shares, their standard deviation, the birth rates as well as the "death" hazard rate of products. When plugged in the theory, this predicts the power law exponent of the...
Electronic structure, lattice energies and Born exponents for alkali halides from first principles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. R. Gopikrishnan
2012-03-01
Full Text Available First principles calculations based on DFT have been performed on crystals of halides (X = F, Cl, Br and I of alkali metals (M = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs. The calculated lattice energies (U0 are in good agreement with the experimental lattice enthalpies. A new exact formalism is proposed to determine the Born exponent (n for ionic solids. The values of the Born exponent calculated through this ab-initio technique is in good agreement with previous empirically derived results. Band Structure calculations reveal that these compounds are wide-gap insulators that explains their optical transparency. Projected density of states (PDOS calculations reveal that alkali halides with small cations and large anions, have small band gaps due to charge transfer from X → M. This explains the onset of covalency in ionic solids, which is popularly known as the Fajans Rule.
Stability Analysis of Bipedal Robots Using the Concept of Lyapunov Exponents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yunping
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics and stability of passive bipedal robot have an important impact on the mass distribution, leg length, and the angle of inclination. Lyapunov’s second method is difficult to be used in highly nonlinear multibody systems, due to the lack of constructive methods for deriving Lyapunov fuction. The dynamics equation is established by Kane method, the relationship between the mass, length of leg, angle of inclination, and stability of passive bipedal robot by the largest Lyapunov exponent. And the Lyapunov exponents of continuous dynamical systems are estimated by numerical methods, which are simple and easy to be applied to the system stability simulation analysis, provide the design basis for passive bipedal robot prototype, and improve design efficiency.
Lyapunov exponents from kinetic theory for a dilute, field-driven Lorentz gas
Van Beijeren, H; Cohen, E G D; Posch, H A; Dellago, C
1996-01-01
Positive and negative Lyapunov exponents for a dilute, random, two-dimensional Lorentz gas in an applied field, \\vec{E}, in a steady state at constant energy are computed to order E^{2}. The results are: \\lambda_{\\pm}=\\lambda_{\\pm}^{0}-a_{\\pm}(qE/mv)^{2}t_{0} where \\lambda_{\\pm}^{0} are the exponents for the field-free Lorentz gas, a_{+}=11/48, a_{-}=7/48, t_{0} is the mean free time between collisions, q is the charge, m the mass and v is the speed of the particle. The calculation is based on an extended Boltzmann equation in which a radius of curvature, characterizing the separation of two nearby trajectories, is one of the variables in the distribution function. The analytical results are in excellent agreement with computer simulations. These simulations provide additional evidence for logarithmic terms in the density expansion of the diffusion coefficient.
Dependence of exponents on text length versus finite-size scaling for word-frequency distributions
Corral, Álvaro; Font-Clos, Francesc
2017-08-01
Some authors have recently argued that a finite-size scaling law for the text-length dependence of word-frequency distributions cannot be conceptually valid. Here we give solid quantitative evidence for the validity of this scaling law, using both careful statistical tests and analytical arguments based on the generalized central-limit theorem applied to the moments of the distribution (and obtaining a novel derivation of Heaps' law as a by-product). We also find that the picture of word-frequency distributions with power-law exponents that decrease with text length [X. Yan and P. Minnhagen, Physica A 444, 828 (2016), 10.1016/j.physa.2015.10.082] does not stand with rigorous statistical analysis. Instead, we show that the distributions are perfectly described by power-law tails with stable exponents, whose values are close to 2, in agreement with the classical Zipf's law. Some misconceptions about scaling are also clarified.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Martin Gram; Adler-Nissen, Jens
2015-01-01
This paper presents a normalization of the Biot number, which enables the Fourier exponents to be fitted with a simple 3rd order polynomial (R2 > 0.9999). The method is validated for Biot numbers ranging from 0.02 to 8, and presented graphically for both the Fourier exponents and the lag factors ...... needed in the series expansion. The lag factors and Fourier exponents are validated with an average variation coefficient (CVRMSD) less than 0.006. The resulting prediction error of the thermal response is ...This paper presents a normalization of the Biot number, which enables the Fourier exponents to be fitted with a simple 3rd order polynomial (R2 > 0.9999). The method is validated for Biot numbers ranging from 0.02 to 8, and presented graphically for both the Fourier exponents and the lag factors...
Garcin, Matthieu
2017-10-01
Hurst exponents depict the long memory of a time series. For human-dependent phenomena, as in finance, this feature may vary in the time. It justifies modelling dynamics by multifractional Brownian motions, which are consistent with time-dependent Hurst exponents. We improve the existing literature on estimating time-dependent Hurst exponents by proposing a smooth estimate obtained by variational calculus. This method is very general and not restricted to the sole Hurst framework. It is globally more accurate and easier than other existing non-parametric estimation techniques. Besides, in the field of Hurst exponents, it makes it possible to make forecasts based on the estimated multifractional Brownian motion. The application to high-frequency foreign exchange markets (GBP, CHF, SEK, USD, CAD, AUD, JPY, CNY and SGD, all against EUR) shows significantly good forecasts. When the Hurst exponent is higher than 0.5, what depicts a long-memory feature, the accuracy is higher.
Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies
Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.
2015-01-01
Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.
Perturbation theory for Lyapunov exponents of an Anderson model on a strip
Schulz-Baldes, H
2003-01-01
It is proven that the localization length of an Anderson model on a strip of width $L$ is bounded above by $L/\\lambda^2$ for small values of the coupling constant $\\lambda$ of the disordered potential. For this purpose, a new formalism is developed in order to calculate the bottom Lyapunov exponent associated with random products of large symplectic matrices perturbatively in the coupling constant of the randomness.
The exponent λ (x,Q ) of the proton structure function F (x, Q ) at low ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The exponent λ of the structure function F2 x λ is calculated using the solution of the DGLAP equation for gluon at low x reported recently by the present authors. The quantity λ is calculated both as a function of x at fixed Q2 and as a function of Q2 at fixed x and compared with the most recent data from H1.
Short Zero-Sum Sequences Over Abelian $p$-Groups of Large Exponent
Luo, Sammy
2016-01-01
Let $G$ be a finite abelian group with exponent $n$. Let $\\eta(G)$ denote the smallest integer $\\ell$ such that every sequence over $G$ of length at least $\\ell$ has a zero-sum subsequence of length at most $n$. We determine the precise value of $\\eta(G)$ when $G$ is a $p$-group whose Davenport constant is at most $2n-1$. This confirms one of the equalities in a conjecture by Schmid and Zhuang from 2010.
A Lower Bound on the Lyapunov Exponent for the Generalized Harper's Model
Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Liu, Wencai
2017-02-01
We obtain a lower bound for the Lyapunov exponent of a family of discrete Schrödinger operators (Hu)_n=u_{n+1}+u_{n-1}+2a_1 cos 2π (θ +nα )u_n+2a_2 cos 4π (θ +nα )u_n, that incorporates both a_1 and a_2, thus going beyond the Herman's bound.
Scaling exponent and dispersity of polymers in solution by diffusion NMR.
Williamson, Nathan H; Röding, Magnus; Miklavcic, Stanley J; Nydén, Magnus
2017-05-01
Molecular mass distribution measurements by pulsed gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSE NMR) spectroscopy currently require prior knowledge of scaling parameters to convert from polymer self-diffusion coefficient to molecular mass. Reversing the problem, we utilize the scaling relation as prior knowledge to uncover the scaling exponent from within the PGSE data. Thus, the scaling exponent-a measure of polymer conformation and solvent quality-and the dispersity (Mw/Mn) are obtainable from one simple PGSE experiment. The method utilizes constraints and parametric distribution models in a two-step fitting routine involving first the mass-weighted signal and second the number-weighted signal. The method is developed using lognormal and gamma distribution models and tested on experimental PGSE attenuation of the terminal methylene signal and on the sum of all methylene signals of polyethylene glycol in D2O. Scaling exponent and dispersity estimates agree with known values in the majority of instances, leading to the potential application of the method to polymers for which characterization is not possible with alternative techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitting Power-laws in empirical data with estimators that work for all exponents
Hanel, Rudolf; Liu, Bo; Thurner, Stefan
2016-01-01
It has been repeatedly stated that maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of exponents of power-law distributions can only be reliably obtained for exponents smaller than minus one. The main argument that power laws are otherwise not normalizable, depends on the underlying sample space the data is drawn from, and is true only for sample spaces that are unbounded from above. Here we show that power-laws obtained from bounded sample spaces (as is the case for practically all data related problems) are always free of such limitations and maximum likelihood estimates can be obtained for arbitrary powers without restrictions. Here we first derive the appropriate ML estimator for arbitrary exponents of power-law distributions on bounded discrete sample spaces. We then show that an almost identical estimator also works perfectly for continuous data. We implemented this ML estimator and discuss its performance with previous attempts. We present a general recipe of how to use these estimators and present the associated com...
Huang, Jiyan; Liu, Peng; Lin, Wei; Gui, Guan
2016-09-08
The localization of a sensor in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has now gained considerable attention. Since the transmit power and path loss exponent (PLE) are two critical parameters in the received signal strength (RSS) localization technique, many RSS-based location methods, considering the case that both the transmit power and PLE are unknown, have been proposed in the literature. However, these methods require a search process, and cannot give a closed-form solution to sensor localization. In this paper, a novel RSS localization method with a closed-form solution based on a two-step weighted least squares estimator is proposed for the case with the unknown transmit power and uncertainty in PLE. Furthermore, the complete performance analysis of the proposed method is given in the paper. Both the theoretical variance and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) are derived. The relationships between the deterministic CRLB and the proposed stochastic CRLB are presented. The paper also proves that the proposed method can reach the stochastic CRLB.
Critical behavior of a stochastic anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model
Han, Jihui; Li, Wei; Su, Zhu; Deng, Webing
2017-11-01
In this paper we present our study on the critical behavior of a stochastic anisotropic Bak-Sneppen (saBS) model, in which a parameter α is introduced to describe the interaction strength among nearest species. We estimate the threshold fitness f c and the critical exponent τ r by numerically integrating a master equation for the distribution of avalanche spatial sizes. Other critical exponents are then evaluated from previously known scaling relations. The numerical results are in good agreement with the counterparts yielded by the Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that all saBS models with nonzero interaction strength exhibit self-organized criticality, and fall into the same universality class, by sharing the universal critical exponents.
Yulmetyev, R; Gafarov, F; Hänggi, P; Nigmatullin, R; Kayumov, S
2001-12-01
The basic scientific point of this paper is to draw the attention of researchers to new possibilities of differentiation of similar signals having different nature. One example of such kinds of signals is presented by seismograms containing recordings of earthquakes (EQ's) and technogenic explosions (TE's). EQ's are among the most dramatic phenomena in nature. We propose here a discrete stochastic model for possible solution of a problem of strong EQ forecasting and differentiation of TE's from the weak EQ's. Theoretical analysis is performed by two independent methods: by using statistical theory of discrete non-Markov stochastic processes [Phys. Rev. E 62, 6178 (2000)] and the local Hurst exponent. The following Earth states have been considered among them: before (Ib) and during (I) strong EQ, during weak EQ (II) and during TE (III), and in a calm state of Earth's core (IV). The estimation of states I, II, and III has been made on the particular examples of Turkey (1999) EQ's, state IV has been taken as an example of Earth's state before underground TE. Time recordings of seismic signals of the first four dynamic orthogonal collective variables, six various planes of phase portrait of four-dimensional phase space of orthogonal variables and the local Hurst exponent have been calculated for the dynamic analysis of states of systems I-IV. The analysis of statistical properties of seismic time series I-IV has been realized with the help of a set of discrete time-dependent functions (time correlation function and first three memory functions), their power spectra, and the first three points in the statistical spectrum of non-Markovity parameters. In all systems studied we have found a bizarre combination of the following spectral characteristics: the fractal frequency spectra adjustable by phenomena of usual and restricted self-organized criticality, spectra of white and color noises and unusual alternation of Markov and non-Markov effects of long-range memory
Hoede, C.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.
In a recent paper Hoede and Zandvliet introduced the concept of gauging on an equation. This enables the simulation of more complex Ising models by the simple quadratic model. The possibility of simulating the simple cubic model was defended by calculating a sequence of approximations to the
Bhakta, Mousomi
2014-01-01
We study the existence and multiplicity of sign changing solutions of the following equation $ \\begin{cases} -\\Delta u = \\mu |u|^{2^{\\star}-2}u+\\frac{|u|^{2^{*}(t)-2}u}{|x|^t}+a(x)u \\quad\\text{in}\\quad \\Omega, u=0 \\quad\\text{on}\\quad\\partial\\Omega, \\end{cases} $where $\\Omega$ is a bounded domain in $R^N$, $0\\in\\partial\\Omega$, all the principal curvatures of $\\partial\\Omega$ at $0$ are negative and $\\mu\\geq 0, \\ \\ a>0, \\ \\ N\\geq 7, \\ \\ 0
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Wang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, we show the existence of infinitely many solutions for the fractional p-Laplacian equations of Schrodinger-Kirchhoff type equation $$ M([u]_{s, p}^p (-\\Delta _p^s u+V(x|u|^{p-2}u= \\alpha |u|^{ p_s^{*}-2 }u+\\beta k(x|u|^{q-2}u \\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $(-\\Delta ^s_p$ is the fractional p-Laplacian operator, $[u]_{s,p}$ is the Gagliardo p-seminorm, $0 sp$, $1
Zhang, Chao; Li, Yue; Lin, Hongbo; Yang, Baojun
2015-11-01
Attenuating random noise is of great significance in seismic data processing. In recent years, time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF) has been successfully applied to seismic random noise attenuation field. However, a fixed window length (WL) is used in the conventional TFPF. Since a short WL in the TFPF is used to preserve signals while a long WL can eliminate random noise effectively, signal preserving and noise attenuation cannot be balanced by a fixed WL especially when the signal-to-noise ratio of the noisy seismic record is low. Thus, we need to divide a noisy signal into signal and noise segments before the filtering. Then a short WL is used to the signal segments to preserve signals and a long WL is chosen for noise segments to eliminate random noise. In this paper, we test the smoothness of signals and random noise in time using the Hurst exponent which is a statistic for representing smoothness characteristics of signals. The time-series of signals with higher smoothness which lead to larger Hurst exponent values, however random noise is a random series in time without fixed waveforms and thus its smoothness is low, so the signal and noise segments can be divided by the Hurst exponent values. After the segmentation, we can adopt different filtering WLs in the TFPF for different segments to make a trade-off between signal preserving and random noise attenuation. Synthetic and real data experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can remove random noise from seismic record and preserve reflection events effectively.
Lagrangian coherent structures and the smallest finite-time Lyapunov exponent
Haller, George; Sapsis, Themistoklis
2011-06-01
We point out that local minimizing curves, or troughs, of the smallest finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) field computed over a time interval [t0, t] and graphed over trajectory positions at time t mark attracting Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) at t. For two-dimensional area-preserving flows, we conclude that computing the largest forward-time FTLE field by itself is sufficient for locating both repelling LCSs at t0 and attracting LCSs at t. We illustrate our results on analytic examples, as well as on a two-dimensional experimental velocity field measured near a swimming jellyfish.
Determination of the interfacial roughness exponent in rare-earth superlattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swaddling, P.P.; McMorrow, D.F.; Cowley, R.A.
1994-01-01
The interfacial roughness in Ho/Y and Ho/Lu superlattices has been studied using high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The transverse width of the superlattice Bragg peaks broadens almost linearly as a function of the component of the reduced wave vector parallel to the growth direction, while...... the line shape is invariant, and is described by a Lorentzian raised to the power of approximate to 5/2. These results are interpreted as a signature of conformally rough interfaces, and the roughness exponent is determined to be alpha = 0.85 +/- 0.05. It is also shown how alpha may be altered by adjusting...
Estimation of Spectral Exponent Parameter of 1/f Process in Additive White Background Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semih Ergintav
2007-01-01
Full Text Available An extension to the wavelet-based method for the estimation of the spectral exponent, γ, in a 1/fγ process and in the presence of additive white noise is proposed. The approach is based on eliminating the effect of white noise by a simple difference operation constructed on the wavelet spectrum. The γ parameter is estimated as the slope of a linear function. It is shown by simulations that the proposed method gives reliable results. Global positioning system (GPS time-series noise is analyzed and the results provide experimental verification of the proposed method.
Estimating the density-scaling exponent of a monatomic liquid from its pair potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøhling, Lasse; Bailey, Nicholas; Schrøder, Thomas
2014-01-01
This paper investigates two conjectures for calculating the density dependence of the density-scaling exponent γ of a single-component, pair-potential liquid with strong virial potential-energy correlations. The first conjecture gives an analytical expression for γ directly in terms of the pair...... potential. The second conjecture is a refined version of this involving the most likely nearest-neighbor distance determined from the pair-correlation function. The conjectures are tested by simulations of three systems, one of which is the standard Lennard-Jones liquid. While both expressions give...
Implications of Grain Size Evolution for the Effective Stress Exponent in Ice
Behn, M. D.; Goldsby, D. L.; Hirth, G.
2016-12-01
Viscous flow in ice has typically been described by the Glen law—a non-Newtonian, power-law relationship between stress and strain-rate with a stress exponent n 3. The Glen law is attributed to grain-size-insensitive dislocation creep; however, laboratory and field studies demonstrate that deformation in ice is strongly dependent on grain size. This has led to the hypothesis that at sufficiently low stresses, ice flow is controlled by grain boundary sliding [1], which explicitly incorporates the grain-size dependence of ice rheology. Yet, neither dislocation creep (n 4), nor grain boundary sliding (n 1.8), have stress exponents that match the value of n 3 for the Glen law. Thus, although the Glen law provides an approximate description of ice flow in glaciers and ice sheets, its functional form cannot be explained by a single deformation mechanism. Here we seek to understand the origin of the n 3 dependence of the Glen law through a new model for grain-size evolution in ice. In our model, grain size evolves in response to the balance between dynamic recrystallization and grain growth. To simulate these processes we adapt the "wattmeter" [2], originally developed within the solid-Earth community to quantify grain size in crustal and mantle rocks. The wattmeter posits that grain size is controlled by a balance between the mechanical work required for grain growth and dynamic grain size reduction. The evolution of grain size in turn controls the relative contributions of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding, and thus the effective stress exponent for ice flow. Using this approach, we first benchmark our grain size evolution model on experimental data and then calculate grain size in two end-member scenarios: (1) as a function of depth within an ice-sheet, and (2) across an ice-stream margin. We show that the calculated grain sizes match ice core observations for the interior of ice sheets. Furthermore, owing to the influence of grain size on strain rate, the
Fractal dimensions of graph of Weierstrass-type function and local Hölder exponent spectra
Otani, Atsuya
2018-01-01
We study several fractal properties of the Weierstrass-type function where τ :[0, 1)\\to[0, 1) is a cookie cutter map with possibly fractal repeller, and λ and g are functions with proper regularity. In the first part, we determine the box dimension of the graph of W and Hausdorff dimension of its randomised version. In the second part, the Hausdorff spectrum of the local Hölder exponent is characterised in terms of thermodynamic formalism. Furthermore, in the randomised case, a novel formula for the lifted Hausdorff spectrum on the graph is provided.
Control of chaos in permanent magnet synchronous motor by using optimal Lyapunov exponents placement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ataei, Mohammad, E-mail: ataei@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiyoumarsi, Arash, E-mail: kiyoumarsi@eng.ui.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Hezar-Jerib St., Postal Code 8174673441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghorbani, Behzad, E-mail: behzad.ghorbani63@gmail.co [Department of Control Engineering, Najafabad Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-09-13
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) experiences chaotic behavior for a certain range of its parameters. In this case, since the performance of the PMSM degrades, the chaos should be eliminated. In this Letter, the control of the undesirable chaos in PMSM using Lyapunov exponents (LEs) placement is proposed that is also improved by choosing optimal locations of the LEs in the sense of predefined cost function. Moreover, in order to provide the physical realization of the method, nonlinear parameter estimator for the system is suggested. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the simulation results for applying this control strategy are provided.
The Use of the Lexical Exponents of Hypothetical Modality in Polish and Lithuanian
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Danuta Roszko
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The Use of the Lexical Exponents of Hypothetical Modality in Polish and Lithuanian In this article the author focuses on the issue of hypothetical modality[1] in Polish and Lithuanian. A list of the basic exponents of hypothetical modality in both languages is presented. However, the focus is mainly placed on the lexical exponents. On the basis of one of the six groups, which describes a high degree of probability (H5, the differences between the use of the lexical exponents in both languages are examined. In the study, multilingual corpora resources, including The Polish-Lithuanian parallel corpus Clarin-PL., are utilized. [1] [In the academic literature, for the notion described herein, the term of epistemic modality is also used. Nevertheless, in this paper I will continue to use the term of hypotheticality, which I borrowed from the studies on modality, conducted in Polish-Bulgarian cooperation (Slavic Institute of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute for Bulgarian Language of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.] O użyciu wykładników leksykalnych modalności hipotetycznej w językach polskim i litewskim W artykule autorka porusza zagadnienie modalności hipotetycznej[1] w językach polskim i litewskim. Przedstawia wykaz podstawowych wykładników modalności hipotetycznej w obu językach. Główną uwagę skupia jednak na wykładnikach leksykalnych. Na przykładzie jednej z sześciu grup, opisującej wysoki stopień prawdopodobieństwa (H5, omawia różnice użycia wykładników leksykalnych w obu językach. W badaniach wykorzystuje wielojęzyczne zasoby korpusowe, w tym Polsko-litewski korpus równoległy Clarin-PL. [1] [W literaturze przedmiotu na oznaczenie opisywanych tu treści stosowany jest również termin epistemiczności. Niemniej jednak w tej pracy autorka pozostaje przy terminie hipotetyczności, który zapożycza z badań nad modalnością, prowadzonych we współpracy polsko-bułgarskiej (Instytut Slawistyki PAN i
Probability density and scaling exponents of longitudinal structure functions in strong turbulence
Yakhot, V
1997-01-01
The advective terms in the Navier-Stokes and Burgers equations are similar. It is proposed that the longitudinal structure functions $S_{n}(r)$ in homogeneous and isotropic three- dimensional turbulence are goverened by a one-dimensional equation of motion, resembling the 1D-Burgers equation, with the strongly non-local pressure contributions accounted for by galilean-invariance-breaking terms. The resulting equations give both scaling exponents and amplitudes of the structure functions in an excellent agreement with experimental data. The derived probability density function $P(\\Delta u,r)\
Some comments on Hurst exponent and the long memory processes on capital markets
Sánchez Granero, M. A.; Trinidad Segovia, J. E.; García Pérez, J.
2008-09-01
The analysis of long memory processes in capital markets has been one of the topics in finance, since the existence of the market memory could implicate the rejection of an efficient market hypothesis. The study of these processes in finance is realized through Hurst exponent and the most classical method applied is R/S analysis. In this paper we will discuss the efficiency of this methodology as well as some of its more important modifications to detect the long memory. We also propose the application of a classical geometrical method with short modifications and we compare both approaches.
Kiyani, K.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2006-11-01
We address the generic problem of extracting the scaling exponents of a stationary, self-affine process realized by a time series of finite length, where information about the process is not known a priori. Estimating the scaling exponents relies upon estimating the moments, or more typically structure functions, of the probability density of the differenced time series. If the probability density is heavy tailed, outliers strongly influence the scaling behavior of the moments. From an operational point of view, we wish to recover the scaling exponents of the underlying process by excluding a minimal population of these outliers. We test these ideas on a synthetically generated symmetric α -stable Lévy process and show that the Lévy exponent is recovered in up to the 6th order moment after only ˜0.1-0.5% of the data are excluded. The scaling properties of the excluded outliers can then be tested to provide additional information about the system.
Evidence for self-organized criticality in the Bean critical state in superconductors
Aegerter, C. M.
1998-08-01
The time dependence of the magnetization of a type-II superconductor in the Bean critical state is studied. It is found that evolution occurs in the form of bursts, consistent with a model exhibiting self-organized criticality. The distribution of step sizes follows a power law with an exponent of α~= 2. At high temperatures the distribution is Gaussian-like, as would be expected in an equilibrium situation. This may allow the experimental study of the occurrence of criticality.
The emergence of different tail exponents in the distributions of firm size variables
Ishikawa, Atushi; Fujimoto, Shouji; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Mizuno, Takayuki
2013-05-01
We discuss a mechanism through which inversion symmetry (i.e., invariance of a joint probability density function under the exchange of variables) and Gibrat’s law generate power-law distributions with different tail exponents. Using a dataset of firm size variables, that is, tangible fixed assets K, the number of workers L, and sales Y, we confirm that these variables have power-law tails with different exponents, and that inversion symmetry and Gibrat’s law hold. Based on these findings, we argue that there exists a plane in the three dimensional space (logK,logL,logY), with respect to which the joint probability density function for the three variables is invariant under the exchange of variables. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that this plane fits the data well, and argue that the plane can be interpreted as the Cobb-Douglas production function, which has been extensively used in various areas of economics since it was first introduced almost a century ago.
Lyapunov exponents and phase diagrams reveal multi-factorial control over TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Aldridge, Bree B; Gaudet, Suzanne; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sorger, Peter K
2011-11-22
Receptor-mediated apoptosis proceeds via two pathways: one requiring only a cascade of initiator and effector caspases (type I behavior) and the second requiring an initiator-effector caspase cascade and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (type II behavior). Here, we investigate factors controlling type I versus II phenotypes by performing Lyapunov exponent analysis of an ODE-based model of cell death. The resulting phase diagrams predict that the ratio of XIAP to pro-caspase-3 concentrations plays a key regulatory role: type I behavior predominates when the ratio is low and type II behavior when the ratio is high. Cell-to-cell variability in phenotype is observed when the ratio is close to the type I versus II boundary. By positioning multiple tumor cell lines on the phase diagram we confirm these predictions. We also extend phase space analysis to mutations affecting the rate of caspase-3 ubiquitylation by XIAP, predicting and showing that such mutations abolish all-or-none control over activation of effector caspases. Thus, phase diagrams derived from Lyapunov exponent analysis represent a means to study multi-factorial control over a complex biochemical pathway.
Scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions in the interplanetary medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Carbone
Full Text Available We analyze the scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions, obtained from the velocity fluctuations measured in the interplanetary space plasma. Using the expression for the energy transfer rate which seems the most relevant in describing the evolution of the pseudo-energy densities in the interplanetary medium, we introduce an energy cascade model derived from a simple fragmentation process, which takes into account the intermittency effect. In the absence and in the presence of the large-scale magnetic field decorrelation effect the model reduces to the fluid and the hydromagnetic p-model, respectively. We show that the scaling exponents of the q-th power of the velocity structure functions, as obtained by the model in the absence of the decorrelation effect, furnishes the best-fit to the data analyzed from the Voyager 2 velocity field measurements at 8.5 AU. Our results allow us to hypothesize a new kind of scale-similarity for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence when the decorrelation effect is at work, related to the fourth-order velocity structure function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LaVar King Isaacson
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A computational procedure is developed to determine initial instabilities within a three-dimensional laminar boundary layer and to follow these instabilities in the streamwise direction through to the resulting intermittency exponents within a fully developed turbulent flow. The fluctuating velocity wave vector component equations are arranged into a Lorenz-type system of equations. The nonlinear time series solution of these equations at the fifth station downstream of the initial instabilities indicates a sequential outward burst process, while the results for the eleventh station predict a strong sequential inward sweep process. The results for the thirteenth station indicate a return to the original instability autogeneration process. The nonlinear time series solutions indicate regions of order and disorder within the solutions. Empirical entropies are defined from decomposition modes obtained from singular value decomposition techniques applied to the nonlinear time series solutions. Empirical entropic indices are obtained from the empirical entropies for two streamwise stations. The intermittency exponents are then obtained from the entropic indices for these streamwise stations that indicate the burst and autogeneration processes.
Adhi, H. A.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito; Badri, C.; Rezal, M.
2017-03-01
Stroke is one of cerebrovascular diseases caused by the obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Stroke becomes the leading cause of death in Indonesia and the second in the world. Stroke also causes of the disability. Ischemic stroke accounts for most of all stroke cases. Obstruction of blood flow can cause tissue damage which results the electrical changes in the brain that can be observed through the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study, we presented the results of automatic detection of ischemic stroke and normal subjects based on the scaling exponent EEG obtained through detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) using extreme learning machine (ELM) as the classifier. The signal processing was performed with 18 channels of EEG in the range of 0-30 Hz. Scaling exponents of the subjects were used as the input for ELM to classify the ischemic stroke. The performance of detection was observed by the value of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The result showed, performance of the proposed method to classify the ischemic stroke was 84 % for accuracy, 82 % for sensitivity and 87 % for specificity with 120 hidden neurons and sine as the activation function of ELM.
Relation Between Hertz Stress-Life Exponent, Ball-Race Conformity, and Ball Bearing Life
Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.; Root, Lawrence E.
2008-01-01
ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards based on Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory are normalized for ball bearings having inner- and outerrace conformities of 52 percent (0.52) and made from pre-1940 bearing steel. The Lundberg-Palmgren theory incorporates an inverse 9th power relation between Hertz stress and fatigue life for ball bearings. The effect of race conformity on ball set life independent of race life is not incorporated into the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. In addition, post-1960 vacuum-processed bearing steel exhibits a 12th power relation between Hertz stress and life. The work reported extends the previous work of Zaretsky, Poplawski, and Root to calculate changes in bearing life--that includes the life of the ball set--caused by race conformity, Hertz stress-life exponent, ball bearing type and bearing series. The bearing fatigue life in actual application will usually be equal to or greater than that calculated using the ANSI/ABMA and ISO standards that incorporate the Lundberg-Palmgren theory. The relative fatigue life of an individual race is more sensitive to changes in race conformity for Hertz stress-life exponent n of 12 than where n = 9. However, when the effects are combined to predict actual bearing life for a specified set of conditions and bearing geometry, the predicted life of the bearing will be greater for a value of n = 12 than n = 9.
