WorldWideScience

Sample records for susceptibilidad al agrietamiento

  1. Susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al VIH/Sida en adolescentes de Cali-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernanda Uribe Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los adolescentes y las adolescentes constituyen una de las poblaciones con mayor riesgo frente al Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH y el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (Sida, por sus prácticas sexuales y comportamientos de riesgo que los exponen constantemente a enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Dada la importancia de la prevención en los jóvenes y las jóvenes, el objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la percepción de susceptibilidad frente al VIH/Sida y la autoeficacia en el uso del preservativo en adolescentes de la ciudad de Santiago de Cali. Esta investigación fue de tipo no experimental, con un diseño transversal exploratorio descriptivo, con una muestra de 217 adolescentes entre los 12 y los 18 años de edad, conformada por dos grupos de jóvenes (Montero & León, 2002. Encontramos diferencias significativas en la autoeficacia en función del género (p< 0,003 y la edad (p< 0,005, y en la susceptibilidad en función del género (p< 0,006. Concluimos que los jóvenes y las jóvenes con mayor predisposición al VIH/Sida son adolescentes varones entre los 16 y los 18 años de edad, que pertenecen a estratos socioeconómicos bajos; y que las mujeres jóvenes tienen mayor susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al VIH/Sida que los varones, lo cual posiblemente las hace más proactivas en la prevención de enfermedades como el VIH/Sida. De cualquier modo, los datos de esta investigación y los altos índices de VIH/Sida en los adolescentes y las adolescentes permiten considerar como prioritaria la realización de programas de prevención en salud sexual y reproductiva, que tengan en cuenta las necesidades propias de la población adolescente, sus características sociodemográficas (género, edad, estrato y sus condiciones psicopatológicas.

  2. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  3. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD GENÉTICA AL CÁNCER: ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES BIOÉTICAS BAJO EL MARCO LEGAL VENEZOLANO

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS JG. FLORES-ANGULO; JANUARY LEE

    2010-01-01

    El cáncer es una enfermedad que se caracteriza por la proliferación rápida e incontro- lada de las células. Existen varios factores de riesgo asociados, entre ellos, el hereditario tal vez sea el más importante, ya que, aunque el fenotipo tiene una gran dependencia de las condiciones ambientales, la base de la carcinogénesis es el daño genético no letal. En este sentido, el estudio de los marcadores genéticos de susceptibilidad adquiere capital importancia, ya que estos permiten identificar a...

  4. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad al daño por humedad de mezclas asfálticas empleando propiedades termodinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caro-Spinel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una evaluación comparativa de la susceptibilidad al daño por humedad de diferentes combinaciones de cementos asfálticos producidos en Colombia y agregados pétreos. La metodología empleada se centra en establecer el Índice de Daño por Humedad (IDH de diferentes sistemas cemento asfáltico-agregado. Este índice se calcula con base en propiedades termodinámicas intrínsecas (i.e., energía superfi cial libre de los materiales involucrados. Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio sugieren: (i que el tipo de agregado empleado en mezclas asfálticas tiene mayor infl uencia en la resistencia de la mezcla al ataque del agua que la infl uencia que tiene el cemento asfáltico y (ii que los procesos de modifi cación empleados para producir los diferentes tipos de cemento asfáltico modifi cado conllevan a sistemas cemento asfáltico-agregado con una variada resistencia al daño por humedad. Finalmente, los resultados de este estudio demuestran que la caracterización termodinámica de los materiales de pavimentación puede ser efi cientemente empleada en la selección de materiales durante la etapa inicial del diseño de mezclas asfálticas.

  5. Susceptibilidad de las larvas de Aedes aegypti al parasitismo por Romanomermis culicivorax en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo en Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamarina Mijares Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En junio de 1996, en el Estado de Oaxaca, México, se expusieron larvas de mosquito de la especie Aedes aegypti (Linneo a los preparásitos infectivos del nemátodo Romanomermis culicivorax, Ross y Smith, en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo. Para los experimentos de laboratorio se utilizaron larvas en estadio I-IV, colectadas en reservorios naturales. Los experimentos se realizaron por triplicado, con 100 larvas de cada estadio larvario por experimento, y se probaron tres dosis de aplicación: 5:1, 10:1 y 15:1 (5, 10 ó 15 preparásitos por larva de mosquito. Para los estudios de campo se tomaron 13 criaderos naturales de A. aegypti con larvas en estadio I-IV y se aplicó una dosis de 15:1 por cada criadero. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en los experimentos de laboratorio, se observó un aumento de la infestación media de las larvas a medida que aumentaba la dosis de aplicación desde 5:1 hasta 15:1. Para la dosis de 10:1, la tasa de parasitismo alcanzó valores de 100, 100, 85 y 74% en las larvas en estadio I, II, III y IV, respectivamente, y, para la dosis de 15:1, valores de 100, 100, 90 y 79%, respectivamente. Los resultados de las pruebas de campo con la aplicación de una dosis de 15:1 en los 13 reservorios naturales proporcionaron elevadas tasas de parasitismo, con valores entre 80-98%, lo que demostró la susceptibilidad de esta especie de mosquito al parasitismo por R. culicivorax en el Estado de Oaxaca, México.

  6. Susceptibilidad y resistencia del maíz al hongo comestible huitlacoche (Ustilago maydis Cda. mejorando su virulencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martínez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El huitlacoche es un patógeno del maíz, muy apreciado como alimento humano en la región central de México. Actualmente seis industrias lo comercializan enlatado. El total de la producción industrial se abastece de la recolección espontánea del hongo en campos de cultivo de maíz para producción de grano. Debido a lo anterior, los objetivos planteados en este estudio fueron: evaluar y seleccionar patotipos de Ustilago maydis con una alta virulencia sobre maíz; evaluar y seleccionar familias de medios hermanos maternos de maíz de reacción susceptible y resistente al huitlacoche. En 1997, se evaluaron 100 aislamientos del hongo en un híbrido experimental, seleccionando 12 de ellos por su vigor, presentando en promedio 190 g del hongo por planta infectada, y 135.24 g por planta inoculada (8.11 t×ha-1, 60 000 plantas×ha-1, índice de severidad de 36.82 y una incidencia de 70.64%. De las 300 familias de medios hermanos maternos evaluadas (1998 por inoculación con la mezcla de los 12 aislamientos seleccionados (1997, se eligieron 16 familias susceptibles, que presentaron en promedio 154.97 g del hongo por planta infectada y 112.88 g por planta inoculada (6.67 t×ha-1, 76.67 % de incidencia y 34.82 de índice de severidad; así como 14 familias resistentes (0 % de incidencia al ataque del hongo.

  7. on Ti6AL4V for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pavón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La fijación al tejido receptor de implantes para el reemplazo de hueso puede ser mejorada si poseen una superficie bioactiva con la capacidad de precipitar hidroxiapatita in vivo. Las aleaciones de titanio, a pesar de sus buenas propiedades mecánicas y comportamiento no-tóxico, no son bioactivas y, por tanto, no se enlazan directamente al hueso. Una de las maneras de modificar una superficie metálica bioinerte es recubriéndola con material bioactivo. En este trabajo se presenta la evaluación del comportamiento a fatiga mediante indentación hertziana (esférica de un recubrimiento de vidrio sobre Ti6Al4V. Este recubrimiento pertenece al sistema SiO2-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5 y, a pesar de que puede usarse para protección contra la corrosión, ha sido específicamente diseñado para ser utilizado como capa interna de un recubrimiento bicapa bioactivo con una capa externa de bajo contenido en SiO2 para garantizar la bioactividad. Los ensayos hertzianos monotónicos permitieron obtener una secuencia de daños comenzando con tres eventos de daño tipo frágil (agrietamiento tipo anillo, cono y radial seguidos por la delaminación del recubrimiento asociada a la deformación plástica del substrato. El primer daño frágil, el agrietamiento tipo anillo, fue usado como criterio para la evaluación del agrietamiento por corrosión bajo tensión y por carga cíclica, en aire y agua destilada. Los resultados mostraron la sensibilidad del recubrimiento a la degradación bajo ambos tipos de carga, estática y cíclica, siendo esta degradación considerablemente mayor en agua destilada debido a la susceptibilidad del vidrio a la corrosión. La delaminación fue también sensible a la carga cíclica hertziana presentando dos mecanismos diferentes dependiendo de la máxima carga aplicada.

  8. EVALUATION OF HMA CRACKING RESISTANCE AS A FUNCTION OF LABORATORY AGING BASED ON THE DIRECT-TENSION TEST EVALUACIÓN DE LA RESISTENCIA AL AGRIETAMIENTO DE MEZCLAS ASFÁLTICAS EN CALIENTE EN FUNCIÓN DE SU ENVEJECIMIENTO A PARTIR DEL ENSAYO DE TENSIÓN DIRECTA AVALIAÇÃO DA RESISTÊNCIA AS RACHADURAS DE MISTURAS ASFÁLTICAS EM QUENTE EM FUNÇÃO DE SEU ENVELHECIMENTO A PARTIR DO ENSAIO DE TENSÃO DIRETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F Walubita

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hot mix asphalt (HMA is a heterogeneous composite material of asphalt-binder, aggregates, air voids, and other additives including lime, fibers, etc., predominantly used for pavement construction. With time, the HMA mix ages, which leads to changes in the material properties and response behavior. This paper documents a laboratory study that was conducted to evaluate the suitability of the direct-tension (DT test to assess the effects of asphalt-binder aging on the HMA mix fracture properties and cracking-resistance potential. Two dense-graded HMA mixes were subjected to different laboratory aging exposure conditions and then tested with the DT test. From this test, the HMA mix fracture response was characterized in terms of the tensile strength, tensile strain at peak failure load, stiffness, and fracture energy. Overall, the results indicated that asphalt-binder aging has a detrimental effect on the fracture response and cracking-resistance of HMA mixes, which can be captured based on the DT test. Therefore, the asphalt-binder aging needs to be considered and properly accounted for during the material design and analysis stages of HMA mixes. However, research with more HMA mixes and correlation with field data is strongly recommended to validate the laboratory findings reported in this paper.La mezcla asfáltica en caliente (MAC es un material compuesto, heterogéneo, integrado por cemento asfáltico (o asfalto, agregados, vacíos y otros aditivos incluyendo cal, fibras, etc., usado predominantemente para la construcción de pavimentos. A lo largo del tiempo, la MAC sufre envejecimiento, lo cual conlleva cambios en las propiedades del material y en su respuesta. Este artículo documenta un estudio de laboratorio llevado a cabo para evaluar la posibilidad de emplear el ensayo de tensión directa (TD para determinar los efectos del envejecimiento del asfalto sobre las propiedades de fractura y resistencia al agrietamiento de MAC. Dos MAC de

  9. El síndrome de fatiga crónica: del modelo de susceptibilidad a la hipótesis de la cadena de estrés en el área laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Mansilla, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    El modelo de susceptibilidad tiene en cuenta la combinación de algunos elementos: la susceptibilidad biológica, la susceptibilidad al mobbing, la susceptibilidad al burn-out, la susceptibilidad al estrés laboral, y los factores de protección como: apoyo social, autoconcepto positivo, locus de control interno, alta autoestima y sentimiento de autoeficacia. La hipótesis de la cadena de estrés en el área laboral considera que la persistencia del estrés laboral es acumulativa. El mobbing, el sínd...

  10. Evaluación de conocimientos, actitudes, susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al VIH/sida en profesionales de la salud Avaliação dos conhecimentos, atitudes, susceptibilidades e auto-eficácia perante o HIV/AIDS nos profissionais da saúde Evaluation of the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, susceptibilities and self-effectiveness related to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernanda Uribe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los profesionales de la salud (médicos, psicólogos, trabajadores sociales, enfermeros cumplen un rol de gran importancia en el desarrollo de los programas de salud sexual y reproductiva dirigidos a los adolescentes. Estos profesionales asumen constantemente problemáticas asociadas a la temática, y son quienes buscan reforzar las destrezas de los adolescentes y jóvenes para prevenir conductas de riesgo que atenten contra su salud. Objetivos: evaluar los conocimientos, actitudes, susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al VIH/sida en los profesionales, teniendo en cuenta que son los principales agentes de cambio a los que acude la comunidad. Metodología: la muestra se conformó por 34 profesionales de la salud, 70,6% mujeres y 17,6% hombres, con edades entre 19 y 69 años (M = 33,71; DT = 11,53, pertenecientes a una entidad de salud pública de Cali (Colombia. Se les aplicó la "Adaptación colombiana de la escala VIH/sida-65", "Escala multicomponente de fobia al sida" y "Escala de autoeficacia generalizada (SEA-27". Resultados: la mayoría de los profesionales de la salud tienen conocimientos adecuados sobre la infección por VIH, una actitud positiva frente a las personas diagnosticadas con el virus y una mayor autoeficacia frente al VIH/sida. Discusión y conclusiones: aunque los profesionales poseen conocimientos correctos, actitudes positivas y autoeficacia frente a la infección por VIH/sida, es necesario fortalecer estrategias que refuercen algunos conceptos y comportamientos favorables frente al VIH/sida ya que son necesarios para las intervenciones dirigidas a la población que accede a los servicios que prestan los profesionales de salud, con el fin de propiciar actitudes y capacidades en el autocuidado de la comunidad.Os profissionais da saúde (médicos, psicólogos, assistentes sociais, enfermeiros desempenham um papel muito importante no desenvolvimento dos programas de saúde sexual e reprodutiva voltados para a adolesc

  11. Identificación de distintos loci de susceptibilidad relacionados al desarrollo de diabetes de inicio temprano y enfermedad cardiovascular en familias mexicanas

    OpenAIRE

    Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; Riba-Ramírez, Laura; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana; Domínguez-López, Aarón; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Rodríguez-Torres, Maribel; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Tusié-Luna, María Teresa

    2005-01-01

    La enfermedad arterial coronaria y la diabetes mellitus figuran entre las primeras causas de mortalidad y morbilidad en México. Factores genéticos juegan un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de estas entidades. A partir del reconocimiento y estudio de familias con formas monogénicas de diabetes y distintas dislipidemias asociadas al desarrollo de ateroesclerosis, se han identificado en los últimos años distintos genes y loci relacionados con estos padecimientos a través de estudios de mapeo ...

  12. Susceptibilidad antifúngica en dermatofitos

    OpenAIRE

    Colella, María Teresa; Castro, María; Montiel, Marvia; Vásquez, Erika; Mata-Essayag, Sofía; Magaldi, Sylvia; Hartung de Capriles, Claudia; Pérez, Celina; Olaizola, Carolina; Arántza, Roselló

    2006-01-01

    No existe hasta los momentos una prueba estandarizada para realizar la susceptibilidad antifúngica de los dermatofitos. El objetivo de este estudio fue implementar la técnica de los pozos de difusión para el estudio de la susceptibilidad de los dermatofitos. Se utilizaron un total de 100 aislados de dermatofitos (74 Trichophyton rubrum, 18 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 1 Trichophyton tonsurans, 5 Microsporum canis y 2 Epidermophyton floccosum) provenientes de muestras clínicas aisladas e ident...

  13. Efecto de las alteraciones genéticas, epigenéticas y expresión transcripcional de cadherina-E en la susceptibilidad al cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Aristizábal-Pachón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La cadherina-E (CDH1 cumple un papel importante en la transición epitelio-mesénquima y está relacionada con la invasión y metástasis en varios tipos de carcinomas. Sin embargo, el efecto de mutaciones y epimutaciones germinales en la susceptibilidad al cáncer de mama no es claro. Objetivo. Evaluar el polimorfismo rs5030625, cambios en el patrón de metilación del promotor y expresión transcripcional de CDH1 en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Materiales y métodos. Fueron colectadas muestras de sangre periférica de 102 pacientes con cáncer de mama y 102 mujeres control. La genotipificación del polimorfismo rs5030625 fue realizado a través de PCR-RFLP; la PCR y el análisis de disociación de alta resolución sensibles a metilación fueron usadas para determinar el estatus y semicuantificar el nivel de metilación del promotor de CDH1; finalmente, la RT-qPCR permitió evaluar el nivel de expresión transcripcional de CDH1. Resultados. Los resultados no mostraron asociación entre el polimorfismo rs5030625 y el cáncer de mama. Se encontraron perfiles aberrantes de metilación del promotor de CDH1, en las pacientes con cáncer de mama, relacionados con las primeras etapas de desarrollo del cáncer. La disminución de la expresión de CDH1 fue asociada con la presencia de metástasis y el estatus metilado del promotor. Conclusión. Alteraciones en CDH1 fueron relacionadas con invasión y metástasis en cáncer de mama, proporcionando evidencia adicional de la relevancia de CDH1 en el desarrollo y progresión del cáncer de mama.

  14. El agrietamiento superficial de las pastas puras de cemento: una interpretación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe aborda por métodos analíticos y técnicas de difracción de rayos X el problema de determinar las posibles causas del agrietamiento superficial de galletas de pasta pura de cemento. Se encuentran diferencias de composición y constitución entre la zona superficial agrietada de las galletas y el resto de la masa, hallándose concordancia entre determinados constituyentes químicos calculados a base del análisis químico y los resultados de difracción de rayos X. Se interpretan estas diferencias como atribuibles a una exudación de lechada de la pasta, con extracción de álcalis solubles y yeso. Como consecuencia, la exudación provoca una carbonatación, una mayor retracción y posiblemente un fraguado acelerado en la zona superficial en relación con la masa interior de las galletas. Como causa directa de la ·exudación se acepta la hipótesis de una granulometría anormal del cemento, probablemente debida a un exceso de finos o gruesos por una molienda grosera, y producida por una deficiencia de tipo mecánico en el proceso de molturación del clínker.

  15. Análisis de la susceptibilidad a los movimientos de ladera en la cuenca del río Llaminchán (Cajamarca, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta Chambi, Sandra Paula; Llorente Isidro, Miguel; Laín Huerta, Luis; Fidel, Lionel; Macharé, José; Carlotto, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta el análisis mediante Sistemas de Información Geográfica del cartografiado e inventario de movimientos de ladera, topografía, litología e hidrogeología efectuado en la cuenca Llaminchán (Cajamarca, Perú), el cual ha permitido obtener el mapa de susceptibilidad por movimientos de ladera donde se observa que las zonas con mayor susceptibilidad se encuentran al noreste de la ciudad de San Pablo, el flanco sur del cerro Callancas, el sector norte del poblado Santa Ana, la parte alta de...

  16. Estado de la susceptibilidad de poblaciones naturales del vector del dengue a insecticidas en trece localidades de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santacoloma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La resistencia fisiológica de las poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti a losinsecticidas de uso en salud pública, disminuye la eficacia del control químico utilizado para interrumpirla transmisión de dengue durante los brotes y epidemias. Objetivo. Determinar el estado de la susceptibilidad al carbamato propoxur, a los organofosforadosadulticidas malatión y fenitrotión y al larvicida temefos, de 13 poblaciones naturales de Ae. aegypti enocho municipios: una de Bucaramanga y dos de Sabana de Torres en el departamento de Santander;dos de Girardot y dos de La Mesa en Cundinamarca; dos de Villavicencio y dos de Puerto López en el Meta; una de San José del Guaviare, en Guaviare, y una de Florencia en Caquetá. Materiales y métodos. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad consistieron en bioensayos estandarizados dela Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, 1981, y botellas de los Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC, 1998. Se aplicaron pruebas colorimétricas para determinar los niveles de enzimascomo posibles responsables de la reducción de la susceptibilidad a insecticidas organofosforados y alcarbamato propoxur. Resultados. Todas las poblaciones presentaron susceptibilidad a malatión y propoxur. Para el temefos,solo cuatro de las trece localidades evaluadas registraron susceptibilidad. Con respecto a los posiblesmecanismos de desintoxicación enzimática, en siete de las once poblaciones naturales se registraronvalores superiores al punto de corte para esterasas inespecíficas, solamente en Bucaramanga sepresentó un incremento en las enzimas monooxigenasas del citocromo P450, pero en ningunapoblación se registró acetilcolinestarasa modificada. Conclusiones. La susceptibilidad generalizada a los organofosforados adulticidas evaluados, indicaque el malatión, el insecticida más utilizado en Colombia para interrumpir la transmisión del dengue,sigue siendo eficaz. Las particularidades de los resultados de la

  17. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Staphylococcus aureus sensible, con sensibilidad "BORDERLINE" y resistentes a la meticilina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendoza Ticona

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar las susceptibilidad a diversos antibacterianos de tres categorías de S. aureus según su sensibilidad a la meticilina. Materiales y Métodos: Se aislaron 76 cepas de S. aureus que colonizaban pacientes y personal de salud de tres servicios del Hospital Honorio Delgado de Arequipa, de los cuales 36 fueron sensibles a meticilina (MSSA, 15 con susceptibilidad "borderline" (BORSA y 25 fueron resistentes a la meticilina (MRSA. Se les sometió a antibiograma a 14 antibacterianos. Resultados: El único antibiótico al cual todas los aislamientos fueron sensibles fue vancomicina. Los MRSA fueron resistentes a todos los b-lactámicos excepto imipenem que obtuvo 64% de susceptibilidad. Los BORSA mantuvieron un 80% de sensibilidad a cefalotina y un 100% al imipenem. Los antibióticos cefalotina, imipenem, ciprofloxacina, cotrimoxazol, rifampicina, eritromicina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol, lincomicina y gentamicina tuvieron sensibilidades variables (p<0.01 entre las tres categorías; una mayor proporción de MSSA fue sensible a estos antibióticos, luego los BORSA y finalmente los MRSA. Las cepas multi-resistentes fueron mucho más frecuentes en los MRSA que en los otros dos grupos (p <0.01. Conclusión: Existe en nuestro medio cepas de S. aureus con resistencia "borderline" a meticilina. Hay diferencias entre la sensibilidad a diversos antimicrobianos entre los tres grupos de S. aureus. Esta diferenciación podría beneficiar una terapia antimicrobiana más racional. Se debe aplicar en todo aislamiento de S. aureus las recomendaciones internacionales para la detección de meticilino resistencia.

  18. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  19. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P < 0,0001. Los resultados de este estudio indican la necesidad de mantener una vigilancia activa de los patrones de

  20. Ensayo a escala de obra sobre fisuración y agrietamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Ynzenga, J. I.

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Con objeto de demostrar que el hormigón confeccionado con cemento PA-350 no presenta ninguna anomalía (si se pone en obra y se siguen las reglas elementales de cualquier código de buena práctica y que especifican todas las Normas referentes al hormigón, las cuales se dan para cumplir en todos los hormigones, independientemente del cemento empleado en la confección del mismo, se pensó realizar un ensayo a escala de obra, sobre una losa de pavimento, para reproducir unas condiciones donde la relación superficie a volumen fuera grande.

  1. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.

  2. Uso del ensayo de implante y la técnica de emisión acústica para estudiar el agrietamiento asistido por hidrógeno en la zona fundida en la soldadura de un acero HSLA-80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fals, H. C.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Weld metal hydrogen assisted cracking was studied using two flux cored wire (AWS E 70T-5 and AWS E 120 T5-K4 and a mixture gas of CO2 + 5% H2 to induce high values of diffusible hydrogen in high strength low alloy steel (HSLA-80 weldments. An Acoustical Emission Measurement System (AEMS RMS voltmeter was coupled to the implant test (NF 89-100 apparatus to determine energy, amplitude and event numbers of signal. All cracks were initiated in the partially melted zone and propagated into the coarse-grained region of the heat affected zone when E 70 T5 consumable was used, and the quasi-cleavage fracture mode was predominant. When E 120 T5 K4 consumable was used the cracks propagated vertically across the fusion zone, and a mixed fracture mode was the most important. A significant relationship between acoustic emission parameters and fracture modes was found.

    Se estudió el agrietamiento asistido por hidrógeno en la zona fundida, usando dos alambres tubulares (E 70T-5 y E 120 T5-K4 y una mezcla gaseosa de CO2 + 5% H2, para inducir altos niveles de hidrógeno difusible en la soldadura de un acero HSLA-80. Un sistema de medición de emisión acústica basado en un voltímetro RMS (Root Mean Square, acoplado a la instalación de ensayo de implante (NF 89-100, permitió determinar la energía, amplitud RMS y número de ciclos de la señal. Se observó por microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido, que en todos los ensayos las grietas se formaron en la zona parcialmente fundida. Cuando se usó el alambre E 70T-5, las grietas se propagaron a través de la región de crecimiento de grano de la zona térmicamente afectada, predominando el modo de fractura cuasiclivage. En los ensayos del alambre E 120 T5-K4, las grietas crecieron verticalmente a través de la zona fundida, verificándose mayor incidencia de un modo de fractura mixto. Se encontró una relación importante entre los par

  3. Resistencia y susceptibilidad de microorganismos aislados en pacientes atendidos en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel, Villavicencio-Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alexander Gutiérrez Lesmes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana es problema significativo de salud pública y está asociada al uso indiscriminado e irracional de antibióticos, lo que afecta la eficacia de los tratamientos. Objetivo: Estimar la resistencia antimicrobiana a los antibióticos resultado de las pruebas invitro de susceptibilidad en una institución hospitalaria de tercer nivel de Villavicencio, Colombia. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo, análisis univariado, calculando medias de las variables susceptibilidad, resistencia, antibiótico, microorganismos, y tipo de muestra resultados de las pruebas de susceptibilidad realizadas mediante técnica de Kirby-Bauer de 485 pruebas de susceptibilidad de la institución hospitalaria. Resultados y Discusión: Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados, fueron: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. Pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus ss. Aureus representando el 49% de total de microorganismos, los mayores reportes de resistencia en la pruebas invitro las presentaron Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ss. Saprophytic, Enterobacter cloacae, presentan una resistencia media superior al 50%, y una susceptibilidad inferior 40%, la mayor resistencia media se presentó para los siguientes antibióticos, Cefalotina 72,2%, Cefazolina 59,9%, Nitrofurantoina 54,4%, Ceftriaxona 52,7%. Conclusiones: Antibióticos como la Cefalotina, Nitrofurantoina, Cefazolina y Ceftriaxona  pierden su utilidad terapéutica dada la elevada resistencia demostrada por los microorganismos aislados en las pruebas invitro, es necesario reforzar las medidas de uso adecuado de antibióticos para disminuir la posibilidad de adaptación y resistencia a los mismos,  el fenómeno de resistencia bacteriana ocurre fuera del ámbito hospitalario evidenciando la necesidad de iniciar también control y vigilancia en infecciones ocurridas en la comunidad.Cómo citar este

  4. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A LA HIPOXIA HIPOBÁRICA EN UNA ESTIRPE COMERCIAL DE POLLOS DE ENGORDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C. Monroy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HAP inducida por la hipoxia hipobárica genera grandes pérdidas económicas en la industria de la carne de pollo. Los pollos Cobb 500 criados bajo condiciones de hipoxia hipobárica (2.638 m de altitud y temperatura controlada, tuvieron una disminución notable de peso corporal en comparación con los animales criados bajo normoxia relativa (310 m de altitud. Al día 42 de edad la mortalidad acumulada fue de 35,2% en machos y 53,8% en hembras, de la cual, 90,6% en machos y 96,4% en hembras se atribuyó a HAP. Al día 33 de edad, 64% de los pollos desarrollaron HAP (índice cardiaco > 25, 32% presentó ascitis y 82% hidropericardio solamente. Se encontró mayor mortalidad entre la tercera y quinta semanas. Se concluye que la ascitis puede o no estar presente en animales enfermos y que el hidropericardio por sí solo se asocia con la presencia de HAP. El tiempo de exposición a hipoxia hipo - bárica no influye en la forma de presentación, ni afecta la manifestación de la HAP, mientras que la susceptibilidad a la muerte por HAP se debe a un factor individual de adaptación. Por tanto, es factible que el grado de susceptibilidad individual determine los límites entre la compensación de la hipoxia, el desarrollo de la HAP (cuadro agudo o crónico y la muerte de los animales. El 36% de los pollos expuestos a hipoxia hipobárica tuvieron un buen desempeño productivo; estos pollos resistentes deberían ser objeto de programas de selección genética.