Predicting the long tail of book sales: Unearthing the power-law exponent
Fenner, Trevor; Levene, Mark; Loizou, George
2010-06-01
The concept of the long tail has recently been used to explain the phenomenon in e-commerce where the total volume of sales of the items in the tail is comparable to that of the most popular items. In the case of online book sales, the proportion of tail sales has been estimated using regression techniques on the assumption that the data obeys a power-law distribution. Here we propose a different technique for estimation based on a generative model of book sales that results in an asymptotic power-law distribution of sales, but which does not suffer from the problems related to power-law regression techniques. We show that the proportion of tail sales predicted is very sensitive to the estimated power-law exponent. In particular, if we assume that the power-law exponent of the cumulative distribution is closer to 1.1 rather than to 1.2 (estimates published in 2003, calculated using regression by two groups of researchers), then our computations suggest that the tail sales of Amazon.com, rather than being 40% as estimated by Brynjolfsson, Hu and Smith in 2003, are actually closer to 20%, the proportion estimated by its CEO.
Evaluation of nonlinear properties of epileptic activity using largest Lyapunov exponent
Medvedeva, Tatiana M.; Lüttjohann, Annika; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Sysoev, Ilya V.
2016-04-01
Absence seizures are known to be highly non-linear large amplitude oscillations with a well pronounced main time scale. Whilst the appearance of the main frequency is usually considered as a transition from noisy complex dynamics of baseline EEG to more regular absence activity, the dynamical properties of this type of epileptiformic activity in genetic absence models was not studied precisely. Here, the estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent from intracranial EEGs of 10 WAG/Rij rats (genetic model of absence epilepsy) was performed. Fragments of 10 seizures and 10 episodes of on-going EEG each of 4 s length were used for each animal, 3 cortical and 2 thalamic channels were analysed. The method adapted for short noisy data was implemented. The positive values of the largest Lyapunov exponent were found as for baseline as for spike wave discharges (SWDs), with values for SWDs being significantly less than for on-going activity. Current findings may indicate that SWD is a chaotic process with a well pronounced main timescale rather than a periodic regime. Also, the absence activity was shown to be less chaotic than the baseline one.
Asymptotic scaling properties and estimation of the generalized Hurst exponents in financial data
Buonocore, R. J.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.
2017-04-01
We propose a method to measure the Hurst exponents of financial time series. The scaling of the absolute moments against the aggregation horizon of real financial processes and of both uniscaling and multiscaling synthetic processes converges asymptotically towards linearity in log-log scale. In light of this we found appropriate a modification of the usual scaling equation via the introduction of a filter function. We devised a measurement procedure which takes into account the presence of the filter function without the need of directly estimating it. We verified that the method is unbiased within the errors by applying it to synthetic time series with known scaling properties. Finally we show an application to empirical financial time series where we fit the measured scaling exponents via a second or a fourth degree polynomial, which, because of theoretical constraints, have respectively only one and two degrees of freedom. We found that on our data set there is not clear preference between the second or fourth degree polynomial. Moreover the study of the filter functions of each time series shows common patterns of convergence depending on the momentum degree.
Fuwape, Ibiyinka A.; Ogunjo, Samuel T.
2016-12-01
Radio refractivity index is used to quantify the effect of atmospheric parameters in communication systems. Scaling and dynamical complexities of radio refractivity across different climatic zones of Nigeria have been studied. Scaling property of the radio refractivity across Nigeria was estimated from the Hurst Exponent obtained using two different scaling methods namely: The Rescaled Range (R/S) and the detrended fluctuation analysis(DFA). The delay vector variance (DVV), Largest Lyapunov Exponent (λ1) and Correlation Dimension (D2) methods were used to investigate nonlinearity and the results confirm the presence of deterministic nonlinear profile in the radio refractivity time series. The recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was used to quantify the degree of chaoticity in the radio refractivity across the different climatic zones. RQA was found to be a good measure for identifying unique fingerprint and signature of chaotic time series data. Microwave radio refractivity was found to be persistent and chaotic in all the study locations. The dynamics of radio refractivity increases in complexity and chaoticity from the Coastal region towards the Sahelian climate. The design, development and deployment of robust and reliable microwave communication link in the region will be greatly affected by the chaotic nature of radio refractivity in the region.
Critical behaviors of gravity under quantum perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Hongsheng
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Phase transition and critical phenomenon is a very interesting topic in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Gravity is believed to have deep and inherent relation to thermodynamics. Near the critical point,the perturbation becomes significant. Thus for ordinary matter (governed by interactions besides gravity the critical behavior will become very different if we ignore the perturbations around the critical point,such as mean field theory. We find that the critical exponents for RN-AdS spacetime keep the same values even when we consider the full quantum perturbations. This indicates a key difference between gravity and ordinary thermodynamic system.
Renormalization group theory of the critical properties of the interacting bose fluid
Creswick, Richard J.; Wiegel, F.W.
1982-01-01
Starting from a functional integral representation of the partition function we apply the renormalization group to the interacting Bose fluid. A closed form for the renormalization equation is derived and the critical exponents are calculated in 4-ε dimensions.
Criticality and unpredictability in macroevolution
Soléand, Ricard V.; Manrubia, Susanna C.
1997-04-01
A recently presented model of large-scale evolution exhibiting self-organized criticality is explored from the dynamical point of view. It is shown that the system approaches the critical state in an anomalous way, with a dynamical exponent z=0. At the same time, the complexity of the interactions among species increases, leading to higher unpredictability. The dynamic evolution is able to generate phylogenetic fractal trees with dimension close to the one obtained from real taxonomy. Some analytic results are presented and an interesting interpretation of the macroevolutionary process is suggested.
Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains
Hutchinson, J.; Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.
2015-09-01
We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups $U(N)$, $O(N)$ and $Sp(2N)$. In particular we calculate critical exponents $s$, $\
Huang, Jingfeng; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Zhang, Hai; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu; Holben, Brent N.; Petrenko, Maksym
2016-01-01
The new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, provides critical daily global aerosol observations. As older satellite sensors age out, the VIIRS aerosol product will become the primary observational source for global assessments of aerosol emission and transport, aerosol meteorological and climatic effects, air quality monitoring, and public health. To prove their validity and to assess their maturity level, the VIIRS aerosol products were compared to the spatiotemporally matched Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)measurements. Over land, the VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record (EDR) exhibits an overall global bias against AERONET of 0.0008 with root-mean-square error(RMSE) of the biases as 0.12. Over ocean, the mean bias of VIIRS AOT EDR is 0.02 with RMSE of the biases as 0.06.The mean bias of VIIRS Ocean Angstrom Exponent (AE) EDR is 0.12 with RMSE of the biases as 0.57. The matchups between each product and its AERONET counterpart allow estimates of expected error in each case. Increased uncertainty in the VIIRS AOT and AE products is linked to specific regions, seasons, surface characteristics, and aerosol types, suggesting opportunity for future modifications as understanding of algorithm assumptions improves. Based on the assessment, the VIIRS AOT EDR over land reached Validated maturity beginning 23 January 2013; the AOT EDR and AE EDR over ocean reached Validated maturity beginning 2 May 2012, excluding the processing error period 15 October to 27 November 2012. These findings demonstrate the integrity and usefulness of the VIIRS aerosol products that will transition from S-NPP to future polar-orbiting environmental satellites in the decades to come and become the standard global aerosol data set as the previous generations missions come to an end.
a Comparison of Three Hurst Exponent Approaches to Predict Nascent Bubbles in S&P500 Stocks
Fernández-Martínez, M.; Sánchez-Granero, M. A.; Muñoz Torrecillas, M. J.; McKelvey, Bill
Since the pioneer contributions due to Vandewalle and Ausloos, the Hurst exponent has been applied by econophysicists as a useful indicator to deal with investment strategies when such a value is above or below 0.5, the Hurst exponent of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we hypothesize that the self-similarity exponent of financial time series provides a reliable indicator for herding behavior (HB) in the following sense: if there is HB, then the higher the price, the more the people will buy. This will generate persistence in the stocks which we shall measure by their self-similarity exponents. Along this work, we shall explore whether there is some connections between the self-similarity exponent of a stock (as a HB indicator) and the stock’s future performance under the assumption that the HB will last for some time. With this aim, three approaches to calculate the self-similarity exponent of a time series are compared in order to determine which performs best to identify the transition from random efficient market behavior to HB and hence, to detect the beginning of a bubble. Generalized Hurst Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, and GM2 algorithms have been tested. Traditionally, researchers have focused on identifying the beginning of a crash. We study the beginning of the transition from efficient market behavior to a market bubble, instead. Our empirical results support that the higher (respectively the lower) the self-similarity index, the higher (respectively the lower) the mean of the price change, and hence, the better (respectively the worse) the performance of the corresponding stock. This would imply, as a consequence, that the transition process from random efficient market to HB has started. For experimentation purposes, S&P500 stock Index constituted our main data source.
Importance sampling with imperfect cloning for the computation of generalized Lyapunov exponents
Anteneodo, Celia; Camargo, Sabrina; Vallejos, Raúl O.
2017-12-01
We revisit the numerical calculation of generalized Lyapunov exponents, L (q ) , in deterministic dynamical systems. The standard method consists of adding noise to the dynamics in order to use importance sampling algorithms. Then L (q ) is obtained by taking the limit noise-amplitude → 0 after the calculation. We focus on a particular method that involves periodic cloning and pruning of a set of trajectories. However, instead of considering a noisy dynamics, we implement an imperfect (noisy) cloning. This alternative method is compared with the standard one and, when possible, with analytical results. As a workbench we use the asymmetric tent map, the standard map, and a system of coupled symplectic maps. The general conclusion of this study is that the imperfect-cloning method performs as well as the standard one, with the advantage of preserving the deterministic dynamics.
Uncertainty in vertical extrapolation of wind statistics: shear-exponent and WAsP/EWA methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kelly, Mark C.
for uncertainties inherent in determination of (wind) shear exponents, and subsequent vertical extrapolation of wind speeds. The report further outlines application of the theory and results of Kelly & Troen (2014-6) for gauging the uncertainty inherent in use of the European Wind Atlas (EWA) / WAsP method......This report provides formulations for estimation of uncertainties involved in vertical extrapolation of winds, as well as the total uncertainty incurred when winds observed at one height are extrapolated to turbine hub height for wind resource assessment. This includes new derivations....../푧obs); for larger extrapolations, WAsP-based extrapolation leads to smaller estimated uncertainties than the shear-extrapolation method.A primary motivation for—and part of—this work is the creation of a standard for uncertainty estimation and reporting, which is known as the IEC61400-15. The author is actively...
Parametric Stability of Non-Linearly Elastic Composite Plates by Lyapunov Exponents
GILAT, R.; ABOUDI, J.
2000-08-01
The dynamic stability of non-linearly elastic composite plates subjected to periodic in-plane loading is investigated. Infinitely wide plates made of resin matrix composite are considered. The non-linearly elastic behavior of the resin matrix is modelled by the generalized Ramberg-Osgood representation. The effect of the matrix non-linearity on the overall response of the composite is predicted by the micromechanical method of cells. The dynamic stability analysis is performed by evaluating the largest Lyapunov exponent, the sign of which indicates whether the system is stable or not. It is shown that this approach forms a convenient tool for predicting parametric stability of non-linear composite structures.
Fractality Evidence and Long-Range Dependence on Capital Markets: a Hurst Exponent Evaluation
Oprean, Camelia; Tănăsescu, Cristina
2014-07-01
Since the existence of market memory could implicate the rejection of the efficient market hypothesis, the aim of this paper is to find any evidence that selected emergent capital markets (eight European and BRIC markets, namely Hungary, Romania, Estonia, Czech Republic, Brazil, Russia, India and China) evince long-range dependence or the random walk hypothesis. In this paper, the Hurst exponent as calculated by R/S fractal analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis is our measure of long-range dependence in the series. The results reinforce our previous findings and suggest that if stock returns present long-range dependence, the random walk hypothesis is not valid anymore and neither is the market efficiency hypothesis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Look, Nicole [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); McDermott, William J. [The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, Utah 84107 (United States); Bradley, Elizabeth [Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States)
2013-12-15
In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.
Analysis of the Emergence in Swarm Model Based on Largest Lyapunov Exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Wu
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Emergent behaviors of collective intelligence systems, exemplified by swarm model, have attracted broad interests in recent years. However, current research mostly stops at observational interpretations and qualitative descriptions of emergent phenomena and is essentially short of quantitative analysis and evaluation. In this paper, we conduct a quantitative study on the emergence of swarm model by using chaos analysis of complex dynamic systems. This helps to achieve a more exact understanding of emergent phenomena. In particular, we evaluate the emergent behaviors of swarm model quantitatively by using the chaos and stability analysis of swarm model based on largest Lyapunov exponent. It is concluded that swarm model is at the edge of chaos when emergence occurs, and whether chaotic or stable at the beginning, swarm model will converge to stability with the elapse of time along with interactions among agents.
Look, Nicole; Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Kram, Rodger; Bradley, Elizabeth
2013-12-01
In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.
Toward Synthesis of Solar Wind and Geomagnetic Scaling Exponents: a Fractional Levy Motion Model
Watkins, N. W.; Credgington, D.; Hnat, B.; Freeman, M. P.; Chapman, S. C.; Greenhough, J.
2005-12-01
Mandelbrot introduced the concept of fractals to describe the non-Euclidean shape of many aspects of the natural world. In the time series context he proposed the use of fractional Brownian motion (fBm) to model non-negligible temporal persistence, the ``Joseph Effect"; and Lévy flights to quantify large discontinuities, the ``Noah Effect". In space physics, both effects are manifested in the intermittency and long-range correlation which are by now well-established features of geomagnetic indices and their solar wind drivers. In order to capture and quantify the Noah and Joseph effects in one compact model we propose the application of the ``bridging" fractional Lévy motion (fLm) to space physics. We perform an initial evaluation of some previous scaling results in this paradigm, and show how fLm can model the previously observed exponents. We suggest some new directions for the future.
On the improvement of Wiener attack on RSA with small private exponent.
Wu, Mu-En; Chen, Chien-Ming; Lin, Yue-Hsun; Sun, Hung-Min
2014-01-01
RSA system is based on the hardness of the integer factorization problem (IFP). Given an RSA modulus N = pq, it is difficult to determine the prime factors p and q efficiently. One of the most famous short exponent attacks on RSA is the Wiener attack. In 1997, Verheul and van Tilborg use an exhaustive search to extend the boundary of the Wiener attack. Their result shows that the cost of exhaustive search is 2r + 8 bits when extending the Weiner's boundary r bits. In this paper, we first reduce the cost of exhaustive search from 2r + 8 bits to 2r + 2 bits. Then, we propose a method named EPF. With EPF, the cost of exhaustive search is further reduced to 2r - 6 bits when we extend Weiner's boundary r bits. It means that our result is 2(14) times faster than Verheul and van Tilborg's result. Besides, the security boundary is extended 7 bits.
Absorption Angstrom Exponent in AERONET and related data as an indicator of aerosol composition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. B. Russell
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Recent results from diverse air, ground, and laboratory studies using both radiometric and in situ techniques show that the fractions of black carbon, organic matter, and mineral dust in atmospheric aerosols determine the wavelength dependence of absorption (often expressed as Absorption Angstrom Exponent, or AAE. Taken together, these results hold promise of improving information on aerosol composition from remote measurements. The main purpose of this paper is to show that AAE values for an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET set of retrievals from Sun-sky measurements describing full aerosol vertical columns are also strongly correlated with aerosol composition or type. In particular, we find AAE values near 1 (the theoretical value for black carbon for AERONET-measured aerosol columns dominated by urban-industrial aerosol, larger AAE values for biomass burning aerosols, and the largest AAE values for Sahara dust aerosols. These AERONET results are consistent with results from other, very different, techniques, including solar flux-aerosol optical depth (AOD analyses and airborne in situ analyses examined in this paper, as well as many other previous results. Ambiguities in aerosol composition or mixtures thereof, resulting from intermediate AAE values, can be reduced via cluster analyses that supplement AAE with other variables, for example Extinction Angstrom Exponent (EAE, which is an indicator of particle size. Together with previous results, these results strengthen prospects for determining aerosol composition from space, for example using the Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS, which seeks to provide retrievals of multiwavelength single-scattering albedo (SSA and aerosol optical depth (and therefore aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD and AAE, as well as shape and other aerosol properties. Multidimensional cluster analyses promise additional information content, for example by using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI to add AAOD
An early prediction of 25th solar cycle using Hurst exponent
Singh, A. K.; Bhargawa, Asheesh
2017-11-01
The analysis of long memory processes in solar activity, space weather and other geophysical phenomena has been a major issue even after the availability of enough data. We have examined the data of various solar parameters like sunspot numbers, 10.7 cm radio flux, solar magnetic field, proton flux and Alfven Mach number observed for the year 1976-2016. We have done the statistical test for persistence of solar activity based on the value of Hurst exponent (H) which is one of the most classical applied methods known as rescaled range analysis. We have discussed the efficiency of this methodology as well as prediction content for next solar cycle based on long term memory. In the present study, Hurst exponent analysis has been used to investigate the persistence of above mentioned (five) solar activity parameters and a simplex projection analysis has been used to predict the ascension time and the maximum number of counts for 25th solar cycle. For available dataset of the year 1976-2016, we have calculated H = 0.86 and 0.82 for sunspot number and 10.7 cm radio flux respectively. Further we have calculated maximum number of counts for sunspot numbers and F10.7 cm index as 102.8± 24.6 and 137.25± 8.9 respectively. Using the simplex projection analysis, we have forecasted that the solar cycle 25th would start in the year 2021 (January) and would last up to the year 2031 (September) with its maxima in June 2024.
He, W.
2016-12-01
The climate system is a classical spatiotemporal evolutionary dynamic system with spatiotemporal correlation characteristics. Based on this, two-dimensional detrended fluctuation analysis (TD-DFA) is used to estimate the Hurst exponent of two-dimensional images. Then, we monitored the change of the Hurst exponent of the images to identify an abrupt dynamic change. We tested the performance of this method with a coupled spatiotemporal dynamic model and found that it works well. The changes in the Hurst exponents of the spatial images are stable when there is no dynamic change in the system, but there will be a clear non-stationary change of the Hurst exponents; for example, the abrupt mean values change if the dynamics of the system change. Thus, the TD-DFA method is suitable for detecting an abrupt dynamic change from natural and artificial images. The spatial images of the NCEP reanalysis of the daily average temperature exhibited fractality. Based on this, we found three non-stationary changes in the Hurst exponents for the NCEP reanalysis of the daily average temperature or for the annual average temperature in the region (60°S-60°N). It can be concluded that the climate system may have incurred three dynamic changes since 1961 on decadal timescales, i.e., in approximately the mid-1970s, the mid-1980s, and between the late 1990s and the early 2000s.
Yin, L.; Xia, J. S.; Sullivan, N. S.; Zapf, V. S.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Yu, R.; Roscilde, T.
2012-12-01
We report measurements of the AC susceptibility of a site-diluted quantum magnet Ni0.85Cd0.15Cl2-4SC(NH2)2 (15% Cd-doped dichloro-tetrakis-thiourea-Nickel, or Cd-DTN) down to 10 mK Below a crossover temperature Tcr ≍ 100 ~ 200mK, we find that the critical fields Hc for Bose-Einstein condensation obey the scaling relation |Hc(T)-Hc(0)| ~ Tα, with a novel and universal scaling exponent α ≍ 0.9, which is in agreement with numerical results from a theoretical model. Our findings provide strong evidence of the existence of a Bose glass phase in Cd-DTN, and they display a quantitative signature of the transition between a Bose glass and a Bose Einstein condensate.
Gluon Saturation and Black Hole Criticality
Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís; Sabio Vera, Agustin; Tavanfar, A; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Angel
2007-01-01
We discuss the recent proposal in hep-th/0611312 where it was shown that the critical anomalous dimension associated to the onset of non-linear effects in the high energy limit of QCD coincides with the critical exponent governing the radius of the black hole formed in the spherically symmetric collapse of a massless scalar field. We argue that a new essential ingredient in this mapping between gauge theory and gravity is continuous self-similarity, not present in the scalar field case but in the spherical collapse of a perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state. We identify this property with geometric scaling, present in DIS data at small values of Bjorken x. We also show that the Choptuik exponent in dimension five tends to the QCD critical value in the traceless limit of the energy momentum tensor.
Peeters, Mariska Y M; Allegaert, Karel; Blussé van Oud-Alblas, Heleen J; Cella, Massimo; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J
2010-04-01
For propofol clearance, allometric scaling has been applied successfully for extrapolations between species (rats and humans) and within the human bodyweight range (children and adults). In this analysis, the human bodyweight range is explored to determine for which range an allometric model with a fixed or estimated exponent can be used to predict propofol clearance, without correction for maturation. The predictive value of the allometric equation, clearance (CL) is equal to 0.071 x bodyweight in kg0.78, which was developed from rats, children and adults, and the predictive value of a fixed exponent allometric model derived from the basal metabolic rate, CL is equal to CL standardized to a 70 kg adult x (bodyweight in kg standardized to a 70 kg adult)0.75, were evaluated across five independent patient groups including (i) 25 (pre)term neonates with a postmenstrual age of 27-43 weeks; (ii) 22 postoperative infants aged 4-18 months; (iii) 12 toddlers aged 1-3 years; (iv) 14 adolescents aged 10-20 years; and (v) 26 critically ill adults sedated long term. The median percentage error of the predictions was calculated using the equation %error = (CL(allometric) - CL(i))/CL(i) x 100, where CL(allometric) is the predicted propofol clearance from the allometric equations for each individual and CL(i) is the individual-predicted (post hoc) propofol clearance value derived from published population pharmacokinetic models. In neonates, the allometric model developed from rats, children and adults, and the fixed-exponent allometric model, systematically overpredicted individual propofol clearance, with median percentage errors of 288% and 216%, respectively, whereas in infants, both models systematically underpredicted individual propofol clearance, with median percentage errors of -43% and -55%, respectively. In toddlers, adolescents and adults, both models performed reasonably well, with median percentage errors of -12% and -32%, respectively, in toddlers, 16% and -14
Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia
Snoeck, Marcus Matheus Johannes
2004-01-01
In this thesis the author studied the diagnostic procedures for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MH), with special emphasis upon refining the biological diagnostic test and improving protocols and guidelines for investigation of MH susceptibility. MH is a pharmacogenetic disease of skeletal
Influence of finite-time Lyapunov exponents on winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula
Garaboa-Paz, Daniel; Lorenzo, Nieves; Pérez-Muñuzuri, Vicente
2017-05-01
Seasonal forecasts have improved during the last decades, mostly due to an increase in understanding of the coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the development of models able to predict the atmosphere variability. Correlations between different teleconnection patterns and severe weather in different parts of the world are constantly evolving and changing. This paper evaluates the connection between winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and the large-scale tropospheric mixing over the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) have been calculated from 1979 to 2008 to evaluate this mixing. Our study suggests that significant negative correlations exist between summer FTLE anomalies and winter precipitation over Portugal and Spain. To understand the mechanisms behind this correlation, summer anomalies of the FTLE have also been correlated with other climatic variables such as the sea surface temperature (SST), the sea level pressure (SLP) or the geopotential. The East Atlantic (EA) teleconnection index correlates with the summer FTLE anomalies, confirming their role as a seasonal predictor for winter precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula.
Spike solutions in Gierer#x2013;Meinhardt model with a time dependent anomaly exponent
Nec, Yana
2018-01-01
Experimental evidence of complex dispersion regimes in natural systems, where the growth of the mean square displacement in time cannot be characterised by a single power, has been accruing for the past two decades. In such processes the exponent γ(t) in ⟨r2⟩ ∼ tγ(t) at times might be approximated by a piecewise constant function, or it can be a continuous function. Variable order differential equations are an emerging mathematical tool with a strong potential to model these systems. However, variable order differential equations are not tractable by the classic differential equations theory. This contribution illustrates how a classic method can be adapted to gain insight into a system of this type. Herein a variable order Gierer-Meinhardt model is posed, a generic reaction- diffusion system of a chemical origin. With a fixed order this system possesses a solution in the form of a constellation of arbitrarily situated localised pulses, when the components' diffusivity ratio is asymptotically small. The pattern was shown to exist subject to multiple step-like transitions between normal diffusion and sub-diffusion, as well as between distinct sub-diffusive regimes. The analytical approximation obtained permits qualitative analysis of the impact thereof. Numerical solution for typical cross-over scenarios revealed such features as earlier equilibration and non-monotonic excursions before attainment of equilibrium. The method is general and allows for an approximate numerical solution with any reasonably behaved γ(t).
A unified econophysics explanation for the power-law exponents of stock market activity
Gabaix, Xavier; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Plerou, Vasiliki; Stanley, Eugene
2007-08-01
We survey a theory (first sketched in Nature in 2003, then fleshed out in the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 2006) of the economic underpinnings of the fat-tailed distributions of a number of financial variables, such as returns and trading volume. Our theory posits that they have a common origin in the strategic trading behavior of very large financial institutions in a relatively illiquid market. We show how the fat-tailed distribution of fund sizes can indeed generate extreme returns and volumes, even in the absence of fundamental news. Moreover, we are able to replicate the individually different empirical values of the power-law exponents for each distribution: 3 for returns, 3/2 for volumes, 1 for the assets under management of large investors. Large investors moderate their trades to reduce their price impact; coupled with a concave price impact function, this leads to volumes being more fat-tailed than returns but less fat-tailed than fund sizes. The trades of large institutions also offer a unified explanation for apparently disconnected empirical regularities that are otherwise a challenge for economic theory.
The Tail Exponent for Stock Returns in Bursa Malaysia for 2003-2008
Rusli, N. H.; Gopir, G.; Usang, M. D.
2010-07-01
A developed discipline of econophysics that has been introduced is exhibiting the application of mathematical tools that are usually applied to the physical models for the study of financial models. In this study, an analysis of the time series behavior of several blue chip and penny stock companies in Main Market of Bursa Malaysia has been performed. Generally, the basic quantity being used is the relative price changes or is called the stock price returns, contains daily-sampled data from the beginning of 2003 until the end of 2008, containing 1555 trading days recorded. The aim of this paper is to investigate the tail exponent in tails of the distribution for blue chip stocks and penny stocks financial returns in six years period. By using a standard regression method, it is found that the distribution performed double scaling on the log-log plot of the cumulative probability of the normalized returns. Thus we calculate α for a small scale return as well as large scale return. Based on the result obtained, it is found that the power-law behavior for the probability density functions of the stock price absolute returns P(z)˜z-α with values lying inside and outside the Lévy stable regime with values α>2. All the results were discussed in detail.
Designing Hyperchaotic Cat Maps With Any Desired Number of Positive Lyapunov Exponents.
Hua, Zhongyun; Yi, Shuang; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Chengqing; Wu, Yue
2017-01-04
Generating chaotic maps with expected dynamics of users is a challenging topic. Utilizing the inherent relation between the Lyapunov exponents (LEs) of the Cat map and its associated Cat matrix, this paper proposes a simple but efficient method to construct an n-dimensional (n-D) hyperchaotic Cat map (HCM) with any desired number of positive LEs. The method first generates two basic n-D Cat matrices iteratively and then constructs the final n-D Cat matrix by performing similarity transformation on one basic n-D Cat matrix by the other. Given any number of positive LEs, it can generate an n-D HCM with desired hyperchaotic complexity. Two illustrative examples of n-D HCMs were constructed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to verify the inherent relation between the LEs and Cat matrix. Theoretical analysis proves that the parameter space of the generated HCM is very large. Performance evaluations show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed method can construct n-D HCMs with lower computation complexity and their outputs demonstrate strong randomness and complex ergodicity.
Generalized Hurst exponent estimates differentiate EEG signals of healthy and epileptic patients
Lahmiri, Salim
2018-01-01
The aim of our current study is to check whether multifractal patterns of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals of normal and epileptic patients are statistically similar or different. In this regard, the generalized Hurst exponent (GHE) method is used for robust estimation of the multifractals in each type of EEG signals, and three powerful statistical tests are performed to check existence of differences between estimated GHEs from healthy control subjects and epileptic patients. The obtained results show that multifractals exist in both types of EEG signals. Particularly, it was found that the degree of fractal is more pronounced in short variations of normal EEG signals than in short variations of EEG signals with seizure free intervals. In contrary, it is more pronounced in long variations of EEG signals with seizure free intervals than in normal EEG signals. Importantly, both parametric and nonparametric statistical tests show strong evidence that estimated GHEs of normal EEG signals are statistically and significantly different from those with seizure free intervals. Therefore, GHEs can be efficiently used to distinguish between healthy and patients suffering from epilepsy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlick, Conor P., E-mail: conorschlick2015@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Umbanhowar, Paul B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Ottino, Julio M. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); The Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems (NICO), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Lueptow, Richard M., E-mail: r-lueptow@northwestern.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); The Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems (NICO), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2014-03-15
We investigate chaotic advection and diffusion in autocatalytic reactions for time-periodic sine flow computationally using a mapping method with operator splitting. We specifically consider three different autocatalytic reaction schemes: a single autocatalytic reaction, competitive autocatalytic reactions, which can provide insight into problems of chiral symmetry breaking and homochirality, and competitive autocatalytic reactions with recycling. In competitive autocatalytic reactions, species B and C both undergo an autocatalytic reaction with species A such that A+B→2B and A+C→2C. Small amounts of initially spatially localized B and C and a large amount of spatially homogeneous A are advected by the velocity field, diffuse, and react until A is completely consumed and only B and C remain. We find that local finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLEs) can accurately predict the final average concentrations of B and C after the reaction completes. The species that starts in the region with the larger FTLE has, with high probability, the larger average concentration at the end of the reaction. If B and C start in regions with similar FTLEs, their average concentrations at the end of the reaction will also be similar. When a recycling reaction is added, the system evolves towards a single species state, with the FTLE often being useful in predicting which species fills the entire domain and which is depleted. The FTLE approach is also demonstrated for competitive autocatalytic reactions in journal bearing flow, an experimentally realizable flow that generates chaotic dynamics.
Mancilla Canales, M. A.; Leguto, A. J.; Riquelme, B. D.; León, P. Ponce de; Bortolato, S. A.; Korol, A. M.