  5. Vigilancia de los serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Haemophilus influenzae en Colombia, 1994-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Ovalle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad invasora causada por Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b, ha sido una de las mayores causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población infantil; afortunadamente, en algunos países con amplia cobertura de la vacuna conjugada esta situación ha cambiado. En 1994 se inició en el Grupo de Microbiología un programa de vigilancia de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y de los serotipos de aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae, remitidos por los hospitales y Laboratorios de Salud Pública del país como componente de los programas de vigilancia en red de infección respiratoria aguda y meningitis bacteriana aguda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae obtenidos de 1994 al 2002 y realizar un nuevo análisis sobre el impacto de la vacuna conjugada de H. influenzae, serotipo b, en Colombia. De 1994 a 2002 se han estudiado 683 aislamientos; 379 (55,5% de pacientes del género masculino; 370 (54,2% de menores de 1 año; 227 (33,2% de 1 a 5 años; 19 (2,8% de 6 a 14 años; 38 (5,6% de mayores de 14 años, y de 29 (4,2% no se tenía el dato de la edad; 493 (72,2% fueron recuperados de pacientes con meningitis, 181 (26,5% de neumonía y 9 (0,9% de otras enfermedades. El 85,1% de los aislamientos fueron H. influenzae, serotipo b, 12,9% no capsulares y 2,0% de otros serotipos (10 a, 1 d, 1 e y 2 f. Del total de aislamientos, 12% fueron productores de beta-lactamasa; 13,9%, resistentes a ampicilina; 12,7%, a trimetoprim sulfametoxazol (SXT; 5,4%, a cloranfenicol, y 1% a cefuroxima; todos fueron sensibles a ceftriaxona. Durante este período se observó un incremento en la resistencia de los aislamientos a SXT (5% al 13%, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,1. Con la vigilancia se pudo determinar una disminución significativa de los casos de meningitis en los menores de 1 año y en el

  6. Susceptibilidad y resistencia de Triatoma infestans y Panstrongylus herreri a los insecticidas piretroides, Perú 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Yon F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron los niveles de susceptibilidad de triatominos a piretroides con la técnica de la OMS, usando papeles impregnados al 0,1% de ingrediente activo de los siguientes insecticidas: alfacipermetrina, betaciflutrina, ciflutrina, cipermetrina y deltametrina, se emplearon lotes de triatominos de los estadios ninfa V y adultos de Triatoma infestans y Panstrongylus herreri. Se registraron los porcentajes de mortalidad después de las 24 horas de exposición a papeles impregnados con insecticidas, observando que la mayor parte de la población de triatominos de ambas especies era sensibles a los insecticidas. Sólo en algunos casos, se hallaron los niveles de resistencia en los estadios de ninfa V en la especie P. herreri en 2 localidades de la provincia de Jaén, departamento de Cajamarca, asimismo en adultos y ninfas V de T. infestans en especímenes capturados en el valle de Vítor, departamento de Arequipa.

  7. Estudio de la susceptibilidad de un acero inoxidable austenítico estabilizado con niobio al dañado por tensocorrosión en medio H2S (SSC y corrosión intergranular (IGC en otros medios agresivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez de Saiz-Solabarría, S.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavior to hydrogen damage caused by stress corrosion in a H2S medium (SSC and to intergranular corrosion (IGC in different mediums, such as oxalic acid (C2H2O4-2H20, iron sulphate-50 % sulfuric acid [Fe2(SO43-50 % H2SO4], nitric acid (HNO3, copper sulphate-16 % sulfuric acid (CuSO4-5H2O-16 % H2SO4 and cooper sulphate-50 % sulfuric acid (CuSO4-5H2O-50 % H2SO4, is studied in an AISI 347 austenitic stainless steel stabilized with 0.61 mass % Nb and hot rolled to a seamless pipe with 273.1 mm in diameter and 18.2 mm in thickness.

    Se estudia el comportamiento de un acero inoxidable austenítico del tipo AISI 347 estabilizado con un 0,61 % en masa de Nb, laminado en caliente para producir una tubería sin soldadura de 273,1 mm de diámetro y 18,2 mm de espesor, frente al dañado por hidrógeno generado por tensocorrosión en medio H2S (SSC y frente a la corrosión intergranular (IGC en diferentes medios agresivos tales como ácido oxálico (C2H2O4∙2H2O, sulfato de hierro-50% ácido sulfúrico [Fe2 (SO43-50 % H2SO4], ácido nítrico (HNO3, sulfato de cobre-16% ácido sulfúrico (CuSO4-5H2O-16 % H2SO4 y sulfato de cobre-50 % ácido sulfúrico (CuSO4-5H2O-50 % H2SO4, respectivamente.

  8. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  9. Neuropatia Periférica Familiar por Susceptibilidade ao Entrapment (Neuropatia Tomaculosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Viana, J; Coimbra, J; Goulart, Z; Bigotte de Almeida, L; Cabral Beirão, J

    1991-01-01

    Os autores apresentam um caso de neuropatia periférica familiar por susceptibilidade ao entrapment e comparam-no com os descritos na literatura. As principais características desta neuropatia são: hereditariedade autossómica dominante, mononeuropatias recorrentes de localização variável (cubital, mediano, ciático poplíteo, externo, plexo braquial) e aspectos morfológicos característicos na biópsia do nervo. O nervo sensitivo revela alterações predominantes desmielinizantes, com espessamentos ...

  10. Susceptibilidad antibiótica de las bacterias causantes de infecciones odontogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Brescó Salinas, Miguel; Costa Riu, Noelia; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar la flora bacteriana y su susceptibilidad a varios antibióticos utilizados en infecciones odontogénicas de localización periapical y en las pericoronaritis del tercer molar inferior, para poder adaptar convenientemente el tratamiento antibiótico a las exigencias de tales infecciones, y evitar así los efectos secundarios y los sobretratamientos con antibióticos. Material y métodos: Se han seleccionado con unos criterios de inclusión y de exclusión a 64 pacientes que prese...

  11. Susceptibilidad antibiótica de las bacterias causantes de infecciones odontogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Brescó Salinas, Vicente Miguel; Costa Riu, Noelia; Berini Aytés, Leonardo; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Identificar la flora bacteriana y su susceptibilidad a varios antibióticos utilizados en infecciones odontogénicas de localización periapical y en las pericoronaritis del tercer molar inferior, para poder adaptar convenientemente el tratamiento antibiótico a las exigencias de tales infecciones, y evitar así los efectos secundarios y los sobretratamientos con antibióticos. Material y métodos: Se han seleccionado con unos criterios de inclusión y de exclusión a 64 pacientes que pr...

  12. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Lucía Leal; Castañeda Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medell...

  13. Microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas mestiças e sua susceptibilidade aos antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice F. Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A criação de ovinos tem se desenvolvido nas últimas décadas, entretanto ainda são escassas informações sobre a composição e potencial patogênico da microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer os microrganismos constituintes da microbiota cérvico-vaginal de ovelhas, bem como sua susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Foram realizadas coletas em 60 animais sadios, pertencentes a rebanhos de Petrolina e região. Foi realizado o isolamento bacteriano em ágar sangue e ágar MacConkey, sendo os microrganismos identificados de acordo com características morfológicas, tintoriais e bioquímicas. As amostras foram submetidas ao teste de difusão em disco para determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos: sulfametazina, enrofloxacina, doxiciclina, tetraciclina, penicilina, amoxicilina, cefalotina e lincomicina. Foram obtidos 94 isolados, sendo constatada uma maior frequência de Staphylococcus spp. (32,97%, Escherichia coli e Micrococcus spp., sendo observado ainda, isolados de Acinetobacter spp., Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. e Streptococcus spp. Os isolados apresentaram alta sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados sendo observado o menor percentual de sensibilidade para lincomicina. A presença de microrganismos oportunistas de potencial patogênico, na microbiota, como Staphylococcus spp e Escherichia coli, remete a uma análise criteriosa em relação ao diagnóstico de infecções genitais. Os isolados bacterianos obtidos neste estudo são sensíveis à maioria dos grupos de drogas antimicrobianas testadas, demonstrando o potencial de utilização desses princípios ativos, além da disponibilidade de escolha, visto a ausência de multirresistência.

  14. La susceptibilidad a la licuefacción en el emplazamiento de la ciudad de San Cristóbal, Cuba Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se enfoca en la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la licuefacción de los sedimentos cuaternarios del emplazamiento de la ciudad de San Cristóbal, provincia de Artemisa, Cuba. El área de estudio está próxima al epicentro estimado para el terremoto del año 1880, considerado el más fuerte en Cuba Occidental (M=6,0; este antecedente sísmico, unido al contexto geológico, sugiere condiciones favorables para la ocurrencia del fenómeno de licuefacción. En el estudio se aplicaron dos métodos: el primero, basado en las propiedades de la fracción fina del suelo, y el segundo, fundamentado en la comparación entre el esfuerzo cíclico de un sism o y la resistencia a licuar de los sedimentos estudiados. Los resultados definen los estratos de arenas arcillosas y las mezclas mal graduadas de grava, arena y arcilla, como los más susceptibles a licuar en la ciudad de San Cristóbal. Los mapas derivados del trabajo indican la distribución de las áreas potencialmente susceptibles a la licuefacción, lo cual es muy útil para la toma de decisiones respecto al ordenamiento urbano.

  15. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de aislamientos bacterianos causantes de infecciones comunitarias Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates causing community infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Enrique Cabrera Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia bacteriana es un problema de salud creciente a nivel mundial. Se realiz�� un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo en el Laboratorio de Microbiología Clínica, perteneciente al Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiología del municipio de Güines, en el período comprendido desde enero a diciembre de 2005, para conocer la susceptibilidad a los agentes antimicrobianos de elección de 750 cepas que incluyeron los microorganismos siguientes: Staphylococcus aureus (n=250, Escherichia coli (n= 250 y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 250, aislados de diferentes muestras clínicas (secreción ótica, lesiones de piel, pus de heridas, de la faringe y orina de pacientes ambulatorios con signos y síntomas de infección, de 5 municipios del este de La Habana. Se apreciaron altos niveles de resistencia en las cepas de Staphylococcus aureus a la penicilina, la oxacilina y la eritromicina; en Escherichia coli al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, al ácido nalidíxico y la ampicilina; y en el caso de Pseudomonas aeruginosa no se encontraron altos niveles de resistencia a las drogas investigadas. Los resultados ponen en evidencia la necesidad de perfeccionar y continuar la vigilancia microbiológica de la resistencia a los fármacos antimicrobianos.Bacterial resistance is an increasing health problem worldwide. A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted in the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology of the Municipal Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology of Güines municipality, from January to December 2005, to know the susceptibility to the antimicrobial elective agents of 750 strains that included the following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (n=250, Escherichia coli (n=250 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=250, isolated from different clinical samples (ear secretion, skin lesions, wound pus, pharynx and urine from ambulatory patients with signs and symptoms of infection from 5 municipalities of Eastern Havana. High levels of resistance were found in the

  16. Prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar, Balantidium coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rito Zerpa Larrauri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Pruebas de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, así como el cultivo para protozoarios intestinales, han sido publicados escasamente en la literatura médica. En nuestro medio aún no se ha comunicado pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro para los parásitos mencionados. Objetivos: Plantear una alternativa de prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro y conocer su resistencia frente a los antimicrobianos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. Instituciones: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, e Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli frente a cinco antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se trabajó con 64 cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, 16 de Entamoeba histolytica-dispar y 16 de Balantidium coli, frente a cinco antimicrobianos: metronidazol, cotrimoxazol, tetraciclina, furazolidona y ciprofloxacina. Las cepas de B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar fueron cultivadas en el medio de Pavlova modificado, de 500 muestras de heces de niños con diagnóstico de parasitosis intestinal y las de B. coli de heces de cerdo. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro se realizaron con el método de microcultivos en el medio de Pavlova modificado, en pocitos con 200 uL del medio sin antiparasitarios (control y con antiparasitarios en 10 concentraciones, desde 128 ug/mL hasta 0,25 ug/mL; luego de incubación a 36º C por 48 horas, la lectura por examen microscópico directo comparó el desarrollo en el medio control con el desarrollo en los pocitos conteniendo los antimicrobianos. Principales medidas de resultados: Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM. Resultados: Se encontró para B. hominis, con metronidazol CIM 90: 64 ug/mL y CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; para E. histolytica-E. dispar con

  17. Genes de susceptibilidad/ resistencia a Flavivirus, implicaciones en la severidad de la infección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones transmitidas por Flavivirus se encuentran entre las enfermedades transmisibles con mayor incidencia en el mundo. La mayoría de ellas se manifiestan clínicamente como un síndrome febril que puede estar o no acompañado de diversos síntomas. La severidad de estas infecciones es variable con casos asintomáticos y otros que pueden llegar a ser letales, La razón de esta variabilidad en la presentación clínica, se desconoce en humanos. En ratones se han identificado cepas susceptibles y cepas resistentes a la infección por algunos Flavivirus. Por clonación posicional se mapeó el gen responsable de la resistencia a virus West Nile en el cromosoma 5 de ratón y se identificó como oligoadenilato sintetasa 1b (Oas1 b. Este gen codifica una proteína que sintetiza oligómeros de adenina que activan la RNasaL, que a su vez degrada los RNAs virales. Células provenientes de ratones resistentes a la infección por Flavivirus producen menor cantidad de virus que su contraparte susceptible, Recientemente en humanos, se identificó un polimorfismo asociado con susceptibilidad a infección por virus West Nile en el gen de OasL. Sin embargo, el mecanismo bioquímico y molecular exacto por el cual se produce la susceptibilidad no ha sido completamente dilucidado, Este conocimiento permitiría aclarar aspectos de la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades y enfocar la terapéutica desde un punto de vista más específico.

  18. Susceptibilidad de Aedes aegypti a DDT, deltametrina y lambdacialotrina en Colombia Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to DDT, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Santacoloma Varón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el estado de susceptibilidad a insecticidas piretroides deltametrina y lambdacialotrina y al organoclorado DDT, e identificar los mecanismos bioquímicos asociados con resistencia en 13 poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti recolectadas en localidades de Colombia donde el dengue es un grave problema de salud pública. MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron y criaron en condiciones controladas formas inmaduras de diferentes criaderos naturales del vector para cada localidad. Con la generación F2 se realizaron bioensayos utilizando las metodologías OMS 1981 (papeles impregnados y CDC 1998 (botellas impregnadas. En las poblaciones con mortalidades compatibles con disminución de la susceptibilidad, se midieron los niveles de esterasas no específicas (ENE, oxidasas de función mixta (OFM y acetilcolinesterasa modificada (ACEM mediante pruebas colorimétricas. RESULTADOS: Todas las poblaciones del mosquito evaluadas evidenciaron resistencia al organoclorado DDT. En cuanto a los piretroides, se encontró resistencia generalizada a lambdacialotrina pero no a deltametrina. Los mecanismos bioquímicos de resistencia evaluados permitieron encontrar 7 de 11 poblaciones con ENE elevadas y una población con OFM incrementadas. CONCLUSIONES: Se descarta la resistencia cruzada de tipo fisiológico entre el DDT y lambdacialotrina en las poblaciones de A. aegypti evaluadas. La resistencia fisiológica a lambdacialotrina parece asociarse con el incremento de las ENE. El comportamiento diferencial en los niveles de susceptibilidad y los valores enzimáticos entre poblaciones se asociaron con la variabilidad genética y presión de selección química a nivel local.OBJECTIVES: To assess the susceptibility status of 13 natural populations of Aedes aegypti (collected from sites in Colombia where dengue is a serious public health problem to the pyrethroids, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, and to the organochlorine, DDT, and to identify any biochemical

  19. Comportamiento de la susceptibilidad magnética en el ambiente ofiolítico del nordeste de Cuba oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Batista-Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el comportamiento de la susceptibilidad magnética en las rocas de ambiente ofiolítico del nordeste de Cuba oriental con el propósito de esclarecer, en esta zona, la naturaleza geológica de las anomalías del campo magnético; para ello se consideraron, primeramente, resultados de investigaciones petrofísicas anteriores que incluyeran la susceptibilidad magnética; posteriormente, en dos etapas de muestreo separadas por un intervalo de 5 años, se midió esta propiedad en un total de 374 muestras. El estudio permitió conocer que la susceptibilidad magnética constituye un reflejo de la composición e historia geológica de las diferentes rocas de la región, e inferir variaciones en el grado de serpentinización de las rocas ultramáficas, así como el enriquecimiento en minerales magnéticos en todas las rocas estudiadas. Las peridotitas serpentinizadas y los diques de gabros presentan los valores más altos de susceptibilidad magnética reflejando, para las peridotitas, su grado de serpentinización en una relación directa. Ambos grupos de rocas son los principales responsables del comportamiento del campo magnético, el cual parece estar vinculado a las características geométricas y físicas de las peridotitas y algunos diques de gabros.

  20. AGRIETA-MIENTOS DE LOS ESPACIOS DE COMU-NICACIÓNPuntos sensibles de investigación desde la enseñanza como práctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bonilla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La relación entre personas ha sido representada por diferentes disciplinas académicas y artísticas como un paisaje enmarcado por diferentes tipos de conflictos. Este texto responde a ese tipo de paisaje, específicamente aquel que implica una especie de “contrato” entre profesores y estudiantes en el contexto de la enseñanza del arte. Los malentendidos generados por los encuentros cotidianos entre ellos podrían ser, más que sólo “errores”, posibilidades de acercamiento al sin-sentido, como práctica discursiva de la creación a partir de las grietas que aparecen en el discurso académico. Abstract: Relationship among people has been depicted by various academic disciplines and arts, as a landscape surrounded by different kinds of conflicts. This article deals with that kind of landscape, specifically the one that implies a sort of “contract” between teachers and students in the context of Art teaching. The misunderstandings aroused in day to day encounters between them, could be, more than “just mistakes”, opportunities to approach the non-sense as a discursive practice of creation, starting from the cracks that may be found in the academic discourse.

  1. Alelos del complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad BoLA clase II asociados a la resistencia y susceptibilidad a Boophilus microplus en ganado bovino, Junín–Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Custodio Villanueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar mediante la amplificación de microsatélites, los alelos del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad (CMH BoLA Clase II aso ciados a la resistencia y susceptibilidad a Boophilus microplus en ganado bovino, Junín – Perú. S e recolectaron muestra s de sangre de 47 bovinos , a sí como, ejemplares de B. microplus durante los meses de marzo, abril y mayo del 2009, en horas de la mañana, del lado derecho de cada animal. La extracción del ADN genómico se realizó por el método de Phil Summers (1995 y la amplificación de los microsatélites DRB3.2, DRB31 y BM1815 fue por PCR en un secuenciador automático. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante e l programa POPGEN 32. Se identificaron los alelos A, B y C relacionados con la resistencia y susceptibilidad a B. microplus en ganado bovino tanto en el locus BoLA DRB3.2 como en BoLA BM1815. Las frecuencias alélicas estimadas fueron: en el locus DRB3.2 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 0 . 2742, del alelo B fue de 0.5000 y del alelo C fue de 0.2258; en el locus DRB31 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 1.0000 y, en el locus BM1815 la frecuencia del alelo A fue de 0.3295, del alelo B fue de 0.5909y del alelo C fu e de 0.0795. Se concluye que los alelos A, B y C de los loci DRB3.2 y BM1815 del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad BoLA Clase II están relacionados con la resistencia a B. microplus en ganado bovino y el alelo A del locus DRB31 está relacionado con la susceptibilidad.

  2. Modelación con elementos finitos del agrietamiento en el hormigón por corrosión localizada en la armadura Finite element modeling of cracking in concrete due to localized corrosion in the reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Castorena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En base a estudios con elemento finito, en el presente trabajo se obtiene un modelo capaz de predecir la cantidad de acero corroído (rcrit en la armadura necesaria para que aparezca la primera grieta visible en la superficie del recubrimiento del hormigón. Para el análisis con elemento finito se utiliza el software ANSYS, el cual dispone del elemento SOLID65, con el que es posible modelar el hormigón simple, ya que tiene la capacidad de sufrir aplastamiento en compresión y agrietarse a tracción. El caso de la capa de óxido es modelado mediante elementos de contacto CONTA174, y la armadura con SOLID65, pero sin las opciones de aplastamiento y agrietamiento. El modelo obtenido está en función del recubrimiento libre, diámetro del refuerzo, tipo de hormigón y la longitud corroída, denominada ésta longitud anódica. Los resultados muestran la gran influencia que tiene la corrosión localizada (longitud anódica pequeña-longitud catódica grande sobre el cálculo de rcrit, y que dicho efecto sólo es posible analizarlo de manera tridimensional. Así mismo, se muestra la eficiencia de utilizar los elementos de contacto CONTA174 para representar el crecimiento de óxidos. El modelo obtenido explica en un 92% el fenómeno y se compara con resultados experimentales encontrados en la literaturaBased on studies with finite element method, a model able to predict the quantity of steel corrosion (rcrit necessary for the first visible crack appearance in the surface of the concrete cover was obtained. For the finite element analysis the software ANSYS was used, which has the element SOLID65, with which is possible to model plain concrete, since has the capacity to show crushing in compression and to cracking in tension. The case of the oxide layer is modeled by means of contact elements CONTA174 and the steel with SOLID65, but without the crushing and cracking options. The obtained model is in function of the free cover, diameter of the

  3. Susceptibilidade larval de duas populações de Aedes egypti a inseticidas químicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Jairo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A susceptibilidade dos insetos tem sido um dos mais importantes aspectos a ser monitorados em programas de saúde pública que tratam do controle de vetores. O estudo objetiva avaliar a susceptibilidade de larvas de Aedes aegypti a inseticidas químicos em áreas sujeitas ou não a controle. MÉTODOS: Bioensaios foram realizados com concentração de diagnóstico e concentração múltipla, segundo padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde para as coletas de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em uma área não sujeita -- Campinas, SP -- e em uma outra área sujeita -- Campo Grande, MS -- a tratamentos químicos de controle. RESULTADOS: Larvas de Aedes aegypti coletadas em Campinas indicaram resistência potencial à concentração-diagnóstico (CD de 0,04 ppm do organofosforado temephos. O teste de concentração múltipla registrou sobrevivência de 24,5% à concentração de 0,0125 ppm. A susceptibilidade dessa mesma linhagem foi avaliada para o organofosforado fenitrothion (CD=0,08 ppm e o piretróide cipermetrina (CD=0,01 ppm, resultando em valores normais para essas concentrações. Larvas de Ae. aegypti coletadas em Campo Grande mostraram susceptibilidade normal ao temephos (CD=0,04 ppm e à cipermetrina (CD=0,01 ppm. Também foram estabelecidas as CL50 e as CL95 de cipermetrina 25 CE, cyfluthrin 5 CE, betacyfluthrin 1,25 SC e propoxur 20 CE para Ae. aegypti. Com base nos dados da linhagem-padrão Rockefeller, foram estimadas as razões de resistência de 2,9, 2,2, 2,4 e 1,3, respectivamente, pela CL50, e de 3,5, 2,6, 3,9 e 1,3 pela CL95. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de avaliações prévias e monitoramento da efetividade dos inseticidas que devem ser usados em programas de controle de mosquitos.

  4. Susceptibilidade de Aedes aegypti aos inseticidas temephos e cipermetrina, Brasil Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to temephos and cypermethrin insecticides, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny E Duque Luna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se bioensaios para detectar a susceptibilidade de Aedes aegypti aos inseticidas químicos, temefós e cipermetrina. Os resultados mostraram que esta espécie é suscetível a temefós e apresenta resistência a cipermetrinae.Bioassays were performed in order to detect the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to the chemical insecticides temephos and cypermethrin. The results showed that this species is susceptible to temephos and presents resistance to cypermethrin.

  5. Susceptibilidad antibiótica de Helicobacter pylori : un estudio de prevalencia en pacientes con dispepsia en Quito, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Ch, Jorge; Guzmán, Katherine; Morales, Eduardo; Villacís, José; Pazmiño Quirós, Galo Fernando; Pacheco Tigselema, Rosa Eugenia; Escalante, Luis Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Resumen Introducción: el Helicobacter pylori se asocia con patologías gastrointestinales, el incremento en la resistencia a los antibióticos utilizados para su erradicación es alarmante a nivel mundial. En este estudio se determinó la susceptibilidad a 5 antibióticos utilizados en la terapia de erradicación de H. pylori aislado de una población adulta con dispepsia recurrente en Quito, Ecuador. Materiales y métodos : previa aceptación del consentimiento informado, se tomaron biopsias de cu...

  6. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility in clinical isolates of Enterococcus species Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro en aislamientos clínicos de Enterococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Calderón-Jaimes

    2003-04-01

    a diciembre de 1999 hecho en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría en la Ciudad de México, se procesaron 97 cepas de Enterococcus (60 de Enterococcus faecalis y 37 de Enterococcus faecium, contra 11 antibióticos. La prueba de susceptibilidad se elaboró con agar, de acuerdo con los estándares del Comité Nacional para el Laboratorio Clínico (NCCLS. Todos los aislamientos fueron probados para determinar la resistencia elevada en contra de beta-lactámicos, aminoglucósidos y glicopéptidos. Asimismo, se determinó el fenotipo de resistencia hacia la vancomicina. Se evaluaron diferencias de proporciones con ji2 o prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: La resistencia en general hacia los antibióticos probados fue 17/97 (17.5% a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina-clavulanato e imipenem. No se encontró resistencia elevada ni presencia de producción de beta-lactamasas; 74/97 (48.4% fueron resistentes a eritromicina, 60% resistentes a ciprofloxacina, 31/97 (32% resistentes a gentamicina y 55/97 (56.7% resistentes a estreptomicina. Siete cepas fueron resistentes a vancomicina, todas ellas E. faecium; 5/7 con el fenotipo A y 2/7 con el fenotipo B. Todas las cepas aisladas fueron susceptibles al linezolid. La diferencia en la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre las especies fue significativa. CONCLUSIONES: La resistencia antimicrobiana múltiple de Enterococcus spp. es un problema real y es necesaria su vigilancia. El laboratorio de microbiología es la primera línea de defensa en contra de la diseminación de enterococos con resistencia múltiple en el ambiente hospitalario. Todas las cepas aisladas deberían ser probadas en contra de ampicilina, estreptomicina, gentamicina y glicopéptidos.

  7. Susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos en aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasor en Colombia Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para determinar los patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de los aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae causante de enfermedad invasora diagnosticada en Colombia en niños menores de 5 años entre 1994 y 1996 y para establecer la distribución de los tipos capsulares de los aislamientos resistentes. Se analizaron 324 aislamientos recuperados durante la ejecución del Protocolo Nacional de Serotipificación de S. pneumoniae realizado en Santa Fe de Bogotá, Medellín y Cali, Colombia, entre julio de 1994 y marzo de 1996. Se observó que 119 de todos los aislamientos (36,7% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida por lo menos a un antimicrobiano, que 39 (12% presentaban susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina y que de estos últimos aislamientos, 29 presentaban resistencia intermedia y 10 resistencia alta. Nueve aislamientos (2,8% presentaban resistencia a la ceftriaxona, 80 (24,7% a la combinación de trimetoprima y sulfametoxazol (TMS, 49 (15,1% al cloranfenicol y 31 (9,6% a la eritromicina. Se observó resistencia a dos antimicrobianos en 31 aislamientos (9,6% y multirresistencia en 22 (6,7%. Estos 22 aislamientos mostraron resistencia al TMS. Las asociaciones más frecuentes fueron penicilina, TMS y eritromicina en 5 casos; penicilina, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 4; penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol y TMS en 3; y penicilina, ceftriaxona, cloranfenicol, TMS y eritromicina en 3 casos. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a la penicilina fueron: 23F (53,8%, 14 (25,6%, 6B (7,7%, 9V (5,1%, 19F (5,1% y 34 (2,6%. Los serotipos más frecuentes en los aislamientos resistentes a antimicrobianos distintos de la penicilina fueron: 5 (37,5%, 23F (7,5%, 14 (18,8% y 6B (13,8%. Esta diferencia en la distribución de los serotipos fue estadísticamente significativa (P A study was done to determine the patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents in isolates of Streptococcus

  8. Evaluación de conocimientos, actitudes, susceptibilidad y autoeficacia frente al vih/sida en profesionales de la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Uribe, Ana Fernanda; Orcasita, Linda Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Los profesionales de la salud (médicos, psicólogos, trabajadores sociales, enfermeros) cumplen un rol de gran importancia en el desarrollo de los programas de salud sexual y reproductiva dirigidos a los adolescentes. Estos profesionales asumen  constantemente problemáticas asociadas a la temática, y son quienes buscan reforzar las destrezas de los adolescentes y jóvenes para prevenir conductas de riesgo que atenten contra su salud. Objetivos: evaluar los conocimientos, actitudes, susceptibili...

  9. Susceptibilidad del almidón presente en harinas crudas y modificadas al ataque enzimático con amilasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lozano

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las ratas de hidrólisis de almidones, para algunas harinas de alimentos (yuca, maíz y plátano y la influencia de ciertos procedimientos industriales y caseros, de dichos productos, sobre las constantes anterioraiente mencionadas.

  10. Streptococcus pneumoniae: evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en aislamientos invasores en 11 años de vigilancia en colombia (1994 -2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Agudelo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Streptococcus pneumoniae es una las principales causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en niños y adultos en el mundo. Objetivo. Realizar un análisis de los datos de la vigilancia por el laboratorio de los aislamientos invasores de S. pneumoniae recuperados entre 1994 y 2004. Materiales y métodos. Se empleó la información de los aislamientos invasores de S. pneumoniae recibidos en el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud durante la vigilancia de meningitis bacteriana aguda e infección respiratoria aguda entre 1994 y 2004. Los aislamientos contaban con datos epidemiológicos, serotipo, patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y algunos con tipificación molecular. Resultados. Se analizaron los datos de 2.022 aislamientos procedentes de 120 hospitales de diferentes regiones del país, recuperados principalmente de hemocultivos (50,7% y líquido cefalorraquídeo (42%. Los serotipos más importantes fueron el 14, 6B, 23F, 1, 5, 6A, 19F, 18C y 9V, los cuales corresponden al 83,6% en niños menores de 6 años, al 74,0% en el grupo de 6 a 14 años y al 61,4% en mayores de 14 años. El 29,8% de los aislamientos presentó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina (SDP, 44,3% a trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol, 32,4% a tetraciclina, 8,2% a cloranfenicol, 3,8% a eritromicina; todos fueron sensibles a vancomicina y el 13% fue multirresistente. Se tipificaron 602 aislamientos con SDP, de los cuales 27 (4,5% se relacionaron con el clon 1-España23F, 38 (6,3% con el clon 2-España6B, 301 (50% con el 3- España9V y 75 (12,5% con el clon 26-Colombia23F, además, los 138 aislamientos con tipo capsular 5 se relacionaron con el clon 19-Colombia5. Conclusiones. Los resultados proporcionan información básica necesaria para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para la prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica en nuestro país.

  11. Antígenos leucocitarios humanos y su asociación con resistencia/susceptibilidad a la infección por el VIH-1 = Human leukocyte antigens associated to resistance/susceptibility to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugeles López, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El curso clínico de la infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 es un proceso variable y complejo que depende de componentes virales y del hospedero. En la mayoría de los individuos infectados, la respuesta inmune generada en las fases iniciales de la infección logra controlar la replicación viral por mecanismos efectores innatos, de anticuerpos neutralizantes específicos y particularmente de la actividad de los linfocitos T CD8+ (LT CD8+. A pesar de generarse una respuesta inmune específica, esta se vuelve ineficaz en las etapas crónicas de la infección debido a cambios en los péptidos virales blanco, los cuales conducen a una pérdida del reconocimiento del antígeno presentado; dichos cambios son dados por la baja fidelidad de la transcriptasa reversa y la selección de cuasi-especies por la presión inmunológica. Durante la activación de los LT CD8+ es importante la señal ejercida por el péptido viral, el cual se presenta en el contexto de una molécula del complejo mayor de histocompatibilidad clase I (CMH-I. Estudios de correlación entre el CMH-I y la resistencia/susceptibilidad (R/S al VIH se han centrado en cuatro aspectos: 1 la expresión de alelos específicos; 2 el grado de homocigocidad/heterocigocidad; 3 la exposición a diversos aloantígenos; 4 la relación con receptores KIR. En esta revisión se aborda el fenómeno de resistencia/susceptibilidad a la infección por el VIH-I relacionado con el CMH-I, cuyo entendimiento favorecerá el desarrollo de herramientas novedosas de intervención terapéutica.

  12. Estandarización del método propuesto por la Organización Mundial de la Salud para determinar los niveles de susceptibilidad de los vectores de leishmaniasis a insecticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Santamaría

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue estandarizar el método OMS para determinar susceptibilidad a insecticidas en algunas especies de Lutzomyia en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo. Los ensayos biológicos se realizaron sin insecticida, únicamente con tratamientos controles para determinar mortalidad por manipulación y otras condiciones desfavorables para cada especie. Se emplearon hembras de tres colonias de laboratorio: dos cepas de Lutzomyia longipalpis y una de Lutzomyia serrana. También se incluyeron en el estudio hembras silvestres de Lutzomyia quasitownsendi. Se emplearon dos tipos de métodos: el método OMS y el método OMSadaptado; este último consistió en reemplazar el tubo OMS para el periodo posexposición por un contenedor plástico con yeso humedecido. Para cada método se ensayaron tres tipos de papeles: papel impregnado con aceite de oliva, papel impregnado con aceite de silicona y papel sin aditivos. La variable por medir fue el porcentaje de mortalidad a las 24 h. El método OMS resultó conveniente para las dos cepas de L. longipalpis con una mortalidad entre 0 y 10%, pero registró una mortalidad elevada en L. serrana (20-80% y L. quasitownsendi silvestres (10-50%. Con el método OMS-modificado, la mortalidad promedio fue inferior a 4% en todas las especies ensayadas. Con respecto al tipo de papel, no se encontraron variaciones importantes. Según los resultados, el recipiente utilizado en el periodo posexposición afecta la supervivencia de los flebótomos y de manera variable para cada especie. Al establecer líneas base de susceptibilidad a insecticidas en especies del género Lutzomyia, se recomienda el uso del método OMS para L. longipalpis y del método OMS-modificado para L. serrana, L. quasitownsendi y especies cercanas.

  13. Diagnóstico Molecular y Genético de Inmunodeficiencias Primarias ligadas al X

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Las Inmunodeficiencias Primarias (IDPs) son enfermedades congénitas del sistema inmune que tienen en común una susceptibilidad incrementada a las infecciones. Se han descrito más de 200 entidades englobadas bajo esta definición. Algunas de ellas tienen una herencia ligada al X, lo que les confiere ciertas peculiaridades. En esta Tesis presentamos los resultados concernientes a 28 pacientes, casi todos varones, con sospecha de IDP en base a una elevada frecuencia y severidad de ...

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-10-01

    en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68.4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.

  15. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizante de nasofaringe en niños colombianos con neumonía Antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizing the nasopharynx of Colombian children with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Lucía Leal

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causales de infección respiratoria aguda (IRA en niños y su resistencia a antibióticos se ha incrementado en todo el mundo. En este estudio se determinaron los patrones de susceptibilidad a antimicrobianos de S. pneumoniae colonizante de las vías respiratorias altas en 272 niños hospitalizados por neumonía en dos hospitales de Santafé de Bogotá. Se aisló S. pneumoniae en 114 pacientes (42%. Se observó susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina en 19 aislamientos (17%, con sensibilidad intermedia en 12 (11% y franca resistencia en 7 (6%. Solo 1 de los 19 aislamientos resistentes a penicilina mostró también resistencia a la ceftriaxona. Se observó sensibilidad disminuida a la eritromicina en 3 aislamientos (3%, al cloranfenicol en 6 (5% y al cotrimoxazol (trimetoprima + sulfametoxazol en 46 (40%. Se encontró multirresistencia en 7 aislamientos (6%. El serotipo con sensibilidad disminuida a la penicilina que se halló con mayor frecuencia fue el 23F (68,4%. Se observó una asociación entre la edad, el uso previo de antibióticos y la colonización con S. pneumoniae con susceptibilidad disminuida a la penicilina o multirresistencia. Este estudio confirma la presencia de resistencia antimicrobiana de S. pneumoniae en Colombia y resalta la importancia del uso racional de los antibióticos y de la implementación de la vigilancia epidemiológica sobre este agente.Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the principal causal agents of acute respiratory infection (ARI in children, and its resistance to antibiotics has increased worldwide. This study examined the patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics of S. pneumoniae that had colonized the upper respiratory tract of 272 children hospitalized for pneumonia in two hospitals in Santafé de Bogotá. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 patients (42%. Diminished susceptibility to penicillin was noted in 19 isolations (17%, with 12 (11

  16. Susceptibilidad a endosulfan y monitoreo de resistencia en poblaciones de Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, en cultivos de soja de Argentina Susceptibility to endosulphan and resistance monitoring in «green stinkbug» populations, Piezodorus guildinii (Insecta, Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, in soya crops in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la susceptibilidad a endosulfan en diferentes poblaciones de P. guildinii (Westwood, que afectan los cultivos de soja en las provincias argentinas de Santiago del Estero, Chaco y Santa Fe. Se estableció su estatus de susceptibilidad actual para todas las poblaciones estudiadas, y se monitoreó la resistencia a endosulfan en una población de P. guildinii , de Santiago del Estero desde 2002 a 2005, para detectar los cambios en la respuesta al insecticida, con la finalidad de alertar acerca de posibles fallas de control. Los insectos fueron colectados en plantaciones de soja en las localidades de Oliveros, Reconquista, San Justo, Bandera y Coronel Du Graty. Los bioensayos se desarrollaron en laboratorio por el método del tópico, en el marco de los protocolos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El estatus de susceptibilidad actual a endosulfan, en las poblaciones de P. guildinii estudiadas fue de: DL95 = 0,680μg/μL [0,489-1,338] a 2,277μg/μL [1,526-5,418]. De los resultados de los bioensayos se desprende que las poblaciones estudiadas, muy distantes geográficamente unas de otras, muestran algunas diferencias en su tolerancia a endosulfan (capacidad de detoxificación, exhibiendo, además, un incremento gradual de la misma desde la zona sur de Sta. Fe (Oliveros hacia el norte (Bandera - Chaco, que probablemente se relaciona con los factores ambientales propios de cada región, y se pueden deber también a procesos toxicodínámicos o toxicocinéticos. La población de P. guildinii de Coronel Du Graty (Santiago del Estero monitoreada desde 2002 a 2005, no mostró un incremento de tolerancia al endosulfan a lo largo del tiempo, que sugiera la presencia de fenómenos de resistencia. Factores poblacionales y ambientales son corresponsables de las variaciones temporales y espaciales de la susceptibilidad de una población a un biocida, esto hace que los límites entre la plasticidad fenotípica y las diferencias en la

  17. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Restrepo

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

  18. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid en diferentes variedades e híbridos comerciales de sorgo en Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Moreno Gallegos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la reacción a M. phaseolina de tres variedades experimentales y siete variedades d e polinización libre del INIFAP, así como 14 híbridos comerciales de sorgo, con la finalidad de identificar variedades e híbridos que puedan presentar tolerancia o menor susceptibilidad a esta enfermedad. Los experimentos se establecieron en Culiacán, Sina loa, México, durante los ciclos Primavera - Verano de 2010 y 2011, bajo condiciones de campo en temporal. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar en cada experimento con tres repeticiones y un análisis combinado para los dos ciclos agrícolas. La parcela expe rimental consistió en inocular 10 plantas con mondadientes infectados del hongo. El análisis de varianza detecto diferencias significativas (p<0.05 en longitud de lesión ocasionada por el hongo entre años. En el ciclo 2010, se observó una longitud de lesi ón promedio significativamente mayor (10.10 cm en comparación con el ciclo 2011 (5.79 cm. Los genotipos con menor longitud de lesión en promedio de los dos ambientes fueron: Fortuna y Mazatlán - 16 (3.5 y 4.95 cm, respectivamente . L os genotipos con mayor longitud de lesión fueron Kilate, G - STAR - 7402 y G - STAR - 7205 (13.2, 15.7 y 16.65 cm, respectivamente. No existió correlación entre la longitud de lesión y rendimiento de grano. Las variedades Fortuna y Mazatlán - 16 mostraron menor daño a M. phaseolina , por lo cual se sugieren para siembras de temporal y como progenitores en la formación de híbridos de sorgo tolerantes a esta enfermedad.

  19. Susceptibilidad dE Lutzomyia verrucarrum a piretroides en zonas endémicas de Enfermedad de Carrión de Ancash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lucero

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Carrión es una infección metaxénica endémica del Perú, el control vectorial de la Lutzomyia verrucarum con insecticidas es una de las formas más usadas para reducir su morbilidad. Se determinó la susceptibilidad de este vector a los piretroides más usados (cyflutrina, alfacipermetrina y deltametrina en dos zonas endémicas altoandinas de Ancash (Llumpa: 3200 msnm y Maya: 2600 msnm, Perú en junio de 1999. Se expuso a 50 mosquitos por cada zona e insecticida usando la prueba de contacto para anophelinos modificada. Se encontró una mortalidad del 100% para cada piretroide ensayado. Si bien se demostró una susceptibilidad total de L. verrucarum es necesario implementar la vigilancia de la resistencia a insecticidas como se hace con otros vectores en el Perú.

  20. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE AMBIENTAL A SALINIZAÇÃO DAS TERRAS EM MUNICÍPIOS DA MICRORREGIÃO DE PETROLINA - PERNAMBUCO - BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francelita Coelho Castro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A salinização é o processo de acumulo de sais solúveis nos solos proporcionados pelas ações humanas no tocante das práticas de uso dos solos, assim como, provocados por processos naturais. O problema provoca redução da capacidade de produção agrícola de centenas de hectares de terras, principalmente nas regiões semiáridas e áridas, incluído parte das terras localizadas no nordeste brasileiro. Neste contexto, o presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o mapeamento da susceptibilidade a salinização dos solos em cinco municípios da microrregião de Petrolina, semiárido do estado de Pernambuco. Para realização do estudo foram necessárias análises dos papeis dos atributos relevo, práticas de usos e ocupação das terras e os condicionantes dos solos referentes às susceptibilidades de salinização dos solos. Após as análises individuais os atributos foram cruzados com apoio das ferramentas geotecnológicas para confecção da carta de susceptibilidade a salinização. Os resultados apontam que os municípios estudados apresentam, em sua grande maioria, de média a alta susceptibilidade a salinização, constatação que requer cuidados especiais e políticas públicas para implantação de manejo adequado a realidade local.

  1. Susceptibilidad del suelo a la degradación en parcelas con manejo agroforestal Quesungual en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jellín del Carmen Pavón T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante tres años se establecieron en un Andisol del municipio de Somotillo (Nicaragua los sistemas de usos de tierra: tradicional del productor (tala, quema, fertilización y siembra de maíz + fríjol; agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ (no quema, árboles nativos en regeneración natural y siembra de maíz + fríjol; residuos de cultivos (manejo de cobertura con residuos de cultivos; y testigo bosque secundario (tacotal de aproximadamente cinco años de edad no cultivado. Se hicieron muestreos de suelos a profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 cm para caracterización física y de fertilidad y estimación de la erosión hídrica por simulación. Los sistemas Quesungal y Residuos de Cultivo, mantuvieron la susceptibilidad del suelo a la erosión en niveles tan bajos como los del bosque natural secundario.

  2. Susceptibilidad del suelo a la degradación en parcelas con manejo agroforestal Quesungual en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavón T Jellín del Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante tres años se establecieron en un Andisol del municipio de Somotillo (Nicaragua los sistemas de usos de tierra: tradicional del productor (tala, quema, fertilización y siembra de maíz + fríjol; agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ (no quema, árboles nativos en regeneración natural y siembra de maíz + fríjol; residuos de cultivos (manejo de cobertura con residuos de cultivos; y testigo bosque secundario (tacotal de aproximadamente cinco años de edad no cultivado. Se hicieron muestreos de suelos a profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 cm para caracterización física y de fertilidad y estimación de la erosión hídrica por simulación. Los sistemas Quesungal y Residuos de Cultivo, mantuvieron la susceptibilidad del suelo a la erosión en niveles tan bajos como los del bosque natural secundario.

  3. Zonación de la contaminación por metales pesados en la cuenca del Almendares según mapeo de la susceptibilidad magnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Inés Pedroso-Herrera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La susceptibilidad magnética de los suelos de la cuenca del río Almendares se tomó como indicador preliminar de la contaminación potencial por metales pesados. Para obtener el esquema de zonación de la contaminación se realizaron mediciones de la susceptibilidad magnética en polígonos y perfiles de áreas potencialmente contaminadas. Se realizó un levantamiento kappamétrico a escala 1: 200 000, usando una red de 2x2 km, y se elaboraron estadísticamente datos de susceptibilidad magnética en suelos contaminados y en los no contaminados por metales pesados. Con base en la nueva versión de la Clasificación Genética de los Suelos de Cuba, los resultados de la elaboración estadística de los datos de susceptibilidad magnética y las concentraciones de metales pesados en muestras de suelo, se establecieron los rangos de susceptibilidad magnética que caracterizan los suelos contaminados en los grupos genéticos presentes en la cuenca. Como resultado se obtuvo el mapa de zonación de la contaminación por metales pesados de la cuenca del río Almendares

  4. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistosoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: III. Mortalidade, pesos corporal e das vísceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti-Magalhães Eliana Maria

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a relação entre o desenvolvimento da hepatomegalia, da esplenomegalia, peso corporal e taxa de mortalidade em camundongos experimentalmente infectados por Schistosoma mansoni com o grau de susceptibilidade de Biomphalaria glahrata e B. tenagophila nas quais se desenvolveram as cercárias infectantes respectivamente, das linhagens BH e SJ. Foram utilizados como hospedeiro definitivo camundongos Swiss, SPF e como hospedeiros intermediários populações de moluscos selecionados geneticamente para o caráter susceptibilidade. Foram observados menores pesos corporais e das visceras em camundongos infectados com cercárias provenientes de moluscos que apresentaram elevado grau de susceptibilidade. A maior susceptibilidade dos moluscos à infecção pelo S. mansoni correspondeu a uma menor sobrevivência dos camundongos infectados. Os resultados fazem crer que a maior adaptação do parasita ao hospedeiro intermediário, traduzidos pelas taxas mais elevadas de susceptibilidade, pode levar a um comportamento diferente deste parasita no hospedeiro definitivo.

  5. Inestabilidad de laderas e infraestructura vial: análisis de susceptibilidad en la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Galindo Serrano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En México y diversas partes del mundo los desastres asociados a la inestabilidad de laderas generan impactos negativos en el ámbito socio-económico y ambiental. Además de las pérdidas de vida, y el daño a la cubierta vegetal, las afectaciones a las viviendas y la infraestructura son frecuentes; en los últimos años, la destrucción y deterioro en la infraestructura vial ha sido de particular importancia. Entre las diferentes áreas del país que de manera recurrente suelen ser afectadas por inestabilidad de laderas, se encuentra la Sierra Norte del estado de Puebla. Pérdidas humanas y económicas directas e indirectas, resultado de la ocurrencia de procesos de remoción en masa (PRM desencadenados principalmente por lluvias intensas, en comunidades vulnerables expuestas de esta región, han tenido lugar desde hace algunas décadas. El impacto en la infraestructura ha cobrado gran relevancia, especialmente desde 1999, razón por la cual este estudio se centró en el análisis de la susceptibilidad a procesos de remoción de masa en las principales carreteras de la región de la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla. Dicho análisis involucró la elaboración de un inventario de PRM, así como de la cartografía temática empleada como insumo para la aplicación del análisis multicriterio y pesos de evidencia. Se obtuvieron dos mapas de susceptibilidad de la región de interés, y los resultados fueron analizados a través de un índice de recurrencia de PRM. Finalmente, se efectuó el análisis espacial de la susceptibilidad a PRM de varios tramos carreteros de la Sierra Nororiental, con base en el análisis de proximidad y de superposición. El inventario de PRM generado se integró por 166 procesos de remoción en masa y 40 zonas potencialmente inestables. Las áreas de muy alta susceptibilidad corresponden a zonas con un relieve muy accidentado, mientras que las regiones planas coinciden con zonas de muy baja susceptibilidad. La variación de

  6. Vigilancia en red de los serotipos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. Y Vibrio cholerae O1, 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélida Muñoz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1997, el Grupo de Microbiología del INS estableció un programa en red con los Laboratorios de Salud Pública (LSP del país y el apoyo de la OPS, para la vigilancia de los principales patógenos causantes de enfermedad diarreica aguda. El objetivo fue conocer los serotipos y los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. y Vibrio cholerae O1. Los aislamientos fueron confirmados de acuerdo con los esquemas de identificación bioquímica y serológica estandarizados y la determinación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se realizó por la técnica de difusión de disco (Kirby-Bauer. De 1997 a 1999, participaron 22 LSP con el envio de 976 aislamientos, 96% de origen clínico y 4% de alimentos; 34% Salmonella spp., 23% Shigella spp. y 42% V. cholerae 01. La distribución por serotipo de Salmonella fue 39% S. Enteritidis, 27% S. Typhimurium, 9% grupo El, 5% S. Typhi y 20% otros serotipos; de los aislamientos de Shigella, 67% fueron S. grupo flexneriza, 30% S sonnei, 2% S. dysenteriae y 1% S. boydii. Para V. cholerae 01, 99% fue serotipo Ogawa. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana determinó que 56% de los aislamientos de Salmonella eran resistentes y 22% multirresistentes, con un patrón predominante de ampicilina, tetraciclina y trimetoprim-sulfa (SXT. De los aislamientos de Shigella, 97% fueron resistentes y 57% multirresistentes, con un patrón de ampicilina, tetraciclina, cloranfenicol y SXT. No se observaron cambios en la susceptibilidad de V. cholerae O1. Este estudio enfatiza la importancia de continuar con el programa de vigilancia, para conocer la epidemiologia de la EDA en Colombia, darle un tratamiento óptimo a estas infecciones y poder diseñar programas para disminuir la diseminación de bacterias resistentes.

  7. Variáveis Condicionantes na Susceptibilidade de Incêndios Florestais no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Thiago de Oliveira Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O grande número de incêndios florestais que atingem o Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI é motivo de preocupação, pois eles modificam a paisagem e acarretam perda de flora e fauna. Desta forma, torna-se importante a criação de metodologia que ajude na identificação de fatores que influenciam a susceptibilidade a incêndios. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar variáveis geomorfológicas (forma da encosta, radiação solar global, declividade e altitude e meteorológicas (chuva na ocorrência de incêndios. Para atingir o objetivo foi utilizado o Modelo Digital de Elevação (MDE gerado a partir de cartas topográficas e dados pluviométricos de três estações presentes no PNI e arredores. Este MDE possibilitou a criação das variáveis geomorfológicas, e os dados pluviométricos possibilitaram o cálculo do Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. As variáveis obtidas foram comparadas com os Relatórios de Ocorrência de Incêndio (ROI, e os resultados mostram que as variáveis geomorfológicas mais significativas foram a forma da encosta e a radiação solar global. O índice SPI introduziu novos indicativos temporais para o melhor entendimento do comportamento da ocorrência dos incêndios florestais no PNI.

  8. Estudio de la susceptibilidad magnética AC en el superconductor YBCO

    OpenAIRE

    Blandón Pedraza, Adriana Lizeth

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se fabricaron muestras volumétricas de YBa2Cu3O7−d , variando la presión de compactación de 191,03 MPa a 445,74 MPa, la temperatura en el ciclo térmico de sinterizado de 700 °C a 900 °C y el porcentaje de plata del 0% al 20%, con el propósito de mejorar la conexión entre granos y consecuentemente la densidad de corriente crítica intergranular. Las muestras fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X, microscopia electrónica de barrido, efecto Meissner y mediciones de susce...

  9. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Portilla C

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE AMBIENTAL A SALINIZAÇÃO DAS TERRAS EM MUNICÍPIOS DA MICRORREGIÃO DE PETROLINA - PERNAMBUCO - BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Francelita Coelho Castro; Antonio Marcos dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    A salinização é o processo de acumulo de sais solúveis nos solos proporcionados pelas ações humanas no tocante das práticas de uso dos solos, assim como, provocados por processos naturais. O problema provoca redução da capacidade de produção agrícola de centenas de hectares de terras, principalmente nas regiões semiáridas e áridas, incluído parte das terras localizadas no nordeste brasileiro. Neste contexto, o presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o mapeamento da susceptibilidade a sal...