2017-12-01
Ektacytometry techniques quantifies red blood cells (RBCs) deformability by measuring the elongation of suspended RBCs subjected to shear stress. Raw shear stress elongation plots are difficult to understand, thus most research papers apply data reduction methods characterizing the relationship between curve fitting. Our approach works with the naturally generated photometrically recorded time series of the diffraction pattern of several million of RBCs subjected to shear stress, and applies nonlinear quantifiers to study the fluctuations of these elongations. The development of new quantitative methods is crucial for restricting the subjectivity in the study of the cells behavior, mainly if they are capable of analyze at the same time biological and mechanical aspects of the cells in flowing conditions and compare their dynamics. A patented optical system called Erythrocyte Rheometer was used to evaluate viscoelastic properties of erythrocytes by Ektacytometry. To analyze cell dynamics we used the technique of Time Delay Coordinates, False Nearest Neighbors, the forecasting procedure proposed by Sugihara and May, and Hurst exponent. The results have expressive meaning on comparing healthy samples with parasite treated samples, suggesting that apparent noise associated with deterministic chaos can be used not only to distinguish but also to characterize biological and mechanical aspects of cells at the same time in flowing conditions.
Presence of nonlinearity in intracranial EEG recordings: detected by Lyapunov exponents
Liu, Chang-Chia; Shiau, Deng-Shan; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Sackellares, J. C.
2007-11-01
In this communication, we performed nonlinearity analysis in the EEG signals recorded from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The largest Lyapunov exponent (Lmax) and phase randomization surrogate data technique were employed to form the statistical test. EEG recordings were acquired invasively from three patients in six brain regions (left and right temporal depth, sub-temporal and orbitofrontal) with 28-32 depth electrodes placed in depth and subdural of the brain. All three patients in this study have unilateral epileptic focus region on the right hippocampus(RH). Nonlinearity was detected by comparing the Lmax profiles of the EEG recordings to its surrogates. The nonlinearity was seen in all different states of the patient with the highest found in post-ictal state. Further our results for all patients exhibited higher degree of differences, quantified by paired t-test, in Lmax values between original and its surrogate from EEG signals recorded from epileptic focus regions. The results of this study demonstrated the Lmax is capable to capture spatio-temporal dynamics that may not be able to detect by linear measurements in the intracranial EEG recordings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaetano eValenza
2012-02-01
Full Text Available In this work we characterized the nonlinear complexity of Heart Rate Variability (HRV in short time series. The complexity of HRV signal was evaluated during emotional visual elicitation by using Dominant Lyapunov Exponents (DLE and Approximate Entropy (ApEn. We adopted a simplified model of emotion derived from the Circumplex Model of Affects (CMA, in which emotional mechanisms are conceptualized in two dimensions by the terms of valence and arousal. Following CMA model, a set of standardized visual stimuli in terms of arousal and valence gathered from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS was administered to a group of 35 healthy volunteers. Experimental session consisted of eight sessions alternating neutral images with high arousal content images. Several works can be found in the literature showing a chaotic dynamics of HRV during rest or relax conditions. The outcomes of this work showed a clear switching mechanism between regular and chaotic dynamics when switching from neutral to arousal elicitation. Accordingly, the mean ApEn decreased with statistical significance during arousal elicitation and the DLE became negative. Results are very promising and could be profitably exploited to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition systems based on HRV time series analysis.
Characteristic distribution of finite-time Lyapunov exponents for chimera states
Botha, André E.
2016-01-01
Our fascination with chimera states stems partially from the somewhat paradoxical, yet fundamental trait of identical, and identically coupled, oscillators to split into spatially separated, coherently and incoherently oscillating groups. While the list of systems for which various types of chimeras have already been detected continues to grow, there is a corresponding increase in the number of mathematical analyses aimed at elucidating the fundamental reasons for this surprising behaviour. Based on the model systems, there are strong indications that chimera states may generally be ubiquitous in naturally occurring systems containing large numbers of coupled oscillators – certain biological systems and high-Tc superconducting materials, for example. In this work we suggest a new way of detecting and characterising chimera states. Specifically, it is shown that the probability densities of finite-time Lyapunov exponents, corresponding to chimera states, have a definite characteristic shape. Such distributions could be used as signatures of chimera states, particularly in systems for which the phases of all the oscillators cannot be measured directly. For such cases, we suggest that chimera states could perhaps be detected by reconstructing the characteristic distribution via standard embedding techniques, thus making it possible to detect chimera states in systems where they could otherwise exist unnoticed. PMID:27374473
Detection on Structural Sudden Damage Using Continuous Wavelet Transform and Lipschitz Exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The degradation of civil engineering structures may lead to a sudden stiffness reduction in a structure and such a sudden damage will cause a discontinuity in the dynamic responses. The detection on structural sudden damage has been actively carried out in this study. The signal singularity of the acceleration responses with sudden stiffness reduction is characterized by the coefficients of continuous wavelet transform with fine scales. A detection approach based on the CWT is proposed in terms of the decomposed detail coefficients of continuous wavelet transform to detect the damage time instant and location. The Lipschitz exponent is mathematically used to estimate the local properties of certain function and is applied to reflect the damage severity. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the validity of the proposed detection approach for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The effects of both measurement noise intensity and frequency range on the damage detection are numerically investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gjoelmesli, S.
1995-05-01
In this thesis, statics and dynamics of magnetic vortices in high temperature superconductors has been investigated by ac susceptibility, magnetic relaxation and transport measurements, using several different compounds. Measurements of the complex susceptibility of granular superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{sub -}x} (YBCO) reveal two distinct regimes of screening due to granular and intergranular currents respectively. In the critical state, the presence of a dc field breaks the symmetry of the experimental conditions if the critical current is field dependent. In such experiments two peaks in the loss component {chi}{sup ``}(B) of the complex susceptibility are found, both caused by intergranular currents. The symmetry breaking due to a dc field is seen directly in sampled waveforms of the pickup coil voltage, which represent the time derivative of the dynamic magnetization. In contrast to granular materials, a single crystal YBCO displays significant frequency dependence of the peak of the loss component {chi}{sup ``}(T). The power-law voltage current characteristic is equivalent to nonlinear vortex diffusion, with a characteristic length scale which reduces to the Bean depth and the classical skin-depth as the exponent tends to infinity and one, respectively. Magnetic relaxation measurements on the mercury based superconductor Hg-1212 has been done by means of a SQUID magnetometer. A new set-up for measurements of voltage-current characteristics of superconducting tapes and other samples has been constructed. Silver sheathed Bi-2223 tapes have been measured. 123 refs., 61 figs., 1 tab.
Model C critical dynamics of random anisotropy magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dudka, M [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, UA-79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Folk, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Holovatch, Yu [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Acad. Sci. of Ukraine, UA-79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Moser, G [Institut fuer Physik und Biophysik, Universitaet Salzburg, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria)
2007-07-20
We study the relaxational critical dynamics of the three-dimensional random anisotropy magnets with the non-conserved n-component order parameter coupled to a conserved scalar density. In the random anisotropy magnets, the structural disorder is present in the form of local quenched anisotropy axes of random orientation. When the anisotropy axes are randomly distributed along the edges of the n-dimensional hypercube, asymptotical dynamical critical properties coincide with those of the random-site Ising model. However the structural disorder gives rise to considerable effects for non-asymptotic critical dynamics. We investigate this phenomenon by a field-theoretical renormalization group analysis in the two-loop order. We study critical slowing down and obtain quantitative estimates for the effective and asymptotic critical exponents of the order parameter and scalar density. The results predict complex scenarios for the effective critical exponent approaching the asymptotic regime.
Magnasco, Valerio
2008-01-01
Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H[subscript 2][superscript +], H[subscript 2], He[subscript 2][superscript +], He[subscript 2] gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region. Correct bond lengths and…
Plastino, A.; Rocca, M. C.
2017-06-01
Appealing to the 1902 Gibbs formalism for classical statistical mechanics (SM)—the first SM axiomatic theory ever that successfully explained equilibrium thermodynamics—we show that already at the classical level there is a strong correlation between Renyi's exponent α and the number of particles for very simple systems. No reference to heat baths is needed for such a purpose.
Luis, Edwin E. Mozo; de Assis, Thiago A.; Ferreira, Silvio C.
2017-04-01
We present an optimal detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and apply it to evaluate the local roughness exponent in nonequilibrium surface growth models with mounded morphology. Our method consists in analyzing the height fluctuations computing the shortest distance of each point of the profile to a detrending curve that fits the surface within the investigated interval. We compare the optimal DFA (ODFA) with both the standard DFA and nondetrended analysis. We validate the ODFA method considering a one-dimensional model in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class starting from a mounded initial condition. We applied the methods to the Clarke-Vvedensky (CV) model in 2 +1 dimensions with thermally activated surface diffusion and absence of step barriers. It is expected that this model belongs to the nonlinear molecular beam epitaxy (nMBE) universality class. However, an explicit observation of the roughness exponent in agreement with the nMBE class was still missing. The effective roughness exponent obtained with ODFA agrees with the value expected for the nMBE class, whereas using the other methods it does not agree. We also characterize the transient anomalous scaling of the CV model and obtained that the corresponding exponent is in agreement with the value reported for other nMBE models with weaker corrections to the scaling.
Lie Symmetries and Criticality of Semilinear Differential Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuri Bozhkov
2007-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss the notion of criticality of semilinear differential equations and systems, its relations to scaling transformations and the Noether approach to Pokhozhaev's identities. For this purpose we propose a definition for criticality based on the S. Lie symmetry theory. We show that this definition is compatible with the well-known notion of critical exponent by considering various examples. We also review some related recent papers.
Hurst Exponent Analysis of Resting-State fMRI Signal Complexity across the Adult Lifespan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxin Dong
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Exploring functional information among various brain regions across time enables understanding of healthy aging process and holds great promise for age-related brain disease diagnosis. This paper proposed a method to explore fractal complexity of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI signal in the human brain across the adult lifespan using Hurst exponent (HE. We took advantage of the examined rs-fMRI data from 116 adults 19 to 85 years of age (44.3 ± 19.4 years, 49 females from NKI/Rockland sample. Region-wise and voxel-wise analyses were performed to investigate the effects of age, gender, and their interaction on complexity. In region-wise analysis, we found that the healthy aging is accompanied by a loss of complexity in frontal and parietal lobe and increased complexity in insula, limbic, and temporal lobe. Meanwhile, differences in HE between genders were found to be significant in parietal lobe (p = 0.04, corrected. However, there was no interaction between gender and age. In voxel-wise analysis, the significant complexity decrease with aging was found in frontal and parietal lobe, and complexity increase was found in insula, limbic lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe with aging. Meanwhile, differences in HE between genders were found to be significant in frontal, parietal, and limbic lobe. Furthermore, we found age and sex interaction in right parahippocampal gyrus (p = 0.04, corrected. Our findings reveal HE variations of the rs-fMRI signal across the human adult lifespan and show that HE may serve as a new parameter to assess healthy aging process.
Finite-time Lyapunov exponent-based analysis for compressible flows
González, D. R.; Speth, R. L.; Gaitonde, D. V.; Lewis, M. J.
2016-08-01
The finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) technique has shown substantial success in analyzing incompressible flows by capturing the dynamics of coherent structures. Recent applications include river and ocean flow patterns, respiratory tract dynamics, and bio-inspired propulsors. In the present work, we extend FTLE to the compressible flow regime so that coherent structures, which travel at convective speeds, can be associated with waves traveling at acoustic speeds. This is particularly helpful in the study of jet acoustics. We first show that with a suitable choice of integration time interval, FTLE can extract wave dynamics from the velocity field. The integration time thus acts as a pseudo-filter separating coherent structures from waves. Results are confirmed by examining forward and backward FTLE coefficients for several simple, well-known acoustic fields. Next, we use this analysis to identify events associated with intermittency in jet noise pressure probe data. Although intermittent events are known to be dominant causes of jet noise, their direct source in the turbulent jet flow has remained unexplained. To this end, a Large-Eddy Simulation of a Mach 0.9 jet is subjected to FTLE to simultaneously examine, and thus expose, the causal relationship between coherent structures and the corresponding acoustic waves. Results show that intermittent events are associated with entrainment in the initial roll up region and emissive events downstream of the potential-core collapse. Instantaneous acoustic disturbances are observed to be primarily induced near the collapse of the potential core and continue propagating towards the far-field at the experimentally observed, approximately 30° angle relative to the jet axis.
Metallic magnets without inversion symmetry and antiferromagnetic quantum critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, I.A.
2006-07-01
This thesis focusses on two classes of systems that exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviour in experiments: we investigated aspects of chiral ferromagnets and of antiferromagnetic metals close to a quantum critical point. In chiral ferromagnets, the absence of inversion symmetry makes spin-orbit coupling possible, which leads to a helical modulation of the ferromagnetically ordered state. We studied the motion of electrons in the magnetically ordered state of a metal without inversion symmetry by calculating their generic band-structure. We found that spin-orbit coupling, although weak, has a profound effect on the shape of the Fermi surface: On a large portion of the Fermi surface the electron motion parallel to the helix practically stops. Signatures of this effect can be expected to show up in measurements of the anomalous Hall effect. Recent neutron scattering experiments uncovered the existence of a peculiar kind of partial order in a region of the phase diagram adjacent to the ordered state of the chiral ferromagnet MnSi. Starting from the premise that this partially ordered state is a thermodynamically distinct phase, we investigated an extended Ginzburg-Landau theory for chiral ferromagnets. In a certain parameter regime of the Ginzburg-Landau theory we identified crystalline phases that are reminiscent of the so-called blue phases in liquid crystals. Many antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion systems can be tuned into a regime where they exhibit non-Fermi liquid exponents in the temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat capacity; this behaviour could be due to a quantum critical point. If the quantum critical behaviour is field-induced, the external field does not only suppress antiferromagnetism but also induces spin precession and thereby influences the dynamics of the order parameter. We investigated the quantum critical behavior of clean antiferromagnetic metals subject to a static, spatially uniform external magnetic field. We
Critical singular problems on unbounded domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. C. de Morais Filho
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We present some results of existence for the following problem: −Δu=a(xg(u+u|u|2∗−2, x∈ℝN(N≥3, u∈D1,2(ℝN, where the function a is a sign-changing function with a singularity at the origin and g has growth up to the Sobolev critical exponent 2∗=2N/(N−2.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David
2014-01-01
The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...
Universal short-time quantum critical dynamics of finite-size systems
Shu, Yu-Rong; Yin, Shuai; Yao, Dao-Xin
2017-09-01
We investigate the short-time quantum critical dynamics in the imaginary-time relaxation processes of finite-size systems. Universal scaling behaviors exist in the imaginary-time evolution. In particular, the system undergoes a critical initial slip stage characterized by an exponent θ , in which an initial power-law increase emerges in the imaginary-time correlation function when the initial state has a zero order parameter and a vanishing correlation length. Under different initial conditions, the quantum critical point and critical exponents can be determined from the universal scaling behaviors. We apply the method to the one- and two-dimensional transverse field Ising models using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. In the one-dimensional case, we locate the quantum critical point at (h/J ) c=1.000 03 (8 ) in the thermodynamic limit, and we estimate the critical initial slip exponent θ =0.3734 (2 ) and the static exponent β /ν =0.1251 (2 ) by analyzing data on chains of length L =32 -256 and 48-256, respectively. For the two-dimensional square-lattice system, the critical coupling ratio is given by 3.044 51 (7 ) in the thermodynamic limit, while the critical exponents are θ =0.209 (4 ) and β /ν =0.518 (1 ) estimated by data on systems of size L =24 -64 and 32-64, respectively. Remarkably, the critical initial slip exponents obtained in both models are notably distinct from their classical counterparts due to the essential differences between classical and quantum dynamics. The short-time critical dynamics and the imaginary-time relaxation QMC approach can be readily adapted to various models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.c [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Bedoya-Hincapie, C.M.; Jurado, F.J.; Riano-Rojas, J.C. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo, J. [Grupo de Magnetismo y Simulacion G, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia)
2010-11-15
Critical exponents offer important information concerning the interaction mechanisms near the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. In this work a Monte Carlo-Metropolis simulation of the critical behavior in La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is addressed. Canonical ensemble averages for magnetization per site, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of stoichiometric manganite within a three-dimensional classical Heisenberg model with nearest magnetic neighbor interactions are computed. The La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films were simulated addressing the thickness influence and thermal dependence. In the model, Mn magnetic ions are distributed on a simple cubic lattice according to the perovskite structure of this manganite. Ferromagnetic coupling for the bonds Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 3+}(e{sub g}-e{sub g}'), Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}(e{sub g}-d{sup 3}) and Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+}(e{sub g}'-d{sup 3}) were taken into account. On the basis of finite-size scaling theory, our best estimates of critical exponents, linked to the ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition, for the correlation length, specific heat, magnetization and susceptibility are, respectively: v=0.56{+-}0.01, {alpha}=0.16{+-}0.03, {beta}=0.34{+-}0.04{gamma} and {gamma}=1.17{+-}0.05. These theoretical results are consistent with the Rushbrooke equalitiy {alpha}+2{beta}+{gamma}=2.
Critical behavior of a tumor growth model: directed percolation with a mean-field flavor.
Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Wendykier, Jacek
2012-10-01
We examine the critical behavior of a lattice model of tumor growth where supplied nutrients are correlated with the distribution of tumor cells. Our results support the previous report [Ferreira et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 010901(R) (2012)], which suggested that the critical behavior of the model differs from the expected directed percolation (DP) universality class. Surprisingly, only some of the critical exponents (β, α, ν([perpendicular]), and z) take non-DP values while some others (β', ν(||), and spreading-dynamics exponents Θ, δ, z') remain very close to their DP counterparts. The obtained exponents satisfy the scaling relations β=αν(||), β'=δν(||), and the generalized hyperscaling relation Θ+α+δ=d/z, where the dynamical exponent z is, however, used instead of the spreading exponent z'. Both in d=1 and d=2 versions of our model, the exponent β most likely takes the mean-field value β=1, and we speculate that it might be due to the roulette-wheel selection, which is used to choose the site to supply a nutrient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gontijo Guilherme L.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We report results concerning the fractal dimension of a air/fluid interface formed during the capillary rising of a fluid into a dense granular media. The system consists in a modified Hele-Shaw cell filled with grains at different granulometries and confined in a narrow gap between the glass plates. The system is then placed onto a water reservoir, and the liquid penetrates the medium due to capillary forces. We measure the Hurst exponent of the liquid/air interface with help of image processing, and follow the temporal evolution of the profiles. We observe that the Hurst exponent can be related with the granulometry, but the range of values are odd to the predicted values from models or theory.
Shadows of the susceptible-infectious-susceptible immortality transition in small networks
Holme, Petter
2015-07-01
Much of the research on the behavior of the SIS model on networks has concerned the infinite size limit; in particular the phase transition between a state where outbreaks can reach a finite fraction of the population, and a state where only a finite number would be infected. For finite networks, there is also a dynamic transition—the immortality transition—when the per-contact transmission probability λ reaches 1. If λ <1 , the probability that an outbreak will survive by an observation time t tends to zero as t →∞ ; if λ =1 , this probability is 1. We show that treating λ =1 as a critical point predicts the λ dependence of the survival probability also for more moderate λ values. The exponent, however, depends on the underlying network. This fact could, by measuring how a vertex's deletion changes the exponent, be used to evaluate the role of a vertex in the outbreak. Our work also confirms an extremely clear separation between the early die-off (from the outbreak failing to take hold in the population) and the later extinctions (corresponding to rare stochastic events of several consecutive transmission events failing to occur).
Houel, J; Cajgfinger, T; Ledoux, G; Amans, D; Aubret, A; Dominjon, A; Ferriol, S; Barbier, R; Nasilowski, M; Lhuillier, E; Dubertret, B; Dujardin, C; Kulzer, F
2014-01-01
We present an unbiased and robust analysis method for power-law blinking statistics in the photoluminescence of single nano-emitters, allowing us to extract both the bright- and dark-state power-law exponents from the emitters' intensity autocorrelation functions. As opposed to the widely-used threshold method, our technique therefore does not require discriminating the emission levels of bright and dark states in the experimental intensity timetraces. We rely on the simultaneous recording of 450 emission timetraces of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots at a frame rate of 250 Hz with single photon sensitivity. Under these conditions, our approach can determine ON and OFF power-law exponents with a precision of 3% from a comparison to numerical simulations, even for shot-noise-dominated emission signals with an average intensity below 1 photon per frame and per quantum dot. These capabilities pave the way for the unbiased, threshold-free determination of blinking power-law exponents at the micro-second ti...
Houel, Julien; Doan, Quang T; Cajgfinger, Thomas; Ledoux, Gilles; Amans, David; Aubret, Antoine; Dominjon, Agnès; Ferriol, Sylvain; Barbier, Rémi; Nasilowski, Michel; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Dubertret, Benoît; Dujardin, Christophe; Kulzer, Florian
2015-01-27
We present an unbiased and robust analysis method for power-law blinking statistics in the photoluminescence of single nanoemitters, allowing us to extract both the bright- and dark-state power-law exponents from the emitters' intensity autocorrelation functions. As opposed to the widely used threshold method, our technique therefore does not require discriminating the emission levels of bright and dark states in the experimental intensity timetraces. We rely on the simultaneous recording of 450 emission timetraces of single CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots at a frame rate of 250 Hz with single photon sensitivity. Under these conditions, our approach can determine ON and OFF power-law exponents with a precision of 3% from a comparison to numerical simulations, even for shot-noise-dominated emission signals with an average intensity below 1 photon per frame and per quantum dot. These capabilities pave the way for the unbiased, threshold-free determination of blinking power-law exponents at the microsecond time scale.
Nastac, Gabriel; Labahn, Jeffrey W.; Magri, Luca; Ihme, Matthias
2017-09-01
Metrics used to assess the quality of large-eddy simulations commonly rely on a statistical assessment of the solution. While these metrics are valuable, a dynamic measure is desirable to further characterize the ability of a numerical simulation for capturing dynamic processes inherent in turbulent flows. To address this issue, a dynamic metric based on the Lyapunov exponent is proposed which assesses the growth rate of the solution separation. This metric is applied to two turbulent flow configurations: forced homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a turbulent jet diffusion flame. First, it is shown that, despite the direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) being high-dimensional dynamical systems with O (107) degrees of freedom, the separation growth rate qualitatively behaves like a lower-dimensional dynamical system, in which the dimension of the Lyapunov system is substantially smaller than the discretized dynamical system. Second, a grid refinement analysis of each configuration demonstrates that as the LES filter width approaches the smallest scales of the system the Lyapunov exponent asymptotically approaches a plateau. Third, a small perturbation is superimposed onto the initial conditions of each configuration, and the Lyapunov exponent is used to estimate the time required for divergence, thereby providing a direct assessment of the predictability time of simulations. By comparing inert and reacting flows, it is shown that combustion increases the predictability of the turbulent simulation as a result of the dilatation and increased viscosity by heat release. The predictability time is found to scale with the integral time scale in both the reacting and inert jet flows. Fourth, an analysis of the local Lyapunov exponent is performed to demonstrate that this metric can also determine flow-dependent properties, such as regions that are sensitive to small perturbations or conditions of large turbulence within the flow field. Finally
Moessbauer Studies of Static and Dynamic Critical Behavior.
Chowdhury, Ataur Rahman
Two separate studies were made on two distinct problems in the area of critical phenomena in Heisenberg ferromagnets by Mossbauer effect. The first study involves static critical behavior of a Heisenberg ferromagnet, Fe, randomly disordered by non-magnetic Al impurities. For the theoretical model best representing this system, the random exchange model, it is expected that the static critical exponents remain unchanged with addition of impurity. In order to test this prediction Mossbauer measurements were made to determine the critical exponent (beta). It is found that (beta) remains unchanged with addition of disorder, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. By inclusion of correction to scaling terms in the data analysis, a mean value of (beta) = 0.366(2) is found for five measurements on pure Fe and FeAl alloys. This value is in excellent agreement with the renormalization group prediction (beta) = 0.364(2). The second study concerns the dynamic critical behavior of Gd. The q-averaged atomic spin auto-correlation time, (tau)(,c) was measured from the excess broadening, (DELTA)(GAMMA) of the Mossbauer linewidth of ('161)Dy just above T(,c). On the assumption that the spin fluctuations are isotropic and describable by dynamic scaling theory, (DELTA)(GAMMA) is directly proportional to (tau)(,c) and is expressable as a power law, (DELTA)(GAMMA) = Dt('-w), in an exponent w = (nu)(z-1-(eta)), related to the static exponents (nu) and (eta) and the dynamic exponent z. Theory predicts for Heisenberg ferro- magnets that z = 2.5 (2.0) for spin conserved (non-conserved) order parameter. From measurements in the range 3 x 10('-4) < (T - T(,c))/T(,c) < 3 x 10('-2) we deduced 1.30 < z < 1.52. This anomalous value is much lower than any current theoretical predictions.
Power spectral density and scaling exponent of high frequency global solar radiation sequences
Calif, Rudy; Schmitt, François G.; Huang, Yongxiang
2013-04-01
invariance: Iq(f) ~ f-?(q) , ?(q) is the scaling exponent. This allows to characterize the scaling behavior of a process: fractal or multifractal with intermittent properties. For q = 2, the Hilbert spectrum is defined. In this work, The data are collected at the University site of Guadeloupe, an island in the West Indies, located at 16°15 N latitude 60°30 W longitude. Our measurements sampled at 1 Hz were performed during one year period. The analyzed data present a power spectral density E(f) displaying a power law of the form E(f) ~ f-β with 1.6 ˜ β ˜ 2.2 for frequencies f ˜ 0.1 Hz, corresponding to time scales T × 10 s. Furthermore, global solar radiation data possesses multifractal properties. For comparison, other multifractal analysis techniques such as structure functions, MDFA, wavelet leaders are also used. This preliminary work set the basis for further investigation dedicated to simulate and forecast a sequence of solar energy fluctuation under different meteorological conditions, in the multifractal framework.
Competition-Induced Criticality in a Model of Meme Popularity
Gleeson, James P.; Ward, Jonathan A.; O'Sullivan, Kevin P.; Lee, William T.
2014-01-01
Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent α <2, unlike preferential-attachment models), similar to those seen in empirical data.
Competition-induced criticality in a model of meme popularity
Gleeson, JP; Ward, JA; O’Sullivan, KP; Lee, WT
2013-01-01
Heavy-tailed distributions of meme popularity occur naturally in a model of meme diffusion on social networks. Competition between multiple memes for the limited resource of user attention is identified as the mechanism that poises the system at criticality. The popularity growth of each meme is described by a critical branching process, and asymptotic analysis predicts power-law distributions of popularity with very heavy tails (exponent $\\alpha
Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis
Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.
2012-01-01
In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Prof. Adipala Ekwamu
a number of cultivars exhibited field resistance to halo blight and bacterial brown spot, all cultivars were more or less susceptible to .... Cerillos. Alubia. I. 91. 57. Kranskop. Red speckled sugar. II. 97. 63. OPS-RS1. Red speckled sugar. II. 96. 63. OPS-RS2. Red speckled sugar. I. 100. 61. OPS-RS3. Red speckled sugar. II. 97.
Horizon as critical phenomenon
Lee, Sung-Sik
2016-09-01
We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.
Critical behavior of isotropic three-dimensional systems with dipole-dipole interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belim, S. M., E-mail: sbelim@mail.ru [Dostoevsky Omsk State University (Russian Federation)
2013-06-15
The critical behavior of Heisenberg magnets with dipole-dipole interactions near the line of second-order phase transitions directly in three-dimensional space is investigated in terms of a field-theoretic approach. The dependences of critical exponents on the dipole-dipole interaction parameter are derived. Comparison with experimental facts is made.
Intermittency at critical transitions and aging dynamics at the onset of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Intermittency at critical transitions and aging dynamics at the onset of chaos. A ROBLEDO .... Intermittency at criticality and aging at the onset of chaos into the origin of f(n)(x) or of its associated ..... well-defined transition to chaos at µc(σ) where the Lyapunov exponent λ1 changes sign. The period doubling of bands ends at a ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adzhemyan L. Ts.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The renormalization group theory is used to the study of the directed bond percolation (Gribov process near its second-order phase transition between absorbing and active state. We present a numerical calculation of the renormalization group functions in the ε-expansion where ε is the deviation from the upper critical dimension dc = 4. Within this procedure anomalous dimensions γ are expressed in terms of irreducible renormalized Feynman diagrams and thus the calculation of renormalization constants could be entirely skipped. The renormalization group is included by means of the R operation, and for computational purposes we choose the null momentum subtraction scheme.
Multifractal model of magnetic susceptibility distributions in some igneous rocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Gettings
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Measurements of in-situ magnetic susceptibility were compiled from mainly Precambrian crystalline basement rocks beneath the Colorado Plateau and ranges in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico. The susceptibility meter used measures about 30 cm^{3} of rock and measures variations in the modal distribution of magnetic minerals that form a minor component volumetrically in these coarsely crystalline granitic to granodioritic rocks. Recent measurements include 50–150 measurements on each outcrop, and show that the distribution of magnetic susceptibilities is highly variable, multimodal and strongly non-Gaussian. Although the distribution of magnetic susceptibility is well known to be multifractal, the small number of data points at an outcrop precludes calculation of the multifractal spectrum by conventional methods. Instead, a brute force approach was adopted using multiplicative cascade models to fit the outcrop scale variability of magnetic minerals. Model segment proportion and length parameters resulted in 26 676 models to span parameter space. Distributions at each outcrop were normalized to unity magnetic susceptibility and added to compare all data for a rock body accounting for variations in petrology and alteration. Once the best-fitting model was found, the equation relating the segment proportion and length parameters was solved numerically to yield the multifractal spectrum estimate. For the best fits, the relative density (the proportion divided by the segment length of one segment tends to be dominant and the other two densities are smaller and nearly equal. No other consistent relationships between the best fit parameters were identified. The multifractal spectrum estimates appear to distinguish between metamorphic gneiss sites and sites on plutons, even if the plutons have been metamorphosed. In particular, rocks that have undergone multiple tectonic events tend to have a larger range of scaling exponents.