  11. Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de microrganismos obtidos de otite externa aguda Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of acute external otitis microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Cândida Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Otite externa aguda é a infecção do conduto auditivo externo, geralmente causada por flora polimicrobiana. OBJETIVO: Isolar, identificar e determinar a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos organismos causadores da otite externa (OE. MÉTODO: 27 swabs foram obtidos de 27 orelhas de pacientes portadores de OE para cultura e 22 microrganismos foram isolados para avaliação de susceptibilidade. A susceptibilidade in vitro foi obtida através do método de ágar difusão em disco e os resultados, interpretados de acordo com critérios clínico-laboratoriais padrão. RESULTADOS: 10 culturas positivas para S. aureus, 8 culturas para P.aeruginosa, 5 para P.aeruginosa e S.aureus e 4 para fungos (Candida albicans e C. krusei. Gentamicina e as quinolonas foram ativas contra todas as cepas testadas, havendo resistência significativa contra amoxicilina/clavulanato. As espécies de Candida testadas foram sensíveis à Anfotericina B, nistatina, fluconazol e clotrimazol e resistentes à miconazol. CONCLUSÃO: A otite externa aguda é uma infecção polimicrobiana, e o conhecimento apropriado da etiologia e susceptibilidade dos microrganismos irá contribuir para o uso racional de antibióticos e o sucesso do tratamento.Acute external otitis is a polymicrobial infectious disease. AIM: The purpose of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing otitis externa (OE. METHODS: twenty-seven swabs were taken from the ears of 27 patients with OE for culture and 22 microorganisms were isolate to evaluate sensitivity. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed by agar diffusion disk and results were interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards. RESULTS: 10 Ear cultures were positive for S. aureus , 8 for P. aeruginosa, 5 for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and 4 for fungal organisms (Candida albicans e C. Krusei. Gentamicin and quinolones were active against all bacteria tested and significant

  12. AISLAMIENTO DE CEPAS DE ESCHERICHIA COLI DESDE CASOS CLÍNICOS DE INFECCIÓN VAGINAL: ASOCIACIÓN CON OTROS MICROORGANISMOS Y SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIBACTERIANA

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla E, Carlos; Lobos G, Olga; Padilla E, Ramiro; Fuentes V, Leoncio; Núñez F, Loreto

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Escheríchia coli en fluidos vaginales de mujeres con infección vaginal y analizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Método: Se estudiaron 425 muestras de mujeres con diagnóstico clínico de infección vaginal (casos) y 100 mujeres sanas (controles). Las muestras vaginales fueron estudiadas mediante los criterios de Amsel y Nugent. Se utilizaron diferentes metodologías para identificar: Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Chlamydi...

  13. Determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas de primera línea en aislamientos de mycobacterium tuberculosis por la técnica del tubo indicador de crecimiento micobacteriano

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Parada, Claudia Rocío; Sánchez Morales, Édgar Alberto; Henao Riveros, Sandra Consuelo; Saavedra Rodríguez, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Antecedentes. La aparición de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes a los medicamentos ha hecho que se busquen métodos más rápidos y confiables para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a las drogas antituberculosas. Objetivo. Determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea en aislamientos de M. tuberculosis utilizando el método del tubo indicador de crecimiento micobacteriano (MGIT). Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 49 aislamientos...

  14. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A DROGAS DE PRIMERA LÍNEA EN AISLAMIENTOS DE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS POR LA TÉCNICA DEL TUBO INDICADOR DE CRECIMIENTO MICOBACTERIANO

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Rocío Sierra Parada; Édgar Alberto Sánchez Morales; Sandra Consuelo Henao Riveros; Alfredo Saavedra Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Antecedentes. La aparición de aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistentes a los medicamentos ha hecho que se busquen métodos más rápidos y confiables para la determinación de la susceptibilidad a las drogas antituberculosas. Objetivo. Determinación de la susceptibilidad a drogas antituberculosas de primera línea en aislamientos de M. tuberculosis utilizando el método del tubo indicador de crecimiento micobacteriano (MGIT). Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 49 aislamientos de...

  15. El polimorfismo (CAGn del gen ATXN2, nuevo marcador de susceptibilidad para diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Flores-Alvarado

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar si hay asociación del repetido (CAGn del gen ATXN2 en población mexicana con diabetes mellitus (DM tipo 2. Métodos Estudio epidemiológico de casos y controles. Se incluyeron personas sanas y personas diabéticas. La detección de la expansión (CAGn se realizó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR-punto final. Los productos de PCR se analizaron mediante electroforesis (PAGE al 8% y tinción con nitrato de plata. Resultados La distribución de alelos del trinucleótido (CAGn en la población analizada resultó similar a la reportada en el centro del país. El alelo más frecuente es el de 22 repetidos; sin embargo, hay asociación con los portadores de los repetidos largos dentro del rango normal con diabetes. Conclusiones Los resultados sugieren que el repetido (CAGn del gen de ATXN2 podría ser un factor causal de DM tipo 2.

  16. Modelación y análisis de susceptibilidad a la deformación permanente de mezclas asfálticas Modeling and analysis of susceptibility to permanent deformation in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Vidal V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La deformación permanente de mezclas asfálticas del Área Metropolitana del Valle de Aburra - Antioquia, las cuales se fabrican en nuestro medio bajo las especificaciones INVIAS (Instituto Nacional de Vías y del Valle de Aburrá, se estudiaron utilizando un modelo constitutivo propuesto anteriormente. Este modelo mostró previamente ser efectivo en predecir la deformación de mezclas asfálticas en el Reino Unido bajo diferentes tipos de carga bajo condiciones uniaxiales y triaxiales, y temperaturas comprendidas entre 0 °C y 40 °C. Para el caso de las mezclas del Valle de Aburrá se emplearon temperaturas en un intervalo de 20 °C a 50 °C y se implementó el modelo propuesto con el fin de predecir la susceptibilidad a la deformación permanente. Mediante el estudio experimental de las mezclas se encontró que el comportamiento de estado estable de estas siguió el modelo modificado de Cross (Wang, 2011, con las mezclas exhibiendo comportamiento viscoso lineal y no-lineal a bajos y altos niveles de esfuerzos, respectivamente. Tanto para condiciones de carga como de recuperación se observó una dependencia de la temperatura en el material que fue adecuadamente predicha por el modelo de Arrheniusbajo el intervalo de temperaturas estudiado. Al realizar la modelación del comportamiento de las mezclas se encontró que el modelo propuesto por Ossa et al. (2010 aplica a las mezclas estudiadas y se determinó que la susceptibilidad a la deformación de estas varía considerablemente dependiendo de los materiales utilizados por el productor y en especial el agregado empleado, a pesar de ser mezclas teóricamente similares.Permanent deformation of asphaltic mixtures in the Metropolitan Area of Valle de Aburra - Antioquia, which are built under IVIAS' specifications (Instituto Nacional de Vías and Valle de Aburrá, were studied by employing a constitutive model proposed previously. This model had proved to be effective in predicting deformations of

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    ampicilina a um aminoglicosídeo além de outros, em segunda escolha, representados por cloranfenicol, eritromicina, tetraciclina e rifampicina. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de amostras de origem humana isoladas nas últimas quatro décadas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 68 cepas provenientes de casos clínicos humanos ocorridos em diferentes regiões do país no período de 1970-2008. A susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados foi determinada através dos critérios estabelecidos por Soussy pelo método de Kirby-Bauer e a concentração mínima inibitória realizada através do E-Test. RESULTADOS: A amostragem constituiu-se de 68 cepas, isoladas principalmente de líquido cefalorraquidiano, e hemocultura no período, pertencentes ao Laboratório de Zoonoses Bacterianas/LABZOO/Fiocruz. O sorovar L4b (60,3% foi o mais prevalente, seguido do sorovar 1/2a (20,6%, 1/2b (13,2% e aqueles mais raros representados por 1/2c, 3b e 4ab (5,9%. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis à ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, teicoplanina e vancomicina. Apenas uma cepa (1,5% apresentou resistência à rifampicina, enquanto duas (3% foram resistentes à associação de sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de o estudo ter demonstrado uma baixa prevalência de amostras resistentes aos antimicrobianos indicados na terapêutica da listeriose humana, o sistema de monitoramento do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana é de extrema importância para a orientação do tratamento adequado, principalmente nas infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos.

  18. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ANTIMICROBIANA DE AMOSTRAS DE Salmonella Enteritidis ISOLADAS DE DIFERENTES FONTES ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Salmonella Enteritidis STRAINS FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda A. Nunes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de Salmonella Enteritidis é descrita em amostras isoladas de galinhas saudáveis e doentes, casos esporádicos de gastrenterite humana relacionadas ao consumo de produtos contendo ovos, carne de frango, ovos bicados, farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura, fezes de suínos e alimentos. No período de 1995 a 1997 foi observado que 72,2% foram sensíveis, enquanto que 9,2% e 17,8% foram resistentes e intermediárias, respectivamente. Constatou-se resistência em 6,2% das isoladas do homem, 5,0% de carnes de frangos, 36,4% de alimentos, 4,2% de galinhas, 23,7% de ovos bicados, 5,7% de farinha de carne/ambiente de avicultura e 13,3% de suínos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram elevada proporção de amostras com sensibilidade intermediária (18,1% do total e 100% de sensibilidade a seis princípios. Considerando as amostras resistentes, quinze (57,7% apresentaram resistência única a nove antimicrobianos. Quatro (15,4% (galinhas e ovos bicados apresentaram resistência dupla; resistência tripla foi detectada em uma amostra (3,8%, enquanto que seis (23,1% apresentaram seis perfis de multirresistência, frente a 4-9 drogas, identificados em amostras do homem, alimentos, galinhas e ovos bicados. Embora o índice de resistência aqui descrito possa ser considerado baixo, deve ser destacada a alta frequência de sensibilidade intermediária à tetraciclina, particularmente em amostras associadas a aves.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alimentos, galinhas, gastrenterite humana, multirresistência a antibióticos.
    Enteritidisin the period from 1995 to 1997 is described in strains isolated from healthy and ill chickens, human sporadic gastrenteritis outbreaks related to egg products consumption, poultry meats, broiler chicken pipped embryos, meat meal/aviculture environment, swine feces and foods (cheese, mayonnaise, cake mass, cake cover and bacon. It was observed that 72.2% were sensitive, whereas 9.2% and 17.8% were

  19. Diagnóstico molecular y genético de inmunodeficiencias primarias ligadas al X

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 01 setembre 2012 Las Inmunodeficiencias Primarias (IDPs) son enfermedades congénitas del sistema inmune que tienen en común una susceptibilidad incrementada a las infecciones. Se han descrito más de 200 entidades englobadas bajo esta definición. Algunas de ellas tienen una herencia ligada al X, lo que les confiere ciertas peculiaridades. En esta Tesis presentamos los resultados concernientes a 28 pacientes, casi todos varones, con sospecha de IDP en base a una ele...

  20. Susceptibilidade in vitro a antimicrobianos da Mannheimia haemolytica e da Pasteurella multocida isoladas de ovinos sadios e com doenças respiratórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar Viana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida e Mannheimia haemolytica (P. haemolytica estão associadas a enfermidades no sistema respiratório de ovinos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente aos antimicrobianos, foram colhidas amostras de nasofaringe (n=180 e orofaringe (n=82 de ovinos com e sem enfermidade respiratória. Dentre os antimicrobianos testados, a sensibilidade foi maior para enrofloxacina (100% e florfenicol (100%, considerando-se ambas as espécies bacterianas. Observou-se resistência de M. haemolytica e P. multocida à tetraciclina (15,64% e 17,65%, respectivamente e penicilina (1.82% e 4.2%, respectivamente.

  1. Serovariedades y patrones de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de cepas de Salmonella aisladas de alimentos en Cuba Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella strains isolated from food in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Puig Peña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los serotipos de 178 cepas de Salmonella enterica aisladas de alimentos en diferentes regiones de Cuba entre enero de 2008 y diciembre de 2009, y el patrón de susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos de 100 aislados seleccionados mediante muestreo por estratos. Se identificaron 20 serovariedades de Salmonella entre las que predominaron S. Enteritidis (23%; S. Agona (13,5% y S. London (11,2%. Del total, 75% de las cepas fueron resistentes o presentaron resistencia intermedia a al menos uno de los fármacos probados, en el siguiente orden, según su frecuencia: tetraciclina (70,7%; ampicilina (22,7% y ácido nalidíxico (14,7%. Se identificaron 10 patrones de resistencia diferentes y predominaron las cepas resistentes o conresistencia intermedia a un fármaco (89,3%. Tres cepas (S. Infantis, S. Derby y S. Enteritidis fueron multirresistentes y una, de S. Enteritidis, dio un resultado no sensible al ácido nalidíxico y la ciprofloxacina. Se destaca la necesidad de extremar la vigilancia sanitaria integrada en el país para el control de la salmonelosis.The serotypes of 178 isolates of Salmonella enterica taken from food in different regions of Cuba between January 2008 and December 2009 were identified, and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of 100 selected isolates was determined by strata sampling. A total of 20 Salmonella serotypes were identified, with a predominance of S. Enteritidis (23%, S. Agona (13.5%, and S. London (11.2%. Of all the strains, 75% were resistant or presented intermediate resistance to at least one of the drugs tested, in the following order: tetracycline (70.7%, ampicillin (22.7%, and nalidixic acid (14.7%. Ten different resistance patterns were identified. The most frequent patterns corresponded to strains that were either drugresistant or had intermediate resistance (89.3%. Three strains (identified as S. Infantis, S. Derby, and S. Enteritidis were multiresistant, and one of them, S. Enteritidis, was

  2. A susceptibilidade à erosão como subsídio ao planejamento urbano: estudo de caso do município de Ubá - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe Tamiozzo Pereira Torres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A inexistência de planejamento no que se refere à expansão urbana é uma realidade enfrentada por várias cidades brasileiras. A ocupação desordenada pode acarretar diversos problemas, a exemplo da erosão, que nas cidades tem se tornado um acontecimento cada vez mais frequente e intenso. A identificação das áreas que apresentam susceptibilidade à ocorrência de algum desastre é considerada um importante procedimento na gestão de riscos ambientais e, consequentemente, vem a colaborar de maneira relevante nas questões do planejamento urbano. É neste sentido que o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as diretrizes iniciais de crescimento da área urbana do município de Ubá, Minas Gerais, a partir da vulnerabilidade à erosão do seu perímetro urbano. Foi realizado o cruzamento de mapas de uso e ocupação do solo, geomorfologia, solos e declividade para obtenção do mapa de susceptibilidade à erosão da área de estudo. A partir deste mapa foram estabelecidas as diretrizes iniciais para o crescimento do município estudado. Os eixos norte, sul e oeste, em relação ao perímetro urbano, foram considerados inadequados para o crescimento da cidade. O eixo leste foi aquele mais adequado para o crescimento urbano desse município.

  3. Análisis de los marcadores de susceptibilidad al Cáncer gástrico: Glutation transferasa en dos poblaciones colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Acosta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available comEl cáncer gástrico es uno de los principales problemas de salud a nivel mundial, siendo Chile,China, y el este de Europa las zonas con mayor incidencia. En nuestro país, este cáncer repre-senta una de las principales y más frecuentes causas de muerte en Cauca, Nariño, Boyacá,Cundinamarca y Viejo Caldas.

  4. Susceptibilidad de las larvas de Aedes aegypti al parasitismo por Romanomermis culicivorax en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo en Oaxaca, México

    OpenAIRE

    Santamarina Mijares Alberto; Pérez Pacheco Rafael; Martínez Sabino Honorio

    2000-01-01

    En junio de 1996, en el Estado de Oaxaca, México, se expusieron larvas de mosquito de la especie Aedes aegypti (Linneo) a los preparásitos infectivos del nemátodo Romanomermis culicivorax, Ross y Smith, en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo. Para los experimentos de laboratorio se utilizaron larvas en estadio I-IV, colectadas en reservorios naturales. Los experimentos se realizaron por triplicado, con 100 larvas de cada estadio larvario por experimento, y se probaron tres dosis de aplicaci...

  5. Estandarización del método propuesto por la Organización Mundial de la Salud para determinar los niveles de susceptibilidad de los vectores de leishmaniasis a insecticidas

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Santamaría

    2002-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio fue estandarizar el método OMS para determinar susceptibilidad a insecticidas en algunas especies de Lutzomyia en condiciones de laboratorio y de campo. Los ensayos biológicos se realizaron sin insecticida, únicamente con tratamientos controles para determinar mortalidad por manipulación y otras condiciones desfavorables para cada especie. Se emplearon hembras de tres colonias de laboratorio: dos cepas de Lutzomyia longipalpis y una de Lutzomyia serrana. También se...

  6. Bacteriemia asociada a neutropenia febril en pacientes hemato-oncológicos, su espectro bacteriano y patrón de susceptibilidad antibiótica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Johanna Hinojosa-Andía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La neutropenia febril es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes y de mayor morbilidad y mortalidad en los pacientes hematológicos. Su documentación microbiológica es una herramienta invaluable para el manejo; sin embargo, la cambiante tendencia en etiología de la bacteriemia y el patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana comprometen la tasa de respuesta a los esquemas de tratamiento empírico. Objetivo: Determinar la etiología de bacteriemia en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas y neutropenia febril, su patrón de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y el grado de resistencia vigente a los medicamentos comúnmente utilizados en esquemas empíricos de manejo. Material y métodos: Se revisaron datos microbiológicos de las historias clínicas de pacientes hematológicos, hospitalizados en el HNERM entre diciembre 2010 y marzo 2012; que habían presentado neutropenia febril y bacteriemia concurrente. La información se analizó con el paquete estadístico STATA v. 10 y se empleó estadística descriptiva. Resultados: La bacteriemia fue predominantemente por bacterias gram negativas (75,9% y post consolidación de LMA con Ara-C por gram positivas (63,6%. La mortalidad de pacientes post reinducción con bacteriemia fue 75% y se asoció a Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE+ en 31,2%. Conclusiones: Gérmenes gram negativos fueron la etiología más frecuente de bacteriemia en la población estudiada, particularmente en pacientes que recibieron quimioterapia de reinducción, donde se vio la mayor frecuencia de bacteriemia con mayor resistencia y asociados a mayor mortalidad. Posterior a quimioterapia de consolidación con Citarabina en altas dosis para LMA, resultó más frecuente la bacteriemia a gram positivos. Carbapenems y Amoxicilina/Clavulánico mostraron considerable menor resistencia que cefalosporinas y fluoroquinolonas.

  7. Zoneamento de susceptibilidade a escorregamentos em encostas aplicado à bacia de drenagem urbana do córrego do independência - Juiz de Fora (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tavares Zaidan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de metodologias para a previsão de ocorrência de escorregamentos vem assumindo importância crescente na literatura geomorfológica e geotécnica. Dentre as metodologias de previsão destes eventos, tem se destacado a utilização de modelos matemáticos, principalmente os modelos determinísticos que são baseados em processos físicos naturais e que levam em consideração os fatores topográficos no processo de modelagem e previsão da susceptibilidade dessas áreas com o auxílio de softwares de Geoprocessamento. Desta forma, este trabalho, que faz parte de uma tese de doutoramento, buscou contribuir através da aplicação de uma metodologia para a determinação de áreas susceptíveis a escorregamentos na região da bacia de drenagem urbana do Córrego Independência na escala 1:2.000, localizada no Município de Juiz de Fora – MG, através da utilização de um modelo determinístico denominado, Modelo SHALSTAB. Os resultados apresentados neste texto referem-se a um zoneamento gerado a partir do SHALSTAB, apontando as áreas de maior a menor susceptibilidade a movimentos de massa, seguido de sua análise, levando em relação os bairros e localidades situados na bacia do córrego Independência. Acredita-se desta forma que tal abordagem possa contribuir para o aprimoramento de metodologias que possam servir como subsídio para a definição de políticas que auxiliem o uso e ocupação de áreas com morfologia de encostas que ofereçam algum tipo de risco à população ou a algum empreendimento, não só nesse município.

  8. Anestesia para cirurgia ortopédica em criança com susceptibilidade à hipertermia maligna: relato de caso Anestesia para cirugía ortopédica en niño con susceptibilidad a la hipertermia maligna: relato de caso Anesthesia for orthopedic surgery in a child susceptible to malignant hyperthermia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santiago Gomez

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Hipertermia maligna é uma miopatia autossômica dominante desencadeada por anestésicos inalatórios e bloqueadores neuromusculares, como halotano e succinilcolina, causando aumento da temperatura que pode ser fatal sem o tratamento imediato. O objetivo deste relato é descrever a conduta anestésica em uma criança susceptível à hipertermia maligna que foi submetida a procedimento cirúrgico ortopédico. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, com 3 anos, portadora de luxação congênita do quadril e susceptibilidade à hipertermia maligna, conforme história de anestesia anterior, foi submetida à correção cirúrgica ortopédica sob anestesia geral, com propofol e fentanil, associada à anestesia peridural lombar. A temperatura da paciente foi monitorizada continuamente durante a cirurgia e no período pós-operatório. A paciente apresentou recuperação pós-operatória sem intercorrências e recebeu alta hospitalar após cinco dias. CONCLUSÕES: A combinação de anestesia regional e venosa para o procedimento cirúrgico proposto em paciente com susceptibilidade à hipertermia maligna permitiu a condução anestésica com segurança.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Hipertermia maligna es una miopatia autosómica dominante desencadenada por anestésicos inhalatorios y bloqueadores neuromusculares, como halotano y succinilcolina, causando aumento de la temperatura que puede ser fatal sin el tratamiento inmediato. El objetivo de este relato es describir la conducta anestésica en un niño susceptible a la hipertermia maligna que fue sometida a procedimiento quirúrgico ortopédico. RELATO DEL CASO: Niño, del sexo femenino, con 3 años, portadora de luxación congénita del cuadril (anca y susceptibilidad a la hipertermia maligna, conforme historia de anestesia anterior, fue sometida a la corrección quirúrgica ortopédica bajo anestesia general, con propofol y fentanil, asociada a anestesia peridural lumbar. La

  9. Susceptibilidade larval de duas populações de Aedes egypti a inseticidas químicos Larval susceptibility to chemical insecticides of two Aedes egypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A susceptibilidade dos insetos tem sido um dos mais importantes aspectos a ser monitorados em programas de saúde pública que tratam do controle de vetores. O estudo objetiva avaliar a susceptibilidade de larvas de Aedes aegypti a inseticidas químicos em áreas sujeitas ou não a controle. MÉTODOS: Bioensaios foram realizados com concentração de diagnóstico e concentração múltipla, segundo padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde para as coletas de larvas de Aedes aegypti, em uma área não sujeita -- Campinas, SP -- e em uma outra área sujeita -- Campo Grande, MS -- a tratamentos químicos de controle. RESULTADOS: Larvas de Aedes aegypti coletadas em Campinas indicaram resistência potencial à concentração-diagnóstico (CD de 0,04 ppm do organofosforado temephos. O teste de concentração múltipla registrou sobrevivência de 24,5% à concentração de 0,0125 ppm. A susceptibilidade dessa mesma linhagem foi avaliada para o organofosforado fenitrothion (CD=0,08 ppm e o piretróide cipermetrina (CD=0,01 ppm, resultando em valores normais para essas concentrações. Larvas de Ae. aegypti coletadas em Campo Grande mostraram susceptibilidade normal ao temephos (CD=0,04 ppm e à cipermetrina (CD=0,01 ppm. Também foram estabelecidas as CL50 e as CL95 de cipermetrina 25 CE, cyfluthrin 5 CE, betacyfluthrin 1,25 SC e propoxur 20 CE para Ae. aegypti. Com base nos dados da linhagem-padrão Rockefeller, foram estimadas as razões de resistência de 2,9, 2,2, 2,4 e 1,3, respectivamente, pela CL50, e de 3,5, 2,6, 3,9 e 1,3 pela CL95. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de avaliações prévias e monitoramento da efetividade dos inseticidas que devem ser usados em programas de controle de mosquitos.OBJECTIVE: Insect susceptibility has been one of the most important aspects to be monitored in public health programs for vector control. The purpose of the study is to assess the susceptibility to chemical insecticides of

  10. Susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D isolated from Eucalyptus spp in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Susceptibilidade de Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (sorotipo D isolados de Eucalyptus spp., no Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, frente ao calor e a agentes antifúngicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Horta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the susceptibility to heat and antifungal agents of the first strains of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans (serotype D isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In order to achieve a rigorous analysis, we employed the methodology recommended by NCCLS, Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposed by Ghannoum et al (YNB-1, Antibiotic medium 3 (AM3 indicated by others, YNB adjusted to the NCCLS methodology (YNB-2 and Etest. Our results indicate that all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (0.0625-0.5 µg/mL, fluconazole (0.125-8.0 µg/mL, itraconazole (0.031-0.25 µg/mL and flucytosine (0.125-4.0 µg/mL. The C. neoformans serotype D strains were more susceptible to heat (47ºC/30 min than C. neoformans serotype A.Este estudo foi realizado com os primeiros isolados ambientais de C. neoformans sorotipo D, obtidos no Rio Grande do Sul. Objetivando-se avaliar a susceptibilidade a agentes antifúngicos de forma mais rigorosa, utilizou-se a técnica de referência proposta pelo NCCLS, Caldo Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB proposto por Ghannoum et al., Antibiotic medium 3, caldo YNB adequado à metodologia do NCCLS e o E-test. Os resultados indicaram que todos os isolados foram sensíveis à anfotericina B (0,0625-0,5 µg/mL, fluconazol (0,125-4,0 µg/mL, itraconazol (0,031-0,25 µg/ml e fluorocitosina (0,125-4,0 µg/mL através das técnicas empregadas. Nos testes de termotolerância (47ºC/30 min, observou-se que as culturas de C. neoformans sorotipo D são mais sensíveis do que as de C. neoformans sorotipo A.

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE LA SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A LA EROSIÓN POR EL CAMBIO DE COBERTURA DEBIDO A LA MINERÍA, EN EL MUNICIPIO DE ANORÍ, ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEBALLOS ESPINOSA DARNEY DE J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se implementó un modelo para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la erosión en el municipio de Anorí por medio de la utilización de Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG que permitieron la evaluación espacial de las diferentes variables de un modelo basado en la Ecuación Universal de Pérdida del Suelo (USLE, y que tiene en cuenta el posible cambio de cobertura vegetal por el desarrollo a futuro de proyectos mineros. El modelo incluye las principales variables como son las hidrológicas (lluvia, escorrentía, la pendiente, la geología y las coberturas vegetales, esta ultima modificada para un escenario futuro con minería. El municipio de Anorí está ubicado en la región norte-nordeste antioqueño y presenta un valioso potencial minero, el cual se ha incrementado por los altos valores del oro en el mundo y por la denominada locomotora de la minería impulsada por el Gobierno Nacional. De acuerdo con los resultados del modelo, el cambio de cobertura vegetal por el desarrollo de los proyectos mineros a cielo abierto incrementa directamente la susceptibilidad a la erosión en el municipio de Anorí. En consecuencia, la gestión ambiental en el modelo de susceptibilidad a la erosión está basada en el manejo del cambio de las coberturas vegetales, mediante la implementación de mecanismos de prevención, mitigación y compensación, para evitar el incremento de la erosión. 