Genetic Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanja Kovacic
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex multifocal arterial disease involving interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Advances in techniques of molecular genetics have revealed that genetic ground significantly influences susceptibility to atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Besides further investigations of monogenetic diseases, candidate genes, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility loci associated with atherosclerotic diseases have been identified in recent years, and their number is rapidly increasing. This paper discusses main genetic investigations fields associated with human atherosclerotic vascular diseases. The paper concludes with a discussion of the directions and implications of future genetic research in arteriosclerosis with an emphasis on prospective prediction from an early age of individuals who are predisposed to develop premature atherosclerosis as well as to facilitate the discovery of novel drug targets.
Quantum critical behavior of the quantum Ising model on fractal lattices.
Yi, Hangmo
2015-01-01
I study the properties of the quantum critical point of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on various fractal lattices such as the Sierpiński carpet, Sierpiński gasket, and Sierpiński tetrahedron. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and investigate its scaling properties. Among others, I calculate the dynamic critical exponent and find that it is greater than one for all three structures. The fact that it deviates from one is a direct consequence of the fractal structures not being integer-dimensional regular lattices. Other critical exponents are also calculated. The exponents are different from those of the classical critical point and satisfy the quantum scaling relation, thus confirming that I have indeed found the quantum critical point. I find that the Sierpiński tetrahedron, of which the dimension is exactly 2, belongs to a different universality class than that of the two-dimensional square lattice. I conclude that the critical exponents depend on more details of the structure than just the dimension and the symmetry.
Critical behavior of quasi-two-dimensional semiconducting ferromagnet Cr2Ge2Te6
Liu, Yu; Petrovic, C.
2017-08-01
The critical properties of the single-crystalline semiconducting ferromagnet Cr2Ge2Te6 were investigated by bulk dc magnetization around the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Critical exponents β =0.200 ±0.003 with a critical temperature Tc=62.65 ±0.07 K and γ =1.28 ±0.03 with Tc=62.75 ±0.06 K are obtained by the Kouvel-Fisher method whereas δ =7.96 ±0.01 is obtained by a critical isotherm analysis at Tc=62.7 K. These critical exponents obey the Widom scaling relation δ =1 +γ /β , indicating self-consistency of the obtained values. With these critical exponents the isotherm M (H ) curves below and above the critical temperatures collapse into two independent universal branches, obeying the single scaling equation m =f±(h ) , where m and h are renormalized magnetization and field, respectively. The determined exponents match well with those calculated from the results of the renormalization group approach for a two-dimensional Ising system coupled with a long-range interaction between spins decaying as J (r ) ≈r-(d +σ ) with σ =1.52 .
Kiyani, K.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.
2006-12-01
We address the generic problem of extracting the scaling exponents of a stationary, self-affine process realised by a timeseries of finite length, where information about the process is not known a priori. Estimating the scaling exponents relies upon estimating the moments, or more typically structure functions, of the probability density of the differenced timeseries. If the probability density is heavy tailed, outliers strongly influence the scaling behaviour of the moments. From an operational point of view, we wish to recover the scaling exponents of the underlying process by excluding a minimal population of these outliers. We test these ideas on a synthetically generated symmetric alpha-stable Levy process and show that the Levy exponent is recovered in up to the 6th order moment after only ~0.1-0.5% of the data are excluded. The scaling properties of the excluded outliers can then be tested to provide additional information about the system.
Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility
Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.
1973-01-01
Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)
Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
2012-01-01
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo César Rodríguez Gómez
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Context: Because feedback systems are very common and widely used, studies of the structural characteristics under which chaotic behavior is generated have been developed. These can be separated into a nonlinear system and a linear system at least of the third order. Methods such as the descriptive function have been used for analysis. Method: A feedback system is proposed comprising a linear system, a nonlinear system and a delay block, in order to assess his behavior using Lyapunov exponents. It is evaluated with three different linear systems, different delay values and different values for parameters of nonlinear characteristic, aiming to reach chaotic behavior. Results: One hundred experiments were carried out for each of the three linear systems, by changing the value of some parameters, assessing their influence on the dynamics of the system. Contour plots that relate these parameters to the Largest Lyapunov exponent were obtained and analyzed. Conclusions: In spite non-linearity is a condition for the existence of chaos, this does not imply that any nonlinear characteristic generates a chaotic system, it is reflected by the contour plots showing the transitions between chaotic and no chaotic behavior of the feedback system. Language: English
Domonik, A.; Słaby, E.; Śmigielski, M.
2012-04-01
A self-similarity parameter, the Hurst exponent (H) (called also roughness exponent) has been used to show the long-range dependence of element behaviour during the processes. The H value ranges between 0 and 1; a value of 0.5 indicates a random distribution indistinguishable from noise. For values greater or less than 0.5, the system shows non-linear dynamics. H 0.5 corresponds to increasing persistence (less chaotic). Such persistence is characterized as an effect of a long-term memory, and thus by a large degree of positive correlation. In theory, the preceding data constantly affect the next in the whole temporal series. Applied to chaotic dynamics, the system shows a subtle sensitivity to initial conditions. The process can show some degree of chaos, due to local variations, but generally, the trend preserves its persistent character through time. If the exponent value is low, the process shows frequent and sudden reversals e.g. the trends of such a process show mutual negative correlation of the succeding values in the data series. Thus, the system can be described as having a high degree of deterministic chaos. Alkali feldspar megacrysts grown from mixed magmas and recrystallized due to interaction with fluids have been selected for the study (Słaby et al., 2011). Hurst exponent variability has been calculated within some primary-magmatic and secondary-recrystallized crystal domains for some elements redistributed by crystal fluid interaction. Based on the Hurst exponent value two different processes can easily be recognized. In the core of the megacrysts the element distribution can be ascribed to magmatic growth. By contrast, the marginal zones can relate to inferred late crystal-fluid interactions. Both processes are deterministic, not random. The spatial distribution of elements in the crystal margins is irregular, with high-H values identifying the process as persistent. The trace element distributions in feldspar cores are almost homogeneous and only
Carvalho, P. R. S.; Sena-Junior, M. I.
2017-12-01
In this work, we compute analytically the infrared divergences of massless O(N) self-interacting scalar field theories with Lorentz violation, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating Kμν coefficients, for evaluating the corresponding next-to-leading order critical exponents. For that, we apply three distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. We find that the outcomes for the critical exponents are the same in the three methods and, furthermore, are identical to their Lorentz invariant counterparts. We generalize the results for all loop levels by employing a general theorem arising from the exact procedure and give the corresponding physical interpretation.
Short-time critical dynamics of damage spreading in the two-dimensional Ising model
Rubio Puzzo, M. Leticia; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2010-05-01
The short-time critical dynamics of propagation of damage in the Ising ferromagnet in two dimensions is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Starting with equilibrium configurations at T=∞ and magnetization M=0 , an initial damage is created by flipping a small amount of spins in one of the two replicas studied. In this way, the initial damage is proportional to the initial magnetization M0 in one of the configurations upon quenching the system at TC , the Onsager critical temperature of the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition. It is found that, at short times, the damage increases with an exponent θD=1.915(3) , which is much larger than the exponent θ=0.197 characteristic of the initial increase of the magnetization M(t) . Also, an epidemic study was performed. It is found that the average distance from the origin of the epidemic (⟨R2(t)⟩) grows with an exponent z∗≈η≈1.9 , which is the same, within error bars, as the exponent θD . However, the survival probability of the epidemics reaches a plateau so that δ=0 . On the other hand, by quenching the system to lower temperatures one observes the critical spreading of the damage at TD≃0.51TC , where all the measured observables exhibit power laws with exponents θD=1.026(3) , δ=0.133(1) , and z∗=1.74(3) .
Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...
The microbiome and critical illness.
Dickson, Robert P
2016-01-01
The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients' susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Schafer, J.; Crawford, J. H.; Kim, J.; Sano, I.; Liew, S.; Salinas Cortijo, S. V.; Chew, B. N.; Lim, H.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, M.; Kenny, P.; Slutsker, I.
2013-12-01
Aerosols can have major implications on human health by inducing respiratory diseases due to inhalation of fine particles from biomass burning smoke or industrial pollution and on radiative forcing whereby the presence of absorbing aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) increases atmospheric heating. Aerosol classification techniques have utilized aerosol loading and aerosol properties derived from multi-spectral and multi-angle observations by ground-based (e.g., AERONET) and satellite instrumentation (e.g., MISR). Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data have been utilized to determine aerosol types by implementing various combinations of measured aerosol optical depth or retrieved size and absorption aerosol properties (e.g., Gobbi et al., 2007; Russell et al., 2010). Giles et al. [2012] showed single scattering albedo (SSA) relationship with extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) can provide an estimate of the general classification of dominant aerosol types (i.e., desert dust, urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, and mixtures) based on data from ~20 AERONET sites located in known aerosol source regions. In addition, the absorption Angstrom exponent relationship with EAE can provide an indication of the dominant absorbing aerosol type such as dust, black carbon, brown carbon, or mixtures of them. These classification techniques are applied to the AERONET Level 2.0 quality assured data sets collected during Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observational Network (DRAGON) campaigns in Maryland (USA), Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Penang (Malaysia), and California (USA). An analysis of aerosol type classification for DRAGON sites is performed as well as an assessment of the spatial variability of the aerosol types for selected DRAGON campaigns. Giles, D. M., B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Sinyuk, A. Smirnov, I. Slutsker, R. R. Dickerson, A. M. Thompson, and J. S. Schafer (2012), An analysis of AERONET aerosol absorption properties and classifications
Huang, Jingfeng; Kondragunta, Shobha; Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Remer, Lorraine A.; Zhang, Hai; Superczynski, Stephen; Ciren, Pubu; Holben, Brent N.; Petrenko, Maksym
2016-06-01
The new-generation polar-orbiting operational environmental sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, provides critical daily global aerosol observations. As older satellite sensors age out, the VIIRS aerosol product will become the primary observational source for global assessments of aerosol emission and transport, aerosol meteorological and climatic effects, air quality monitoring, and public health. To prove their validity and to assess their maturity level, the VIIRS aerosol products were compared to the spatiotemporally matched Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) measurements. Over land, the VIIRS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) environmental data record (EDR) exhibits an overall global bias against AERONET of -0.0008 with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the biases as 0.12. Over ocean, the mean bias of VIIRS AOT EDR is 0.02 with RMSE of the biases as 0.06. The mean bias of VIIRS Ocean Ångström Exponent (AE) EDR is 0.12 with RMSE of the biases as 0.57. The matchups between each product and its AERONET counterpart allow estimates of expected error in each case. Increased uncertainty in the VIIRS AOT and AE products is linked to specific regions, seasons, surface characteristics, and aerosol types, suggesting opportunity for future modifications as understanding of algorithm assumptions improves. Based on the assessment, the VIIRS AOT EDR over land reached Validated maturity beginning 23 January 2013; the AOT EDR and AE EDR over ocean reached Validated maturity beginning 2 May 2012, excluding the processing error period 15 October to 27 November 2012. These findings demonstrate the integrity and usefulness of the VIIRS aerosol products that will transition from S-NPP to future polar-orbiting environmental satellites in the decades to come and become the standard global aerosol data set as the previous generations' missions come to an end.
Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals
Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.
2000-01-01
Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.
Alcohol increases hypnotic susceptibility.
Semmens-Wheeler, Rebecca; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora
2013-09-01
One approach to hypnosis suggests that for hypnotic experience to occur frontal lobe activity must be attenuated. For example, cold control theory posits that a lack of awareness of intentions is responsible for the experience of involuntariness and/or the subjective reality of hypnotic suggestions. The mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex and the ACC are candidate regions for such awareness. Alcohol impairs frontal lobe executive function. This study examined whether alcohol affects hypnotisability. We administered 0.8 mg/kg of alcohol or a placebo to 32 medium susceptible participants. They were subsequently hypnotised and given hypnotic suggestions. All participants believed they had received some alcohol. Participants in the alcohol condition were more susceptible to hypnotic suggestions than participants in the placebo condition. Impaired frontal lobe activity facilitates hypnotic responding, which supports theories postulating that attenuation of executive function facilitates hypnotic response, and contradicts theories postulating that hypnotic response involves enhanced inhibitory, attentional or other executive function. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Huang, Meijun; Lei, Yuntao; Yin, Tianxiang; Chen, Zhiyun; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo
2011-11-24
The critical behavior of isobaric heat capacities per unit volume for a series of critical binary solutions {benzonitrile + octane, or dodecane, or hexadecane} and {dimethyl carbonate + nonane, or decane, or dodecane} were studied. The corresponding exponent was obtained to be in consistent with the 3D-Ising value. The amplitudes in one-phase and two-phase regions were deduced, which were used to test some critical amplitude ratios. Analysis of the dependence of the effective critical exponent of the heat capacity on the temperature indicated a critical crossover from the 3D-Ising to the mean-field for all the studied systems. It was found that the heat capacity does play an important role for describing the asymmetric criticality of coexistence curves by the complete scaling theory. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard K. Bonzi
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this article we study the nonlinear homogeneous Neumann boundary-value problem $$displaylines{ b(u-hbox{div} a(x,abla u=fquad hbox{in } Omegacr a(x,abla u.eta=0 quadhbox{on }partial Omega, }$$ where $Omega$ is a smooth bounded open domain in $mathbb{R}^{N}$, $N geq 3$ and $eta$ the outer unit normal vector on $partialOmega$. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a weak solution for $f in L^{infty}(Omega$ and the existence and uniqueness of an entropy solution for $L^{1}$-data $f$. The functional setting involves Lebesgue and Sobolev spaces with variable exponents.
Klimek, Peter
2013-01-01
Social networks exhibit scaling-laws for several structural characteristics, such as the degree distribution, the scaling of the attachment kernel, and the clustering coefficients as a function of node degree. A detailed understanding if and how these scaling laws are inter-related is missing so far, let alone whether they can be understood through a common, dynamical principle. We propose a simple model for stationary network formation and show that the three mentioned scaling relations follow as natural consequences of triadic closure. The validity of the model is tested on multiplex data from a well studied massive multiplayer online game. We find that the three scaling exponents observed in the multiplex data for the friendship, communication and trading networks can simultaneously be explained by the model. These results suggest that triadic closure could be identified as one of the fundamental dynamical principles in social multiplex network formation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana-Maria CALOMFIR (METESCU
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, research in the capital markets and management of portfolios has been producing more questions than it has been answering: the need for a new paradigm or a new way of looking at things has become more and more concludent. The existing and classical view of capital markets, based on efficient market hypothesis, has a definite theory for the last six decades, but it is still not capable of significantly increase the understanding of how capital markets function. The purpose of this article is to theoretically describe a less used statistic coefficient, having a vast area of applicability due to its robustness, and which can easily divide the random series from a non-random series, even if the random series is non-Gaussian: the Hurst exponent.
How Critical Is Critical Thinking?
Shaw, Ryan D.
2014-01-01
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
Lubeck, S.; Heger, P. C.
2003-01-01
In this work we analyze the universal scaling functions and the critical exponents at the upper critical dimension of a continuous phase transition. The consideration of the universal scaling behavior yields a decisive check of the value of the upper critical dimension. We apply our method to a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition. But focusing on the equation of state of the phase transition it is easy to extend our analysis to all equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions obs...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.Vásquez
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We review recent results on the effect of a specific type of quenched disorder on well known O(m-vector models in three dimensions: the XY model (3DXY, m=2 and the Ising model (3DIS, m=1. Evidence of changes of criticality in both systems, when confined in aerogel pores, is briefly referenced. The 3DXY model represents the universality class to which the λ-transition of bulk superfluid 4He belongs. Experiments report interesting changes of critical exponents for this transition, when superfluid 4He is confined in aerogels. Numerical evidence has also been presented that the 3DXY model, confined in aerogel-like structures, exhibits critical exponents different from those of bulk, in agreement with experiments. Both results seem to contradict Harris criterion: being the specific heat exponent negative for the pure system (α3DXY≈-0.0114He and N2 confined in aerogels, also showed changes in critical-point exponents. Being the LV critical-point in the O(1 universality class, criticality may be affected by both short-range correlated (SRC and LRC subsets of disorder. Simulations of the 3DIS in DLCA aerogels can corroborate experimental results. Both experiments and simulations suggest a shift in critical exponents to values closer to the SRC instead of those of the LRC fixed point.
Graphene susceptibility in Holstein model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousavi, Hamze, E-mail: hamze.mousavi@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nano Science and Nano Technology Research Center, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-06-15
We study the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the temperature dependence of the orbital magnetic susceptibility of monolayer graphene. We use the linear response theory and Green's function formalism within the Holstein Hamiltonian model. The results show that the effects of the electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene sheet have different behaviors in two temperature regions. In the low temperature region, susceptibility increases when the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. On the other hand, the susceptibility reduces with increasing the electron-phonon coupling strength in the high temperature region. - Highlights: Effect of electron-phonon interaction on the susceptibility of graphene is studied. Linear response theory and Green's function technique in Holstein model are used. Effect of electron-phonon on susceptibility has different behaviors in two temperature regions.
Topological susceptibility from slabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)
2015-12-14
In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.
Topological Susceptibility from Slabs
Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs
2015-01-01
In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pippin Barr
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.
Solvent-dependent critical properties of polymer adsorption
Plascak, João A.; Martins, Paulo H. L.; Bachmann, Michael
2017-05-01
Advanced chain-growth computer simulation methodologies have been employed for a systematic statistical analysis of the critical behavior of a polymer adsorbing at a substrate. We use finite-size scaling techniques to investigate the solvent-quality dependence of critical exponents, critical temperature, and the structure of the phase diagram. Our study covers all solvent effects from the limit of super-self-avoiding walks, characterized by effective monomer-monomer repulsion, to poor solvent conditions that enable the formation of compact polymer structures. The results significantly benefit from taking into account corrections to scaling.
Self-organized criticality in a cold plasma
Alex, Prince; Carreras, Benjamin Andres; Arumugam, Saravanan; Sinha, Suraj Kumar
2017-12-01
We present direct evidence for the existence of self-organized critical behavior in cold plasma. A multiple anodic double layer structure generated in a double discharge plasma setup shows critical behavior for the anode bias above a threshold value. Analysis of the floating potential fluctuations reveals the existence of long-range time correlations and power law behavior in the tail of the probability distribution function of the fluctuations. The measured Hurst exponent and the power law tail in the rank function are strong indication of the self-organized critical behavior of the system and hence provide a condition under which complexities arise in cold plasma.
Deconfined quantum criticality beyond designer Hamiltonians
Lang, Thomas C.; Kaul, Ribhu K.
The SU(6) symmetric generalization of the Hubbard model on the square lattice provides the simplest microscopic realization of the quantum phase transition from a Néel to a valence bond solid (VBS) ordered phase. By constructing dimensionless quantities such as ratios of the magnetic structure factor and valence bond correlations we are able to unambiguously determine the existence of weak, but robust antiferromagnetic order in the weak coupling regime and a plaquette VBS in the strong coupling limit. Furthermore these ratios provide a tool to accurately determine the (critical) point from both sides of the phase transition separating the two limits. Preliminary results suggest a direct continuous transition for which we extract estimates for the critical exponents and compare the scaling function with the SU(6) designer spin-models to investigate whether this quantum phase transition is compatible with the scenario of deconfined quantum criticality.
Evidence for criticality in financial data
Ruiz, G.; de Marcos, A. F.
2018-01-01
We provide evidence that cumulative distributions of absolute normalized returns for the 100 American companies with the highest market capitalization, uncover a critical behavior for different time scales Δt. Such cumulative distributions, in accordance with a variety of complex - and financial - systems, can be modeled by the cumulative distribution functions of q-Gaussians, the distribution function that, in the context of nonextensive statistical mechanics, maximizes a non-Boltzmannian entropy. These q-Gaussians are characterized by two parameters, namely ( q, β), that are uniquely defined by Δt. From these dependencies, we find a monotonic relationship between q and β, which can be seen as evidence of criticality. We numerically determine the various exponents which characterize this criticality.
Characterizing critical phenomena via the Purcell effect
Silva Neto, M. B.; Szilard, D.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Farina, C.; Pinheiro, F. A.
2017-12-01
We investigate the role of phase transitions into the spontaneous-emission rate of a single quantum emitter embedded in a critical medium. Using a Landau-Ginzburg approach, we find that in the broken symmetry phase, the emission rate is reduced, or even suppressed, due to the photon mass generated by the Higgs mechanism. Remarkably, its sensitivity to the critical exponents of the phase transition allows for an optical determination of universality classes. When applied to the cases of superconductivity and superfluidity, we show that the Purcell effect also provides valuable information on spectroscopic and thermodynamic quantities, such as the size of the superconducting gap and the discontinuity in the specific heat at the transition. By unveiling that a deeper connection between the Purcell effect and phase transitions exists, we demonstrate that the former is an efficient optical probe of distinct critical phenomena and their associated observables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorina Anastasia
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibrational Raman scattering from nitrogen is commonly used in Mie-Raman lidars for evaluation of particle backscattering (β and extinction (α coefficients. However, vibrational scattering is characterized by significant frequency shift of the Raman component, so for the calculation of α and β the assumption about the extinction Ångström exponent is needed. Simulation results presented in this study demonstrate that ambiguity in the choice of this exponent can be the significant source of uncertainty in the calculation of backscattering coefficients when optically thick aerosol layers are considered. Examples of lidar measurements and optical data calculated for different values of Ångström exponent are given.
Fluctuation and dissipation at a quantum critical point.
Tong, David; Wong, Kenny
2013-02-08
In nonrelativistic field theories, quantum fluctuations give rise to dissipative behavior even at zero temperature. Here we use holographic methods to explore the dissipative dynamics of massive particles coupled to quantum critical theories. We present analytic expressions for correlation functions and response functions. The behavior changes qualitatively as the dynamical exponent passes through z=2. In particular, for z>2, the long-time dynamics of the particle is independent of its inertial mass.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving
2017-01-01
Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...
Rosette, Arturo
2009-01-01
This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…
Critical transitions and perturbation growth directions
Sharafi, Nahal; Timme, Marc; Hallerberg, Sarah
2017-09-01
Critical transitions occur in a variety of dynamical systems. Here we employ quantifiers of chaos to identify changes in the dynamical structure of complex systems preceding critical transitions. As suitable indicator variables for critical transitions, we consider changes in growth rates and directions of covariant Lyapunov vectors. Studying critical transitions in several models of fast-slow systems, i.e., a network of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo oscillators, models for Josephson junctions, and the Hindmarsh-Rose model, we find that tangencies between covariant Lyapunov vectors are a common and maybe generic feature during critical transitions. We further demonstrate that this deviation from hyperbolic dynamics is linked to the occurrence of critical transitions by using it as an indicator variable and evaluating the prediction success through receiver operating characteristic curves. In the presence of noise, we find the alignment of covariant Lyapunov vectors and changes in finite-time Lyapunov exponents to be more successful in announcing critical transitions than common indicator variables as, e.g., finite-time estimates of the variance. Additionally, we propose a new method for estimating approximations of covariant Lyapunov vectors without knowledge of the future trajectory of the system. We find that these approximated covariant Lyapunov vectors can also be applied to predict critical transitions.
Cretella, David; Barber, Katie E; King, S Travis; Stover, Kayla R
2016-12-01
The rising rates of invasive fungal infections caused by non-albicans Candida and the increasing emergence of antifungal resistance complicate the management of invasive candidiasis. Accurate and timely antifungal susceptibility testing is critical to targeting antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study was to compare commercially available susceptibility testing methods using prospectively collected Candida isolates. Susceptibility testing was performed on 74 Candida isolates collected from July 2014 to March 2015 using broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute method, Etest, Vitek 2 (YS-05) and Sensititre. Essential agreement and categorical agreement (CA) were assessed using the reference method. Of the 34 total blood isolates collected, Candida albicans comprised only 38 % (13) of the Candida spp. with Candidaglabrata being nearly as prevalent (29 %, 10). CA using Etest was 86 % for fluconazole, 72 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 97 % for anidulafungin. Vitek 2 CA was 90 % for fluconazole and 98 % for caspofungin. Sensititre CA was 93 % for fluconazole, 98 % for caspofungin, 98 % for micafungin and 100 % for anidulafungin. Although our study tested a small population of Candida isolates, our results were variable by method. When implementing antifungal susceptibility testing, clinicians should be aware of the strengths and limitations of each testing method.
Microwave susceptibility experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McConaghy, C.
1984-05-29
In certain experimental environments, systems can be affected or damaged by microwave pulses. I have conducted tests at LLNL to understand the phenomenology of microwave susceptibility of system components and subsystem components. To date, my experiments have concentrated on bipolar transistors, similar to what might be used in discrete analog circuits, and on CMOS RAM chips, which might be used in a computer memory system. I observed a decrease in failure energies for both the transistor and the integrated curcuit as I shortened the microwave pulse width. An S band (2.86 GHz) transmit/receive (T/R) tube has also been tested both at S band and at X band (8.16 GHz). The S band pulse had limitations in rise-time from zero power, which had an effect on the amount of power that could be transmitted through the T/R tube, as much as 0.7% of the incident power passed through the tube. All tests were conducted in closed-waveguide or coax test-fixtures, in contrast to the anechoic chambers utilized by other experimenters. I have used both S band and X band Klystron generators. For very high power (greater than 1 MW), I used an additional pulse-compression cavity at S band. Other subsystem components such as an X band mixer and an X band T/R tube will be tested in the future. 8 references.
[Antimicrobial susceptibility cumulative reports].
Canut-Blasco, Andrés; Calvo, Jorge; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Martínez, Luis
2016-10-01
Cumulative reports on antimicrobial susceptibility tests data are important for selecting empirical treatments, as an educational tool in programs on antimicrobial use, and for establishing breakpoints defining clinical categories. These reports should be based on data validated by clinical microbiologists using diagnostic samples (not surveillance samples). In order to avoid a bias derived from including several isolates obtained from the same patient, it is recommended that, for a defined period, only the first isolate is counted. A minimal number of isolates per species should be presented: a figure of >=30 isolates is statistically acceptable. The report is usually presented in a table format where, for each cell, information on clinically relevant microorganisms-antimicrobial agents is presented. Depending on particular needs, multiple tables showing data related to patients, samples, services or special pathogens can be prepared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Yoon
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Regular aerosol observations based on well-calibrated instruments have led to a better understanding of the aerosol radiative budget on Earth. In recent years, these instruments have played an important role in the determination of the increase of anthropogenic aerosols by means of long-term studies. Only few investigations regarding long-term trends of aerosol optical characteristics (e.g. aerosol optical thickness (AOT and Ångström exponent (ÅE have been derived from ground-based observations. This paper aims to derive and discuss linear trends of AOT (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm and ÅE (440–870 nm using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET level 2.0 spectral observations. Additionally, temporal trends of coarse- and fine-mode dominant AOTs (CdAOT and FdAOT have been estimated by applying an aerosol classification based on accurate ÅE and Ångström exponent difference (ÅED. In order to take into account the fact that cloud disturbance is having a significant influence on the trend analysis of aerosols, we introduce a weighted least squares regression depending on two weights: (1 monthly standard deviation (σ_{t} and (2 number of observations per month (n_{t}.
Temporal increase of FdAOTs (440 nm prevails over newly industrializing countries in East Asia (weighted trends; +6.23% yr^{−1} at Beijing and active agricultural burning regions in South Africa (+1.89% yr^{−1} at Mongu. On the other hand, insignificant or negative trends for FdAOTs are detected over Western Europe (+0.25% yr^{−1} at Avignon and −2.29% yr^{−1} at Ispra and North America (−0.52% yr^{−1} for GSFC and −0.01% yr^{−1} at MD_Science_Center. Over desert regions, both increase and decrease of CdAOTs (+3.37% yr^{−1} at Solar_Village and −1.18% yr^{−1} at Ouagadougou are observed depending on meteorological conditions.
Yoon, J.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.
2012-06-01
Regular aerosol observations based on well-calibrated instruments have led to a better understanding of the aerosol radiative budget on Earth. In recent years, these instruments have played an important role in the determination of the increase of anthropogenic aerosols by means of long-term studies. Only few investigations regarding long-term trends of aerosol optical characteristics (e.g. aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Ångström exponent (ÅE)) have been derived from ground-based observations. This paper aims to derive and discuss linear trends of AOT (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) and ÅE (440-870 nm) using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) level 2.0 spectral observations. Additionally, temporal trends of coarse- and fine-mode dominant AOTs (CdAOT and FdAOT) have been estimated by applying an aerosol classification based on accurate ÅE and Ångström exponent difference (ÅED). In order to take into account the fact that cloud disturbance is having a significant influence on the trend analysis of aerosols, we introduce a weighted least squares regression depending on two weights: (1) monthly standard deviation (σt) and (2) number of observations per month (nt). Temporal increase of FdAOTs (440 nm) prevails over newly industrializing countries in East Asia (weighted trends; +6.23% yr-1 at Beijing) and active agricultural burning regions in South Africa (+1.89% yr-1 at Mongu). On the other hand, insignificant or negative trends for FdAOTs are detected over Western Europe (+0.25% yr-1 at Avignon and -2.29% yr-1 at Ispra) and North America (-0.52% yr-1 for GSFC and -0.01% yr-1 at MD_Science_Center). Over desert regions, both increase and decrease of CdAOTs (+3.37% yr-1 at Solar_Village and -1.18% yr-1 at Ouagadougou) are observed depending on meteorological conditions.
P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav
2017-10-01
In black hole thermodynamics, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system if one interprets the cosmological constant as a pressure term. Also the critical exponents for the phase transition of AdS black holes and the van der Waals systems are same. Till now this type of analysis is done by two steps. In the first step one shows that a particular metric allows phase transition and in the second step, using this information, one calculates the exponents. Here, we present a different approach based on two universal inputs (the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics) and one assumption regarding the existence of van der Waals like critical point for a metric. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this approach. Thus we demonstrate that, though the existence of van der Waals like phase transition depends on specific metrics, the values of critical exponents are then fixed for that set of metrics.
P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bibhas Ranjan Majhi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In black hole thermodynamics, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system if one interprets the cosmological constant as a pressure term. Also the critical exponents for the phase transition of AdS black holes and the van der Waals systems are same. Till now this type of analysis is done by two steps. In the first step one shows that a particular metric allows phase transition and in the second step, using this information, one calculates the exponents. Here, we present a different approach based on two universal inputs (the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics and one assumption regarding the existence of van der Waals like critical point for a metric. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this approach. Thus we demonstrate that, though the existence of van der Waals like phase transition depends on specific metrics, the values of critical exponents are then fixed for that set of metrics.