  12. Susceptibilidad "in vitro" de cepas de Cryptococcus a 5 drogas antifungicas "In vitro" susceptibility of Cryptococcus strains to 5 antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Bava

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la susceptibilidad "in vitro" de 24 cepas de 3 especies del género Cryptococcus a 5 drogas antifúngicas (anfotericina B, 5 fluorocitosina, ketoconazol, itraconazol y miconazol. Las mismas se agruparon según su especie, variedad y origen de aislamiento. Para determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima (C.I.M. de cada droga se empleó el método de dilución en agar con el medio básico nitrogenado para levaduras, adicionado de glucosa. Se obtuvo además la media geométrica de estos valores para cada grupo y se comparó cada uno de ellos. Los resultados obtenidos fueron homogéneos con la sola excepción de las cepas de Cryptococcus sp (no neoformans, en las cuales se detectaron elevados valores de C.I.M. para la 5 fluorocitosina.A comparative study of the "in vitro" susceptibility of 24 Cryptococcus strains to 5 antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, 5 fluorocytosine, miconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole, was carried out. These strains were grouped according to species, varieties and isolation's origins. The minimum inhibitory concentration (M.I.C. was determinated by the agar dilution technique in yeast nitrogen base agar with dextrose. The mean geometrical of the M.I.C. values of each group was compared with the others. The results obtained were homogeneous with the only exception of the "non neoformans" strains, in which, higher M.I.C. to 5 fluorocytosine values were detected.

  13. Susceptibilidade de Lymnaea (pseudosuccinea columella (Say, 1817 exposta à infecção por miracídios de Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Raimundo Corrêa Dacal

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a susceptibilidade de Lymnaea (pseudosuccinea columella de Minas Gerais, Estado onde ainda não se registraram casos autóctones de fasciolose hepática, foram utilizadas as amostras MG 1, MG 2, MG 3 e MG 4, provenientes de diferentes regiões deste Estado, para estudo comparativo com as amostras RJ e RGS procedentes dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul, áreas de focos de fasciolose. A amostra de Fasciola hepatica utilizada era procedente de ovinos abatidos no município de Camapuã, no Rio Grande do Sul, e foi mantida em coelhos. Os moluscos foram infectados com 6, 8 e 10 miracídos por molusco, sendo estudadas as incidências de infecção e de mortalidade. Nas condições que se realizou o trabalho diante dos resultados obtidos, foram tiradas as seguintes conclusões: 1. A mortalidade dos caramujos parece não estar diretamente relacionada com a percentagem de infecção; 2. As amostras de Lymnaea (pseudosuccinea columella de Minas Gerais, do Rio de Janeiro e do Rio Grande do Sul mostraram-se identicamente susceptíveis à infecção por Fasciola hepatica; 3. A população humana e os rebanhos bovino, ovino e suíno de Minas Gerais, particularmente aqueles do Vale do Rio Paraíba, podem ser considerados sujeitos à infecção por Fasciola hepatica.

  14. Relación entre susceptibilidad magnética y contenido de minerales pesados en un depósito aluvial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz C. Ramiro L.

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir de observaciones realizadas en una perforación a orillas del Rio Nechi en el

    Noreste Antioqueño, se muestra la relación directa que existe entre el contenido de minerales en el dep6sito aluvial y la susceptibilidad magnética, relación que se explica por la semejanza en algunas propiedades físicas de dichos minerales. Mediante un análisis del Espectro de Energía, se verifican estas relaciones.

    A direct relationship between heavy minerals contents and magnetic susceptibility in an alluvial deposit has been observed in samples taken in a bore hole made at the shore of the Nechi river in NE of the Antioquia Department. These results are explained by the similarity of physical properties of these minerals. Analysis of energy spectrum has verified these relations.

  15. SUSCEPTIBILIDAD ANTIMICROBIANA DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Salmonella enterica PROVENIENTES DE PISOS, EQUIPOS, UTENSILIOS Y PRODUCTO TERMINADO EN PLANTAS DE BENEFICIO PORCINO EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Bermúdez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La diseminación de Salmonella spp. resistente a antimicrobianos en las cadenas productivas de alimentos de origen animal es una preocupación de salud pública de carácter mundial. Este estudio describe los patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 283 aislamientos de Salmonella enterica procedentes de plantas de beneficio porcino en Colombia. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana frente a diez antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión en disco: amoxacilina-ácido clavulánico (30 ug, ampicilina (10 ug, ceftiofur (30 ug, ciprofloxacina (5 ug, cloranfenicol (30 ug, florfenicol (30 ug, gentamicina (10 ug, sulfadiazina/trimetroprim (25 ug, tetraciclina (30 ug y tilmicosina (15 ug. Los resultados evidenciaron la presencia de 279 aislamientos multirresistentes de Salmonella enterica de origen porcino provenientes del ambiente y del producto terminado en las plantas de beneficio evaluadas (46,64% n: 132. Se detectaron 52 patrones de multiresistencia: el más común fue ceftiofur-tetraciclina-tilmicosina en el 9,89% (n: 28 de los aislamientos. Con referencia a estos antimicrobianos, 96,82% (n: 274 de los aislamientos fueron resistentes a tetraciclina, 73,14% (n: 207 a tilmicosina y 28,27% (n: 80 a ceftiofur. De especial interés fue la alta proporción de aislamientos resistentes a ceftiofur, debido a una posible resistencia cruzada con ceftriaxona. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran la necesidad de promover el diseño e implementación de un Programa oficial Integrado de Vigilancia de la Resistencia Antimicrobiana, además de sistemas de monitoreo voluntario en cada eslabón de la cadena productiva porcina, para contribuir a la prevención y control de la transmisión de microorganismos resistentes de origen alimentario en el marco del sistema de gestión de inocuidad alimentaria en Colombia.

  16. Infección de fibroblastos de piel de animales con distinto grado de susceptibilidad a Leishmania infantum y Leishmania mexicana (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Minero

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta un modelo in vitro de cultivo de fibroblastos de piel de hámster, ratón y rata hecho con el propósito de determinar diferencias en cuanto a la susceptibilidad a la infección por dos especies del género Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae. Se realizó además un estudio ultraestructural por microscopía electrónica de transmisión con el fin de establecer si las formas intracelulares observadas correspondían a multiplicación interna o a fagocitosis múltiple. Se estudió la multiplicación de los parásitos en los fibroblastos de las tres especies de roedores infectados tanto por Leishmania infantum como por L. mexicana (cepa OCR y las diferencias entre las tres fueron estadísticamente significativas (pInfection and multiplication of Leishmania infantum and L. mexicana inside of skin fibroblasts from hamsters, mice and rats was achieved. This process was demonstrated either by counting parasites inside the stained cells or by electronic microscopy studies. In addition multiplication rate differences in the cells from these rodent species were determined, for L. infantum as well as for L. mexicana. Parasite development in hamsters and mice fibroblasts was evident but there was not multiplication in rat cells showing that apparently they are refractory to Leishmania infection. These results suggest that the parasite affinity for each animal, as well as any intracellular environment resistance, could involve genetic factors in the parasite multiplication. On the other hand, presence of amastigote multiplication inside of parasitophorus vacuole, showed by electronic microscopy images, probes a true parasite transformation. Therefore it is suggested that fibroblasts could work as host cells for parasite survival and permanency in the infected animals

  17. Análise da susceptibilidade às doenças imunopreveníveis em profissionais de saúde a partir do status vacinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Caroline Souza Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los riesgos biológicos existentes en las unidades de atención primaria de salud necesitan ser evaluados. Por lo tanto planteamos describir el status de vacunación de los profesionales con nivel de educación superior que trabajan en el PSF de Morada Nova-CE, a fin de reconocer la susceptibilidad de los mismos a las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio y descriptivo hecho entre abril y diciembre del 2008. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado para obtener datos sobre la situación demográfica, las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles e historial de vacunación. Se evaluaron 47 profesionales: el 48% sin esquema de vacunación para las principales enfermedades, el 26% no tenía carné de vacunación que comprobase la aplicación de las mismas, y sólo el 5% tenía el carné de vacunación infantil; la mayor cobertura fue de 81% para BCG, seguida de 64% para Hepatitis B con sólo 6,6%, con comprobación serológica, y 60% poseían vacuna contra el tétanos. Los resultados muestran la vulnerabilidad de estos profesionales por lo tanto es necesario estructurar un programa de inmunización para los que trabajan en la atención primaria, con intervenciones que reduzcan la exposición a riesgos biológicos en el ambiente laboral.

  18. Selección bidireccional de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a la nosemosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamandú MENDOZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La nosemosis es una enfermedad que afecta las funciones digestivas de las abejas melíferas causada por los microsporidios Nosema apis y Nosema ceranae. En Uruguay la única especie detectada es N. ceranae. Para determinar si la incidencia de N. ceranae en las colonias tiene un componente genético se realizó una selección bidireccional para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a este parásito sin control de la paternidad. Las colonias fueron evaluadas en una forestación de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño. La infección de las colonias se determinó como 1 el porcentaje de abejas pecoreadoras infectadas y 2 el número promedio de esporas por campo en 10 campos. El trabajo se inició con 138 colonias y se evaluaron dos generaciones de 30 y 63 colonias. La respuesta a la selección fue muy limitada, solo en la primera generación las colonias de la línea resistente presentaron menos esporas por abejas que las colonias de la línea susceptible (19,6 ± 5,8 y 26,8 ± 10,4, respectivamente, W = 41,5; P = 0.03. Esto indicaría que la resistencia a la nosemosis está fuertemente afectada por el ambiente. Futuros esfuerzos para aumentar la resistencia de las abejas a N. ceranae a través de mejora genética deberán incluir el control de la paternidad.

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E SUSCEPTIBILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DOS FRAGMENTOS FLORESTAIS NAS BACIAS DO RIBEIRÃO DOURADINHO E RIBEIRÃO ESTIVA - MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimar dos Reis de Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos florestais estão sujeitos ao fenômeno conhecido como Efeito de Borda, que afeta a função ecológica dessas áreas em relação ao tamanho, formato do fragmento, matriz ao entorno e manejo das áreas de borda. Desse modo, este trabalho teve como principal objetivo discutir o grau de susceptibilidade ecológica dos fragmentos florestais das bacias do Ribeirão Douradinho e Estiva em Minas Gerais. O uso das imagens RapidEye permitiram o mapeamento das unidades de fragmentos existentes nas bacias. Sob a perspectiva da Ecometria da Paisagem, foram analisados para cada fragmento os índices: área, densidade, tamanho, borda, forma, proximidade entre os fragmentos e área central. Como conclusão do trabalho, verificou-se que o nível de fragmentação florestal é elevado, com 273 unidades, somando 76,35 km², menos de 1% da área das bacias. Os fragmentos foram agrupados em: muito pequeno 5 e 10 e 100 ha, com 15 unidades (5,5%. No geral, os fragmentos inclusos nas categorias muito pequeno e pequeno não possuem área sem influência do efeito de borda, o que dificulta a preservação da biodiversidade destes ecossistemas, ou seja, áreas susceptíveis a perda ecológica. O Ribeirão Panga, afluente do Ribeirão Douradinho, é o que possui maior índice de densidade e proximidade da distribuição dos fragmentos analisados. É também onde está localizada a Reserva de Preservação Permanente (RPPN da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, que apresentou o maior índice de circularidade.

  20. Caracterización preliminar de la susceptibilidad sísmica en el entorno de la localidad de Sampacho, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Daga

    2003-08-01

    ón de intraplaca con probada actividad sísmica histórica y actual, donde el nivel de sismicidad, que es importante, pone en una constante geoamenaza sísmica a toda la región. Es de destacar que esta fue epicentro de dos terremotos históricos (año 1934, considerados dos de los mas destructores ocurridos dentro de la zona de sismicidad reducida.

    En el presente trabajo se caracterizo de manera preliminar la susceptibilidad sísmica en el entorno de la localidad de Sampacho, como base para futuros estudios de microzonificación sísmica y evaluación del riesgo sísmico. La metodología seguida hizo énfasis en el estudio de los factores litológicos, geomorfológicos e hidrológicos locales, los cuales pueden tener una importante incidencia en el desplazamiento del frente de ondas elásticas.

    Se definieron cinco clases de susceptibilidad a partir de la superposición de niveles de información litología y profundidad del nivel freático, de las cuales predomina la moderadamente baja. La distribución areal de las mismas se presenta en una carta de susceptibilidad sísmica preliminar en soporte digital, siendo este el primer documento sobre esta temática generado para la región.

  1. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  2. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  3. Familial ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Genes linked to ALS susceptibility are being identified at an increasing rate owing to advances in molecular genetic technology. Genetic mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis appear to exert major effects in ~10% of patients, but genetic factors at some level may be important components of disease risk in most ALS patients. Identification of gene variants associated with ALS has informed concepts of the pathogenesis of ALS, aided the identification of therapeutic targets, facilitated research to develop new ALS biomarkers, and supported the establishment of clinical diagnostic tests for ALS-linked genes. Translation of this knowledge to ALS therapy development is ongoing. PMID:26515623

  4. Susceptibilidad a la radiación ultravioleta_B del dinoflagelado Alexandrium catenella Kofoid Balech y de la diatomea Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin Susceptibility to ultraviolet-B radiation of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella Kofoid Balech, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La susceptibilidad diferencial de microalgas a la radiación UV-B (RUV-B, 280 - 320 nm genera patrones de predominio numérico dentro de los ensambles del fitoplancton. Sin embargo, a pesar que algunos eventos de floraciones algales nocivas (FAN del dinoflagelado Alexandrium catenella han sido coincidentes con episodios de alta RUV-B en el extremo sur de Chile, se desconoce alguna relación de causalidad entre estos procesos. A través de los parámetros poblacionales tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (µ y capacidad de carga (K, se determinó el efecto de la RUV-B sobre la dinámica poblacional de cultivos de A. catenella, la que fue comparada con la respuesta demográfica de cultivos de una diatomea susceptible a la RUV-B, Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Los resultados mostraron que ambas especies presentaron una disminución significativa de µ frente a un incremento de RUV-B. Sin embargo, mientras que la respuesta de A. catenella mostró una dosis umbral para el crecimiento, bajo la cual se obtuvo una disminución de µ hasta 0,03 d-1, P. tricornutum presentó un decrecimiento proporcional, hasta un mínimo de 0,34 d-1. A pesar que el parámetro K en ambas especies presentó un decrecimiento similar frente a un gradiente de RUV-B, A. catenella mostró una significativa inhibición a partir de 2,9 KJ m-2 d-1, a diferencia de P. tricornutum, donde K se afectó a dosis iguales o mayores a 4,1 KJ m-2 d-1. Contrario a la predicción, los resultados indican una mayor susceptibilidad en A. catenella que en P. tricornutum al aumento de dosis de RUV-B, lo cual otorga una débil causalidad a este factor en la determinación del patrón de predominio numérico presentado por A. catenella durante los eventos de FANDifferential susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UV-B, 280 - 320 nm radiation among microalgae generates patterns of dominance in phytoplankton assemblages. However, despite some events of harmful algal blooms (HAB's of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium

  5. Ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes nos resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário brasileiro e perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Occurrence of clinically relevant bacteria in health service waste in a Brazilian sanitary landfill and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago César Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos de serviços de saúde suscitam polêmica quanto a importância para a saúde humana, animal e ambiental. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes na pilha de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Alíquotas de chorume foram processadas para isolamento seletivo de Staphylococcus sp, bastonetes Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae e não fermentadores. Resistência bacteriana a todos os antimicrobianos testados foi observada em todos os grupos microbianos, além de resistência a mais de uma droga. Os resultados permitem sugerir que bactérias viáveis nos resíduos de serviços de saúde representam riscos à saúde humana e animal. Além disso, a ocorrência de linhagens multirresistentes sustenta a hipótese dos resíduos de serviços de saúde atuarem como reservatórios de marcadores de resistência, com impacto ambiental. A falta de legislação regional de segregação, tratamento e destino de resíduos podem expor diferentes populações a riscos de transmissão de doenças infecciosas associadas a microrganismos multirresistentes.Health service waste gives rise to controversy regarding its importance for human, animal and environmental health. Occurrences of clinically relevant bacteria in piles of health service waste in a sanitary landfill and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile were evaluated. Aliquots of leachate were processed for selective isolation of Staphylococcus sp, Gram-negative rods of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenters. Bacterial resistance to all the antimicrobials tested was observed in all microbial groups, including resistance to more than one drug. The results make it possible to suggest that viable bacteria in health service waste represent risks to human and animal health. Furthermore, occurrences of multiresistant strains support the hypothesis that health service waste acts as a

  6. Frecuencias alélicas, genotípicas y haplotípicas HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 en donantes fallecidos, Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Libia M. Rodríguez; Mabel C. Giraldo; Natalia García; Laura Velásquez; Sara C. París; Cristiam M. Álvarez; Luis F. García

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. La caracterización genética del sistema HLA es de gran utilidad en estudios antropogenéticos, en la comprensión de mecanismos asociados a susceptibilidad o resistencia a diversas enfermedades, en los fenómenos inmunológicos durante el embarazo y en la selección de donantes/receptores en trasplantes de órganos. Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas, genotípicas y haplotípicas HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 en donantes fallecidos en Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 92...

  7. Frecuencias alélicas, genotípicas y haplotípicas HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 en donantes fallecidos, Medellín, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Libia M; Giraldo, Mabel C; García, Natalia; Velásquez, Laura; París, Sara C; Álvarez, Cristiam M; García, Luis F

    2007-01-01

    Introducción. La caracterización genética del sistema HLA es de gran utilidad en estudios antropogenéticos, en la comprensión de mecanismos asociados a susceptibilidad o resistencia a diversas enfermedades, en los fenómenos inmunológicos durante el embarazo y en la selección de donantes/receptores en trasplantes de órganos. Objetivo. Determinar las frecuencias alélicas, genotípicas y haplotípicas HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 en donantes fallecidos en Medellín. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 926 dona...

  8. Susceptibilidad genética y riesgo de cáncer gástrico en una población del Cauca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Torres

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer gástrico es la principal causa de mortalidad por cáncer en Colombia. El riesgo de desarrollar cáncer gástrico se ha asociado con factores ambientales y con la infección por Helicobacter pylori. Las enzimas glutatión-S-transferasas están involucradas en la desintoxicación de varios carcinógenos ambientales. Las deleciones homocigóticas de glutatión-S-transferasa M1 (GSTM1-0 y glutatión-S-transferasa T1 (GSTT1-0 se han asociado con algunos tipos de cáncer. Los niveles del factor de necrosis tumoral (FNT ? están aumentados en pacientes infectados por H. pylori. Una transición G/A en la posición -308 del promotor del FNT-? se ha visto relacionada en algunos estudios con un incremento en la expresión del gen, y está asociada con la susceptibilidad a cáncer gástrico. Se investigó la asociación de estos polimorfismos con cáncer gástrico y la interacción con otros factores de riesgo (estilo de vida. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de 46 pacientes con cáncer gástrico y 96 controles. Se empleó el modelo de regresión logística para obtener la razón de posibilidades (OR y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% y, así, establecer la asociación entre los polimorfismos enzimáticos y el cáncer gástrico, y entre otros factores independientes y esta enfermedad. Las frecuencias de los polimorfismos de deleción en pacientes y controles fueron: para la GSTM1, 65,2% y 37,5%, y para la GSTT1, 17,4% y 14,6%, respectivamente. La frecuencia del polimorfismo G/A del FNT ? en las personas infectadas con H. pylori fue de 18% en la población con cáncer gástrico y de 7% en el grupo control. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el polimorfismo de deleción de GSTM1 puede estar asociado con un riesgo aumentado de cáncer gástrico (OR 5,5; IC95%, 1,7-17,2. Igualmente, nuestros datos muestran que otros factores de riesgo como la infección por H. pylori y el consumo de cigarrillo y alcohol están asociados con este tipo de cáncer (OR

  9. Ti, Al

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, authors report on the effect that substrate bias voltage has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N hard coatings deposited with cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) technique. The coatings were deposited from a Ti0.5Al0.5 powder metallurgical target in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at ...

  10. Corrosion behavior of Fe3Al intermetallics with addition of lithium, cerium and nickel in 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Rodríguez, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of Fe3Al-type intermetallic alloys with addition of 1 at. % cerium, lithium and nickel at high temperature has been studied. The various alloys were exposed to an environment composed of 2.5 % SO2+N2 at 900 °C for 48 h. For all the intermetallic tested, the corrosion kinetics showed a parabolic behavior. The alloy, which showed less corrosion rate, was the Fe3AlNi alloy, being Fe3AlCeLi the alloy with the highest corrosion rate. For the various alloys, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, EDS, on the developed scale only detected aluminum, oxygen, and traces of iron and cerium, suggesting the formation of alumina as main component. The intermetallic alloys showed oxide cracking and spalling. The intermetallic chemical composition played an important role in defining the oxide scale morphology and the extent of damage.Se estudió el comportamiento a la corrosión a alta temperatura de intermetálicos tipo Fe3Al con adición de 1at. % de cerio, litio y níquel. Las diferentes aleaciones fueron expuestas bajo un ambiente compuesto de 2,5 % SO2+N2 a 900 °C durante 48 h. Para todos los intermetálicos ensayados, la cinética de corrosión presentó un comportamiento parabólico. La aleación que mostró la menor velocidad de corrosión fue el intermetálico Fe3AlNi, siendo el intermetálico Fe3AlCeLi el de mayor velocidad de corrosión. Los análisis mediante espectroscopía de dispersión de rayos X, EDS, sobre la costra formada identificaron únicamente aluminio, oxígeno y trazas de hierro y cerio, lo que sugiere la formación de alúmina como el componente principal. Los intermetálicos mostraron agrietamiento y desprendimiento de la costra de óxido. La composición química de los intermetálicos tuvo un papel importante en la definición de la morfología del óxido formado y el grado de daño.

  11. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad a la corrosión por picado del acero API 5L x42 expuesto a un ambiente con cloruros y CO2 mediante la técnica de ruido electroquímico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Vanegas, N.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of chloride ions and the partial pressure of CO2 play an important role in the degradation of low-carbon steels used for the construction of pipelines in oil and gas industry. In order to evaluate the susceptibility of carbon steel API 5L X42 to pitting corrosion electrochemical noise and linear polarization resistance measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions containing chloride ions and CO2. The concentration of chloride ions was varied between, 10000 and 18000 ppm, and the CO2 partial pressure between 10 psi and 18 psi. Experimental results pointed out that the formation of protective layer, consisting mainly of FeCO 3, depends on the partial pressure of CO2 in the system. Nevertheless, the stability of this layer was considerably affected by increasing the concentration of chloride ions causing that localized corrosion has taken place in some areas of the surface of API 5L X42, which were detected by electrochemical noise echnique.La concentración de iones cloruro y la presión parcial de CO2, tienen un papel importante en el proceso de degradación de los aceros de bajo carbono empleados en la construcción de líneas de transporte en industrias petroleras. Con el fin de evaluar la susceptibilidad del acero al carbono API 5L X42 a la corrosión por picado, se realizaron medidas de ruido electroquímico y resistencia a la polarización lineal en soluciones acuosas de iones cloruro con concentraciones entre 10.000 y 18.000 ppm, variando la presión parcial de CO2 entre 10 psi y 18 psi. Los resultados indican que la formación de una capa protectora, constituida principalmente por FeCO3, depende de la presión parcial de CO2 del sistema. No obstante, la estabilidad de dicha capa es afectada significativamente por el aumento de la concentración de iones cloruro, que producen fenómenos de corrosión localizada en algunas áreas de la superficie del acero API 5L X42, los cuales fueron detectados por la técnica de

  12. Susceptibilidade larval de populações de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus a inseticidas químicos Larval susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus populations to chemical insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Campos

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a susceptibilidade a inseticidas químicos de larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus e Aedes aegypti, provenientes de áreas sujeitas ou não a tratamentos de controle. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas larvas de mosquitos em uma área não sujeita a tratamentos com inseticidas (Campinas, SP e em áreas sujeitas a esses tratamentos (Campo Grande, MS e Cuiabá, MT. Foram usados bioensaios com concentrações diagnóstico e concentrações múltipla de inseticidas organofosforados e piretróides, segundo padrão da Organização Mundial de Saúde, para avaliar a susceptibilidade dessas larvas. RESULTADOS: Ensaios com larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus de Campinas, SP, permitiram a suspeita de resistência à cipermetrina e evidenciaram resistência à ciflutrina. Larvas dessa espécie coletadas em Campo Grande, MS, e Campinas, SP, apresentaram resistência ao temephos. Para a colônia campineira desta espécie, foram estabelecidas as razões de resistência: RR50=6,36 e RR95=4,94, com base em linhagem susceptível padrão. Adicionalmente, os testes com Aedes aegypti mostraram susceptibilidade similar ao temephos em uma população de campo (Cuiabá, MT e uma de laboratório. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam resistência a organofosforado e piretróides em Culex quinquefasciatus, evidenciando a necessidade de avaliações e monitoramento da efetividade dos inseticidas a serem usados nos programas de controle de mosquitos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to chemical insecticides of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypt larvae from areas subjected to control treatments or not. METHODS: Bioassays for diagnostic concentration and multiple concentration were performed for organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides according to World Health Organization parameters. The susceptibility was assessed for mosquito larvae collected from an area not subjected to chemical control (Campinas, State of São Paulo, SP and from other areas (Campo

  13. Análisis espacial de susceptibilidad de erosión en una cuenca hidrográfica del trópico húmedo de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Pérez-Rubio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio consiste en evaluar el estado de conservación de una cuenca hidrográfica en el trópico húmedo de Costa Rica en términos de su capacidad de proveer el servicio ecosistémico para control de la erosión. Mediante la interpretación de fotografías aéreas del proyecto CARTA (2005 se realizó primeramente un inventario espacial de los procesos erosivos observables en el área de estudio. Se parte del supuesto de que su distribución espacial no es aleatoria sino que depende de la interacción compleja de factores naturales y antrópicos. Para evaluar cuantitativamente dicha relación espacial se planteó un análisis de susceptibilidad de erosión. Se aplicó dos métodos comparativos: 1 regresión logística binaria y 2 probabilidad condicional conjunta, mediante el teorema de Bayes. Ambas alternativas se combinaron con un análisis estadístico bivariado basado en el cálculo de las ponderaciones de evidencia (weights of evidence de todas las clases de los factores condicionantes incorporados en el modelo: el uso del suelo, la pendiente, la geomorfología y la distancia a la red de drenaje. Los resultados de los cálculos de las ponderaciones de evidencia y la interpretación de los coeficientes de la ecuación de regresión logística demostraron la relevancia relativa dominante del factor uso del suelo sobre la geomorfología. Los mapas de susceptibilidad resultantes fueron evaluados mediante dos procedimientos de verificación, en primer lugar, la curva del ratio de acierto (success rate y la función ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic; en ambos casos el método de probabilidad conjunta mostró un mayor nivel de precisión que el de regresión logística.