Subtleties in data analysis related to the size of critical region
Leung, K.-T.; Zia, R. K. P.
1996-06-01
We comment on the analysis of the critical behavior of a layered driven diffusive system recently done by Achahbar and Marro. We discuss why we believe their method of taking the thermodynamic limit and determining the order-parameter exponent β leads to unreliable estimates.
Critical neutron scattering from the Heisenberg ferromagnets EuO and EuS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O. W.; Passell, L.
1972-01-01
The magnetic neutron scattering from isotopically enriched powders of EuO and EuS near their Curie temperatures has been studied. Results of the critical exponents for the static properties in standard notation were * Thumbnail image of Spin wave scattering at T...
Roughness effects on the critical fracture toughness of materials under uniaxial stress
Palasantzas, George
1998-01-01
The Griffith criterion is applied for the calculation of the critical fracture toughness upon which the formation of a rough self-affine crack (which is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude σ, the correlation length ξ, and the roughness exponent H) commences. For large crack sizes R»ξ, the
Polymyxins: Antimicrobial susceptibility concerns and therapeutic options
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V Balaji
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae poses a great challenge to the treating physicians. The paucity of newer effective antimicrobials has led to renewed interest in the polymyxin group of drugs, as a last resort for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections. There is a dearth of information on the pharmacological properties of colistin, leading to difficulties in selecting the right dose, dosing interval, and route of administration for treatment, especially in critically-ill patients. The increasing use of colistin over the last few years necessitates the need for accurate and reliable in vitro susceptibility testing methods. Development of heteroresistant strains as a result of colistin monotherapy is also a growing concern. There is a compelling need from the clinicians to provide options for probable and possible colistin combination therapy for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in the ICU setting. Newer combination drug synergy determination tests are being developed and reported. There are no standardized recommendations from antimicrobial susceptibility testing reference agencies for the testing and interpretation of these drug combinations. Comparison and analysis of these reported methodologies may help to understand and assist the microbiologist to choose the best method that produces accurate results at the earliest. This will help clinicians to select the appropriate combination therapy. In this era of multidrug resistance it is important for the microbiology laboratory to be prepared, by default, to provide timely synergistic susceptibility results in addition to routine susceptibility, if warranted. Not as a favour or at request, but as a responsibility.
Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Lévigne
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jane Simon
2010-09-01
Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simon, Jane
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.
Remote sensing of soot carbon – Part 2: Understanding the absorption Ångström exponent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. L. Schuster
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Recently, some authors have suggested that the absorption Ångström exponent (AAE can be used to deduce the component aerosol absorption optical depths (AAODs of carbonaceous aerosols in the AERONET database. This AAE approach presumes that AAE ≪ 1 for soot carbon, which contrasts the traditional small particle limit of AAE = 1 for soot carbon. Thus, we provide an overview of the AERONET retrieval, and we investigate how the microphysics of carbonaceous aerosols can be interpreted in the AERONET AAE product. We find that AAE ≪ 1 in the AERONET database requires large coarse mode fractions and/or imaginary refractive indices that increase with wavelength. Neither of these characteristics are consistent with the current definition of soot carbon, so we explore other possibilities for the cause of AAE ≪ 1. AAE is related to particle size, and coarse mode particles have a smaller AAE than fine mode particles for a given aerosol mixture of species. We also note that the mineral goethite has an imaginary refractive index that increases with wavelength, is very common in dust regions, and can easily contribute to AAE ≪ 1. We find that AAE ≪ 1 can not be caused by soot carbon, unless soot carbon has an imaginary refractive index that increases with wavelength throughout the visible and near-infrared spectrums. Finally, AAE is not a robust parameter for separating carbonaceous absorption from dust aerosol absorption in the AERONET database.
Ausloos, M.
2012-09-01
A nonlinear dynamics approach can be used in order to quantify complexity in written texts. As a first step, a one-dimensional system is examined: two written texts by one author (Lewis Carroll) are considered, together with one translation into an artificial language (i.e., Esperanto) are mapped into time series. Their corresponding shuffled versions are used for obtaining a baseline. Two different one-dimensional time series are used here: one based on word lengths (LTS), the other on word frequencies (FTS). It is shown that the generalized Hurst exponent h(q) and the derived f(α) curves of the original and translated texts show marked differences. The original texts are far from giving a parabolic f(α) function, in contrast to the shuffled texts. Moreover, the Esperanto text has more extreme values. This suggests cascade model-like, with multiscale time-asymmetric features as finally written texts. A discussion of the difference and complementarity of mapping into a LTS or FTS is presented. The FTS f(α) curves are more opened than the LTS ones.
[Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].
Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime
2014-04-01
Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.
pso.ATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY
African Journals Online (AJOL)
isolates vere made using standard methods, Antibiotic susceptibility tests against commonly prescribed ... Acute otitis media is rapid with short .... sensitivity tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major Gram positive and negative bacterial isolates obtained from clinical specimens.
Critical Phenomena in Higher Curvature Charged AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arindam Lala
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes. We have considered Lovelock-Born-Infeld-AdS black hole as an example. The thermodynamics of the black hole have been studied which reveals the onset of a higher-order phase transition in the black hole in the canonical ensemble (fixed charge ensemble framework. We have analytically derived the critical exponents associated with these thermodynamic quantities. We find that our results fit well with the thermodynamic scaling laws and consistent with the mean field theory approximation. The suggestive values of the other two critical exponents associated with the correlation function and correlation length on the critical surface have been derived.
Hyperscaling violation at the Ising-nematic quantum critical point in two dimensional metals
Eberlein, Andreas; Sachdev, Subir
2016-01-01
Understanding optical conductivity data in the optimally doped cuprates in the framework of quantum criticality requires a strongly-coupled quantum critical metal which violates hyperscaling. In the simplest scaling framework, hyperscaling violation can be characterized by a single non-zero exponent $\\theta$, so that in a spatially isotropic state in $d$ spatial dimensions, the specific heat scales with temperature as $T^{(d-\\theta)/z}$, and the optical conductivity scales with frequency as $\\omega^{(d-\\theta-2)/z}$ for $\\omega \\gg T$, where $z$ is the dynamic critical exponent. We study the Ising-nematic critical point, using the controlled dimensional regularization method proposed by Dalidovich and Lee (Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 88}, 245106 (2013)). We find that hyperscaling is violated, with $\\theta =1$ in $d=2$. We expect that similar results apply to Fermi surfaces coupled to gauge fields in $d=2$.
Moosavi, S. Amin; Montakhab, Afshin
2014-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments in neuroscience which indicate that neuronal avalanches exhibit scale invariant behavior similar to self-organized critical systems, we study the role of noisy (nonconservative) local dynamics on the critical behavior of a sandpile model which can be taken to mimic the dynamics of neuronal avalanches. We find that despite the fact that noise breaks the strict local conservation required to attain criticality, our system exhibits true criticality for a wide range of noise in various dimensions, given that conservation is respected on the average. Although the system remains critical, exhibiting finite-size scaling, the value of critical exponents change depending on the intensity of local noise. Interestingly, for a sufficiently strong noise level, the critical exponents approach and saturate at their mean-field values, consistent with empirical measurements of neuronal avalanches. This is confirmed for both two and three dimensional models. However, the addition of noise does not affect the exponents at the upper critical dimension (D =4). In addition to an extensive finite-size scaling analysis of our systems, we also employ a useful time-series analysis method to establish true criticality of noisy systems. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work in neuroscience as well as some implications for the general phenomena of criticality in nonequilibrium systems.
Hypnotic susceptibility and dream characteristics.
Zamore, N; Barrett, D
1989-11-01
This study examined the relationship of hypnotic susceptibility to a variety of dream characteristics and types of dream content. A Dream Questionnaire was constructed synthesizing Gibson's dream inventory and Hilgard's theoretical conceptions of hypnosis. Employing the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Field Inventory for evaluating hypnotic response, several dream dimensions correlated significantly with hypnotizability. For subjects as a whole, the strongest correlates were the frequency of dreams which they believed to be precognitive and out-of-body dreams. Ability to dream on a chosen topic also correlated significantly with hypnotic susceptibility for both genders. For females only, there was a negative correlation of hypnotic susceptibility to flying dreams. Absorption correlated positively with dream recall, ability to dream on a chosen topic, reports of conflict resolution in dreams, creative ideas occurring in dreams, amount of color in dreams, pleasantness of dreams, bizarreness of dreams, flying dreams and precognitive dreams.
Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.
2012-01-01
Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012
Critical behavior of the exclusive queueing process
Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas
2013-11-01
The exclusive queueing process (EQP) is a generalization of the classical M/M/1 queue. It is equivalent to a totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) of varying length. Here we consider two discrete-time versions of the EQP with parallel and backward-sequential update rules. The phase diagram (with respect to the arrival probability α and the service probability β) is divided into two phases corresponding to divergence and convergence of the system length. We investigate the behavior on the critical line separating these phases. For both update rules, we find diffusive behavior for small service probability (\\beta \\beta_c it becomes sub-diffusive and nonuniversal: the critical exponents characterizing the divergence of the system length and the number of customers are found to depend on the update rule. For the backward-update case, they also depend on the hopping parameter p, and remain finite when p is large, indicating a first-order transition.
Non-equilibrium critical behavior of thin Ising films
Medvedeva, Maria A.; Prudnikov, Pavel V.; Elin, Alexey S.
2017-10-01
In this paper we study the non-equilibrium properties of Ising ferromagnetic films using Monte Carlo simulations by short-time dynamic method. We have found thickness dependency of critical exponents z, θ ‧ and β / ν . Ageing effects were observed in non-equilibrium critical behavior. Former was carried out both from high-temperature and low-temperature initial states. A characteristic time of relaxation, which diverges at a transition temperature in the thermodynamic limit, is obtained as a function of the system size and waiting time.
Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sourav Das
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181
Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
2016-01-01
Purpose One consistent predictor of adolescents’ engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk-taking. Methods Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage=12.6; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed 1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior, and 2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an internet chat room in which youth believed they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these “peers” were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. Results In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African American boys. Conclusion Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. PMID:26794431
Adolescent Susceptibility to Peer Influence in Sexual Situations.
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Helms, Sarah W; Prinstein, Mitchell J
2016-03-01
One consistent predictor of adolescents' engagement in sexual risk behavior is their belief that peers are engaging in similar behavior; however, not all youth are equally susceptible to these peer influence effects. Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence is critical to identifying adolescents at risk for negative health outcomes. The purpose of this project was to identify predictors of susceptibility to peer influence using a novel performance-based measure of sexual risk taking. Participants were 300 early adolescents (Mage = 12.6 years; 53% female; 44% Caucasian) who completed (1) a pretest assessment of demographics, sexual attitudes, and hypothetical scenarios measuring the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior and (2) a subsequent experimental procedure that simulated an Internet chat room in which youth believed that they were communicating with peers regarding these same hypothetical scenarios. In reality, these "peers" were computer-programmed e-confederates. Changes in responses to the sexual scenarios in the private pretest versus during the public chat room provided a performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility. In total, 78% of youth provided more risky responses in the chat room than those in pretest. The most robust predictor of this change was gender, with boys significantly more susceptible to peer influence than girls. Significant interactions also were noted, with greater susceptibility among boys with later pubertal development and African-American boys. Results confirm that not all youth are equally susceptible to peer influence. Consistent with sexual script theory, boys evidence greater susceptibility to social pressure regarding sexual behavior than girls. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svegaard, Robin Sebastian Kaszmarczyk
2015-01-01
This article will introduce and take a look at a specific subset of the fan created remix videos known as vids, namely those that deal with feminist based critique of media. Through examples, it will show how fans construct and present their critique, and finally broach the topic of the critical ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boutahar, A., E-mail: boutahar.fsac@gmail.com [LPMMAT,Université Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, BP 5366 Mâarif–Casablanca (Morocco); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT,Université Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, BP 5366 Mâarif–Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K.; Fruchart, D. [Institue Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2016-01-15
The critical exponents in Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8} (x=8, 10 and 13.7) amorphous alloys were investigated near ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition temperature. All amorphous alloys exhibit a second order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition (SOMT). The critical exponents (β, γ and δ) were estimated using the modified Arrott plot technique (MAP), the Widom scaling relation (WSR), and the critical isotherm analysis (CIA). In addition, an independent analysis of the critical behavior is presented in terms of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It shows in accordance with conclusion from magnetization data analysis. The estimated critical exponent values are found to be consistent and comparable to those predicted by the mean field model. This result points out to the ferromagnetic exchange interaction of long-range type. - Highlights: • Amorphous Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8} was prepared by melt spinning method. • The β, γ and δ critical exponents are determined with various techniques. • The estimated critical exponent values match very well with the mean field theory. • The existence of a long-range ferromagnetic interaction in Fe{sub 80−x}V{sub x}B{sub 12}Si{sub 8}.
Wali, M.; Khlifi, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.
2017-11-01
The critical behavior associated with the magnetic phase transition has been investigated by in La0.8Na0.2-x□xMnO3 (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) (□ is the sodium deficiency). The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques such as the modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm technique. Compared to standard models, the critical exponent values determined in our work are close to those expected by the tricritical model (β = 0.25, γ = 1, and δ = 5) for x = 0.00 and 0.05 samples and by mean field theory (β = 0.5, γ = 1, and δ = 3) for x = 0.10 and 0.15 samples. We conclude that the Na deficiency rate affect the critical exponents.
Critical reading and critical thinking Critical reading and critical thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loni Kreis Taglieber
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of
Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshiyuki Ban
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stirling, W.G. [Liverpool Univ., Dep. of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Perry, S.C. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
1996-12-31
We outline the theoretical and experimental background to neutron scattering studies of critical phenomena at magnetic and structural phase transitions. The displacive phase transition of SrTiO{sub 3} is discussed, along with examples from recent work on magnetic materials from the rare-earth (Ho, Dy) and actinide (NpAs, NpSb, USb) classes. The impact of synchrotron X-ray scattering is discussed in conclusion. (author) 13 figs., 18 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuyuan eLiao
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t was calculated for scales between 4 s and 60 s. Because α(t could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t. We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 s and 12 s (0.083-0.25 Hz in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t at scales between 4 s (0.25 Hz and around 7 s (0.143 Hz was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz power and long-term (>11 beats DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters.
Liao, Fuyuan; Liau, Ben-Yi; Rice, Ian M.; Elliott, Jeannette; Brooks, Ian; Jan, Yih-Kuen
2015-01-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t) can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t) was calculated for scales between 4 and 60 s. Because α(t) could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t) based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t). We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t) in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 and 12 s (0.083–0.25 Hz) in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t) slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t) in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t) at scales between 4 (0.25 Hz) and around 7 s (0.143 Hz) was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t) at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz) was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04–0.15 Hz) power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15–0.4 Hz) power and long-term (>11 beats) DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t) can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters. PMID:26029112
Pazmandi, Ferenc; Zimanyi, Gergely T.
2009-01-01
We probe the droplet excitations in short range spin glasses by adding a perturbative long range interaction that decays with distance as a power law: $J/r^{\\sigma}$. It is shown that if the power law exponent $\\sigma$ is smaller than the spatial dimension $d$, the perturbation induces large scale avalanches which roll until they force the system to develop a pseudo gap in the excitation spectrum of the stabilities. This makes the perturbative long range interactions relevant for $\\sigma < \\s...
Inherited susceptibility and radiation exposure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, J.B. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)
1997-03-01
There is continuing concern that some people in the general population may have genetic makeups that place them at particularly high risk for radiation-induced cancer. The existence of such a susceptible subpopulation would have obvious implications for the estimation of risks of radiation exposure. Although it has been long known that familial aggregations of cancer do sometimes occur, recent evidence suggests that a general genetic predisposition to cancer does not exist; most cancers occur sporadically. On the other hand, nearly 10% of the known Mendelian genetic disorders are associated with cancer. A number of these involve a familial predisposition to cancer, and some are characterized by an enhanced susceptibility to the induction of cancer by various physical and chemical carcinogens, including ionizing radiation. Such increased susceptibility will depend on several factors including the frequency of the susceptibility gene in the population and its penetrance, the strength of the predisposition, and the degree to which the cancer incidence in susceptible individuals may be increased by the carcinogen. It is now known that these cancer-predisposing genes may be responsible not only for rare familial cancer syndromes, but also for a proportion of the common cancers. Although the currently known disorders can account for only a small fraction of all cancers, they serve as models for genetic predisposition to carcinogen-induced cancer in the general population. In the present report, the author describes current knowledge of those specific disorders that are associated with an enhanced predisposition to radiation-induced cancer, and discusses how this knowledge may bear on the susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer in the general population and estimates of the risk of radiation exposure.
pitting corrosion susceptibility pitting corrosion susceptibility of aisi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
Abstract. The susceptibility of austenitic (AISI 301) stainless steel to pitting corrosion was evaluated in sodium chloride. (NaCl) solutions ... AISI 301 steel suffers from pitting corrosion in all the investigated solutions. AISI 301 steel suffers from ..... [1] Ijeomah, M.N.C. Elements of Corrosion and Protection. Theory, Auto Century ...
Interventions on Metabolism: Making Antibiotic-Susceptible Bacteria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Baquero
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Antibiotics act on bacterial metabolism, and antibiotic resistance involves changes in this metabolism. Interventions on metabolism with drugs might therefore modify drug susceptibility and drug resistance. In their recent article, Martin Vestergaard et al. (mBio 8:e01114-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01114-17 illustrate the possibility of converting intrinsically resistant bacteria into susceptible ones. They reported that inhibition of a central metabolic enzyme, ATP synthase, allows otherwise ineffective polymyxin antibiotics to act on Staphylococcus aureus. The study of the intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens has shown that several metabolic genes, including multigene transcriptional regulators, contribute to antibiotic resistance. In some cases, these genes only marginally increase antibiotic resistance, but reduced levels of susceptibility might be critical in the evolution or resistance under low antibiotic concentrations or in the clinical response of highly resistant bacteria. Drug interventions on bacterial metabolism might constitute a critical adjuvant therapy in combination with antibiotics to ensure susceptibility of pathogens with intrinsic or acquired antimicrobial resistance.
Critical behavior of the QED3-Gross-Neveu model: Duality and deconfined criticality
Janssen, Lukas; He, Yin-Chen
2017-11-01
We study the critical properties of the QED3-Gross-Neveu model with 2 N flavors of two-component Dirac fermions coupled to a massless scalar field and a U(1) gauge field. For N =1 , this theory has recently been suggested to be dual to the SU(2) noncompact CP1 model that describes the deconfined phase transition between the Néel antiferromagnet and the valence bond solid on the square lattice. For N =2 , the theory has been proposed as an effective description of a deconfined critical point between chiral and Dirac spin liquid phases, and may potentially be realizable in spin-1 /2 systems on the kagome lattice. We demonstrate the existence of a stable quantum critical point in the QED3-Gross-Neveu model for all values of N . This quantum critical point is shown to escape the notorious fixed-point annihilation mechanism that renders plain QED3 (without scalar-field coupling) unstable at low values of N . The theory exhibits an upper critical space-time dimension of four, enabling us to access the critical behavior in a controlled expansion in the small parameter ɛ =4 -D . We compute the scalar-field anomalous dimension ηϕ, the correlation-length exponent ν , as well as the scaling dimension of the flavor-symmetry-breaking bilinear ψ ¯σzψ at the critical point, and compare our leading-order estimates with predictions of the conjectured duality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Masci
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Many papers document the observation of earthquake-related precursory signatures in geomagnetic field data. However, the significance of these findings is ambiguous because the authors did not adequately take into account that these signals could have been generated by other sources, and the seismogenic origin of these signals have not been validated by comparison with independent datasets. Thus, they are not reliable examples of magnetic disturbances induced by the seismic activity. Hayakawa et al. (2004 claim that at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm the Hurst exponent of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF: 0.001–10 Hz band of the geomagnetic field varied in accord with the energy released by the seismicity. The present paper demonstrates that the behaviour of the Hurst exponent was insufficiently investigated and also misinterpreted by the authors. We clearly show that during the Izu swarm the changes of the Hurst exponent were strongly related to the level of global geomagnetic activity and not to the increase of the local seismic activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toru Yazawa
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We made our own DFA (detrended fluctuation analysis program. We applied it for checking characteristics for the heartbeat of various individuals. Healthy subjects showed a normal scaling exponent, which is near 1.0 (ranging 0.9 to 1.19 in our own temporary guideline. This is in agreement with the original report by Peng et al. long time ago. In the present study, we investigated the person who has an extra-systole heartbeat, and revealed that their arrhythmic heartbeat exhibited a low scaling exponent (around 0.7. Alternans, which is the heart beating in period-2 rhythms, exhibited a much low scaling exponent (around 0.6. We may conclude that if it would be possible to make a device that equips a DFA program, it might be useful to check the heart condition, and contribute not only in nonlinear physics but also in biomedical fields; especially as a device for health check, which is applicable for people who are spending an ordinary life, before they get seriously heart sick.
Magnetic Susceptability Measurements in Superconductors
Kim, Jason; Mallory, Kendall; Seim, Ryan
2000-04-01
A new undergraduate research facility in magnetic susceptability measurements on superconductors is being developed at the University of Northern Colorado. Initial data measurements of the magnetic susceptability of various superconductors will be presented. These measurements were obtained with a liquid helium/nitrogen dewar that was reassembled for use in this project. The cryostat consists of two separate dewars, the first of which contains liquid nitrogen, the second, liquid helium. The liquid nitrogen dewar is used to keep the helium bath from evaporating off too quickly. Data on the evaporation rates of the two liquids will also be presented.
P-V criticality in AdS black holes of massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied the extended phase space thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble of black holes in massive gravity in AdS space. The black holes considered here belong to a theory of massive gravity where the graviton gain a mass due to Lorenz symmetry breaking. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, pressure, Gibbs free energy and specific heat capacity. The local and the global thermodynamical stability of the black holes are studied in detail. For a specific value of the parameter in the theory, the black holes undergo a first order phase transition similar to the Van der Waals phase transitions between gas and liquid under constant temperature. This transition is between the small and the large black hole. The critical exponents are computed at the critical values and shown to be the same as for the Van der Waals critical exponents.
Nanotoxicity Overview: Nano-Threat to Susceptible Populations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Li
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Due to the increasing applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, potential danger of nanoparticle exposure has become a critical issue. However, recent nanotoxicity studies have mainly focused on the health risks to healthy adult population. The nanotoxicity effects on susceptible populations (such as pregnant, neonate, diseased, and aged populations have been overlooked. Due to the alterations in physiological structures and functions in susceptible populations, they often suffer more damage from the same exposure. Thus, it is urgent to understand the effects of nanoparticle exposure on these populations. In order to fill this gap, the potential effects of nanoparticles to pregnant females, neonate, diseased, and aged population, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms are reviewed in this article. Investigations show that responses from susceptible population to nanoparticle exposure are often more severe. Reduced protection mechanism, compromised immunity, and impaired self-repair ability in these susceptible populations may contribute to the aggravated toxicity effects. This review will help minimize adverse effects of nanoparticles to susceptible population in future nanotechnology applications.
Liu, Yu; Petrovic, C.
2017-10-01
The critical properties of flux-grown single-crystalline quasi-two-dimensional weak itinerant ferromagnet Cr0.62Te were investigated by bulk dc magnetization around the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Critical exponents β =0.315 (7 ) with a critical temperature Tc=230.6 (3 ) K and γ =1.81 (2 ) with Tc=229.1 (1 ) K are obtained by the Kouvel-Fisher method whereas δ =6.35 (4 ) is obtained by a critical isotherm analysis at Tc=230 K. With these obtained exponents, the magnetization-field-temperature curves collapse into two independent curves following a single scaling equation M | T/-Tc Tc|-β=f±(H | T/-Tc Tc|-βδ) around Tc, suggesting the reliability of the obtained exponents. Additionally, the determined exponents of Cr0.62Te exhibit an Ising-like behavior with a change from short-range order to long-range order in the nature of magnetic interaction and with an extension from two to three dimensions on cooling through Tc.
Critical reading and critical thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loni Kreis Taglieber
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299
2017-01-01
Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bila Adolphe Kyelem
2017-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions for some discrete nonlinear difference equations subjected to a potential boundary type condition. We use a variational technique that relies on Szulkin's critical point theory, which ensures the existence of solutions by ground state and mountain pass methods.
van der Waals criticality in AdS black holes: A phenomenological study
Bhattacharya, Krishnakanta; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav
2017-10-01
Anti-de Sitter black holes exhibit van der Waals-type phase transition. In the extended phase-space formalism, the critical exponents for any spacetime metric are identical to the standard ones. Motivated by this fact, we give a general expression for the Helmholtz free energy near the critical point, which correctly reproduces these exponents. The idea is similar to the Landau model, which gives a phenomenological description of the usual second-order phase transition. Here, two main inputs are taken into account for the analysis: (a) black holes should have van der Waals-like isotherms, and (b) free energy can be expressed solely as a function of thermodynamic volume and horizon temperature. Resulting analysis shows that the form of Helmholtz free energy correctly encapsulates the features of the Landau function. We also discuss the isolated critical point accompanied by nonstandard values of critical exponents. The whole formalism is then extended to two other criticalities, namely, Y -X and T -S (based on the standard; i.e., nonextended phase space), where X and Y are generalized force and displacement, whereas T and S are the horizon temperature and entropy. We observe that in the former case Gibbs free energy plays the role of Landau function, whereas in the later case, that role is played by the internal energy (here, it is the black hole mass). Our analysis shows that, although the existence of a van der Waals phase transition depends on the explicit form of the black hole metric, the values of the critical exponents are universal in nature.
Topological susceptibility from the overlap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Del Debbio, Luigi; Pica, Claudio
2003-01-01
The chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing of Ginsparg-Wilson fermionic actions constrains the renormalization of the lattice operators; in particular, the topological susceptibility does not require any renormalization, when using a fermionic estimator to define the topological charge. Theref...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Sandro
2018-01-01
Dictionary criticism is part of the lexicographical universe and reviewing of electronic and printed dictionaries is not an exercise in linguistics or in subject fields but an exercise in lexicography. It does not follow from this that dictionary reviews should not be based on a linguistic approach......, but that the linguistic approach is only one of several approaches to dictionary reviewing. Similarly, the linguistic and factual competences of reviewers should not be relegated to an insignificant position in the review process. Moreover, reviewers should define the object of their reviews, the dictionary, as a complex...... information tool with several components and in terms of significant lexicographical features: lexicographical functions, data and structures. This emphasises the fact that dictionaries are much more than mere vessels of linguistic categories, namely lexicographical tools that have been developed to fulfil...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwahn, D.; Mortensen, K.; Frielinghaus, H.
1999-01-01
Thermal composition fluctuations and the associated crossover from the 3D Ising to the isotropic Lifshitz universality class have been studied in a three component mixture made of a critical polymer blend and the corresponding diblock copolymer. The critical exponents were found to be appreciably...... larger than these of the 3D Ising, in agreement with expectations from the larger upper critical dimension. Very near the critical temperature a crossover to a renormalized Lifshitz critical behavior was observed possibly caused by fluctuation induced rearrangements of the diblock copolymers....
Gottlob, A P
1994-01-01
We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional XY model and the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic three-state Potts model. In both cases we compute the difference in the free energies of a system with periodic and a system with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the neighbourhood of the critical coupling. From the finite-size scaling behaviour of this quantity we extract values for the critical temperature and the critical exponent nu that are compatible with recent high statistics Monte Carlo studies of the models. The results for the free energy difference at the critical temperature and for the exponent nu confirm that both models belong to the same universality class.
Holographic butterfly effect at quantum critical points
Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin
2017-10-01
When the Lyapunov exponent λL in a quantum chaotic system saturates the bound λL ≤ 2π k B T , it is proposed that this system has a holographic dual described by a gravity theory. In particular, the butterfly effect as a prominent phenomenon of chaos can ubiquitously exist in a black hole system characterized by a shockwave solution near the horizon. In this paper we propose that the butterfly velocity can be used to diagnose quantum phase transition (QPT) in holographic theories. We provide evidences for this proposal with an anisotropic holographic model exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT), in which the derivatives of the butterfly velocity with respect to system parameters characterizes quantum critical points (QCP) with local extremes in zero temperature limit. We also point out that this proposal can be tested by experiments in the light of recent progress on the measurement of out-of-time-order correlation function (OTOC).
Diffusion in normal and critical transient chaos
Kaufmann, Z; Németh, A; Szépfalusy, P
1997-01-01
In this paper we investigate deterministic diffusion in systems which are spatially extended in certain directions but are restricted in size and open in other directions, consequently particles can escape. We introduce besides the diffusion coefficient D on the chaotic repeller a coefficient ${\\hat D}$ which measures the broadening of the distribution of trajectories during the transient chaotic motion. Both coefficients are explicitly computed for one-dimensional models, and they are found to be different in most cases. We show furthermore that a jump develops in both of the coefficients for most of the initial distributions when we approach the critical borderline where the escape rate equals the Liapunov exponent of a periodic orbit.
Critical properties of short-range Ising spin glasses on a Wheatstone-bridge hierarchical lattice
Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2015-08-01
An Ising spin-glass model with nearest-neighbor interactions, following a symmetric probability distribution, is investigated on a hierarchical lattice of the Wheatstone-bridge family characterized by a fractal dimension D ≈3.58 . The interaction distribution considered is a stretched exponential, which has been shown recently to be very close to the fixed-point coupling distribution, and such a model has been considered lately as a good approach for Ising spin glasses on a cubic lattice. An exact recursion procedure is implemented for calculating site magnetizations, mi=T , as well as correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor spins, T (T denote thermal averages), for a given set of interaction couplings on this lattice. From these local magnetizations and correlations, one can compute important physical quantities, such as the Edwards-Anderson order parameter, the internal energy, and the specific heat. Considering extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit for the order parameter, such as a finite-size scaling approach, it is possible to obtain directly the critical temperature and critical exponents. The transition between the spin-glass and paramagnetic phases is analyzed, and the associated critical exponents β and ν are estimated as β =0.82 (5 ) and ν =2.50 (4 ) , which are in good agreement with the most recent results from extensive numerical simulations on a cubic lattice. Since these critical exponents were obtained from a fixed-point distribution, they are universal, i.e., valid for any coupling distribution considered.
Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.
Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila
2017-04-19
In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.
Antimycotics susceptibility testing of dermatophytes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Dermatophytes are moulds that produce infections of the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. The most common forms among these infections are onychomycosis and tinea pedis affecting 20% of world population. These infections are usually chronic. The treatment of dermatophytoses tends to be prolonged partly because available treatments are not very effective. Antifungal drug consumption and public health expenditure are high worldwide, as well as in Serbia. For adequate therapy, it is necessary to prove infection by isolation of dermatophytes and to test the antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Susceptibility testing is important for the resistance monitoring, epidemiological research and to compare in vitro activities of new antifungal agents. The diffusion and dilution methods of susceptibility tests are used, and technical issues of importance for the proper performance and interpretation of test results are published in the document E.DEF 9.1 (EUCAST and M38-A2 (CLSI. The aim of our paper is to promptly inform the public about technical achievements in this area, as well as the new organization of laboratory for medical mycology in our country. The formation of laboratory networks coordinated by the National Reference Laboratory for the cause of mycosis need to enable interlaboratory studies and further standardization of methods for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, reproducibility of tests and clinical correlation monitoring (MIK values and clinical outcome of dermatophytosis. The importance of the new organization is expected efficient improvement in the dermatophytosis therapy at home, better quality of patient's life and the reduction of the cost of treatment.
Past epidemiologic studies suggest maternal ambient air pollution exposure during critical periods of the pregnancy is associated with fetal development. We introduce a multinomial probit model that allows for the joint identification of susceptible daily periods during the pregn...
Antibiotic susceptibility of Atopobium vaginae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verschraegen Gerda
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that a recently described anaerobic bacterium, Atopobium vaginae is associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV. Thus far the four isolates of this fastidious micro-organism were found to be highly resistant to metronidazole and susceptible for clindamycin, two antibiotics preferred for the treatment of BV. Methods Nine strains of Atopobium vaginae, four strains of Gardnerella vaginalis, two strains of Lactobacillus iners and one strain each of Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii were tested against 15 antimicrobial agents using the Etest. Results All nine strains of A. vaginae were highly resistant to nalidixic acid and colistin while being inhibited by low concentrations of clindamycin (range: G. vaginalis strains were also susceptible for clindamycin ( 256 μg/ml but susceptible to clindamycin (0.023 – 0.125 μg/ml. Conclusion Clindamycin has higher activity against G. vaginalis and A. vaginae than metronidazole, but not all A. vaginae isolates are metronidazole resistant, as seemed to be a straightforward conclusion from previous studies on a more limited number of strains.
Kazemzadeh, E.; Nabi-Bidhendi, M.; Keramati Moezabad, M.; Rezaee, M. R.; Saadat, K.
2007-06-01
This study was carried out to develop an approach applicable for the determination of the cementation exponent in Archie's formula for complex carbonate reservoirs. Evaluation of hydrocarbon saturation is very important in oil reservoir studies. Archie's are the basic equations for saturation evaluation. The coefficients in these equations are normally determined from laboratory data. Archie presented values for these coefficients, which are constants for a sandstone lithology. Because carbonate rocks show drastic variations in lithology due to different texture and pore types, Archie's coefficients, which are more influenced by pore type, should be determined for different types of carbonate. Uncertainties in these coefficients cause many errors in saturation evaluation, especially for oil in situ. The value of the cementation exponent is the main factor that can cause error in saturation determination. In this study, Archie's parameters (a and m) were determined in the laboratory for various petrofacies based on both petrographic studies and CT images. Due to the high dependence of seismic wave velocity on pore shape in carbonate rocks, petrofacies were also determined by using wave velocity deviation logs. Archie's parameters were then determined for each petrofacies. The results showed that cementation exponent increases in value with increasing velocity deviation values. It is concluded that the correlation coefficient for different petrofacies obtained from velocity deviation logs is comparatively higher than that obtained solely from petrographic studies. Considering the fact that petrophysical data are more accessible than core-based petrography data, the method presented in this study appears to provide a more useful approach in determining Archie's coefficients.
Wang, Aixing; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yibao
2017-01-07
In this article the dynamic features of the highly excited vibrational states of the hypochlorous acid (HOCl) non-integrable system are studied using the dynamic potential and Lyapunov exponent approaches. On the condition that the 3:1 resonance between the H-O stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes accompany the 2:1 Fermi resonance between the O-Cl stretching and H-O-Cl bending modes, it is found that the dynamic potentials of the highly excited vibrational states vary regularly with different Polyad numbers (P numbers). As the P number increases, the dynamic potentials of the H-O stretching mode remain the same, but those of the H-O-Cl bending mode gradually become complex. In order to investigate the chaotic and stable features of the highly excited vibrational states of the HOCl non-integrable system, the Lyapunov exponents of different energy levels lying in the dynamic potentials of the H-O-Cl bending mode (P = 4 and 5) are calculated. It is shown that the Lyapunov exponents of the energy levels staying in the junction of Morse potential and inverse Morse potential are relative large, which indicates the degrees of chaos for these energy levels is relatively high, but the stabilities of the corresponding states are good. These results could be interpreted as the intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR) acting strongly via the HOCl bending motion and causing energy transfers among different modes. Based on the previous studies, these conclusions seem to be generally valid to some extent for non-integrable triatomic molecules.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benali, A., E-mail: benaliadel96@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, Sfax 3000 (Tunisia); Bejar, M.; Dhahri, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, B.P. 1171, Sfax 3000 (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2015-07-25
Highlights: • For all samples, The PM–FM phase transition is identified to be second order. • The β, γ and δ critical exponents are determined with various techniques. • We deduce from (RS) that the mean-field model is the most adequate model. • The introduction of Pb ions enhances the value of the critical exponent β. • Critical exponents depend on ratio of secondary phase and change in B–O distances. - Abstract: The critical properties of ferrite perovskite La{sub 0.8}Ca{sub 0.2−x}Pb{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2) compounds at the ferromagnetic–paramagnetic (FM–PM) transition have been analyzed. Experimental results revealed that all samples exhibit a second-order magnetic phase transition. The estimated critical exponents derived from the magnetic data using various techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel–Fisher method, and critical magnetization isotherms M (T{sub C}, H). The critical exponent values for all samples are in a close agreement with those predicted for the mean-field theory. The reason for this behavior may be long-range interactions between spins in this system.
Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'
Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H
2003-01-01
The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.
Quantum superconductor-insulator transition: implications of BKT critical behavior.
Schneider, T; Weyeneth, S
2013-07-31
We explore the implications of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) critical behavior on the two-dimensional (2D) quantum superconductor-insulator (QSI) transition driven by the tuning parameter x. Concentrating on the sheet resistance R(x,T) BKT behavior implies: an explicit quantum scaling function for R(x,T) along the superconducting branch ending at the nonuniversal critical value Rc = R(xc); a BKT-transition line T(c)(x) [proportionality] (x - x(c))(zν[overline]), where z is the dynamic exponent and ν[overline] the exponent of the zero-temperature correlation length; independent estimates of zν[overline], z and ν[overline] from the x dependence of the nonuniversal parameters entering the BKT expression for the sheet resistance. To illustrate the potential and the implications of this scenario we analyze the data of Bollinger et al (2011 Nature 472 458) taken on gate voltage tuned epitaxial films of La2-xSrxCuO4 that are one unit cell in thickness. The resulting estimates, z ~/= 3.1 and ν[overline] ~/= 0.52, indicate a clean 2D-QSI critical point where hyperscaling, the proportionality between d/λ(2)(0) and Tc, and the correspondence between the quantum phase transitions in D dimensions and the classical ones in (D + z) dimensions are violated.
Three-state anti-ferromagnetic Potts model in three dimensions universality and critical amplitudes
Gottlob, A P
1994-01-01
We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic 3-state Potts model. We compute various cumulants in the neighbourhood of the critical coupling. The comparison of the results with a recent high statistics study of the 3D XY model strongly supports the hypothesis that both models belong to the same universality class. From our numerical data for the anti-ferromagnetic 3-state Potts model we obtain for the critical coupling \\coup_c=0.81563(3), and for the static critical exponents .gamma. /.nu. = 1.973(9) and .nu. = 0.664(4).
Net baryons in heavy-ion collisions and the QCD critical point
Antoniou, Nikos G
2002-01-01
The net-baryon density at midrapidity is proposed as an order parameter in the search for the QCD critical point in heavy ion collisions. As a function of the initial energy and the total number of participants, this quantity obeys a scaling law, dictated by the critical exponents of the appropriate universality class. The corresponding scaling variable specifies the proximity of a given experiment to the critical point. Within this framework, measurements at the SPS are discussed and predictions for RHIC and LHC are extracted. (12 refs).
P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2016-01-01
Interpreting the cosmological constant as pressure, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system. The critical exponents for the phase transition for all AdS black holes are exactly same as those for the van der Waals system. Till now this has been observed case by case. Here, without using any specific form of the black hole metric, we present a general framework based on just two universal inputs. These are the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this general analysis. Therefore there is no need to investigate for a particular metric. The importance of our analysis is that it highlights the observed universality, as well as revels the reason for such universality.
Critical phenomena of a hybrid phase transition in cluster merging dynamics
Choi, K.; Lee, Deokjae; Cho, Y. S.; Thiele, J. C.; Herrmann, H. J.; Kahng, B.
2017-10-01
Recently, a hybrid percolation transition (HPT) that exhibits both a discontinuous transition and critical behavior at the same transition point has been observed in diverse complex systems. While the HPT induced by avalanche dynamics has been studied extensively, the HPT induced by cluster merging dynamics (HPT-CMD) has received little attention. Here, we aim to develop a theoretical framework for the HPT-CMD. We find that two correlation-length exponents are necessary for characterizing the giant cluster and finite clusters separately. The conventional formula of the fractal dimension in terms of the critical exponents is not valid. Neither the giant nor finite clusters are fractals, but they have fractal boundaries. A finite-size scaling method for the HPT-CMD is also introduced.
Systematic study of the Grüneisen ratio near quantum critical points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Küchler, P. Gegenwart, C. Geibel and F. Steglich
2007-01-01
Full Text Available At any pressure-sensitive quantum critical point (QCP, the volume thermal expansion coefficient is more singular than the specific heat. Consequently, the resulting critical Grüneisen ratio Γcr~βcr/Ccr, where βcr and Ccr denote the thermal expansion and specific heat after subtraction of non-critical background contributions, diverges. The related critical exponent epsilon in Γcr~T−epsilon can be used to characterize the nature of the underlying quantum critical fluctuations. We have performed a comparative study on various heavy fermion (HF systems close to antiferromagnetic QCPs. In particular, we have studied (i CeIn3−xSnx, (ii CeNi2Ge2, (iii YbRh2(Si0.95Ge0.052, as well as (iv CeCu5.8Ag0.2, all of which show a divergent Grüneisen ratio. For the two former systems the critical exponent epsilon=1 is compatible with the predictions of the well-established Hertz–Millis–Moriya theory for three-dimensional extended quantum critical fluctuations. By contrast, for the two latter systems epsilon<1 is found to be incompatible with "conventional" quantum criticality. Our results thus suggest the existence of at least two different classes of QCPs in HF systems.
Patel, Niravkumar D.; Mukherjee, Anamitra; Kaushal, Nitin; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio
2017-08-01
We employ a recently developed computational many-body technique to study for the first time the half-filled Anderson-Hubbard model at finite temperature and arbitrary correlation U and disorder V strengths. Interestingly, the narrow zero temperature metallic range induced by disorder from the Mott insulator expands with increasing temperature in a manner resembling a quantum critical point. Our study of the resistivity temperature scaling Tα for this metal reveals non-Fermi liquid characteristics. Moreover, a continuous dependence of α on U and V from linear to nearly quadratic is observed. We argue that these exotic results arise from a systematic change with U and V of the "effective" disorder, a combination of quenched disorder and intrinsic localized spins.
Work and power fluctuations in a critical heat engine
Holubec, Viktor; Ryabov, Artem
2017-09-01
We investigate fluctuations of output work for a class of Stirling heat engines with working fluid composed of interacting units and compare these fluctuations to an average work output. In particular, we focus on engine performance close to a critical point where Carnot's efficiency may be attained at a finite power as reported by M. Campisi and R. Fazio [Nat. Commun. 7, 11895 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms11895]. We show that the variance of work output per cycle scales with the same critical exponent as the heat capacity of the working fluid. As a consequence, the relative work fluctuation diverges unless the output work obeys a rather strict scaling condition, which would be very hard to fulfill in practice. Even under this condition, the fluctuations of work and power do not vanish in the infinite system size limit. Large fluctuations of output work thus constitute inseparable and dominant element in performance of the macroscopic heat engines close to a critical point.
Yoon, J.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.
2011-08-01
Regular aerosol observations based on well-calibrated instruments have led to a better understanding of the aerosol radiative budget on Earth. In recent years, these instruments have played an important role in the determination of the increase of anthropogenic aerosols by means of long-term studies. Only few investigations regarding long-term trends of aerosol optical characteristics (e.g. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and Ångström Exponent (ÅE)) have been derived from ground-based observations. This paper aims to derive and discuss linear trends of AOT (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) and ÅE (440-870 nm) using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) spectral observations. Additionally, temporal trends of Coarse- and Fine-mode dominant AOTs (CAOT and FAOT) have been estimated by applying an aerosol classification based on accurate ÅE and Ångström Exponent Difference (ÅED). In order to take into account the fact that cloud disturbance is having a significant influence on the trend analysis of aerosols, we introduce a weighted least squares regression depending on two weights: (1) monthly standard deviation and (2) Number of Observations (NO) per month. Temporal increase of FAOTs prevails over regions dominated by emerging economy or slash-burn agriculture in East Asia and South Africa. On the other hand, insignificant or negative trends for FAOTs are detected over Western Europe and North America. Over desert regions, both increase and decrease of CAOTs are observed depending on meteorological conditions.
Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education
Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.
2011-01-01
This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…
Bacterial Nanoscale Cultures for Phenotypic Multiplexed Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing
Weibull, Emilie; Antypas, Haris; Kjäll, Peter; Brauner, Annelie; Andersson-Svahn, Helene
2014-01-01
An optimal antimicrobial drug regimen is the key to successful clinical outcomes of bacterial infections. To direct the choice of antibiotic, access to fast and precise antibiotic susceptibility profiling of the infecting bacteria is critical. We have developed a high-throughput nanowell antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) device for direct, multiplexed analysis. By processing in real time the optical recordings of nanoscale cultures of reference and clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains with a mathematical algorithm, the time point when growth shifts from lag phase to early logarithmic phase (Tlag) was identified for each of the several hundreds of cultures tested. Based on Tlag, the MIC could be defined within 4 h. Heatmap presentation of data from this high-throughput analysis allowed multiple resistance patterns to be differentiated at a glance. With a possibility to enhance multiplexing capacity, this device serves as a high-throughput diagnostic tool that rapidly aids clinicians in prescribing the optimal antibiotic therapy. PMID:24989602
Dielectric and diamagnetic susceptibilities near percolative superconductor-insulator transitions.
Loh, Yen Lee; Karki, Pragalv
2017-10-25
Coarse-grained superconductor-insulator composites exhibit a superconductor-insulator transition governed by classical percolation, which should be describable by networks of inductors and capacitors. We study several classes of random inductor-capacitor networks on square lattices. We present a unifying framework for defining electric and magnetic response functions, and we extend the Frank-Lobb bond-propagation algorithm to compute these quantities by network reduction. We confirm that the superfluid stiffness scales approximately as [Formula: see text] as the superconducting bond fraction p approaches the percolation threshold p c . We find that the diamagnetic susceptibility scales as [Formula: see text] below percolation, and as [Formula: see text] above percolation. For models lacking self-capacitances, the electric susceptibility scales as [Formula: see text]. Including a self-capacitance on each node changes the critical behavior to approximately [Formula: see text].
Arumugam, S.; Devarajan, U.; Esakki Muthu, S.; Singh, Sanjay; Thiyagarajan, R.; Raja, M. Manivel; Rama Rao, N. V.; Banerjee, Alok
2017-11-01
In this work, we have investigated structural, transport, magnetic, magnetocaloric (MC) properties and critical exponents analysis of the (Ni2.1-xCox)Mn0.9 Ga (x = 0, 0.04, 0.12 and 0.2) Heusler alloys. For all compositions, cubic austenite (A) phase with metallic character is observed at room temperature (RT). With increasing of Co content, magnitude of resistivity decreases, whereas residual resistivity (ρ0) and electron scattering factor (A) increases linearly. Magnetic measurements exhibit that ferromagnetic (FM) Curie temperature (TCA) increases towards RT by increasing Co concentration. All samples show conventional MC and maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSMpeak) of -2.8 Jkg-1 K-1 is observed for x = 0.12 at 147 K under 5 T. Further, hysteresis is observed between cooling and warming cycles around FM-PM (TCA) transition in x = 0, 0.04 samples, which suggests that first order nature of transition. However, there is no hysteresis across TCA for x = 0.12 and 0.2 samples suggesting second-order nature of the transition. The critical exponents are calculated for x = 0.12 sample around TCA using Arrott plot and Kouvel-Fisher method, the estimated critical exponents are found closer to the mean-field model reveals the long range ferromagnetic ordering in this composition.
Quantum criticality of bosonic systems with the Lifshitz dispersion
Wu, Jianda; Zhou, Fei; Wu, Congjun
2017-08-01
We study a novel type of quantum criticality of the Lifshitz φ4 theory below the upper critical dimension du=z +dc=8 , where the dynamic critical exponent z =4 and the spatial upper critical dimension dc=4 . Two fixed points, one Gaussian and the other non-Gaussian, are identified with zero and finite interaction strengths, respectively. At zero temperature the particle density exhibits different power-law dependences on the chemical potential in the weak- and strong-interaction regions. At finite temperatures, critical behaviors in the quantum disordered region are mainly controlled by the chemical potential. In contrast, in the quantum critical region critical scalings are determined by temperature. The scaling ansatz remains valid in the strong-interaction limit for the chemical potential, correlation length, and particle density, while it breaks down in the weak-interaction one. Approaching the upper critical dimension, physical quantities develop logarithmic dependence on dimensionality in the strong-interaction region. These results are applied to spin-orbit coupled bosonic systems, leading to predictions testable by future experiments.
Importance of subleading corrections for the Mott critical point
Tremblay, A.-M. S.; Semon, Patrick
2013-03-01
The interaction-induced metal-insulator transition should be in the Ising universality class. Experiments on layered organic superconductors suggest instead that the observed critical endpoint of the first-order Mott transition in d = 2 does not belong to any of the known universality classes for thermal phase transitions. In particular, it is found that δ = 2 . Given the quantum nature of the two phases involved in the transition, we use dynamical mean-field theory and a cluster generalization to investigate whether the new exponents could arise as transient quantum behavior preceding the asymptotic critical behavior. In the cluster calculation, a canonical transformation that minimizes the sign problem in continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo calculations allows previously unattainable precision. Our results show that there are important subleading corrections in the mean-field regime that can lead to an apparent exponent δ = 2 . Experiments on optical lattices could verify our predictions for double occupancy. P. Sémon and A.-M.S. Tremblay, Phys. Rev. B 85, 201101(R)/1-5 (2012). Supported by NSERC, Canada Research Chair, CIFAR, CFI, MELS, Calcul Quebec, Compute/Calcul Canada
Baaziz, H.; Tozri, A.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.
2015-04-01
The critical behavior of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 nanoparticles, annealed at different temperatures (H6, H8, H10 and H12 annealed at 600 °C, 800 °C, 1000 °C, 1200 °C, respectively), has been investigated by magnetization measurements. Indeed, the magnetic data indicate that the compound exhibits a continuous (second-order) paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition. The critical exponents are estimated by various techniques such as the Modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm technique. Compared to standard models, the critical exponent values determined in our work are close to those expected for the mean-field model (with β=0.5, γ=1, and δ=3) (H8, H10, and H12). Concerning the sample having a smaller crystallite size (H6), the obtained values of the critical exponents β and δ are similar to those predicted by the mean-field model. However, the value of γ shows a (3D) Heisenberg model-like. This behavior, which is quite new and surprising, shows that the reduction of grain size strongly influences the universality class. Moreover, the decrease of the critical exponents (β, γ, δ) with the increase of grain size has been explained by crossover phenomenon. This result and the other obtained values are explained taking into account the contribution of uncompensated spins at the surface, strain anisotropies, and noncollinear magnetic ordering.
Genetic susceptibility to environmental toxicants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2001-01-01
The toxicological challenges to the chemical industry have in recent years been greatly affected by the rapid innovation and development of analytical, molecular and genetic technologies. ECETOC recognises the importance of developing the technical and intellectual skill bases in academia...... and industrial based laboratories to meet the rapid development of the science base of toxicology. As the technology to determine genetic susceptibility develops, so scientist will be able to describe altered gene expression provoked by chemicals long before they are able to offer valid interpretations...... of their meaning. A potential for inadvertently raising concerns over the effect of chemicals in experimental animals or man, or even the intentional misrepresentation of results to suggest chemicals are “playing” with our genes is enormous. History has shown that some individuals and groups in society are willing...
Critical slowing down of topological modes
Del Debbio, L; Vicari, E; Debbio, Luigi Del; Manca, Gian Mario; Vicari, Ettore
2004-01-01
We investigate the critical slowing down of the topological modes using local updating algorithms in lattice 2-d CP^(N-1) models. We show that the topological modes experience a critical slowing down that is much more severe than the one of the quasi-Gaussian modes relevant to the magnetic susceptibility, which is characterized by $\\tau_{\\rm mag} \\sim \\xi^z$ with $z\\approx 2$. We argue that this may be a general feature of Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories with non-trivial topological properties, such as QCD, as also suggested by recent Monte Carlo simulations of 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theories.
Se analiza la teoría de Jorge Juan sobre la resistencia fluídica, tal como la expone en el Examen
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simón Calero, Julián
2001-12-01
Full Text Available The Jorge Juan theory on fluid resistance is analysed as stated in the Examen Marítimo. The theoretical basis and applications are studied, these range from flat plates to ship hull and sails. The article concludes with a revision of what Juan considers to be its experimental basis and possible forerunners of his theory are traced.
Se analiza la teoría de Jorge Juan sobre la resistencia fluídica, tal como la expone en el Examen Marítimo. Se estudian las bases teóricas y sus aplicaciones, desde placas planas hasta cacos y velas de buques. Se concluye con una revisión de lo que Juan considera sus fundamentos experimentales y se rastrean los posibles antecedentes de su teoría.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hristov Jordan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The heat-balance integral method of Goodman is studied with two simple 1-D heat conduction problems with prescribed temperature and flux boundary conditions. These classical problems with well known exact solutions enable to demonstrate the heat-balance integral method performance by a parabolic profile and the entropy generation minimization concept in definition of the appropriate profile exponent. The basic assumption generating the additional constraints needed to perform the solution is based on the requirement to minimize the difference in the local thermal entropy generation rates calculated by the approximate and the exact profile, respectively. This concept is easily applicable since the general concept has simple implementation of the condition requiring the thermal entropy generations calculated through both profiles to be the same at the boundary. The entropy minimization generation approach automatically generates the additional requirement which is deficient in the set of conditions defined by the heat-balance integral method concept.
Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements
Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.
2017-05-01
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.
Proteochemometric modeling of HIV protease susceptibility
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lapins, Maris; Eklund, Martin; Spjuth, Ola; Prusis, Peteris; Wikberg, Jarl E S
2008-01-01
.... Therefore, we used proteochemometrics to model the susceptibility of HIV to protease inhibitors in current use, utilizing descriptions of the physico-chemical properties of mutated HIV proteases...
Chen, Xiang; Zhuang, Yinghong
2017-07-01
The scaling critical behaviors of Gd12Co7 compound around TC were investigated based on the M-H curves in a magnetic field change of 0-2 T. The critical exponents β and γ determined by modified Arrott plot (MAP) and Kouvel-Fisher (KF) methods are [β=0.479(5) and γ=1.004(2)] and [β=0.473(2) and γ=0.983(3)], respectively. The exponents δ derived from Widom scaling relation (M T =TC = 163 K = DH 1/δ) and universal relation of the relative cooling power (RCP ∝H 1 +1/δ) are δ=3.032(8) and δ=2.903(1). The average values of critical exponent (β=0.476(3), γ=0.993(7), and δ=2.967(9)) are very close to mean-field model (β=0.5, γ=1, and δ=3), which indicates that the magnetic interactions in Gd12Co7 compound are long-range interactions. The average value of critical exponent n for MAP (0.649(1)), KF (0.638(3)), and | ΔSM | ∝Hn(0.714(8)) at TC is 0.667(4) and well in agreement with mean field long-range interaction model (n = 2 / 3). The plot M 1/βvs.(H / M) 1/γ constructed by above critical exponents fall into two distinct branches above and below TC and completely complies with the scaling hypothesis. At the same time, the normalized curve of magnetic entropy change shows that renormalized magnetic entropy change Δ S ‧ of Gd12Co7 is mainly determined by a=1.548(1) and b=1.549(3) in Lorentz function.
What Is Critical in Critical Language Awareness?
Males, Terry
2000-01-01
Discusses the question of what is critical in critical language awareness by drawing on Hans Georg Gadamer's development of the dialectic of experience, historically effected consciousness, and the dialectic of question and answer. The openness found to characterize these three events initiates the space of distance by which the critical instance…
Ferrell, Richard A.
1996-01-01
The modern theory of second order phase transitions is very successful in calculating the critical exponents as an asymptotic expansion in powers of epsilon = 4 - D, the deviation of D = 3, the spatial dimension of the actual physical system from that of the abstract four-dimensional reference model. This remarkable mathematical 'tour de force' leaves unanswered, however, many fundamental questions concerning the exact nature of how the fluctuations interact. I discuss here some experiments which would help to further our understanding of the equilibrium critical properties. Especially promising would be a measurement of the temperature dependence of the turbidity very close to the critical point. This has the promise of determining the small and elusive but fundamentally important anomalous dimension exponent eta. I also review various ways of measuring the critical transport coefficients and point out some cases where ground based experiments may usefully supplement flight experiments.
Critical phenomena in higher curvature charged AdS black holes
Lala, Arindam
2012-01-01
In this paper we have studied the critical phenomena in higher curvature charged black holes in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time. As an example we have considered the third order Lovelock-Born-Infeld black holes in AdS space-time. We have analytically derived the thermodynamic quantities of the system. Our analysis revealed the onset of a higher order phase transition in the black hole leading to an infinite discontinuity in the specific heat at constant charge at the critical points. Our entire analysis is based on the canonical framework where we have fixed the charge of the black hole. In an attempt to study the behavior of the thermodynamic quantities near the critical points we have derived the critical exponents of the system explicitly. Although the values of the critical points have been determined numerically, the critical exponents are calculated analytically. Our results fit well with the thermodynamic scaling laws. The scaling hypothesis is also seen to be consistent with these scaling laws. We...
Critical behavior in the antiperovskite Mn3CuN at ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition
Yin, Y.; Han, J. C.; Yuan, Q.; Ling, L. S.; Song, B.
2013-11-01
We have investigated the critical behavior of Mn3CuN in the ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) transition. Critical behavior of Mn3CuN can be divided into two stages around Curie temperature (TC): i) ZI (T>TC) and ii) ZII (T
The origin of the criticality in meme popularity distribution on complex networks
Kim, Yup; Park, Seokjong; Yook, Soon-Hyung
2016-03-01
Previous studies showed that the meme popularity distribution is described by a heavy-tailed distribution or a power-law, which is a characteristic feature of the criticality. Here, we study the origin of the criticality on non-growing and growing networks based on the competition induced criticality model. From the direct Mote Carlo simulations and the exact mapping into the position dependent biased random walk (PDBRW), we find that the meme popularity distribution satisfies a very robust power- law with exponent α = 3/2 if there is an innovation process. On the other hand, if there is no innovation, then we find that the meme popularity distribution is bounded and highly skewed for early transient time periods, while it satisfies a power-law with exponent α ≠ 3/2 for intermediate time periods. The exact mapping into PDBRW clearly shows that the balance between the creation of new memes by the innovation process and the extinction of old memes is the key factor for the criticality. We confirm that the balance for the criticality sustains for relatively small innovation rate. Therefore, the innovation processes with significantly influential memes should be the simple and fundamental processes which cause the critical distribution of the meme popularity in real social networks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chai, Kan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lin, Tiesong, E-mail: hitjoining@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); He, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Jianfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)
2015-10-15
The growth kinetics of the diffusion layer between molten Sn and Zr{sub 55}Cu{sub 30}Al{sub 10}Ni{sub 5} bulk metallic glass (BMG) substrate were examined by isothermal aging at the temperature range between 513 and 633 K with 30 K temperature interval. The aged samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The growth of the diffusion layer is mainly controlled by a diffusion-controlled mechanism over the temperature range at stage I, and the value of the time exponent is approximately 1/2 by fitting the experiment data. As well as there is unusual stage II, whose time exponent of the growth is suppressed to 1/3. Based on phenomenological description, it could deduced that phase transition such like nucleation and coalescence occur in vicinity of the interface of diffusion layer at the late stage of clusters growth processes similar to Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Linear fitting of all experiment data of the thickness derivate the time exponent n be suppressed from 0.52 to 0.36. • There is the value of the time exponent following two stages by fitting the data segmentations. • The value of the time exponent is 1/2 at stage I, and 1/3 at stage II. • Phase transition such like nucleation, coalescence occur in vicinity of the interface of diffusion layer at stage II.