  14. Genotipificación de polimorfismos moleculares en los genes CYP2E1, GSTM1 y GSTT1 para evaluar susceptibilidad a Cáncer gastrointestinal en una población paisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL. Zuluaga

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre los años 2001 y 2002 se recogieron 40 muestras de pacientes diagnosticados con cáncergastrointestinal en los departamentos de Antioquia y Caldas, a los cuales se les determinó elgenotipo molecular para los genes CYP2E1, GSTM1 y GSTT1 en sangre y se les realizó una entre-vista para analizar su consumo de alcohol, cigarrillo y alimentos quemados y/o embutidos, ya queestudios previos en otras poblaciones han sugerido la asociación de algunos polimorfismos de estos genes (en combinación o no con factores ambientales, con una predisposición a la enfermedad. Por tanto, se comparó estadísticamente las frecuencias genotípicas con las de unapoblación de controles sanos apareada con los casos por edad y sexo, y se observó la suscep-tibilidad a cáncer gastrointestinal, mediante el análisis de asociación a polimorfismos en los genesque codifican para las enzimas CYP2E1, GSTM1 Y GSTT1 del metabolismo de xenobióticos.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R.O. Machado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.

  16. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  17. Estudio de factores géneticos de susceptibilidad para la enfermedad de Parkinson en Colombia: análisisi de 10 marcadores moleculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fernández

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad de Parkinson (EP es una de las principales enfermedades neurodegenerativas en el mundo, con un gran impacto sobre los pacientes y sus familias. Aunque sus aspectos genéticos han sido analizados ampliamente en otros países y se han encontrado como cruciales en la patogénesis, no hay estudiso al respecto reportados en Latinoamérica.

  18. Nuevas aportaciones a la búsqueda de genes de predisposición al cáncer de mama hereditario

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández García, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    [ES] El cáncer de mama es el más frecuente en mujeres y la principal causa de muerte tanto en países desarrollados como en países en desarrollo, representando un 23 % del total de nuevos casos de cáncer (se estima en 1 millón de nuevos casos cada año) y un 14 % del total de muertes en 2008 (Jemal et al. 2011). Aproximadamente un 5-10% de los cánceres de mama tienen una predisposición genética debido a la presencia de mutaciones germinales de genes de susceptibilidad, de forma que el aumen...

  19. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em cocos Gram-positivos catalase negativos (21 amostras de Lactococcus garvieae e 6 de Enterococcus gallinarum, isoladas do leite de fêmeas com mastite subclínica e pertencentes a uma população composta por seis rebanhos bubalinos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O teste utilizado foi o da difusão de discos em agar Müller Hinton, segundo recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS, tendo sido testados discos com ampicilina (10mg, cefalotina (30mg, cefotaxima (30mg, cefoxitina (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromicina (15mg, gentamicina (10mg, nitrofurantoína (300mg, norfloxacina (10mg, penicilina (10 UI, tetraciclina (30mg e vancomicina (30mg. Os resultados evidenciaram que em se tratando de Lactococcus garvieae, o antimicrobiano mais eficiente foi o nitrofurantoína com 85,71% de sensibilidade, seguido da cefotaxima (61,90%, vancomicina (52,38%, norfloxacina (47,62% e cefalotina (47,62%. A maior resistência foi desenvolvida frente a penicilina e ampicilina, com 95,24% de resistênciapara os dois antimicrobianos testados. O perfil de susceptibilidade desenvolvido pelas amostras de Enterococcus gallinarum, mostrou baixa sensibilidade frente aos antimicrobianos testados, onde os maiores índices foram observados frente eritromicina e gentamicina, com 33,34% de sensibilidade para ambos; quanto à resistência desenvolvida, foi possível observar 100% de resistência com relação a vancomicina e tetraciclina, seguindo-se cloranfenicol, penicilina, ampicilina, cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, norfloxacina e nitrofurantoína, todas evidenciando uma resistência de 83,33% das amostras testadas.The susceptibility of antimicrobials was studied in Gram positive and catalase negative cocci (21 samples of Lactococcus garvieae and 6 Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis, belonging to six buffalo herds in

  20. Susceptibilidad del suelo a la degradación en parcelas con manejo agroforestal Quesungual en Nicaragua Susceptibility to soil degradation in plots under Quesungual agroforestry management in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jellín del Carmen Pavón T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante tres años se establecieron en un Andisol del municipio de Somotillo (Nicaragua los sistemas de usos de tierra: tradicional del productor (tala, quema, fertilización y siembra de maíz + fríjol; agroforestal Quesungual (SAQ (no quema, árboles nativos en regeneración natural y siembra de maíz + fríjol; residuos de cultivos (manejo de cobertura con residuos de cultivos; y testigo bosque secundario (tacotal de aproximadamente cinco años de edad no cultivado. Se hicieron muestreos de suelos a profundidades de 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 cm para caracterización física y de fertilidad y estimación de la erosión hídrica por simulación. Los sistemas Quesungal y Residuos de Cultivo, mantuvieron la susceptibilidad del suelo a la erosión en niveles tan bajos como los del bosque natural secundario.In an andisol tt was placed for three years land uses systems like: farmer traditional (slash and burn, fertilization and sowing of bean and maiz; Quesungual Agroforestry System-SAQ (no burn, natural regeneration of native trees, bean and maiz sowing; crop residues as management cover, and a fi ve years secundary forest (tacotal as a control. It was considered soil samples at 0-5, 5-10 y 10-20 for physical and fertility characterization and field measurement of soil erosion by rain simulation. Quesungal and crop residues systems, remained soil erosión susceptibility at levels as low as the natural secondary forest.

  1. Isolamento e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias em infecções uterinas de éguas Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria in uterine infections in mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 206 "swabs" cervicais e uterinos de éguas de várias raças, de diversas regiões do Estado de Minas Gerais, durante o período de 1986 a 1996. Cerca de 164 "swabs" foram positivos para a presença de microrganismos causadores de endometrites. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (25,7% e Escherichia coli (15,1% foram os principais agentes infecciosos isolados. Outros microrganismos presentes foram: Staphylococcus aureus (9,2%, Streptococcus alfa-hemolítico (9,2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3,9%, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (6,3%, Bacillus spp. (1,9%, Rhodococcus equi (3,4% e Proteus mirabilis (1,5%. As provas de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos revelaram que amicacina e gentamicina (70,2%, ampicilina (59,5% e cloranfenicol (59,5% foram os antibióticos de maior ação in vitro contra os microrganismos isolados.This study examined 206 cervical and uterine swabs collected from infected mares from herds in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1986 to 1996. Amongst 164 successful isolations, 25.7% were identified as Streptococcus equi, subsp. zooepidemicus, and 15.1% as Escherichia coli, both considered the most important isolates. Other bacteria found included Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%, Streptococcus alpha-hemolytic (9.2%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, coagulase negative Staphylococcus (6.3%, Bacillus spp. (1.9%, Rhodococcus equi (3.4% and Proteus mirabilis (1.5%. The antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed amikacin and gentamicin (70.2%, ampicillin and chloramphenicol (59.5% as the most effective in vitro antibiotics against these microorganisms.

  2. Estudo Viriato: Actualização de dados de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de bactérias responsáveis por infecções respiratórias adquiridas na comunidade em Portugal em 2003 e 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Melo-Cristino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O Estudo Viriato é um estudo nacional, prospectivo e multicêntrico, de vigilância da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de bactérias frequentemente responsáveis por infecções do aparelho respiratório adquiridas na comunidade. Nos anos de 2003 e 2004 participaram 29 laboratórios de todo o país. Isolaram-se 2945 microrganismos que foram estudados num laboratório coordenador. Das 513 estirpes de Streptococcus pyogenes de doentes com amigdalo-faringite aguda, todas eram susceptíveis à penicilina e outros antibióticos beta-lactâmicos, mas 18,9% eram resistentes à eritromicina, claritromicina e azitromicina. Nas estirpes resistentes foi mais frequente o fenótipo M (67,0% que confere resistência à eritromicina (CIM90=16 mg/L, claritromicina e azitromicina, mas susceptibilidade à clindamicina (CIM90=0,094 mg/L. De doentes com infecção do aparelho respiratório inferior estudaram-se 1300 estirpes de Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococos, 829 de Haemophilus influenzae e 303 de Moraxella catarrhalis. Em S. pneumoniae, 18,4% das estirpes eram resistentes à penicilina (3,5% com resistência elevada, 7,1% à cefuroxima, 0,5% à amoxicilina, 0,5% à amoxicilina/clavulanato, 18,8% à eritromicina, claritromicina e azitromicina, 14,5 % à tetraciclina, 16,5% ao cotrimoxazol e 0,4% à levofloxacina. Nas estirpes resistentes aos macrólidos, dominou o fenótipo MLSB (83,7%, caracterizado por resistência elevada (CIM90 >256 mg/L à eritromicina, claritromicina, azitromicina e clindamicina. Produziam beta-lactamase 10,0% de H. influenzae e 96,4% de M. catarrhalis. Em H. influenzae demonstrou-se 5,5% de resistência à claritromicina e 13,4% ao cotrimoxazol. A quase totalidade das estirpes era susceptível à amoxicilina / clavulanato, cefuroxima, azitromicina, tetraciclina e ciprofloxacina. Em M. catarrhalis a resistência ao co-trimoxazol foi de 27,1% e à tetraciclina de 1,0%. Todas as estirpes eram susceptíveis à amoxicilina

  3. Estimativa da susceptibilidade à compactação e do suporte de carga do solo com base em propriedades físicas de solos do Rio Grande do Sul Estimating soil susceptibility to compaction and load support capacity based on physical parameters of soils from Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Akiyoshi Sanches Suzuki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das relações entre propriedades físicas e mecânicas do solo pode contribuir no desenvolvimento de funções de pedotransferência, que permitam estimar outras propriedades do solo de difícil mensuração. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre a susceptibilidade à compactação e o suporte de carga com propriedades físicas de solos do sul do Brasil. Foram avaliadas a resistência à penetração, a umidade, a densidade e a compressibilidade de seis solos. A resistência à penetração pode ser estimada pelo modelo que considera a umidade e densidade do solo. Solos com maior densidade inicial apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à compactação e menor deformação, quando submetidos a pressões externas. Quanto maior a resistência do solo à penetração, menor é a deformação e maior é a capacidade de suporte de carga, embora isso não indique solos com qualidade física adequada para as culturas; quanto maior a deformação do solo, maior a susceptibilidade à compactação e menor a capacidade de suporte de carga. A susceptibilidade de um solo à compactação e sua capacidade de suporte de carga podem ser estimadas, respectivamente, pela densidade inicial e pela resistência do solo à penetração.Quantifying the relationship between physical and mechanical soil properties can contribute to the development of pedotransfer functions that allow estimating hard-to-measure soil properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interrelations between susceptibility to compaction and load support with some physical properties of soils from Southern Brazil. Penetration resistance, moisture, bulk density and compressibility of six soils were evaluated. In a model including soil moisture and bulk density as independent variables, the relation with penetration resistance values obtained in the field was high. Soils with higher initial bulk density were less susceptible to compaction and exhibited

  4. Susceptibilidad in vitro a los medicamentos anti-tuberculosos de aislados de cepas del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtenidos a partir de lobos marinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Bernardelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se han hallado cepas de micobacterias aisladas de lobos marinos del Atlántico sur y pertenecen al complejo de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Los animales se recibieron en las instalaciones del Oceanario Mundo Marino y fueron tratados apropiadamente para su recuperación con la terapia convencional, cuidados intensivos y suplemento alimentario pero no se observó mejoría en su estado general. Se practicaron necropsias en todos los animales y se observaron lesiones extensas compatibles con tuberculosis en pulmones, hígado, bazo y ganglios linfáticos. Para la identificación de las micobacterias, se realizaron pruebas bioquímicas y técnicas de biología molecular con la sonda IS6110. Además, se identificaron todas las cepas como pertenecientes al complejo M. tuberculosis mediante el equipo LCx M. tuberculosis Assay (Abbott Laboratories. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar in vitro la sensibilidad de las cepas patrón BCG, H37Rv (M. tuberculosis y AN5 (Mycobacterium bovis y la de las siete aisladas de lobos marinos a isoniacida, rifampicina, estreptomicina y etambutol. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM de las drogas antituberculosas se llevó a cabo con el equipo Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT, BD, Argentina y la microdilución con el ensayo colorimétrico con bromuro de 3-(4-5 dimetiltiazol-2-2,5 difeniltetrazolio. Todos los aislamientos y las cepas de referencia BCG y AN5 se inhibieron con valores CIM de los de H37Rv con buena concordancia entre los resultados obtenidos con ambas técnicas. Los hallazgos permiten sugerir que podrían ser una importante ayuda terapéutica en los lobos marinos con diagnóstico de tuberculosis y evaluar el posible papel sanitario en la prevención y transmisión de la tuberculosis de los animales a los humanos y el trabajo en conjunto.

  5. Búsqueda de asociación entre el gen RELN y la susceptibilidad a esquizofrenia en núcleos familiares antioqueños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La esquizofrenia es un síndrome psicopatológico variable, crónico
    y por lo general deteriorante, que compromete la percepción, el
    pensamiento, las emociones, el movimiento y el comportamiento. Su etiología no es clara, pero en algunos pacientes parece deberse a la herencia de variantes génicas que interfieren en el neurodesarrollo. Esta hipótesis está fundamentada principalmente en las alteraciones neuroanatómicas y funcionales obtenidas por imaginología y en los estudios postmortem, lo cual sugiere que un inadecuado neurodesarrollo origina un cerebro con estructura y funcionamiento anormales ue lo hacen más vulnerable a efectos adversos del ambiente interno y externo del individuo y lo predisponen al desarrollo de la enfermedad (1. Bajo este enfoque, uno de los genes involucrados en el fenotipo esquizofrenia es RELN, el cual está ubicado en la región 7q22 y codifica una glicoproteína llamada relina implicada en el posicionamiento y migración de neuronas al hipocampo y la corteza durante el neurodesarrollo. Los hallazgos que respaldan su papel en la enfermedad son la expresión disminuida de esta proteína en el cerebro de esquizofrénicos (2 y el reporte de una translocación cromosómica t(1:7(p22,q22, que originó un caso de esquizofrenia de inicio en la niñez (3, lo cual podría ser el reflejo de un grave trastorno en el neurodesarrollo.
    Con base en estos antecedentes, buscaremos asociación entre
    una variante de RELN y la esquizofrenia en núcleos familiares
    antioqueños, mediante la prueba de desequilibrio de transmisión (TDT.

     

  6. Etiology of canine otitis media and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive Staphylococci in Fortaleza city, Brazil Etiologia da otite média canina e susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva em Fortaleza, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Christina de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the middle ear microbiota and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from strains isolated from dogs with otitis media. A total of 62 dogs obtained from Zoonoses Control Center of Fortaleza City Ceará State / Brazil were studied over a 10-month period (August/2003 to June/2004. Of the total, 46.8% (n=30 of the animals were positive for otitis media and the infection was monomicrobial in 76.6% of them. The most frequent isolated agents were coagulase-positive Staphylococci (CPS-55% and Pseudomonas sp (10%. For S. intermedius (n=13 and S. aureus subsp aureus (n=9, respectively, the greater resistance rates were observed using penicillin G (30.76% and 44.44%, ampicillin (7.69% and 44.44%, erythromycin (23.07% and 44.44%, clindamycin (23.07% and 44.44% and thrimethropim/sulfamethoxazol (15.38% and 33.33%.O presente trabalho avaliou a microbiota do ouvido médio e os perfis de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de cepas isoladas de cães com otite média. Um total de 62 cães obtidos no Centro de Controle de Zoonoses de Fortaleza Ceará / Brasil foram estudados no período de 10 meses (agosto/2003 a junho/2004. Do total de animais, 46.8% (n=30 foram positivos para otite media e a infecção envolvida era monomicrobiana em 76,6% dos casos. Os agentes isolados com maior frequência foram Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva (CPS-55% e Pseudomonas sp (10%. Considerando-se S. intermedius (n=13 e S. aureus subsp aureus (n=9, respectivamente, as mais elevadas taxas resistência foram observadas frente a: penicilina G (30,76% e 44,44%, ampicilina (7,69% e 44,44%, eritromicina (23,07% e 44,44%, clindamicina (23,07% e 44,44% e trimetropim/sulfametoxazol (15,38% e 33,33%.

  7. Microbiota cloacal aeróbia de cracídeos cativos no Rio Grande do Sul e sua susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Cloacal microbiota identification and evaluation of the antimicrobial resistance in captive cracids from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Fernandes Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cracídeos são aves silvestres que habitam as matas tropicais da América. Foram coletadas, no ano de 2007, amostras cloacais de 51 aves de dez espécies diferentes de cracídeos mantidos em cativeiros no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A partir dos swabs, colhidos assepticamente, foi realizado o isolamento e a caracterização bacteriana e o teste de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana dos isolados. Foram identificadas 93 cepas de bactérias. As bactérias mais frequentemente isoladas foram Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. e Streptococcus spp. Todas as amostras foram negativas para o isolamento de Salmonella spp. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade mostrou que dentre as 93 cepas isoladas, todas foram sensíveis apenas ao imipinem. Adicionalmente, os menores percentuais de resistência foram observados frente ao cloranfenicol e ciprofloxacina. Os gêneros e espécies bacterianas com maior percentual de resistência a diferentes antibióticos testados foram Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus spp. Com os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho, concluí-se, que a população de cracídeos estudada apresenta sua microbiota cloacal composta por vários gêneros e espécies bacterianas e que a multirresistencia pode ser um problema no futuro, uma vez que algumas cepas isoladas mostraram percentuais elevados de resistência a diferente antimicrobianos.Cracids are wildlife Galliformes which inhabits the America's tropical forests. Fifty one cloacal swabs were collected from 10 different species of captive cracids from the Rio Grande do Sul State during 2007. The cloacal swab samples were submitted to bacterial isolation, identification and, subsequently; antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Ninety three bacterial isolates were obtained from the cracid population examined. The most prevalent among the isolates were Escherichia coli, and bacteria from the Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. All samples

  8. Amenazas naturales asociadas al ascenso del nivel del mar en Caribe Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Gregory Robertson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de recientes investigaciones sobre el impacto del ascenso del nivel del mar en la Costa Caribe colombiana, bases para el primer informe de Colombia a la Convención Internacional de Cambio Climático, adelantado en convenio con elIDE..-\\.1f. Con base en el estudio de las geoformas litorales, los procesos dinámicos asociados y su evolución reciente, se evaluó la amenaza por inundación y erosión asociada al actual ascenso del nivel del mar, proyectado por IP(C (panel Intergubemamcntal de Expertos de Cambio Climático en un metro pata el año 2100. A partir de la interpretación de imágenes de satélite y fotografias aéreas, apoyada en información secundaria y verificación de campo, se identificaron 15 unidades geomorfológicas básicas de origen estructural, fluvial y marino. Con base las características geomorfológicas y criterios de resiliencia frente a la acción del oleaje y la inundación litoral, se generó un modelo morfodinámico que pronostica el impacto del ascenso del nivel marino para el litoral Caribe colombiano. De acuerdo con este análisis, se estima que las unidades geomorfológicas recientes desarrolladas durante los últimos 2.500 años podrían ser reactivadas por el actual ascenso del nivel del mar, afectando numerosos centros urbanos tales como Cartagena, Santa Marta, Puerto Colombia y Turbo y actividades económicas de-importancia como el comercio portuario y el turismo. Para los 1.819 Km. de línea de costa del Caribe Colombiano, se estima que el 33.7% presenta alta susceptibilidad a la erosión marina, representado por geoformas que presentan grari fragilidad ante los procesos erosivos. En la linea de costa restante, 31,2% presenta susceptibilidad mec!ia y 35.1% susceptibilidad baja y muy baja, en una linea de costa caracterizada por geoformas con fragilidad y mecanismos de resiliencia variables. Por inundación, se pronostica que 1192 Km2 de costa baja serán anegados, 2331 Km2

  9. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2015 Print this issue All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder En español Send us ... Sports Concussions Wise Choices How Can I Help ALS Research? If you have ALS, join the National ...

  10. Candidemia in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital: species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns Candidemia em hospital terciário brasileiro: distribuição das espécies e padrões de susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Graciela Ventura Antunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown differences in the epidemiology of invasive infections caused by Candida species worldwide. In the period comprising August 2002 to August 2003, we performed a study in Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil, to determine Candida species distribution associated with candidemia and their antifungal susceptibility profiles to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. Antifungal susceptibility was tested according to the broth microdilution method described in the NCCLS (M27A-2 method. Only one sample from each patient was analyzed (the first isolate. Most of the episodes had been caused by species other than C. albicans (51.6%, including C. parapsilosis (25.8%, C. tropicalis (13.3%, C. glabrata (3.3%, C. krusei (1.7%, and others (7.5%. Dose-dependent susceptibility to itraconazole was observed in 14.2% of strains, and dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole was found in 1.6%. Antifungal resistance was not found, probably related to low use of fluconazole. Further epidemiological surveillance is needed.Estudos realizados em diferentes países têm mostrado diferença na epidemiologia das infecções invasivas por Candida spp. No período de agosto de 2002 a agosto de 2003, foi conduzido estudo na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Porto Alegre, Brasil, para determinar a distribuição das espécies de Candida associadas a candidemia e o perfil de susceptibilidade das mesmas aos antifúngicos anfotericina B, fluconazol e itraconazol. Os testes de susceptibilidade foram realizados de acordo com a metodologia M27-A2 padronizada pelo NCCLS. Foi incluído no estudo o primeiro isolado de hemocultivo de cada paciente. A maioria dos episódios (51,6% ocorreu por espécies outras que C. albicans, incluindo C. parapsilosis (25,8%, C. tropicalis (13,3%, C. glabrata (3,3%, C. krusei (1,7% e outras espécies (7,5%. Não foi encontrada resistência aos antifúngicos testados, possivelmente devido ao baixo consumo de fluconazol na

  11. Teor de carbono orgânico e a susceptibilidade à compactação de um Nitossolo e um Argissolo Organic carbon content and susceptibility to compaction of Hapludalf and Hapludox soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Braida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O acúmulo de matéria orgânica pode aumentar a resistência do solo à compactação, diminuindo sua magnitude ou seus efeitos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar as implicações do acúmulo de matéria orgânica no solo sobre sua susceptibilidade à compactação medida pelo coeficiente de compressão. Buscou-se estabelecer relações entre o teor de carbono orgânico e o coeficiente de compressão do solo. Utilizaram-se amostras de solo coletadas em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico e de um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico, ambos contendo ampla variação do teor de carbono orgânico (CO. As amostras, com umidade equilibrada em quatro tensões de água, foram submetidas ao ensaio de adensamento uniaxial confinado, mediante cargas normais de 12,5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 e 1600 kPa e se determinando o coeficiente de compressão plástica; definiram-se, também, o teor de carbono orgânico, a densidade do solo, a porosidade e o grau de saturação com água das amostras. O teor de carbono orgânico afeta o coeficiente de compressão do solo; no entanto, a magnitude e o tipo de efeito são dependentes da textura do solo e de seus efeitos sobre a retenção de água, a coesão e a densidade do solo.Organic matter accumulation can increase soil resistance to compaction, decreasing the compaction magnitude or its effects. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of soil organic matter accumulation on the compressibility index, which corresponds to soil susceptibility to compaction. The study was performed using samples collected from a Hapludalf and a Hapludox soils in southern Brazil, both having a significant variation in soil organic carbon (SOC content. Soil compressibility tests were performed under confined conditions, in a uniaxial apparatus by using normal loads of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 kPa, and the compressibility index (Cc was calculated. Soil organic carbon

  12. Estudio de la susceptibilidad a vancomicina de cepas de Staphyloccus spp., aisladas del hospital Antonio Patricio de Alcalá, Cumaná, estado Sucre | Vancomycin susceptibility study of Staphylococcus spp. Strains isolated from Antonio Patricio de Alcalá hospital, Cumaná, Sucre state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Abadia-Patiño

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available De todas las cepas de Staphylocccus aureus almacenadas en el cepario del Laboratorio de Resistencia Bacteriana del IIBCAUDO, se analizaron 14 para determinar la disminución de susceptibilidad a vancomicina. Sesenta y cuatro por ciento de las cepas crecieron en el cribado de vancomicina. La CMI a vancomicina de las cepas estuvo entre 1 y 2 mg/L por microdilución. La CMI por dilución en agar fue entre 2 y 4 mg/L. La CMB de las cepas fue de 2 y 4 mg/L. Ninguna cepa fue tolerante. No se detectaron cepas hVISA por PAP-AUC. Se recomienda realizar el cribado de vancomicina en cepas aisladas de sitios estériles.

  13. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  14. Bankole et al (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Relationships of Clay-filled Channels on the Delta Flanks (Modified after Doust and Omatsola, 1990 and Lawrence et al., 2002). ... and in the Indo-Malaysian area (Germeraad et al.,. 1968). The genus ..... Upper Cretaceous of British Guiana.

  15. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Who Gets ALS? Although this disease can strike anyone, ALS is extremely rare in kids. According ... home to provide care that the family cannot handle alone. Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease Living with ...

  16. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... One out of 10 cases of ALS is due to a genetic defect. The cause is unknown in most other cases. In ALS, motor nerve cells (neurons) waste away ...

  18. 143 - 148_Makeri et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Yuan et al., 2003), antimicrobial activity (Sundarrao et al., 1993; Betancur-Galvis et al., 1999; Takashi et al., 2006), anti-parasitic, anti-malarial activities (Alali et al., 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Luna et al.,. 2005). This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of extract of stem –bark and leaf extracts of Annona.

  19. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    success. As an Arab participant acknowledged very early on, “the situation was really harsh. All the brothers were tired,” as they lacked food and... glorious battles that occurred during the early Islamic period.133 He stressed the importance of the battlefield as the path to achieve honor and dignity...diaspora in Waziristan. In the words of Walid Othmani, a French jihadi trained by al-Qa`ida in Waziristan in 2008, “[Al-Libi] was someone well-known and

  20. Estudio de corrosión bajo tensión en los aceros inoxidables 17-4PH y 17-7PH en presencia de NaCl y NaOH (20 % a 90 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaona-Tiburcio, Citlalli

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems that affects to the electric industry is the not programmed stoppages in the power plants, due to the failure of any main component: boiler, turbine and generator. In the turbine, the combined action of a corrosive agent (humid polluted vapor and a mechanical effort generally will result in Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC. In this work the SCC susceptibility of the precipitation hardening stainless steels 17-4PH and 17- 7PH, thoroughly used in steam turbine blades of power stations is analyzed. The specimens were tested in the presence of NaCl and NaOH (20 % to 90 °C and different pH. The CERT test (Constant Extension Rate Test was used, at 10-6 s-1 supplementing it with electrochemical noise; the aim was to identify the conditions of maximum susceptibility and the performance of the studied materials. The fractographic analysis revealed ductile and brittle fracture. Intergranular crackings, characteristic of the anodic dissolution mechanism of the material was observed. Nevertheless, the main mechanism responsible the failure was hydrogen embrittlement.