Effective and fundamental quantum fields at criticality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherer, Michael
2010-10-28
We employ Wetterich's approach to functional renormalization as a suitable method to investigate universal phenomena in non-perturbative quantum field theories both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore we derive and investigate flow equations for a class of chiral Yukawa models with and without gauge bosons and reveal fixed-point mechanisms. In four dimensions chiral Yukawa systems serve as toy models for the standard model Higgs sector and show signatures of asymptotically safe fixed points by a balancing of bosonic and fermionic contributions. In the approximations investigated this renders the theory fundamental and solves the triviality problem. Further, we obtain predictions for the Higgs mass and even for the top mass of our toy model. In three dimensions we compute the critical exponents which define new universality classes and provide benchmark values for systems of strongly correlated chiral fermions. In a Yukawa system of non-relativistic two-component fermions a fixed point dominates the renormalization flow giving rise to universality in the BCS-BEC crossover. We push the functional renormalization method to a quantitative level and we compute the critical temperature and the single-particle gap with a considerable precision for the whole crossover. Finally, we provide further evidence for the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity by confirming the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point under inclusion of a curvature-ghost coupling. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, H W; Rutkevich, S; Gerwinski, A [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany)
2003-04-25
The critical behaviour of semi-infinite d-dimensional systems with short-range interactions and an O(n) invariant Hamiltonian is investigated at an m-axial Lifshitz point with an isotropic wave-vector instability in an m-dimensional subspace of R{sup d} parallel to the surface. Continuum |{phi}|{sup 4} models representing the associated universality classes of surface critical behaviour are constructed. In the boundary parts of their Hamiltonians quadratic derivative terms (involving a dimensionless coupling constant {lambda}) must be included in addition to the familiar ones {proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}. Beyond one-loop order the infrared-stable fixed points describing the ordinary, special and extraordinary transitions in d = 4 + m/2 - {epsilon} dimensions (with {epsilon} > 0) are located at {lambda} = {lambda}* = O({epsilon}). At second order in {epsilon}, the surface critical exponents of both the ordinary and the special transitions start to deviate from their m = 0 analogues. Results to order {epsilon}{sup 2} are presented for the surface critical exponent {beta}{sup ord}{sub 1} of the ordinary transition. The scaling dimension of the surface energy density is shown to be given exactly by d + m({theta} - 1), where {theta} = {nu}{sub l4}/{nu}{sub l2} is the bulk anisotropy exponent. (letter to the editor)
Critical behavior of the three-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet RbMnF_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Coldea, R.; Cowley, R.A.; Perring, T.G.
1998-01-01
. In agreement with previous measurements, at T-N and for wave vectors away from the AF zone center, the scattering has a quasielastic component in addition to the inelastic response predicted by renormalization-group and mode-coupling theories. Both components scale with the dynamic exponent z = 1.43 +/- 0.......04, in agreement with dynamic scaling. On cooling below T-N the inelastic peaks transform into the transverse spin waves and a crossover has been observed in the dispersion from a power-law relation omega(q) = Aq(z) at T-N to a linear behavior omega(q) = cq in the hydrodynamic region below T-N. The quasielastic...... component evolves below T-N into the longitudinal susceptibility identified in an earlier polarized neutron experiment. The intensity and energy width of the longitudinal scattering decrease on cooling below T-N. Down to the lowest temperatures where the longitudinal susceptibility could be measured...
Wavevector-Dependent Susceptibility in Quasiperiodic Ising Models
Au-Yang, Helen; Jin, Bai-Qi; Perk, Jacques H. H.
2001-02-01
Using the various functional relations for correlation functions in planar Ising models, new results are obtained for the correlation functions and the q-dependent susceptibility for Ising models on a quadratic lattice with quasiperiodic coupling constants. The effects are clearest if the interactions are both attractive and repulsive according to a quasiperiodic pattern. In particular, an exact scaling limit result for the two-point correlation function of the Z-invariant inhomogeneous Ising model is presented and the q-dependent susceptibility is calculated for some cases where the coupling constants vary according to Fibonacci rules. It is found that the ferromagnetic case differs drastically from the case with both ferro- and antiferromagnetic bonds. In the mixed case, the peaks of the q-dependent susceptibility are everywhere dense for temperature T both above or below the critical temperature Tc, but due to overlap only a finite number of peaks is visible. This number of visible peaks decreases as T moves away from Tc. In the ferromagnetic case, there is typically only one single peak at q=0, in spite of the aperiodicity present in the lattice. These results provide evidence that in real systems, even if the atoms arrange themselves aperiodically, there will be no dramatic difference in the diffraction pattern, unless the pair correlation function has clear aperiodic oscillations. The number of oscillations per correlation length determines the number of visible peaks.
Critical cooperation range to improve spatial network robustness.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitor H P Louzada
Full Text Available A robust worldwide air-transportation network (WAN is one that minimizes the number of stranded passengers under a sequence of airport closures. Building on top of this realistic example, here we address how spatial network robustness can profit from cooperation between local actors. We swap a series of links within a certain distance, a cooperation range, while following typical constraints of spatially embedded networks. We find that the network robustness is only improved above a critical cooperation range. Such improvement can be described in the framework of a continuum transition, where the critical exponents depend on the spatial correlation of connected nodes. For the WAN we show that, except for Australia, all continental networks fall into the same universality class. Practical implications of this result are also discussed.
Catastrophic Failure and Critical Scaling Laws of Fiber Bundle Material
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shengwang Hao
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a spring-fiber bundle model used to describe the failure process induced by energy release in heterogeneous materials. The conditions that induce catastrophic failure are determined by geometric conditions and energy equilibrium. It is revealed that the relative rates of deformation of, and damage to the fiber bundle with respect to the boundary controlling displacement ε0 exhibit universal power law behavior near the catastrophic point, with a critical exponent of −1/2. The proportion of the rate of response with respect to acceleration exhibits a linear relationship with increasing displacement in the vicinity of the catastrophic point. This allows for the prediction of catastrophic failure immediately prior to failure by extrapolating the trajectory of this relationship as it asymptotes to zero. Monte Carlo simulations are completed and these two critical scaling laws are confirmed.
Critical fitness collapse in three-dimensional spatial population genetics
Lavrentovich, Maxim O.
2015-05-01
If deleterious mutations near a fitness maximum in a spatially distributed population are sufficiently frequent or detrimental, the population can undergo a fitness collapse, similarly to the Muller's ratchet effect in well-mixed populations. Recent studies of 1D habitats (e.g. the frontier of a 2D range expansion) have shown that the onset of the fitness collapse is described by a directed percolation phase transition with its associated critical exponents. We consider population fitness collapse in 3D range expansions with both inflating and fixed-size frontiers (applicable to, e.g. expanding and treadmilling spherical tumors, respectively). We find that the onset of fitness collapse in these two cases obeys different scaling laws, and that competition between species at the frontier leads to a deviation from directed percolation scaling. As in 2D range expansions, inflating frontiers modify the critical behavior by causally disconnecting well-separated portions of the population.
Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2010-09-15
We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)
Dynamic critical behavior of an extended reptation dynamics for self-avoiding walks.
Caracciolo, Sergio; Papinutto, Mauro; Pelissetto, Andrea
2002-03-01
We consider lattice self-avoiding walks and discuss the dynamic critical behavior of two dynamics that use local and bilocal moves and generalize the usual reptation dynamics. We determine the integrated and exponential autocorrelation times for several observables, perform a dynamic finite-size scaling study of the autocorrelation functions, and compute the associated dynamic critical exponents z. For the variables that describe the size of the walks, in the absence of interactions we find z approximately 2.2 in two dimensions and z approximately 2.1 in three dimensions. At the theta point in two dimensions we have z approximately 2.3.
On the Existence of Solutions for the Critical Fractional Laplacian Equation in ℝN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zifei Shen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study existence of solutions for the fractional Laplacian equation -Δsu+Vxu=u2*s-2u+fx, u in ℝN, u∈Hs(RN, with critical exponent 2*s=2N/(N-2s, N>2s, s∈0, 1, where Vx≥0 has a potential well and f:ℝN×ℝ→ℝ is a lower order perturbation of the critical power u2*s-2u. By employing the variational method, we prove the existence of nontrivial solutions for the equation.
Környei, László; Pleimling, Michel; Iglói, Ferenc
2008-01-01
The universality class, even the order of the transition, of the two-dimensional Ising model depends on the range and the symmetry of the interactions (Onsager model, Baxter-Wu model, Turban model, etc.), but the critical temperature is generally the same due to self-duality. Here we consider a sudden change in the form of the interaction and study the nonequilibrium critical dynamical properties of the nearest-neighbor model. The relaxation of the magnetization and the decay of the autocorrelation function are found to display a power law behavior with characteristic exponents that depend on the universality class of the initial state.
Scaling of the fidelity susceptibility in a disordered quantum spin chain
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Garnerone, Silvano; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo
2009-05-01
The phase diagram of a quantum XY spin chain with Gaussian-distributed random anisotropies and transverse fields is investigated, with focus on the fidelity susceptibility, a recently introduced quantum information theoretical measure. Monitoring the finite-size scaling of the probability distribution of this quantity as well as its average and typical values, we detect a disorder-induced disappearance of criticality and the emergence of Griffiths phases in this model. It is found that the fidelity susceptibility is not self-averaging near the disorder-free quantum-critical lines. At the Ising critical point the fidelity susceptibility scales as a disorder-strength independent stretched exponential of the system size, in contrast with the quadratic scaling at the corresponding point in the disorder-free XY chain. Along the line where the average anisotropy vanishes the fidelity susceptibility appears to scale extensively, whereas in the disorder-free case this point is quantum critical with quadratic finite-size scaling.
Search for new breast cancer susceptibility genes
Oldenburg, Rogier Abel
2008-01-01
This thesis describes the search for new high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes by linkage analysis. To date 20-25% of familial breast cancer is explained by mutations in the high-risk BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes. For the remaining families the genetic etiology is
Mapping markers linked to porcine salmonellosis susceptibility
Galina-Pantoja, L.; Siggens, K.; Schriek, van M.G.M.; Heuven, H.C.M.
2009-01-01
The goal of this study was to identify pig chromosomal regions associated with susceptibility to salmonellosis. Genomic DNA from pig reference populations with differences in susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis as quantified by spleen and liver bacterial colonization at day 7
Crystal morphology change by magnetic susceptibility force
Katsuki, Aiko; Aibara, Shigeo; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi
2006-01-01
We found a change in morphology when lysozyme crystals were grown in a magnetic field. The phenomenon was caused by the magnetic force derived from the magnetic susceptibility gradient. We propose that this force should be called the “magnetic susceptibility force".
On the critical properties of the topological Ginzburg-Landau model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calan, C. de; Nogueira, F.S. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Malbouisson, A.P.C.; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1998-04-01
We consider a Ginzburg-Landau model for superconductivity with a Chern-Simons term added. The flow diagram contains two charged fixed points corresponding to the tricritical and infrared stable fixed points. The topological coupling controls the fixed point structure and eventually the region of first order transitions disappears. We compute the critical exponents as a function of the topological coupling. We obtain that the value of the v exponent does not vary much from the XY value, v{sub xy} = 0.67. This shows that the Chern-Simons term does not affect considerably the XY scaling of superconductors. We discuss briefly the possible phenomenological applications of this model. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs.
Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Klein, Alison P
2012-01-01
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Genetic Susceptibility to Pancreatic Cancer
Klein, Alison P.
2013-01-01
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. However, it has the poorest prognosis of any major tumor type, with a 5-yr survival rate of approximately 5%. Cigarette smoking, increased body mass index, heavy alcohol consumption, and a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus have all been demonstrated to increase risk of pancreatic cancer. A family history of pancreatic cancer has also been associated with increased risk suggesting inherited genetic factors also play an important role, with approximately 5–10% of pancreatic cancer patients reporting family history of pancreatic cancer. While the genetic basis for the majority of the familial clustering of pancreatic cancer remains unclear, several important pancreatic cancer genes have been identified. These consist of high penetrance genes including BRCA2 or PALB2, to more common genetic variation associated with a modest increase risk of pancreatic cancer such as genetic variation at the ABO blood group locus. Recent advances in genotyping and genetic sequencing have accelerated the rate at which novel pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes have been identified with several genes identified within the past few years. This review addresses our current understanding of the familial aggregation of pancreatic cancer, established pancreatic cancer susceptablity genes and how this knowledge informs risk assessment and screening for high-risk families. PMID:22162228
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Rice, Mary Anna [North Carolina State University; Daigle, Hugh
2015-12-14
Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.
Nuclear criticality safety guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.
1996-09-01
This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.
Simulated field maps for susceptibility artefact correction in interventional MRI.
Kochan, Martin; Daga, Pankaj; Burgos, Ninon; White, Mark; Cardoso, M Jorge; Mancini, Laura; Winston, Gavin P; McEvoy, Andrew W; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Duncan, John S; Stoyanov, Danail; Ourselin, Sébastien
2015-09-01
Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is a powerful modality for acquiring images of the brain to facilitate precise image-guided neurosurgery. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) provides critical information about location, orientation and structure of nerve fibre tracts, but suffers from the "susceptibility artefact" stemming from magnetic field perturbations due to the step change in magnetic susceptibility at air-tissue boundaries in the head. An existing approach to correcting the artefact is to acquire a field map by means of an additional MRI scan. However, to recover true field maps from the acquired field maps near air-tissue boundaries is challenging, and acquired field maps are unavailable in historical MRI data sets. This paper reports a detailed account of our method to simulate field maps from structural MRI scans that was first presented at IPCAI 2014 and provides a thorough experimental and analysis section to quantitatively validate our technique. We perform automatic air-tissue segmentation of intraoperative MRI scans, feed the segmentation into a field map simulation step and apply the acquired and the simulated field maps to correct DW-MRI data sets. We report results for 12 patient data sets acquired during anterior temporal lobe resection surgery for the surgical management of focal epilepsy. We find a close agreement between acquired and simulated field maps and observe a statistically significant reduction in the susceptibility artefact in DW-MRI data sets corrected using simulated field maps in the vicinity of the resection. The artefact reduction obtained using acquired field maps remains better than that using the simulated field maps in all evaluated regions of the brain. The proposed simulated field maps facilitate susceptibility artefact reduction near the resection. Accurate air-tissue segmentation is key to achieving accurate simulation. The proposed simulation approach is adaptable to different iMRI and neurosurgical applications.
Critical behavior of the quantum Ising model on a fractal structure.
Yi, Hangmo
2013-07-01
We study the critical behavior of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on a fractal structure, namely the Sierpinski carpet. When a magnetic field Δ is applied perpendicular to the Ising spin direction, quantum fluctuations affect the transition between the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic phases. Employing the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, we investigate the interplay between the quantum fluctuations and the exotic dimensionality of the fractal structure and its effect on the critical behavior. As the transverse magnetic field increases, the critical temperature monotonically decreases until it apparently vanishes at a critical field Δ(c), beyond which the system becomes paramagnetic at all temperatures. However, the critical exponents are independent of Δ and remain the same as in the purely classical(Δ=0) case.
A birational mapping with a strange attractor: post-critical set and covariant curves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouamra, M; Hassani, S [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, BP 399, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Maillard, J-M [LPTMC, CNRS, Universite de Paris, Tour 24, 4eme etage, case 121, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: bouamrafr@yahoo.com, E-mail: maillard@lptmc.jussieu.fr, E-mail: maillard@lptl.jussieu.fr
2009-09-04
We consider some two-dimensional birational transformations. One of them is a birational deformation of the Henon map. For some of these birational mappings, the post-critical set (i.e. the iterates of the critical set) is infinite and we show that this gives straightforwardly the algebraic covariant curves of the transformation when they exist. These covariant curves are used to build the preserved meromorphic 2-form. One may also have an infinite post-critical set yielding a covariant curve which is not algebraic (transcendental). For two of the birational mappings considered, the post-critical set is finite and we claim that there is no algebraic covariant curve and no preserved meromorphic 2-form. For these two mappings with finite post-critical sets, attracting sets occur and we show that they pass the usual tests (Lyapunov exponents and the fractal dimension) for being strange attractors. The strange attractor of one of these two mappings is unbounded.
AC susceptibility as a characterization tool for coated conductor tapes
Gömöry, F.; Vojenčiak, M.; Solovyov, M.; Frolek, L.; Šouc, J.; Seiler, E.; Bauer, M.; Falter, M.
2017-11-01
The measurement and analysis of magnetic AC susceptibility is a useful tool in the study of superconductor (SC) materials. Exposure of a sample to a magnetic field changing in time generates loops of electrical currents that are detectable in a contactless way with the help of a suitable pick-up system. In this paper the applicability of this technique in the characterization and quality control of coated conductor (CC) tapes is evaluated. First we recollect the essential results of the analytical theory derived for thin SC strips and their extrapolation to strips with finite thickness. From the analytical expressions one can see how the properties of CC tape that are important for application in electric power devices, namely its critical current and AC loss, can be deduced from AC susceptibility data in straightforward way. The main focus of our study is to investigate the influence that various cases of non-uniformities in SC layer exhibit on the magnetic properties examined in an AC regime. Numerical computations were used to explore the consequences of lateral variation in the critical current density. Predictions derived for some model cases were compared with experimental findings. A dedicated experiment was also carried out to demonstrate that a transverse scratch that would be detrimental for DC transport could sneak unobserved through the AC magnetic experiment on a long sample. Our study shows that the analysis of both parts of the complex magnetic susceptibility in place of a mere AC loss determination in a common AC magnetization experiment is worth the additional effort.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uwe C. Täuber
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The universal critical behavior of the driven-dissipative nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation transition is investigated employing the field-theoretical renormalization group method. Such criticality may be realized in broad ranges of driven open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases. The starting point is a noisy and dissipative Gross-Pitaevski equation corresponding to a complex-valued Landau-Ginzburg functional, which captures the near critical nonequilibrium dynamics, and generalizes model A for classical relaxational dynamics with nonconserved order parameter. We confirm and further develop the physical picture previously established by means of a functional renormalization group study of this system. Complementing this earlier numerical analysis, we analytically compute the static and dynamical critical exponents at the condensation transition to lowest nontrivial order in the dimensional ε expansion about the upper critical dimension d_{c}=4 and establish the emergence of a novel universal scaling exponent associated with the nonequilibrium drive. We also discuss the corresponding situation for a conserved order parameter field, i.e., (subdiffusive model B with complex coefficients.
Invaded cluster algorithm for critical properties of periodic and aperiodic planar Ising models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redner, Oliver; Baake, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany)
2000-04-28
We demonstrate that the invaded cluster algorithm, introduced by Machta et al (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 2792-5), is a fast and reliable tool for determining the critical temperature and the magnetic critical exponent of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic Ising models in two dimensions. The algorithm is shown to reproduce the known values of the critical temperature on various periodic and quasiperiodic graphs with an accuracy of more than three significant digits, but only modest computational effort. On two quasiperiodic graphs which were not investigated in this respect before, the 12-fold symmetric square-triangle tiling and the 10-fold symmetric Tuebingen triangle tiling, we determine the critical temperature. Furthermore, a generalization of the algorithm to non-identical coupling strengths is presented and applied to a class of Ising models on the Labyrinth tiling. For generic cases in which the heuristic Harris-Luck criterion predicts deviations from the Onsager universality class, we find a magnetic critical exponent different from the Onsager value. But notable exceptions to the criterion are found which consist not only of the exactly solvable cases, in agreement with a recent exact result, but also of the self-dual ones and maybe more. (author)
Invaded cluster algorithm for critical properties of periodic and aperiodic planar Ising models
Redner, Oliver; Baake, Michael
2000-04-01
We demonstrate that the invaded cluster algorithm, introduced by Machta et al (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 2792-5), is a fast and reliable tool for determining the critical temperature and the magnetic critical exponent of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic Ising models in two dimensions. The algorithm is shown to reproduce the known values of the critical temperature on various periodic and quasiperiodic graphs with an accuracy of more than three significant digits, but only modest computational effort. On two quasiperiodic graphs which were not investigated in this respect before, the 12-fold symmetric square-triangle tiling and the 10-fold symmetric Tübingen triangle tiling, we determine the critical temperature. Furthermore, a generalization of the algorithm to non-identical coupling strengths is presented and applied to a class of Ising models on the Labyrinth tiling. For generic cases in which the heuristic Harris-Luck criterion predicts deviations from the Onsager universality class, we find a magnetic critical exponent different from the Onsager value. But notable exceptions to the criterion are found which consist not only of the exactly solvable cases, in agreement with a recent exact result, but also of the self-dual ones and maybe more.
Garg, S.; Sinha, B.; Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Sarda Esteve, R.; Gros, V.
2015-12-01
Determining the contribution of different sources to the total BC is necessary for targeted mitigation. Absorption Angstrom exponent (αabs) measurements of black carbon (BC) have recently been introduced as a novel tool to apportion the contribution of biomass burning sources to BC. Two-component Aethalometer model for apportioning BC to biomass burning sources and fossil fuel combustion sources, which uses αabs as a generic indicator of the source type, is widely used for determining the contribution of the two types of sources to the total BC. Our work studies BC emissions in the highly-populated, anthropogenic emissions-dominated Indo-Gangetic Plain and demonstrates that the αabs cannot be used as a generic tracer for biomass burning emissions in a complex environment. Simultaneously collected high time resolution data from a 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE 42, Magee Scientific, USA) and a high sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction- Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) installed at a sub-urban site in Mohali (Punjab), India, were used to identify a number of biomass combustion plumes during which BC enhancements correlated strongly with an increase in acetonitrile (a well-established biomass burning tracer) mixing ratio. Each type of biomass combustion is classified and characterized by distinct emission ratios of aromatic compounds and oxygenated VOCs to acetonitrile. The identified types of biomass combustion include two different types of crop residue burning (paddy and wheat), burning of leaf-litter, and garbage burning. Traffic (fossil-fuel burning) plumes were also selected for comparison. We find that the two-component Aethalometer source-apportionment method cannot be extrapolated to all types of biomass combustion and αabs of traffic plumes can be >1 in developing countries like India, where use of adulterated fuel in vehicles is common. Thus in a complex environment, where multiple anthropogenic BC sources and air masses of variable photochemical age
Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Sinyuk, A.; Slutsker, I.; Smirnov, A.; Schafer, J. S.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Tripathi, S. N.; Singh, R. P.; Ghauri, B.
2012-12-01
Aerosol mixtures—whether dominated by dust, carbon, sulfates, nitrates, sea salt, or mixtures of them—complicate the retrieval of remotely sensed aerosol properties from satellites and possibly increase the uncertainty of the aerosol radiative impact on climate. Major aerosol source regions in South Asia include the Thar Desert as well as agricultural lands, Himalayan foothills, and large urban centers in and near the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). Over India and Pakistan, seasonal changes in meteorology, including the monsoon (June-September), significantly affect the transport, lifetime, and type of aerosols. Strong monsoonal winds can promote long range transport of dust resulting in mixtures of dust and carbonaceous aerosols, while more stagnant synoptic conditions (e.g., November-January) can prolong the occurrence of urban/industrial pollution, biomass burning smoke, or mixtures of them over the IGP. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun/sky radiometer data are analyzed to show the aerosol optical depth (AOD) seasonality and aerosol dominant mixing states. The Single Scattering Albedo (SSA) and extinction Angstrom exponent (EAE) relationship has been shown to provide sound clustering of dominant aerosol types using long term AERONET site data near known source regions [Giles et al., 2012]. In this study, aerosol type partitioning using the SSA (440 nm) and EAE (440-870 nm) relationship is further developed to quantify the occurrence of Dust, Mixed (e.g., dust and carbonaceous aerosols), Urban/Industrial (U/I) pollution, and Biomass Burning (BB) smoke. Based on EAE thresholds derived from the cluster analysis (for AOD440nm>0.4), preliminary results (2001-2010) for Kanpur, India, show the overall contributions of each dominant particle type (rounded to the nearest 10%): 10% for Dust (EAE≤0.25), 60% for Mixed (0.251.25). In the IGP, BB aerosols may have varying sizes (e.g., corresponding to 1.2agricultural waste, forest, or dung burning), combustion phases, or
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ján Živčák
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to examine the appropriateness of myth criticism methods in the context of medieval French literature. The first part of the essay is conceived as a brief confrontation, opposing the theory of Mircea Eliade concerning the repetition of the Hero Archetype in traditional epics to some textual elements in the chansons de geste, analogous to “visible mythemes” which tend to appear in popular epic poetry. Through a series of comparisons, we come to the conclusion that the interpretation to which the “eliadian” scheme leads us expands the boundaries of a literary myth (an academic invisible and rather aspires to a “theology of text” (a lived invisible. The second part of the article provides the reader with a practical application of the results of the preceding reflections, and includes an interpretation of the story of Vivien based on the Christian concept of Imitatio Christi.
Anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility of gallium
Pankey, T.
1960-01-01
The bulk magnetic susceptibilities of single gallium crystals and polycrystalline gallium spheres were measured at 25??C. The following anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibilities were found: a axis (-0.119??0. 001)??10-6 emu/g, b axis (-0.416??0.002)??10 -6 emu/g, and c axis (-0.229??0.001) emu/g. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline spheres, assumed to be the average value for the bulk susceptibility of gallium, was (-0.257??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at 25??C, and (-0.299??0.003)??10-6 emu/g at -196??C. The susceptibility of liquid gallium was (0.0031??0.001) ??10-6 emu/g at 30??C and 100??C. Rotational diagrams of the susceptibilities in the three orthogonal planes of the unit cell were not sinusoidal. The anisotropy in the single crystals was presumably caused by the partial overlap of Brillouin zone boundaries by the Fermi-energy surface. The large change in susceptibility associated with the change in state was attributed to the absence of effective mass influence in the liquid state. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.
A Critical Humanist Curriculum
Magill, Kevin; Rodriguez, Arturo
2015-01-01
This essay is a critical humanist discussion of curriculum; a departure from the technicist view of education [education meant to support a global capitalist economy] and an analysis of curriculum considering critical humanism, political economy and critical race theory among other modes of critical analysis and inquiry. Our discussion supports a…
Affective and neural reactivity to criticism in individuals high and low on perceived criticism.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jill M Hooley
Full Text Available People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC. To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy control participants (n = 33 were classified as high or low in PC based on a median split. They were then exposed to personally-relevant critical and praising comments from their mothers. Perceived Criticism levels were unrelated to depression status and to negative mood change after hearing criticism. However, compared to low PC participants, those who scored high on PC showed differential activation in a network of regions associated with emotion reactivity and regulation, including increased amygdala activity and decreased reactions in prefrontal regulatory regions when they heard criticism. This was not the case for praise. Criticism may be a risk factor for relapse because it helps to "train" pathways characteristic of depressive information processing. The Perceived Criticism measure may help identify people who are more susceptible to this vulnerability.
Scaling Exponents in Financial Markets
Kim, Kyungsik; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Kim, Soo Yong
2007-03-01
We study the dynamical behavior of four exchange rates in foreign exchange markets. A detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is applied to detect the long-range correlation embedded in the non-stationary time series. It is for our case found that there exists a persistent long-range correlation in volatilities, which implies the deviation from the efficient market hypothesis. Particularly, the crossover is shown to exist in the scaling behaviors of the volatilities.
Schaumburg, Frieder; Bletz, Stefan; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Idelevich, Evgeny A
2017-08-11
Infections caused by MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa are on the rise, particularly in critically ill patients. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate new antimicrobial regimens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the ceftolozane/tazobactam resistance rates of MDR and XDR P. aeruginosa , the underlying resistance genes, the clonal structure and different antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods regarding their accuracy for ceftolozane/tazobactam testing. In total, 112 MDR and XDR P. aeruginosa (from infection and colonization) from one German tertiary care hospital were included (2013-16). AST was done using broth microdilution (BMD), gradient diffusion test strips and disc diffusion. Resistance genes were screened by PCR. A randomly selected subset of 77 isolates was subjected to WGS to assess the clonal structure. In total, 38 isolates (33.9%) were resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam according to the BMD reference method. Resistance was significantly lower in MDR P. aeruginosa (4.8%) compared with XDR P. aeruginosa (50%, P MDR P. aeruginosa , but higher in XDR P. aeruginosa . The disc diffusion method showed an acceptable accuracy for ceftolozane/tazobactam AST.
Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility
Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.
1959-01-01
An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.
Bettencourt, João. H.; Rossi, Vincent; Hernández-García, Emilio; Marta-Almeida, Martinho; López, Cristóbal
2017-09-01
The three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and dispersion characteristics of a simulated upwelling filament in the Iberian upwelling system are analyzed using Lagrangian tools. We used a realistic regional simulation of the western Iberian shelf which is concomitant with an in situ oceanographic campaign that surveyed the area. We compute 3-D fields of finite-size Lyapunov exponents (FSLE) from 3-D velocity fields and extract the field's ridges to study the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) evolving around the filament. We find that the most intense curtain-like LCSs delimit the boundaries of the whole filamentary structure whose general properties match well the observations. The filament interior is characterized by small dispersion of fluid elements. Furthermore, we identify a weak LCS separating the filament into a warmer vein and a colder filament associated with the interaction of a mesoscale eddy with the upwelling front. The cold upwelled water parcels move along the filament conserving their density. The filament itself is characterized by small dispersion of fluid elements in its interior. The comparison of LCSs with potential temperature and salinity gradient fields shows that the outer limits of the filament coincide with regions of large hydrographic gradients, similar to those observed, explaining the isolation of the interior of the filament with the surrounding waters. We conclude that the Lagrangian analysis used in this work is useful in explaining the dynamics of cross-shore exchanges of materials between coastal regions and the open ocean due to mesoscale processes.
Gentili, Claudio; Vanello, Nicola; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro
2015-05-30
To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. We also obtained the fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) of the BOLD signal as an independent control measure for HE data. BFNE scores correlated positively with HE in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, while LSAS scores correlated positively with HE in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal sulci and in the parahippocamus. Results from fALFF were highly consistent with those obtained using LSAS and BFNE to predict HE. Overall our data indicate that spontaneous brain activity is influenced by the degree of social anxiety, on a continuum and in the absence of social stimuli. These findings suggest that social anxiety is a trait characteristic that shapes brain activity and predisposes to different reactions in social contexts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)
2016-08-30
The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.
Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Extended Spectrum ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Lactamase (ESBL) producing gram-negative uropathogens in Sokoto, Nigeria. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined using the modified Kirby Bauer method. Confirmation of ESBL phenotype was performed by Double-Disc Synergy Test ...
antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum
African Journals Online (AJOL)
JAMILU
ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of salmonella species in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.
Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections
Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.
2012-01-01
Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive
Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik
2013-01-01
Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...