    Uno de los problemas que afecta a la industria eléctrica es el de los paros no programados en las plantas generadoras de electricidad, debidos al fallo de algún componente principal: caldera, turbina y generador. En la turbina, la acción combinada de un agente corrosivo (vapor húmedo contaminado y un esfuerzo mecánico, generalmente provocará corrosión bajo tensión (CBT. En este trabajo se analiza la susceptibilidad a la CBT de los aceros inoxidables, endurecibles por precipitación, 17-4PH y 17-7PH, ampliamente usados en alabes de turbina de vapor de centrales termoeléctricas. Las muestras se ensayaron en presencia de NaCl y NaOH (20 % a 90 °C, y distintos valores de pH. Se empleó el ensayo CERT (Constant Extensión Rate Test, a velocidades de 10-6 s-1, complementándolo con ruido electroquímico, buscando

  1. Patrones de susceptibilidad de gramnegativos en aislamientos nosocomiales en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención pediatrica: análisis de su frecuencia y prevalencia en 2 periodos de tiempo (2006 vs. 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Coria Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    Conclusiones: Los patógenos «ESKAPE-E» son un problema real de salud pública y la multirresistencia antibiótica les permite evadir muchas de las opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Aunado al hecho de que no hay nuevos antimicrobianos, el realizar estudios y creas mapas de resistencias bacterianas en nuestras instituciones nos puede ayudar a tomar mejores decisiones al iniciar una terapéutica empírica.

  2. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  3. Study of hydration products in the system 4CaO.3Al2O3.SO2-CaSO4-CaO-H4O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihta, P. K.

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLos sistemas que implican la formación de sulfoaluminatos cálcicos hidratados pueden llegar a ser cada vez más importantes para la industria del cemento en virtud de su aplicación, mediante mezclas apropiadas, en los hormigones expansivos, los cuales están siendo investigados en el sentido de reducir el agrietamiento por retracción así como para la obtención de unidades estructurales químicamente pretensadas.

  4. Estudo do perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249 Study of drugs susceptibility and molecular samples evaluation of Enterococcus spp isolated in hospitalized patients - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i1.2249

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luis Cardoso

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi investigado o perfil de susceptibilidade antimicrobiana e avaliação molecular de amostras de Enterococcus spp, isoladas de urina, secreção purulenta, sangue e ferida cirúrgica de pacientes do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, estado do Paraná, no período entre 1998 e 2000. As amostras foram avaliadas quanto à susceptibilidade a drogas, tipificadas através de JB1-PCR e investigadas quanto à presença de gene Van A e Van B. Das 58 amostras, 98,3% foram classificadas como Enterococcus faecalis. Todas as amostras foram sensíveis à nitrofurantoína e vancomicina, 96,6% sensíveis à ampicilina, 32,8% foram resistentes à estreptomicina, 10,3% resistentes à gentamicina e ciprofloxacina e 6,9% resistentes a norfloxacina. Por meio do teste de CIM, para vancomicina, observou-se crescimento bacteriano até a concentração de 4μg/ml. Não foi detectada a presença de gene Van A e Van B. A amplificação por JB1-PCR proporcionou padrões de bandas com até 7 fragmentos sendo as amostras divididas em 6 grupos distintos. Não houve prevalência de algum padrão de bandeamento que denotasse a presença de um clone e não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre genótipo com resistência antimicrobiana.The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalency of Enterococcus spp, isolated from different clinical materials. The strains were evaluated for drugs susceptibility, typing by JB1-PCR and screened to the presence of Van A and Van B gene. From the 58 strains, 98.3% were classified as Enterococcus faecalis. All strains were sensible to nitrofurantoin and vancomycin, 96.6% were sensible to ampicilin, 32.8% were resistant to streptomycin, 10.3% were resistant to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin and 6.9% were resistant to norfloxacin. Using CIM test to check vancomycin susceptibility was observed bacterial growth until 4μg/ml. The presence of Van A e Van B gene was not detected. The amplification by JB1-PCR provided band

  5. Alles is al uitgevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDe voordelen van vrijhandel zijn zeer beperkt, al-thans als we de empirische schattingen van vooraanstaande economen en internationale organisaties mogen geloven. Zo worden de voordelen van liberalisatie voor de Europese Unie geraamd op ongeveer 0,5% van het bnp 1. De door het IMF

  6. Lukman et al. (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    1 Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife- Nigeria and Corresponding author. 2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria- Nigeria s Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hafr Al-Batin, Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia.

  7. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  8. Universitat popular al Cabanyal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribés Granell, Juan Miguel

    2012-01-01

    La intención es dotar al barrio de un gran espacio verde y de un edificio de interés para los vecinos que enriquezca al Cabanyal, ya que actualmente se encuentra en proceso de degradación. Se pretende desarrollar un proyecto que signifique una mejora en la predisposición del visitante, cubriendo sus necesidades. Al mismo tiempo, se busca crear un espacio arquitectónico que mejore la relación entre las actividades que incluye y su entorno. El proyecto está condicionado por cuatro aspectos fund...

  9. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  10. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated from pediatric cases in Nigeria against five antifungals Teste de susceptibilidade in vitro de dermatófitos isolados de casos pediátricos na Nigéria contra cinco antifúngicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Nweze

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activities of itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution methods against 71 isolates of dermatophytes isolated from Nigerian children. Most drugs were very active against all the dermatophytes and the MIC 90 ranged from 0.03 to 8.0 µg/mL. This appears to be the first documented data on the antifungal susceptibility testing of isolates of dermatophytes from Nigerian children.Atividades antifúngicas de itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine e griseofulvina foram testadas por métodos de microdiluição em caldo contra 71 isolados de dermatófitos de crianças nigerianas. A maioria das drogas foi muito ativa contra todos os dermatófitos e o MIC 90 variou de 0,03 a 8,0 µg/mL. Estes parecem ser os primeiros dados documentados sobre os testes de susceptibilidade antifúngica de isolados de dermatófitos de crianças nigerianas.

  11. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  12. Taiwo et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    geometric rise in preference for commercial aquaculture .... content, malondialdehyde level and lipid content of the muscle of the .... other researchers on the gilthead sea bream (Mnari et al., 2007), the .... 23, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 18–28.

  13. Okusanya et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    rainfall and number of days with rain per month were obtained from Meteorological Institute, Oshodi, Lagos- ... Central and South America, Australia, West. Indies, Africa, (Orwa et al., 2009) and in Florida .... dominant forest tree species. In this ...

  14. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have trouble grasping a pen or lifting a coffee cup, while another person may experience a change ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  15. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) has approved the drugs riluzole (Rilutek) and edaravone (Radicava) to treat ALS. Riluzole is believed to ... reverse the damage already done to motor neurons. Edaravone has been shown to slow the decline in ...

  16. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found for ALS. However, the drugs riluzole and edaravone have approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ... 2-3 months but does not relieve symptoms. Edaravone can slow the clinical decline in daily functioning ...

  17. Obuotor et al (16)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    fractions and essential oils from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were investigated on some multidrug resistant pathogens. ... et al., 1987), a reduction in blood pressure measured ..... from E. uniflora suggests high efficacy against this bacterium.

  18. Fakinle et al (11)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    management issues; there is however a concern about air emissions from the ... poses risks to humans and animals through ... Nigeria have focused on cement industries. (Adejumo et al. ... based MCA which controls the sample holder and.

  19. Ogunyemi et al (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    The results of physicochemical analysis revealed that the concentrations of ... scientific basis for regulating the discharge of potentially ... method for genotocity evaluation using Allium cepaand it ..... al., 2013). National agency for food and drug.

  20. Omotayo et al (4)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    using biochemical technique and API 20E identification system. The isolates were .... sulphate, phosphate, ammonia and appearance. Heavy metals ... technique as described by Collee et al. (1989) was ..... enzymatic methods. Water Res. 36,.

  1. David et al (12)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    larger mesophyll cells, xylem tissues, vascular bundles and bundle sheaths than other cultivars. Thus, larger ... mechanism to cope with drought stress. There was an ... where solar radiation is intense (Løe et al., 2007). Most ecological studies ...

  2. Cartas al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Con respecto al ensayo "Evaluación del aprendizaje en la educación superior" de la Dra. Análida Pinilla / Ciencia y conciencia en la medicina colombiana / Farmacovigilancia: Una necesidad urgente

  3. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, tritt der Begriff ‚Kultur’ bei Spengler als normativer Wertbegriff auf, der im Kontrast zu einer degenerierten und seelenlosen Zivilisation steht....

  4. Relação entre a patogenicidade do Schistoma mansoni em camundongos e a susceptibilidade do molusco vetor: II. Número de ovos nas fezes e número e tamanho dos granulomas nas vísceras Relationship between the pathogenicity of Schistoma mansoni in mice and the susceptibility of the vector mollusc: II. Number of eggs in the feces and number and size of granulomas in the visceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Zanotti-Magalhães

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência da susceptibilidade de moluscos vetores do S. mansoni no desenvolvimento da patogenicidade do trematódeo no hospedeiro definitivo. Foram utilizadas progênies de moluscos Biomphalaria tenagophila e Biomphalaria glabrata selecionadas para o caráter susceptibilidade ao S. mansoni das linhagens SJ e BH, respectivamente. Cercárias oriundas das gerações P, F1 F2, F3 e F4 foram usadas para a infecção de camundongos Swiss, que foram sacrificados oito semanas após a exposição às larvas. Por esta ocasião verificou-se o número de ovos nas fezes e o número de granulomas no fígado, baço e intestino. Avaliou-se também o tamanho das reações granulomatosas nestas vísceras. Concluiu-se que a maior susceptibilidade de B. tenagophila induziu a uma maior eliminação de ovos do parasita nas fezes. Verificou-se maior número de granulomas por área de tecido hepático em roedores infectados com cercárias oriundas de moluscos mais susceptíveis. Nos mesmos roedores, constatou-se relação inversa entre a área dos granulomas esplênicos, hepáticos e intestinais e a taxa de infecção dos moluscos que forneceram as cercárias para a infecção dos camundongos.The influence of the susceptibility of the vector snails of S. mansoni on the development of the pathogenicity of the worm to the host was studied. Off-spring of snails Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria tenagophila were used, selected with regard to the susceptibility to S. mansoni of the strains BH and SJ trait, respectively. Parenteral, F1,F2, F3 and F4 generation cercariae were used for the infection of Swiss mice, which were killed eight weeks after infection. The number of eggs in the feces and the number of granulomas in the liver, spleen and intestines were counted. The size of the granulomatous reactions was evaluated. The results led to the conclusion that greater susceptibility of B. tenagophila was associated with a larger egg production in the feces

  5. Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, U; Witusiewicz, V; Drevermann, A

    2012-01-01

    Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al 2 Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al 2 Cu interfaces.

  6. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  7. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  8. Alimba et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    There was significant (p<0.05) increase in erythrocytes, haemoglobin ... for its anti-hemorrhoid and anti-inflammatory properties (Afolabi et al., 2008), ... genome instability which may lead to genetic related diseases ... membrane, behavioral pattern, morbidity and mortality. ..... extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in mice and rats.

  9. Taiwo et al (8)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Ife Journal of Science. (2016) vol. 18, no. 4. SPATIAL ... Ogun State. On the contrary, published work in some parts of Nigeria had ..... Prevalence among. Age Group (%). Cause of Infection. (%). Adeoye et al.,. 2007. Lagos. Kato-Katz. A. lumbricoides =29.7. Hookworm = 0.7. T. Trichiura = 18.4. S. stercoralis =0.3. Total =49.1.

  10. Rossie et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ing onto the torso for bike riders (Blocken et al., 2013) or it might ... designing new vehicles as well as for drawing up specific training ... These models were chosen because they repre- ..... muscles is relevant since the bio-mechanical workload ...

  11. aboagye et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    14 Aboagye et al. wide variety of birds, including chickens, by piercing the quills of feathers and gnawing the epidermis. In doing so, they can spread disease and lower .... evolution. Oikos, 97: 223-228. Nordenfors, H. and Chirico, J. (2001). Evalua- tion of a sampling trap for Dermanyssus gal- linae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

  12. Fadimu et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coconut water has the potential to increase growth and nutritional value of S. mombin(Linn.) so that S. mombin ... of plant growth and development, including seed maturation and ... et al., 2000). Auxins are primary regulators of plant form while ...

  13. Bello et al (9)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timade VENTURE

    family Solanaceae and it is one of the largest and ... al.,2004). The taxonomy of this important genus is of ... importance of numerical taxonomic method in ..... SME. SAE. SAM. SNI. SER. SWR. SMA. SGI. -6.4. -4.8. -3.2. -1.6. 0. 1.6. 3.2. 4.8.

  14. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... The Administration assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its key founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  15. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration's assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  16. Ojo et al (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    network geometry hence control how the samples' ... generate different permeability curves from wire- ... occupy in the reservoir pore system (McPhee et. ..... Fig.3. Poroperm cross-plot for a homogenous reservoir. Ojo et al.: Rock Type Based ...

  17. Agwu et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Enterobacteriaceae, the bacteria Escherichia coli is regarded as non-halophilic, and cannot tolerate high salt concentrations (Abdulkarim et al., 2009). Nevertheless, some strains of E. coli are halo- tolerant and survive in high salt concentrations. The ability to demonstrate such high osmotic pressure is possibly due to the ...

  18. Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Gisli

    Rilkeforskning. Fordi Rilke ikke – uden at gøre vold mod hans værk – kan fortolkes ud fra et traditionelt religiøst verdensbillede, har man fortolket ham som en antimetafysisk mo­dernist. Afhandlingen Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik. Esoterische und okkultistische Modernität bei R. M. Rilke argumenterer for...

  19. Nucleosynthesis of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.

    1986-07-01

    A burst of interest has followed the discovery in the galactic plane of the 1.8 MeV gamma line attached to the decay of 26 Al. We discuss the relative merits of supernovae, novae, massive and supermassive mass-losing stars as potential sources of this expressive isotope

  20. Njukeng et al. + DOI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confo

    3 Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (IRAD), Bambui, North West Province, Cameroon. ... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important cash-food crop, which is widely ... production in Africa nearly tripled over the past 35 years ... Njukeng et al, Prevalence of Viruses in Potato Seed Tubers in the North West ...

  1. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  2. Hamid et al (24)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio, 1975). Cnidoscolus aconitifolius roots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diuretic, circulation stimulant, to increase digestion, stimulant for lactation, and to harden the fingernails (Rowe, 1994; Kuti, and. Torres, 1996). Oyagbemi et al., (2011) reported the proximate analysis and ...

  3. Esuuman et al (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ether (Sathe et al., 2002). Various extraction conditions such as pH, solvent types (NaOH, NaCl or Ethanol), solvent concentration, extraction time, solvent/flour ratio, may affect the final properties of the extracted protein. When many factors and interactions affect desired responses in a certain process design, Response.

  4. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  5. Etiología bacteriana de la infección urinaria y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Escherichia coli Bacterial etiology of urinary sepsis and antimicrobial susceptibility in strains from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La infección del tracto urinario constituye un problema de salud frecuente. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento y la frecuencia de los aislamientos bacterianos más frecuentes encontrados en muestras de orina de pacientes con diagnóstico presuntivo de infección urinaria. Los pacientes tenían edades comprendidas entre 0 y 15 años y fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital General Docente «Aleida Fernández Chardiet», en Güines, entre el 2003 y el 2004. El mayor número de aislamientos correspondió a Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus vulgaris, entre otros. Las cepas de Escherichia coli presentaron niveles de sensibilidad superiores al 90 % para los antibióticos ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina y amikacina, entre 85 % y 90 % para las 3 cefalosporinas en estudio y aminoglucósidos (gentamicina y kanamicina. El 64,2 % y 57,7 % de las cepas presentaron resistencia a la ampicilina y al trimetoprin-sulfametozaxol, respectivamente.

  6. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  7. Susceptibilidad in vitro a infección por Leishmania y sensibilidad a medicamentos difiere según tipo de macrófagos The susceptibility to infection by Leishmania panamensis and the sensitivity to drugs differ according to the macrophage type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol V. Mesa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los sistemas in vitro son útiles en la evaluación de compuestos con actividad biológica, permitiendo por ejemplo, determinar el potencial citotóxico y leishmanicida de un compuesto. Objetivo: Identificar el tipo de célula mamífera que permita una óptima infección in vitro por Leishmania y que constituya el sistema adecuado para el tamizaje in vitro de compuestos con actividad anti-Leishmania. Métodos: La susceptibilidad de las células a infección por L. panamensis se evalúo según la Concentración Infectiva 50 determinada por microscopía de luz y citometría de flujo; la supervivencia intracelular de los amastigotes se evaluó por microscopía de fluorescencia y la sensibilidad de las células a anfotericina B y antimoniato de meglumina se evalúo por espectrofotometría. Resultados: Los cultivos primarios son más susceptibles a la infección por L. panamensis in vitro. Sin embargo, la supervivencia intracelular del parásito fue mejor en U-937. Por su parte, la sensibilidad de las células a anfotericina B y antimoniato de meglumina vario según el tipo de célula. Conclusión: Las células U-937 son las adecuadas para la infección por Leishmania porque: a presentan crecimiento ilimitado y se les puede inducir transformación a macrófagos. b la susceptibilidad a la infección por Leishmania es similar a la observada en cultivos primarios de macrófagos y c permiten mayor supervivencia de los amastigotes luego de la infección. Adicionalmente, las células U-937 son menos sensibles a la acción de los fármacos comúnmente utilizados como control en la detección de compuestos con actividad leishmanicida. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 200-211Introduction: In vitro systems are useful in the evaluation of compounds with biological activity determining the cytotoxic and leishmanicidal activity of the candidates. Objective: To identify the mammalian cell that allows the optimal in vitro infection by Leishmania and therefore

  8. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE BOVINOS DAS RAÇAS JERSEY E GIR À ACIDOSE LÁCTICA RUMINAL: II - ACIDOSE METABÓLICAE METABOLIZAÇÃO DO LACTATO-L SUSCEPTIBILITY OF JERSEY AND GIR STEERS TO RUMEN LACTIC ACIDOSIS: II - METABOLIC ACIDOSIS AND L-LACTATE METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Akio Maruta

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Quatro garrotes Jersey (J (Bos taurus e quatro Gir (G (Bos indicus foram utilizados para comparar a susceptibilidade de zebuínos e taurinos à acidose láctica ruminal (ALR. Neste trabalho, acompanhou-se o grau da acidose metabólica (AM e a metabolização do lactato-L. A ALR foi induzida com a administração de sacarose intraruminal. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas nos seguintes momentos: zero, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 e 24 horas. Foram determinadas as concentrações de lactato total, de seus isômeros L e D e o perfil hemogasométrico. Nos momentos mais críticos observados (14ªh a 18ªh, a AM foi severa em ambas as raças, porém, ao término do experimento, esta passou a grau moderado nos garrotes G, mantendo-se severa nos J. Os animais J absorveram, do rúmen, maiores quantidades de lactato-D, o qual apresentou correlação negativa com o pH sangüíneo (r = - 0,78. Por outro lado, o lactato-L foi mais absorvido e utilizado nos bovinos G, contribuindo para a restauração parcial do equilíbrio ácido-básico e gerando alterações nas pCO2 e pO2. Os garrotes zebuínos da raça Gir apresentaram menor susceptibilidade à AM que os taurinos da raça Jersey.In order to compare the susceptibility to acute rumen lactic acidosis (RLA, four Jersey (J (Bos taurus and four Gir (G (Bos indicus steers were used to evaluate the degree of metabolic acidosis (MA and the metabolism of L-lactate during the RLA. The RLA was induced by the administration of sucrose into the rumen. Blood samples were collected at following times: zero, 14th,16th, 18th, 20th, 22nd and 24th h. Total lactic acid and its isomers, and blood gas determination were measured. At the most critical moments (14th to 18th h the MA was severe in both breeds, but the MA became moderate in the G steers and remained severe in the J steers at the end of the trial. Higher amounts of D-lactate was absorbed from the rumen to the blood of the J steers; the higher the D-lactate plasma level, the

  9. Isolamento de Candida spp. no mamilo de lactantes do Banco de Leite Humano da Universidade Federal do Ceará e teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos Candida ssp. isolation in the breastfeeding mothers' nipples from the human milk bank at the Universidade Federal do Ceará and susceptibilities to the antifungal agents tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase, principal infecção fúngica oportunista do ser humano, é provocada por leveduras do gênero Candida que fazem parte da microbiota endógena do corpo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as espécies de Candida envolvidas em processos inflamatórios da mama em mães que estavam amamentando no Banco de Leite Humano da Maternidade-Escola Assis Chateaubriand da Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC, verificando as atividades enzimáticas e as suscetibilidades aos principais antifúngicos usados na candidíase. As amostras foram colhidas de fissuras no mamilo, cultivadas em ágar Sabouraud a 37°C por 72 horas e identificadas por testes micológicos. Foram realizadas também provas da proteinase, fosfolipase e hialuronidase e testes de susceptibilidade a anfotericina B e fluconazol. Das 29 amostras, 13 (44,8% apresentaram crescimento; 11 (84,6% foram Candida albicans; uma (7,7%, C. stellatoidea;e uma (7,7%, C. guilliermondii. As atividades enzimáticas de C. albicans foram: 100% das cepas produziram fosfolipase; 64%, hialuronidase; e nenhuma produziu proteinase. As leveduras examinadas mostraram-se susceptíveis aos antifúngicos testados com concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de: anfotericina B 0,125 a 0,5mig/ml e fluconazol 2 a 4mig/ml. Todas as cepas de C. albicans isoladas do mamilo de mães que estavam amamentando mostraram a enzima fosfolipase, que pode ser um importante fator de virulência, e apresentaram uma excelente susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos testados.Candidiasis, human being's main opportunist fungal infection, is caused by Candida, a sort of yeasts which are part of endogenous microflora of the human body. The purpose of this research was to study the Candida species involved in the inflammatory processes of the breastfeeding mothers' nipples from the human milk bank on Assis Chateubriand maternity-school at the Universidade Federal do Ceará, Brazil. It was verified the enzymatic activities and the

  10. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  11. Susceptibilidade de populações de Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae ao temephos e a um formulado à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Susceptibility of population of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832 (Culicomorpha, Simuliidae to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrade

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso de pequenas calhas de madeira no leito de riachos, manualmente colonizadas com borrachudos, é proposto para avaliações da eficiência de larvicidas 3 ou 4 horas após as aplicações. A susceptibilidade larval também foi avaliada pelo critério de TL50. Em três ensaios no litoral do Estado de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro, populações de Simulium (C. pertinax Kollar, 1832 mostraram-se resistentes ao temephos, mesmo em altas concentrações. Vectobac 12 AS, à base de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis mostrou-se mais potente contra larvas dos últimos estádios e eficiente para controle em concentrações a partir de 7.200 UIP/1 (10 min.. O TL50para 3.744 UIP/1 (10 min. foi de 70,9 minutos.The use of wooden troughs on stream beds, artificially colonized by blackfly larvae, is proposed for larvicide evaluations. Mortality was recorded 3 or 4 hours after treatment. Larval susceptibility was also evaluated utilizing the LT50 criterion. In there field assays Simulium (C. pertinax populations from the litoral of S. Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States were shown to be resistant to temephos, even when subjected to high concentrations. Vectobac 12 AS, a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis product, was shown to be more potent against late instar larvae and efficient in concentrations higher than 7,200 ITU/1 (10 min. The LT50 to 3,744 ITU/1 (10 min was calculated as 70.9 min.

  12. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin

  13. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  14. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Adekola et al (7)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    the South Atlantic between Latitudes 31° and 33.5 ... South Atlantic Ocean in the Early Cretaceous, around 136 Ma (Brown et al., 1996; Reeves and de. Wit, 2000 ..... 3244. 3246.70. L o w e r C re ta c e o u s. P e rio d. /E p o c h. 3244. 3246.70. B a ..... moderate counts of forest species such as ... The other, near shore is rich.

  16. Flipped Classroom al laboratori

    OpenAIRE

    Molés Bort, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    L'article presenta una experiència d'aprenentatge de la geologia mitjançant el treball en grups d'experts. Els alumnes han d'indagar i promoure el seu propi aprenentatge per a assolir un repte que se'ls proposa, i consensuar els criteris per els que avaluaran els seus propis resultats mitjançant rúbriques. L'activitat inclou aspectes artístics, TIC i matemàtics, i segueix un esquema similar al de les WebQuest. Els resultats de l'activitat es presenten juntament amb una enquesta realitzada ent...

  17. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  18. Architektur als Vermittlung

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Mit Anbruch der Moderne hat sich die Architektur bewußt von den Stilen vorangegangener Epochen losgesagt und sich fortan als Ausdruck einer neuen Kultur, eines neuen Zeitgeistes legitimiert. Der Philosoph Konrad Ott setzt sich mit dem Spannungsfeld zwischen den humanistischen und ästhetischen Ansprüchen der modernen Architektur, wie sie etwa von LeCorbusier formuliert worden sind, und der Realität, die sich etwa in der "Behältnis-Architektur" der Großstädte zeigt, auseinander. Die kritische T...

  19. Salvar al planeta

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Sancton

    2015-01-01

    El desastre de Exxon Valdez en Canadá (1989)en que derramaron 262 mil barriles de petróleo en las aguas de Alaska cambió la conciencia de los norteamericanos para bien. Comienzan a preocuparse, les gusta ser ecologistas. Se espera que no sea moda o novelería y que asuman el liderazgo para salvar al planeta, pues la deforestación, el incremento de la población, la quema de combustibles fósiles, el calentamiento global, el agujero de ozono sobre la Antártida dejan intuir que la Tierra está en g...

  20. Programa Padres al Colegio

    OpenAIRE

    Viñeglas Fernández, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo, es un proyecto orientado a la promoción de la salud, en referencia al virus del papiloma humano (VPH), ya que este virus es el causante de una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo, el objetivo de este trabajo, es diseñar una serie de intervenciones que contribuyan a sensibilizar e informar a la ciudadanía, para lograr mejorar la prevención del virus del papiloma humano y el cáncer de cérvix. Como ya es sabido, cualquier intervención sobre...

  1. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  2. Synthesizing (ZrAl3 + AlN)/Mg-Al composites by a 'matrix exchange' method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Li, Zengqiang; Hu, Kaiqi; Han, Mengxia; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    A method named 'matrix exchange' to synthesize ZrAl3 and AlN reinforced Mg-Al composite was developed in this paper. By inserting Al-10ZrN master alloy into Mg matrix and reheating the cooled ingot to 550 °C, Al and Mg atoms diffuse to the opposite side. As a result, liquid melt occurs once the interface areas reach to proper compositions. Then dissolved Al atoms react with ZrN, leading to the in-situ formation of ZrAl3 and AlN particles, while the Al matrix is finally replaced by Mg. This study provides a new insight for preparing Mg composites.

  3. Appiah-Adjei et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ing, sale of automobile spare parts, and metal fabrication. Some of these activities generate huge ... Keywords: Groundwater quality, pollution, waste disposal, Suame, Ghana ... of fertilizers (Chen et al., 2007; Parris, 2011;. Shen et al., 2011), ...