Wang, Ling; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Verstraete, Frank; Wen, Xiang-Gang
We study this model using the cluster update algorithm for tensor product states (TPSs). We find that the ground state energies at finite sizes and in the thermodynamic limit are in good agreement with the exact diagonalization study. At the largest bond dimension available D = 9 and through finite size scaling of the magnetization order near the transition point, we accurately determine the critical point J2c1 = 0 . 53 (1) J1 and the critical exponents β = 0 . 50 (4) . In the intermediate region we find a paramagnetic ground state without any static valence bond solid (VBS) order, supported by an exponentially decaying spin-spin correlation while a power law decaying dimer-dimer correlation. By fitting a universal scaling function for the spin-spin correlation we find the critical exponents ν = 0 . 68 (3) and ηs = 0 . 34 (6) , which is very close to the observed critical exponents for deconfined quantum critical point (DQCP) in other systems. Thus our numerical results strongly suggest a Landau forbidden phase transition from Neel order to VBS order at J2c1 = 0 . 53 (1) J1 . This project is supported by the EU Strep project QUEVADIS, the ERC Grant QUERG, and the FWF SFB Grants FoQuS and ViCoM; and the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter.
Lemire, Judith A
2002-01-01
A leader possess the critical-thinking knowledge and skills that provide the framework from which complex problem solving evolves. This article explores the leader as critical thinker, including a progressive plan for integrating critical-thinking concepts and associated teaching strategies into the RN to BSN and graduate curricula. To improve the critical thinking of nurses, educators must emphasize the cognitive and disposition aspects of critical thinking; promote active and sequential learning; role model critical thinking; design practical that focus on leadership and critical thinking; and conduct valid and consistent evaluations. The acquisition and application of critical thinking and problem-solving skills are progressive and refined through life-long learning and experience. This expertise begins with a sound knowledge base of the critical thinking composite and problem-solving strategies.
Landslide susceptibility map: from research to application
Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca; Rossi, Mauro; Felicioni, Giulia; Antonini, Guendalina
2014-05-01
Susceptibility map is an important and essential tool in environmental planning, to evaluate landslide hazard and risk and for a correct and responsible management of the territory. Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in an area on the basis of local terrain conditions. Can be expressed as the probability that any given region will be affected by landslides, i.e. an estimate of "where" landslides are likely to occur. In this work we present two examples of landslide susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region and for the Perugia Municipality. These two maps were realized following official request from the Regional and Municipal government to the Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI). The susceptibility map prepared for the Umbria Region represents the development of previous agreements focused to prepare: i) a landslide inventory map that was included in the Urban Territorial Planning (PUT) and ii) a series of maps for the Regional Plan for Multi-risk Prevention. The activities carried out for the Umbria Region were focused to define and apply methods and techniques for landslide susceptibility zonation. Susceptibility maps were prepared exploiting a multivariate statistical model (linear discriminant analysis) for the five Civil Protection Alert Zones defined in the regional territory. The five resulting maps were tested and validated using the spatial distribution of recent landslide events that occurred in the region. The susceptibility map for the Perugia Municipality was prepared to be integrated as one of the cartographic product in the Municipal development plan (PRG - Piano Regolatore Generale) as required by the existing legislation. At strategic level, one of the main objectives of the PRG, is to establish a framework of knowledge and legal aspects for the management of geo-hydrological risk. At national level most of the susceptibility maps prepared for the PRG, were and still are obtained
Critical properties of short-range Ising spin glasses on a Wheatstone-bridge hierarchical lattice.
Almeida, Sebastião T O; Nobre, Fernando D
2015-08-01
An Ising spin-glass model with nearest-neighbor interactions, following a symmetric probability distribution, is investigated on a hierarchical lattice of the Wheatstone-bridge family characterized by a fractal dimension D≈3.58. The interaction distribution considered is a stretched exponential, which has been shown recently to be very close to the fixed-point coupling distribution, and such a model has been considered lately as a good approach for Ising spin glasses on a cubic lattice. An exact recursion procedure is implemented for calculating site magnetizations, mi=〈Si〉T, as well as correlations between pairs of nearest-neighbor spins, 〈SiSj〉T (〈〉T denote thermal averages), for a given set of interaction couplings on this lattice. From these local magnetizations and correlations, one can compute important physical quantities, such as the Edwards-Anderson order parameter, the internal energy, and the specific heat. Considering extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit for the order parameter, such as a finite-size scaling approach, it is possible to obtain directly the critical temperature and critical exponents. The transition between the spin-glass and paramagnetic phases is analyzed, and the associated critical exponents β and ν are estimated as β=0.82(5) and ν=2.50(4), which are in good agreement with the most recent results from extensive numerical simulations on a cubic lattice. Since these critical exponents were obtained from a fixed-point distribution, they are universal, i.e., valid for any coupling distribution considered.
Rebriarina Hapsari; Vincentia Rizke Ciptaningtyas; Masfiyah Masfiyah
2012-01-01
Background: Rapid and accurate information on susceptibility of bacteria causing bacteraemia is very helpful in sepsis management. Blood culture is the gold standard for bacteraemia diagnosis. Standard antibiotic susceptibility testing needs at least three days for completion while direct method can give the result a day earlier. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of direct antibiotic susceptibility testing in blood culture. Methods: Bloods from positive BACTEC b...
Critical applied stresses for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Náhlík
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate a value of the critical applied stress for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch tip. The classical approach of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LELM was generalized, because the stress singularity exponent differs from 0.5 in the studied case. The value of the stress singularity exponent depends on the V-notch opening angle. The finite element method was used for a determination of stress distribution in the vicinity of the sharp V-notch tip and for the estimation of the generalized stress intensity factor depending on the V-notch opening angle. Critical value of the generalized stress intensity factor was obtained using stability criteria based on the opening stress component averaged over a critical distance d from the V-notch tip and generalized strain energy density factor. Calculated values of the critical applied stresses were compared with experimental data from the literature and applicability of the LEFM concept is discussed.
Critical phenomenon of the near room temperature skyrmion material FeGe.
Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui; Ge, Min; Du, Haifeng; Jin, Chiming; Wei, Wensen; Fan, Jiyu; Zhang, Changjin; Pi, Li; Zhang, Yuheng
2016-02-29
The cubic B20 compound FeGe, which exhibits a near room temperature skyrmion phase, is of great importance not only for fundamental physics such as nonlinear magnetic ordering and solitons but also for future application of skyrmion states in spintronics. In this work, the critical behavior of the cubic FeGe is investigated by means of bulk dc-magnetization. We obtain the critical exponents (β = 0.336 ± 0.004, γ = 1.352 ± 0.003 and β = 5.276 ± 0.001), where the self-consistency and reliability are verified by the Widom scaling law and scaling equations. The magnetic exchange distance is found to decay as r(-4.9), which is close to the theoretical prediction of 3D-Heisenberg model (r(-5)). The critical behavior of FeGe indicates a short-range magnetic interaction. Meanwhile, the critical exponents also imply an anisotropic magnetic coupling in this system.
Critical thinking: Not all that critical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce Dietrick Price
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Critical Thinking basically says to be suspicious of everything, except the fad known as Critical Thinking. It is perhaps best understood as a new and watered-down version of an earlier fad called Deconstruction. That was just a fancy word for debunking. After you strip away all the high-minded rhetoric, Critical Thinking is typically used to tell students that they should not trust conventional wisdom, tradition, religion, parents, and all that irrelevant, old-fashioned stuff. Critical Thinking, somewhat surprisingly, also turns out to be highly contemptuous of facts and knowledge. The formulation in public schools goes like this: children must learn how to think, not what to think. WHAT is, of course, all the academic content and scholarly knowledge that schools used to teach.
Disorder-driven hysteresis-loop criticality in Co/CoO-films.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, A.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.
2000-11-01
The effect of magnetic disorder on the magnetization reversal process in thin Co/CoO-films has been investigated. The antiferromagnetic CoO layer allows a reversible tuning of the magnetic disorder by simple temperature variation. For temperatures above a critical temperature T{sub c}, we observe a discontinuous magnetization reversal, whereas smooth magnetization loops occur for T < T{sub c}. Our measurements establish the existence of a disorder-driven critical point in the non-equilibrium phase diagram. In addition, we observe scaling behavior in the vicinity of the critical point and determine the critical exponents to {beta} = 0.022 {+-} 0.006 and {beta}{delta} = 0.30 {+-} 0.03.
Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure
2015-12-01
interpreted their roles and priorities while still remaining true to the law of the land and national supremacy as demanded by the supremacy clause in...anonymous online survey to capture the perceptions and views of critical infrastructure professionals across the nation. The survey included an evaluation...resilience, tragedy of the commons, self -organized criticality, defense industrial base 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 233 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model at three loops and Ising critical behavior of Dirac systems
Mihaila, Luminita N.; Zerf, Nikolai; Ihrig, Bernhard; Herbut, Igor F.; Scherer, Michael M.
2017-10-01
Dirac and Weyl fermions appear as quasiparticle excitations in many different condensed-matter systems. They display various quantum transitions which represent unconventional universality classes related to the variants of the Gross-Neveu model. In this paper we study the bosonized version of the standard Gross-Neveu model—the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa theory—at three-loop order, and compute critical exponents in 4 -ɛ dimensions for a general number of fermion flavors. Our results fully encompass the previously known two-loop calculations, and agree with the known three-loop results in the purely bosonic limit of the theory. We also find the exponents to satisfy the emergent superscaling relations in the limit of a single-component fermion, order by order up to three loops. Finally, we apply the computed series for the exponents and their Padé approximants to several phase transitions of current interest: metal-insulator transitions of spin-1/2 and spinless fermions on the honeycomb lattice, emergent supersymmetric surface field theory in topological phases, as well as the disorder-induced quantum transition in Weyl semimetals. Comparison with the results of other analytical and numerical methods is discussed.
Surgical Critical Care Initiative
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Surgical Critical Care Initiative (SC2i) is a USU research program established in October 2013 to develop, translate, and validate biology-driven critical care....
Furthering critical institutionalism
Cleaver, Frances; Koning, De Jessica
2015-01-01
This special issue furthers the study of natural resource management from a critical institutional perspective. Critical institutionalism (CI) is a contemporary body of thought that explores how institutions dynamically mediate relationships between people, natural resources and society. It
California Condor Critical Habitat
California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...
Árnason, Vilhjálmur
2015-04-01
This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.
Critical behavior of a nonpolar smectogen from high-resolution birefringence measurements
Erkan, Selen; Çetinkaya, Mehmetcan; Yildiz, Sevtap; Özbek, Haluk
2012-10-01
We report high-sensitivity and high-temperature resolution experimental data for the temperature dependence of the optical birefringence of a nonpolar monolayer smectogen 4-butyloxyphenyl-4'-decyloxybenzoate (10¯.O.4¯) liquid crystal by using a rotating-analyzer technique. The birefringence data cover nematic and smectic-A phases of the 10¯.O.4¯ compound. The birefringence data are used to probe the temperature behavior of the nematic order parameter S(T) in the vicinity of both the nematic-isotropic (N-I) and the nematic-smectic-A (N-SmA) transitions. For the N-I transition, from the data sufficiently far away from the smectic-A phase, the average value of the critical exponent β describing the limiting behavior of S(T) is found to be 0.2507±0.0010, which is in accordance with the so-called tricritical hypothesis, which predicts β=0.25 and excludes higher theoretical values. The critical behavior of S(T) at the N-I transition is discussed in detail by comparing our results with the latest reports in the literature and we conclude that by comparing with the previously reported results, the isotropic internal field assumption by the Vuks-Chandrasekhar-Madhusudana model is adequate to extract the critical behavior of S(T) from the optical birefringence data. We observe that there is no discontinuous behavior in the optical birefringence, signaling the second-order nature of the N-SmA transition. The effect of the coupling between the nematic and smectic-A order parameters on the optical birefringence near the N-SmA transition is also discussed. In a temperature range of about 4K above and below the N-SmA transition, the pretransitional evidence for the N-SmA coupling have been detected. From the analysis of the optical birefringence data above and below the N-SmA transition by means of various fitting expressions we test the validity of the scaling relation λ=1-α between the critical exponent λ describing the limiting behavior of the nematic order parameter
Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto
2011-01-01
This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…
Foundations for Critical Thinking
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
2015-01-01
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
Extending Critical Performativity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...
Piergiovanni, Polly R.
2014-01-01
A college education is expected to improve students' critical thinking skills. Keeping students active in class--through writing activities and class discussion--has been shown to help students think critically. In this article, creative hands-on activities, which are common in engineering courses, are shown to improve students' critical thinking…
Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy
Pangrazio, Luciana
2016-01-01
While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…
Critical values in hematology.
McFarlane, A; Aslan, B; Raby, A; Bourner, G; Padmore, R
2015-02-01
Critical values are life-threatening results that require immediate notification to the patient's healthcare provider. Accreditation bodies require laboratories to establish critical values. A survey of Ontario laboratories was conducted to determine current practice for critical values in hematology. The survey was sent to 182 participants questioning sources for establishing critical values, levels, review frequency, delta checks, and reporting. The survey was completed by laboratory managers, supervisors, technical specialists, senior technologists, and bench technologists working in hematology. The majority of participating laboratories have established critical values limits for hemoglobin, leukocyte counts, and platelet counts. Most laboratories also include the presence of malaria parasites and blast cells. Some laboratories reported the presence of plasma cells, sickle cells, schistocytes, and spherocytes as critical values. Multiple sources are used for establishing a critical value policy. There was variability for the frequency of critical values review. Rules may differ for a first-time patient sample vs. a repeat patient sample. Delta checks are seldom used to determine whether a result should be called a critical value. Most participants require the individual taking the critical result(s) to read back and confirm that they are directly involved with the patient's care. There is a lack of consensus for critical values reporting in hematology. As critical value reporting is crucial for patient safety, standardization of this practice would be beneficial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress.
Cobley, James Nathan; Fiorello, Maria Luisa; Bailey, Damian Miles
2018-01-28
The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O 2 ) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O 2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O 2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O 2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity) through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality). Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality). To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biro, Frank M; Deardorff, Julianna
2013-05-01
Early life exposures during times of rapid growth and development are recognized increasingly to impact later life. Epidemiologic studies document an association between exposures at critical windows of susceptibility with outcomes as diverse as childhood and adult obesity, timing of menarche, and risk for hypertension or breast cancer. This article briefly reviews the concept of windows of susceptibility for providers who care for adolescent patients. The theoretical bases for windows of susceptibility is examined, evaluating the relationship between pubertal change and breast cancer as a paradigm, and reviewing the underlying mechanisms, such as epigenetic modification. The long-term sequela of responses to early exposures may impact other adult morbidities; addressing these exposures represents an important challenge for contemporary medicine. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stanley, Thomas; Kirschbaum, Dalia
2017-04-01
Some of the largest and best landslide databases in the United States of America describe the Pacific Northwest region. Nevertheless, these inventories are not a comprehensive listing of historic landslides. In particular, landslide dates tend to be recorded by state transportation agencies, which imposes a spatial bias upon any subsequent analysis. This reporting bias complicates not only the identification of landslide triggering conditions, but also hinders empirical calculations of landslide susceptibility. Although many strategies for bias mitigation could be employed, the simplest approach delivers generally plausible results that are most reliable in the most critical locations: along major highways and rail lines. This work tests logistic regression models that were fitted in zones with landslide reports, then applied regionally. Due to the destabilizing effects of excavation and other anthropogenic disturbances, the models may overestimate susceptibility in undeveloped areas. However, the susceptibility of developed sites should be as accurate as the modeling technique and input data allow.
Oscillations in critical shearing, application to fractures in glaciers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pralong
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Many evidences of oscillations accompanying the acceleration of critical systems have been reported. These oscillations are usually related to discrete scale invariance properties of the systems and exhibit a logarithmic periodicity. In this paper we propose another explanation for these oscillations in the case of shearing fracture. Using a continuum damage model, we show that oscillations emerge from the anisotropic properties of the cracks in the shearing fracture zone. These oscillations no longer exhibit a logarithmic but rather a power-law periodicity. The power-periodic oscillation is a more general formulation. Its reduces to a log-periodic oscillation when the exponent of the power-law equals one. We apply this model to fit the measured displacements of unstable ice masses of hanging glaciers for which data are available. Results show that power-periodic oscillations adequately fit the observations.
Critical behavior of the two-dimensional icosahedron model
Ueda, Hiroshi; Okunishi, Kouichi; Krčmár, Roman; Gendiar, Andrej; Yunoki, Seiji; Nishino, Tomotoshi
2017-12-01
In the context of a discrete analog of the classical Heisenberg model, we investigate the critical behavior of the icosahedron model, where the interaction energy is defined as the inner product of neighboring vector spins of unit length pointing to the vertices of the icosahedron. The effective correlation length and magnetization of the model are calculated by means of the corner-transfer-matrix renormalization group (CTMRG) method. A scaling analysis with respect to the cutoff dimension m in CTMRG reveals a second-order phase transition characterized by the exponents ν =1.62 ±0.02 and β =0.12 ±0.01 . We also extract the central charge from the classical analog of entanglement entropy as c =1.90 ±0.02 , which cannot be explained by the minimal series of conformal field theory.
Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberta A. Schriber
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.
Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context
Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.
2016-01-01
Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514
Lovatt, Abbie
2014-05-01
Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemics on the complete graph and the star graph : Exact analysis
Cator, E.A.; Van Mieghem, P.
2013-01-01
Since mean-field approximations for susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemics do not always predict the correct scaling of the epidemic threshold of the SIS metastable regime, we propose two novel approaches: (a) an ?-SIS generalized model and (b) a modified SIS model that prevents the
From Critical Theory to Critical Hermeneutics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Øjvind Larsen
2014-06-01
Full Text Available From their beginning in the 1930s, critical theory and the Frankfurt school had their focus on a critique of disturbed social relations in western society dominated by totalitarian political regimes like Stalinism, Fascism, Nazism, and by capitalism as an oppressive and destructive economic system and culture. Now, 80 years later, this has all become history and thus it is time to leave the concept of critical theory behind us, and instead bring the concept of critique to a broader theoretical framework like hermeneutics. This allows the possibility of retaining the theoretical intentions of the old Frankfurt school and at the same time there will be no boundaries by specific dominant theoretical perspectives. In this paper, such a framework for a critical hermeneutics is discussed on the basis of Weber’s, Gadamer’s, and Habermas’ theories on hermeneutics within the social sciences.
Insulating phase in Sr2IrO4: An investigation using critical analysis and magnetocaloric effect
Bhatti, Imtiaz Noor; Pramanik, A. K.
2017-01-01
The nature of insulating phase in 5d based Sr2IrO4 is quite debated as the theoretical as well as experimental investigations have put forward evidences in favor of both magnetically driven Slater-type and interaction driven Mott-type insulator. To understand this insulating behavior, we have investigated the nature of magnetic state in Sr2IrO4 through studying critical exponents, low temperature thermal demagnetization and magnetocaloric effect. The estimated critical exponents do not exactly match with any universality class, however, the values obey the scaling behavior. The exponent values suggest that spin interaction in present material is close to mean-field model. The analysis of low temperature thermal demagnetization data, however, shows dual presence of localized- and itinerant-type of magnetic interaction. Moreover, field dependent change in magnetic entropy indicates magnetic interaction is close to mean-field type. While this material shows an insulating behavior across the magnetic transition, yet a distinct change in slope in resistivity is observed around Tc. We infer that though the insulating phase in Sr2IrO4 is more close to be Slater-type but the simultaneous presence of both Slater- and Mott-type is the likely scenario for this material.
Yabunaka, Shunsuke; Onuki, Akira
2017-09-01
We study universal critical adsorption on a solid sphere and a solid cylinder in a fluid at bulk criticality, where preferential adsorption occurs. We use a local functional theory proposed by Fisher et al. [M. E. Fisher and P. G. de Gennes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris Ser. B 287, 207 (1978); M. E. Fisher and H. Au-Yang, Physica A 101, 255 (1980), 10.1016/0378-4371(80)90112-0]. We calculate the mean order parameter profile ψ (r ) , where r is the distance from the sphere center and the cylinder axis, respectively. The resultant differential equation for ψ (r ) is solved exactly around a sphere and numerically around a cylinder. A strong adsorption regime is realized except for very small surface field h1, where the surface order parameter ψ (a ) is determined by h1 and is independent of the radius a . If r considerably exceeds a , ψ (r ) decays as r-(1 +η ) for a sphere and r-(1 +η )/2 for a cylinder in three dimensions, where η is the critical exponent in the order parameter correlation at bulk criticality.
Critical fluid light scattering
Gammon, Robert W.
1988-01-01
The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.
Middle Prut plain's erosion susceptibility evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tudor CASTRAVEȚ
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The given article is dedicated to Middle Prut Plain’s erosion susceptibility evaluation using factorial analysis and methodology of principal component analysis implemented byGeographical Informational System GRASS. Susceptibility evaluation is executed in a qualitative mode, and the results have preliminary character, for further quantitative andmore precise study. This type of natural hazards analysis offers information on probable localization and severity of erosion phenomena, as well as their manifestation probabilityin a given place.
The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinhui Wang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI. Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair.
Memory effects on epidemic evolution: The susceptible-infected-recovered epidemic model
Saeedian, M.; Khalighi, M.; Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Jafari, G. R.; Ausloos, M.
2017-02-01
Memory has a great impact on the evolution of every process related to human societies. Among them, the evolution of an epidemic is directly related to the individuals' experiences. Indeed, any real epidemic process is clearly sustained by a non-Markovian dynamics: memory effects play an essential role in the spreading of diseases. Including memory effects in the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model seems very appropriate for such an investigation. Thus, the memory prone SIR model dynamics is investigated using fractional derivatives. The decay of long-range memory, taken as a power-law function, is directly controlled by the order of the fractional derivatives in the corresponding nonlinear fractional differential evolution equations. Here we assume "fully mixed" approximation and show that the epidemic threshold is shifted to higher values than those for the memoryless system, depending on this memory "length" decay exponent. We also consider the SIR model on structured networks and study the effect of topology on threshold points in a non-Markovian dynamics. Furthermore, the lack of access to the precise information about the initial conditions or the past events plays a very relevant role in the correct estimation or prediction of the epidemic evolution. Such a "constraint" is analyzed and discussed.
Tolerant and Susceptible Sesame Genotypes Reveal Waterlogging Stress Response Patterns.
Wang, Linhai; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Yanxin; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Jingyin; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiurong
2016-01-01
Waterlogging is a common adverse environmental condition that limits plant growth. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is considered a drought-tolerant oil crop but is typically susceptible to harmful effects from waterlogging. The present study used comparative analysis to explore the waterlogging stress response associated with two sesame genotypes. The RNA-seq dataset generated during a time course of 0, 3, 9 and 15 h of waterlogging as well as 20 h post-drainage indicated that stress gradually suppressed the expression of sesame genes, with 9 h as the critical time point for the response of sesame to waterlogging stress. Of the 19,316 genes expressed during waterlogging, 72.1% were affected significantly. Sesame of both tolerant and susceptible genotypes showed decreased numbers of upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) but increased numbers of downregulated DEGs at the onset of waterlogging. However, the tolerant-genotype sesame exhibited 25.5% more upregulated DEGs and 29.7% fewer downregulated DEGs than those of the susceptible-genotype strain between 3 and 15 h. The results indicated that the tolerant sesame displayed a more positive gene response to waterlogging. A total of 1,379 genes were significantly induced and commonly expressed in sesame under waterlogging conditions from 3 to 15 h regardless of tolerance level; of these genes, 98 are known homologous stress responsive genes, while the remaining 1,281 are newly reported here. This gene set may represent the core genes that function in response to waterlogging, including those related mainly to energy metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a set of 3,016 genes functioning in energy supply and cell repair or formation was activated in sesame recovery from waterlogging stress. A comparative analysis between sesame of the tolerant and susceptible genotypes revealed 66 genes that may be candidates for improving sesame tolerance to waterlogging. This study provided a comprehensive
Risk analysis for critical asset protection.
McGill, William L; Ayyub, Bilal M; Kaminskiy, Mark
2007-10-01
This article proposes a quantitative risk assessment and management framework that supports strategic asset-level resource allocation decision making for critical infrastructure and key resource protection. The proposed framework consists of five phases: scenario identification, consequence and criticality assessment, security vulnerability assessment, threat likelihood assessment, and benefit-cost analysis. Key innovations in this methodology include its initial focus on fundamental asset characteristics to generate an exhaustive set of plausible threat scenarios based on a target susceptibility matrix (which we refer to as asset-driven analysis) and an approach to threat likelihood assessment that captures adversary tendencies to shift their preferences in response to security investments based on the expected utilities of alternative attack profiles assessed from the adversary perspective. A notional example is provided to demonstrate an application of the proposed framework. Extensions of this model to support strategic portfolio-level analysis and tactical risk analysis are suggested.
On the Critical Behavior of Gapped Gravitational Collapse in Confined Spacetime*
Cai, Rong-Gen; Ji, Li-Wei; Yang, Run-Qiu
2017-07-01
The gravitational collapse of a massless scalar field enclosed with a perfectly reflecting wall in a spacetime with a cosmological constant Λ is investigated. The mass scaling for the gapped collapse {M}{{AH}}-{M}g\\propto {({ε }c-ε )}ξ is confirmed and a new time scaling for the gapped collapse {T}{{AH}}-{T}g\\propto {({ε }c-ε )}\\zeta is found. For both the critical exponents, we find strong evidence to show that they are non-universal. Especially when Λ \
The theory of critical phenomena an introduction to the renormalization group
Binney, J J; Fisher, A J; Newman, M E J
1993-01-01
The successful calculation of critical exponents for continuous phase transitions is one of the main achievements of theoretical physics over the last quarter-century. This was achieved through the use of scaling and field-theoretic techniques which have since become standard equipment in many areas of physics, especially quantum field theory. This book provides a thorough introduction to these techniques. Continuous phase transitions are introduced, then the necessary statistical mechanics is summarized, followed by standard models, some exact solutions and techniques for numerical simulation
Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola Damilola; Araya, Ricardo; Montgomery, Alan A; Kola, Lola; Kirmayer, Laurence; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Groleau, Danielle
2015-06-30
Depression is common among women during perinatal period and is associated with long-term adverse consequences for the mother and infant. In Nigeria, as in many other low- and-middle-income countries (LMIC), perinatal depression usually goes unrecognized and untreated. The aim of EXPONATE is to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an intervention package for perinatal depression delivered by community midwives in primary maternal care in which physician support and enhanced patient compliance are implemented using mobile phones. A pragmatic two-arm parallel cluster randomized controlled trial was designed. The units of allocation are the primary maternal care clinics. Thirty eligible and consenting clinics were randomized but, due to problems with logistics, 29 eventually participated. Consenting pregnant women with a gestational age between 16 and 28 weeks who screened positive on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score ≥12), absent psychosis or bipolar disorder, and not actively suicidal were recruited into the trial (N = 686). Midwives in the intervention arm were trained to deliver psychoeducation, problem solving treatment, and parenting skills. Eight weekly sessions were delivered following entry into the study. Further sessions during pregnancy and 6 weeks following childbirth were determined by level of depressive symptoms. Clinical support and supervision, delivered mainly by mobile phone, were provided by general physicians and psychiatrists. Automated text and voice messages, also delivered by mobile phones, were used to facilitate patient compliance with clinic appointments and 'homework' tasks. Patients in the control arm received care as usual enhanced by further training of the providers in that arm in the recognition and standard treatment of depression. Assessments are undertaken at baseline, 2 months following recruitment into the study and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after childbirth. The primary outcome is recovery from
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karimi Shahidi M
2002-07-01
Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the most critical medical emergency situations. Treatment with anti microbial drugs should be initiated as soon as samples of blood and other relevant sites have been cultured. Available information about patterns of anti microbial Susceptibility among bacterial isolates from the community, the hospital, and the patient should be taken in to account. It is important, pending culture results, to initiate empirical anti microbial therapy."nMaterials and methods: In a descriptive study during 3 years (1377-1379, microbial and anti microbial susceptibility patterns evaluated in Amir alam clinical laboratory on 2000 specimen of blood culture received from 765 hospitalized patients at Amir Alam hospital wards."nResults: 113 specimens from 77 patient (10 percent were positive for microbial growth. Enterobacter, S. aureus, S.epidermidis, Pneumococci, Ecoli, and Pseudomonas were the most common isolated etiologic agents(80 percent . The most common organism was Entenobacter in 1377, S.aureus in 1378 and pseudomonas in 1379 There were significant change in patlern of organisms, increase resistance to some important available antibiotics and change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern during three years (disc diffusion method."nConclusions: According to Results of this study due to change in pattern of organism and their antibiotic susceptibility, dynamic microbiological study provide important data for Ordering empirical and culture oriented treatment of patients with bacteremia, Sepsis, anti microbial Chemotherapy, anti microbial susceptibility empirical anti microbial therapy, microbial pattern.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoyi Zheng
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the leading cause of kidney disease; however, there are no early biomarkers and no cure. Thus, there is a large unmet need to predict which individuals will develop nephropathy and to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern this susceptibility. We compared the glomerular transcriptome from mice with distinct susceptibilities to DN at four weeks after induction of diabetes, but before histologic injury, and identified differential regulation of genes that modulate inflammation. From these genes, we identified endothelial cell specific molecule-1 (Esm-1, as a glomerular-enriched determinant of resistance to DN. Glomerular Esm-1 mRNA and protein were lower in DN-susceptible, DBA/2, compared to DN-resistant, C57BL/6, mice. We demonstrated higher Esm-1 secretion from primary glomerular cultures of diabetic mice, and high glucose was sufficient to increase Esm-1 mRNA and protein secretion in both strains of mice. However, induction was significantly attenuated in DN-susceptible mice. Urine Esm-1 was also significantly higher only in DN-resistant mice. Moreover, using intravital microscopy and a biomimetic microfluidic assay, we showed that Esm-1 inhibited rolling and transmigration in a dose-dependent manner. For the first time we have uncovered glomerular-derived Esm-1 as a potential non-invasive biomarker of DN. Esm-1 inversely correlates with disease susceptibility and inhibits leukocyte infiltration, a critical factor in protecting the kidney from DN.