  4. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  5. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  6. Bukti Kebenaran Al-quran

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyah, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Al Quran is the greatest miracles of Muhammad SAW as the direction of humankind in order to reach eternal happiness. Scientific evidences show that Al Quran has the truth massages, although it was released far before the finding of modern sciences. The researches continue to study the truth of Al Quran an it revealed the historical fact.

  7. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  8. Susceptibilidad y síntomas respiratorios asociados a la exposición a dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Yglesias-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El volcán Turrialba ha mantenido en los últimos años una actividad de desgasificación, y paulatinamente se han mostrado los efectos de este dinamismo sobre la vegetación e infraestructuras de las comunidades aledañas. Entre las sustancias que conforman esta actividad de desgasificación se encuentra el dióxido de carbono y el dióxido de azufre que se han ido incrementando y son capaces de afectar la salud respiratoria de quienes se exponen a ellas. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la proclividad de las poblaciones aledañas de desarrollar síntomas respiratorios ante las exposiciones vía aérea de dióxido de carbono y dióxido de azufre provenientes del volcán Turrialba. La investigación consistió en un estudio transversal, descriptivo, analítico y cuantitativo. Se trabajó con ocho comunidades, y se obtuvo una muestra de 502 personas. Las comunidades estudiadas fueron: Hacienda La Fuente, La Central, La Silvia, Miravalles, Finca El Retiro, Guayabo Arriba, Las Virtudes y La Alegría. Esta última fue la comunidad control. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la garganta cuando hay exposición a gases volcánicos fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,93, mujeres (OR=1,86, personas que emplean varios tipos de cocina (OR=2,07, individuos con ocupaciones al aire libre (OR=1,51 y personas con ingresos iguales o mayores a los USD $475 (OR=2,09. Los estratos con mayor riesgo de presentar molestias en la nariz fueron los niños y adultos mayores (OR=1,37, mujeres (OR=1,83, personas que emplean cocina eléctrica (OR=2,23, individuos con ocupaciones dentro de edificaciones (2,12 y personas con ingresos inferiores a los USD $475 (OR=2,30.

  9. Caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus isolados da barra de mão de carrinhos e alças de cestas de supermercados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Buzzatto Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus é um dos agentes patogênicos mais notórios, sendo responsável por 45% das toxinfecções em todo o mundo. Um dos grandes problemas atuais é o desenvolvimento de cepas resistentes a antibióticos. Considerando a importância da disseminação desses micro-organismos na comunidade, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a presença de Staphylococcus aureus na barra de mão dos carrinhos e alças de cestas de supermercados da cidade de Campo Mourão - PR, e caracterizar a susceptibilidade dos isolados à oxacilina. Foram analisadas 120 amostras, sendo 60 coletadas das barras de mão de carrinhos e 60 coletadas das alças de cestas. Esse micro-organismo foi isolado em 75 amostras (62,5%, sendo que, desse total, 35 amostras (46,7% foram isoladas de carrinhos e 40 (53,3% de cestas de compras. As amostras positivas para Staphylococcus aureus foram submetidas aos testes de susceptibilidade, pelo método de disco-difusão, à oxacilina (cefoxitina e todas as amostras foram consideradas sensíveis a essa droga. Constatou que as barras de mãos e as alças de cestas de supermercados, podem ser consideradas como fômites, na disseminação de Staphylococcus aureus, sendo de extrema importância a higienização desses objetos, a fim de diminuir os riscos de contaminação na comunidade.Palavras-chave: Staphylococcus aureus. Contaminação. Superfícies. Oxacilina. ABSTRACTCharacterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated of shopping carts hand bars and handles of handheld shopping baskets in supermarketsStaphylococcus aureus is one of the most notorious pathogens, accounting for 45% of intoxications worldwide. One of the major problems today is the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Considering the importance of dissemination of these micro- organisms in the community, this study aimed to determine the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in shopping carts hand bars and handles of handheld shopping baskets in

  10. Salvar al planeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sancton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desastre de Exxon Valdez en Canadá (1989en que derramaron 262 mil barriles de petróleo en las aguas de Alaska cambió la conciencia de los norteamericanos para bien. Comienzan a preocuparse, les gusta ser ecologistas. Se espera que no sea moda o novelería y que asuman el liderazgo para salvar al planeta, pues la deforestación, el incremento de la población, la quema de combustibles fósiles, el calentamiento global, el agujero de ozono sobre la Antártida dejan intuir que la Tierra está en grave peligro. Se recomienda entonces optar por un desarrollo sustentable.

  11. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  12. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Maldonado Romero

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, 01 de Agosto de 1990
    Señores
    Miembros del Consejo Editorial
    Academia Nacional de Medicina
    E.S.D.

    Señores doctores:

    Con toda consideración y respeto me permito agregar algunas anotaciones al escrito del Académico Alberto Cárdenas Escobar, aparecido en el No. 22 de Medicina, para destacar algunos aspectos de la personalidad del doctor Alberto Schweitzer galardonado con el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

    A los 30 años de edad tomó una decisión dramática: Estudiar Medicina para trabajaren el África Ecuatorial. Cuando terminó sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades tropicales y sus prácticas hospitaLarias, partió para el Gabon al pequeño pueblo de Lambarené. La tarea era desconsoladora; La atención médica había que prestarla al aire libre; iba con su esposa, como enfermera y amanuense, y no se encontraba ni un intérprete, ni un ayudante. Cuando le llegaron la medicina y el equipaje hubo que acomodarlos en un viejo gallinero abandonado; el calor era insoportable y le venían enfermos de varias millas a la redonda, a pie o en Canoas.

    Las enfermedades más difundidas eran Malaria, Disentería, estreptococias y la más mortífera, la Tripanosomiasis Gambiense, para la que empezaban a llegar medicinas nuevas eficaces y las medidas preventivas como el suministro de agua potable y enmallado de ventanas impedían muchas contaminaciones.

    Pero la que causaba mayores dificultades y trabajo era la Mycobacteriasis Anestesiante, incurable, de difícil diagnóstico, afectando a varios miembros de la misma familia, de aspecto horripilante, con complicaciones neuríticas muy dolorosas, frecuente ceguera, e invalideces y procesos erisepelatososacrotéricos, que exigían acompañante para el cambio y lavado de vendas y suministro de alimentos.

    A menos de un año de

  13. Emprego de modelo de susceptibilidade a escorregamentos rasos para gestão de riscos de desastres no município de Vitória-ES / Employment of shallow landslides model for disaster hazard management in the city of Vitória-ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fontes Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil está entre os 10 países mais atingidos por desastres naturais no mundo e os deslizamentos constituem-se num dos principais riscos geológicos do País, muitas vezes condicionado pela ocupação das encostas que provocam alterações ampliando a possibilidade dessas ocorrências. Nesse contexto, apresenta-se como essencial a busca por ferramentas e instrumentos que permitam conhecer os riscos potenciais de determinadas áreas e com isso adotar medidas antecipatórias ou preventivas. Uma dessas ferramentas são os modelos de predição de áreas susceptíveis à escorregamentos. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho é aplicar um modelo matemático de predição de escorregamentos para a gestão de riscos como subsídios às políticas públicas locais no Município de Vitória/ES. Para isso, foi definida como área de estudo a parte do município denominada Ilha de Vitória. As cartas topográficas na escala 1:5.000 foram editadas e utilizadas para a geração do modelo digital de terreno (MDT e dos atributos morfométricos (área de contribuição e declividade. Como parâmetros de solo foram testados oito conjuntos de dados provenientes de áreas semelhantes. Em seguida foi aplicado o modelo Shalstab, que combina o modelo hidrológico com o modelo de estabilidade da encosta e possibilita a definição de áreas susceptíveis a escorregamentos. Os oito modelos foram integrados em uma única imagem a partir do maior valor de instabilidade entre todas as simulações. A partir desse mapa de susceptibilidade de escorregamento foi possível definir as áreas de atenção, prioritárias para o desenvolvimento e a definição de ações de gestão do risco de desastres na região.

  14. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  15. Idaaratu al Wahdah al Namthiyah li at Tathwiri al Tarbiyah al Islamiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danusiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Islam, through the Quran, proclaims that its mission includes the teachings to the whole universe, Everything in the universe is maintained by Islam, and none of the symptoms are ignored. The revelations also include the traditions of the Prophet that are authentic (shahih and good (hasan in quality. Both the Quran and maqbulah hadiths are accepted by Muslims on the basis of faith. When some experts of UIN Walisongo from various disciplines try to understand the sacred words of these two resources, their understanding continues, reaching the paradigm of the unity of science which essentially unites the normative, social, and natural sciences. The effect of this paradigm has brought up an issue for the author. Is there any hadiths or Prophetic traditions that can be used as a grand theory in the management disciplines of Islamic education.To address this issue, the authors conducted a literature research with the title Development of Islamic Education Management Module. Sources of data were focused on nine books of Hadiths : Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Turmudzi, Sunan an-Nasai, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan ad-Darimi, Muwatta Malik, and Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the form of digital data Lidwa Reader Software Book 9 Imam Hadith. The findings of the study stated that the meaning of the word Rabb includes: creating, nurturing, maintaining, teaching, educating, and organizing. Thus, in an academic term, the word Rabb implies a manager or leader. Meanwhile, in the concept of comprehensive manager it contains at least 14 nomenclature denotations: planning, responsibility, organization, coordination, system of employee payroll, learning, resources, humanity, principle of making it easier for the manager to the employee, motivated to achieve optimal performance, preventing unproductivity, education participation, institutional costs, monitoring, and evaluation system. Each nomenclature has numerous hadiths that could serve

  16. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  17. Morton et al. Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  18. Alternativen als Programm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dobroć

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen Beitrag zu theoretischen Überlegungen einer Technikfolgenabschätzung (TA der Alternativen leisten. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass TA seit ihrer Entstehung den Anspruch auf die Entwicklung von (technischen Alternativen erhoben hat, wird hier der Versuch unternommen, die Rolle der TA im Rahmen aktueller Innovationsprozesse zu reflektieren und (neu zu definieren. Dies scheint vor allem im Hinblick auf aktuelle gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen notwendig. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Grundannahme Lothar Hacks über das Verhältnis von Gesellschaft und Technik herangezogen. Seine Annahme besagt, dass die kontinuierliche Überführung von sozialen Problemen und Leitbildern in enge technische Lösungsansätze in hochindustrialisierten Ländern dominant und Teil der aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Probleme ist. Diese These wird im vorliegenden Artikel im Hinblick auf einen Perspektivenwechsel als Ausgangspunkt eines zukünftigen Forschungsprogramms der TA fruchtbar gemacht. Hierbei bildet das Denken in Alternativen von gesellschaftlichen Zukünften den zentralen Fokus.

  19. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1994-07-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10 -11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10 -10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  20. Diffusion-induced quadrupole relaxation of 27Al nuclei in dilute Al-Ti, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, and Al-Cu alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottyan, L.; Beke, D.L.; Tompa, K.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the laboratory frame spin-lattice relaxation time of 27 Al nuclei is measured in 5N Al and in dilute Al-Ti, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, and Al-Cu alloys at 5.7 and 9.7 MHz resonance frequencies. The relaxation in pure aluminium is found to be purely due to the conduction electrons. An excess T 1 -relaxation contribution is detected in all Al-3d alloys investigated above 670 K. The excess relaxation rate is proportional to the impurity content and the temperature dependence of the excess contribution is of Arrhenius-type with an activation energy of (1.3 +- 0.3) eV for all of the investigated alloys. The relaxation contribution is found to be quadrupolar in origin and is caused by the relative diffusional jumps of solute atoms and Al atoms relatively far from the impurity. (author)

  1. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  2. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  3. SANANDO AL SANADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Acuña, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La dependencia o adicción a sustancias de uso profesional es un problema que puede afectar gravemente a médicos de diferentes especialidades. En la anestesiología hay mayor riesgo de dependencia a opioides e hipnóticos que en otras especialidades y puede llegar a afectar al 1% de los médicos anestesiólogos.La fisiopatología del trastorno por uso de sustancias tiene hechos comunes para diferentes drogas. Interactúan la vulnerabilidad genética y factores psicosociales como predisponentes y los efectos psicobiológicos de la sustancia como factor gatillante. En el caso de los anestesiólogos, la sustancia se encuentra en el lugar de trabajo y por lo tanto, el individuo está constantemente expuesto.Una disfunción previa del sistema de recompensa en el circuito mesocorticolímbico o causada por la exposición a la sustancia adictiva es la piedra central de la neurobiología de las adicciones. Los opioides, anfetaminas, canabinoides, alcohol y nicotina, son algunas de las sustancias exógenas que activan el circuito y causan inicialmente un efecto hedónico que reforzará la conducta por repetir la experiencia. Con el tiempo la interacción con la droga será para evitar los síntomas de abstinencia.Dada la exposición laboral de los anestesiólogos, es necesario prevenir, detectar y tratar precozmente a quienes están abusando de sustancias durante su ejercicio profesional.Por las características de estos fármacos, aspectos psicológicos especiales de los médicos y el contexto laboral se hace necesario un tratamiento especializado y en anestesiólogos la reinserción laboral debe ser un proceso controlado, gradual y con un seguimiento prolongado. SUMMARY: Prescription drugs dependence seriously impairs doctors from differents fields of medicine. Anesthesiology has greater risk than other specialties to opioids and hypnotics dependence, with prevalence up to 1%.Substances use disorder has common mechanisms of disease regardless

  4. Susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação Susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to insecticides with different action manners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossato Busato

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade de lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de Spodoptera frugiperda, a inseticidas com diferentes modos de ação. Os insetos foram coletados em milho e em arroz irrigado no agroecossistema de várzea, município de Pelotas, região que produz milho e arroz irrigado (lado a lado. Os experimentos foram realizados, em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 1°C, umidade relativa (70 ± 10% e fotofase (14 horas, utilizando-se folhas do híbrido de milho Pionner 30F33 (40 dias após a emergência. As folhas pulverizadas em torre de Potter calibrada para aplicação de um volume de calda de 1,7 ± 0,305mg cm-2, foram colocadas em recipientes de plásticos com tampa, sendo individualizadas 25 lagartas de 3° ínstar de cada biótipo de S. frugiperda. Os inseticidas e concentrações avaliados foram: clorpirifós [Lorsban 480 BR, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Organofosforado], lambda-cialotrina [Karate Zeon 50 CE, 0,003g i.a. L-1 (Piretróide sintético], lufenuron [Match CE, 0,006g i.a. L-1 (Aciluréia], methoxifenozide [Intrepid 240 SC, 0,158g i.a. L-1 (Diacilhidrazina] e spinosad [Tracer, 0,960g i.a. L-1 (Naturalyte]. A avaliação da mortalidade foi realizada 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas após o tratamento. O biótipo milho de S. frugiperda foi menos suscetível aos inseticidas lambda-cialotrina, lufenuron e methoxifenozide. Os inseticidas clorpirifós e spinosad foram eficientes no controle das lagartas dos biótipos milho e arroz de S. frugiperda.The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of caterpillars of the biotypes corn and rice of Spodoptera frugiperda, to insecticides with different action manners. The insects were collected in corn and in irrigated rice in the lowland, county of Pelotas, area that produces corn and irrigated rice (side by side. The experiments were conducted, in controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 1°C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% and photophase (14

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea in Minas Gerais state, Brazil Susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia, no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Leite Miranda

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 25 Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves with and without diarrhea - 7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni was studied by the disk diffusion method. Eleven antimicrobial agents were tested amikacin, ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin G, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. All Campylobacter sp strains were susceptible to amikacin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, neomycin and nitrofurantoin. Three strains were moderately susceptible to kanamycin (2 C. coli and 1 C. fetus. All the strains were resistant to penicillin G. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and 1 C. coli, 9 C. fetus and 2 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Two C. fetus strains were moderately susceptible to tetracycline and 3 C. coli, 2 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni strains were resistant. Eleven strains showed multidrug resistance (2 C. coli, 8 C. fetus and 1 C. jejuni. There was no correlation between resistance of Campylobacter sp strains to antimicrobials and the occurrence of diarrhea in calves. The frequency of resistance and, most importantly, multi drug resistance found among Campylobacter sp strains isolated from calves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, were high and the patterns of resistance observed are related to the antimicrobials agents most largely used in cattle in Brazil.Foi estudado o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de 25 amostras de Campylobacter sp isoladas de bezerros com e sem diarréia (7 C. coli, 16 C. fetus e 2 C. jejuni. Foram testados pelo método de difusão 11 agentes antimicrobianos: amicacina, ampicilina, canamicina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, tetraciclina e sulfametoxazole-trimetoprim. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter sp foram susceptíveis a amicacina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina

  6. Differential susceptibility according to gender in the association between air pollution and mortality from respiratory diseases Susceptibilidade segundo sexo na associação entre poluição do ar e mortalidade por doenças respiratórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Sacramento de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the association between air pollution and deaths from respiratory diseases, considering differential susceptibility according to gender. The authors used daily deaths from respiratory diseases (ICD-10, J00-J99, PM10, SO2, and O3 levels, and meteorological indicators in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from January 2002 to December 2006. The association was estimated by Poisson regression using generalized additive models, where the increase in risk of deaths from PM10 to lag 1 was 10.01% (95%CI: 1.81-18.88% in the total female population and 10.04% (95%CI: 0.90-20.02% in elderly women. The increase in risk of deaths from PM10 to lag 9 was 8.25% in the total male population (95%CI: 0.86-16.18% and 10.80% (95%CI: 2.18-20.15% in elderly men. For exposure to SO2 and O3, the risk was significant in the total male population and the elderly, respectively. The results emphasize the need for further studies, focusing on modification of the effects of air pollution on health.O estudo avaliou a associação entre poluição do ar e óbitos por doenças respiratórias, considerando susceptibilidade diferencial segundo sexo. Foram utilizados óbitos diários por doenças respiratórias (CID-10, J00-J99, níveis de PM10, SO2, O3 e indicadores meteorológicos de Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. A associação foi estimada por MAG de regressão de Poisson, onde para lag 1, o aumento do risco dos óbitos por PM10 foi de 10,01% (IC95%: 1,81-18,88% no total da população feminina e 10,04% (IC95%: 0,90-20,02% em idosas. No total da população masculina, para lag 9, o aumento do risco de óbitos por PM10 foi de 8,25% (IC95%: 0,86-16,18% e de 10,80% (IC95%: 2,18-20,15% para os idosos. Para exposição ao SO2 e O3, o risco foi significativo no total da população masculina e em idosos respectivamente. Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de estudos adicionais, centrando-se na modifica

  7. Physical environment and life expectancy at birth in Mexico: an eco-epidemiological study Ambiente físico y esperanza de vida al nacer en México: un estudio eco-epidemiológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro J. Idrovo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to ascertain the effects of physical environment on life expectancy at birth, using data from all 32 Mexican states. 50 environmental indicators with information about demography, housing, poverty, water, soils, biodiversity, forestry resources, and residues were included in exploratory factor analysis. Four factors were extracted: population vulnerability/susceptibility, and biodiversity (FC1, urbanization, industrialization, and environmental sustainability (FC2, ecological resilience (FC3, and free-plague environments (FC4. Using OLS regressions, FC2, FC3, and FC4 were found to be positively associated with life expectancy at birth, while FC1 was negatively associated. This study suggests that physical environment is an important macro-determinant of the health of the Mexican population, and highlights the usefulness of ecological concepts in epidemiological studies.Para indagar los efectos del ambiente físico sobre la esperanza de vida al nacer se diseñó un estudio ecológico con datos de los estados mexicanos. Cincuenta indicadores ambientales con información sobre demografía, vivienda, pobreza, agua, suelos, biodiversidad, recursos forestales y residuos fueron incluidos en un análisis factorial exploratorio. Cuatro factores fueron extraídos: vulnerabilidad/susceptibilidad poblacional y biodiversidad (FC1, urbanización, industrialización y sustentabilidad ambiental (FC2, resiliencia ecológica (FC3 y ambientes libres de plagas (FC4. En regresiones lineales se observó que FC2, FC3 y FC4 se asociaron positivamente con la esperanza de vida al nacer, mientras FC1 estuvo asociado negativamente. Este estudio sugiere que el ambiente físico es un macro-determinante importante de la salud poblacional mexicana, y muestra la utilidad de los conceptos ecológicos en estudios epidemiológicos.

  8. 117 - 122 Omoniyi et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 8(2): 117 – 122. Received: ... FOLLOWING MILD EXPOSURE. Omoniyi ... People who work with materials containing mere traces .... obscured physical effect in the animal model (Omoniyi et al.

  9. 150 - 159_Salisu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of interaction occurring in this natural system (Dube et al.,2000). Many soils ... minerals including gold, copper, zinc etc. The Zamfara ... contain unusually problematic concentration of lead and other ..... Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient ...

  10. 142 - 149_Safiyanu et al.,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    insecticides producing industries whose daily challenge is minimization of malaria burden across the globe. Larvae of ... emerge and currently represents the major threat to ..... eastern Thailand (Pimsamurna et al., 2009) and resistance to ...

  11. 24 - 28_Suleiman et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    larval instar. Keywords: Antlion, Construction, Density, Distribution, Hunger, Larvae, Pit. INTRODUCTION ... 1987), moisture (Gotelli 1993; Morrison 1994), and shade (scharfet al. .... Pit building was virtually the same in all three instar, and no ...

  12. Laniyan et al (1).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Pollution of groundwater has become a major environmental problem. Anthropogenic ... drinking water comes from aquifers (Forster et al.,. 1998). Aquifers ... improvement in public health. ..... Arsenic (As): Chemical properties,. Health and ...

  13. Una aproximación al significado biológico del polimorfismo del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad. El modelo de la asociación HLA y ARJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Garavito

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Llevar a cabo una actualización del estado del arte acerca del significado biológico del polimorfismo del sistema genético Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad (CMH. Revisar la literatura relacionada con la asociación de los antígenos de histocompatibilidad en el humano (HLA y la susceptibilidad o resistencia al desarrollo de la artritis reumatoidea juvenil (ARJ. Presentar un modelo hipotético para la comprensión de la susceptibilidad genética a desarrollar ARJ. Fuente de datos. Las referencia bibliográficas que soportan este artículo se obtuvieron a través de búsquedas en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Ovid, Ebsco. Inicialmente se encontraron 139 artículos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 75. Se incluyó también información del desarrollo de un proyecto de investigación de nuestro grupo, «Polimorfismo molecular de los antígenos HLA en ARJ» (cod. Colciencias 1215-04-280-96. Resultados. L artritis reumatoidea juvenil (ARJ es la enfermedad más común en la práctica reumatológica pediátrica y la menos estudiada inmunogenéticamente. A diferencia de la artritis reumatoide (AR del adulto, la ARJ tiene ciertas variantes clínicas, lo que la hace más interesante desde el punto de vista genético (fenotipos. En su etiopatogenia se han identificado varios factores que en su conjunto explicarían el inicio y la perpetuación de la respuesta inflamatoria que afecta las articulaciones y tejidos vecinos, y que de no ser controlados llegan a destruirlos, tal como sucede en otras enfermedades autoinmunes. La patogénesis de la enfermedad puede determinarse por alteraciones a nivel de complejo trimolecular, constituido por un antígeno putativo, el receptor de linfocitos T y el Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad (CMH. Nuestro grupo durante los últimos 4 años ha estado estudiando la asociación entre ARJ y el polimorfismo de los alelos HLA DRB1* y DQB1* en niños mestizos de nuestro país. Los resultados son

  14. Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Atsuki; Takahashi, Toru; Kurakado, Masahiko

    1992-01-01

    Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 μm 2 . High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm 2 . α particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

  15. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  16. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  17. AL ITTIJAHAT AL MUNHARIFAH FI AT TAFSIR LI BADLI ASHAB AL MADZAHIB AL NAHWIYYAH WA BADL MAN YAJHALUNA QAWAID AL LUGHAH AL ARABIYYAH FI NADHAR MUHAMMAD HUSAIN AL DZAHABIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbakhudin Misbakhudin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most precious achievement in qur’anic studies was the book of Al-Ittijâhât al-Munharifah fî al-Tafsîr: Dawâfi’uha wa Daf’uha written by A great Islamic scholar, Muhammad Husein al-Dzahabî. He was succeeded in discussing several issues of corruptions of the exegesis of the holy Qur’an. This article is aimed to explain and to describe his analysis toward several corrupted linguist interpretations in their originations and such corrupted linguistic interpretations of the holy Qur’an which are ignoring Arabic structures and grammers

  18. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  19. PENDIDIKAN MENURUT AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education reform efforts typically begin with a conceptual perspective before implementation. Thus, developing Islamic education usually begins with a study of a figure and his educational thought. And one of the most influential figures whose thought which has Sufi religious pattern has dominated educational thinking atmosphere over the centuries since his death. The purpose of education according to al-Ghazali was to get closer to Allah. He came with a view that the most noble job is to educate: to become a teacher. Al-Ghazali advised that his students, in the learning process, aim to become scientists who could disseminate their knowledge for the sake of humanity values. Keywords: Al-Ghazali, Thought, Islamic Education.

  20. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  1. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Liu Xiangfa; Ding Haimin

    2009-01-01

    Because flake-like TiAl 3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl 3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  2. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  3. De la contingencia al destino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller, Agnes

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

  4. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti 2 AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  5. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  6. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li Xiaomin [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Song Zhenlun [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)], E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn

    2009-11-15

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  7. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei; Li Xiaomin; Song Zhenlun

    2009-01-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  8. 34 - 38 Ashiru et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    INTRODUCTION. Commercial fish feeds are usually expensive because the traditional or conventional protein source ingredient such as fish meal, soyabean ... consumption (Madu et al., 2003). Fish feed constitute for about 60-80% of management cost in agricultural production (Igonifagha, 1979). Periodic scarcity and.

  9. 39 - 47_Aminu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    estimated 453, 000 resulting in the death of a child younger than five years. In Sub-Saharan Africa and. Asia, according to Kotloff et al., (2013), rotavirus is one of the four most common causes of moderate to severe diarrhea among children <5 years of age. Diarrhea is one of the documented '10 killer conditions' among ...

  10. Oyebola et al (23).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    3+ described elsewhere (Oyebola et al., 2010). Ho absorption peaks were obtained from transmission studies carried out with a Cary 5000. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer and corresponding absorption coefficients deduced using the Beer-Lambert law. Spectral emission measurements were carried out using the schematic ...

  11. 180 - 184_ Farouk et al.,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    College of Arts, Science and Remedial Studies, Kano, Nigeria aceutical and Medicinal ... d out to determine the levels of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) in m ... and soil. Contamination of als may be due to natural, activities (Wilkinson et ation of ...

  12. Adewale et al (18).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    MATERIAL IN SOIL AND MINE TAILINGS OF AWO AND EDE, OSUN-STATE,. NIGERIA. 1*. 1. 2 ... The materials may be original (such as uranium and thorium) or decay .... following equation (Beck et al., 1972). D = 0.042A (K) + 0.429A.

  13. Idowu et al (19).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    aquifer flow (MacDonald et al., 2005). Typically, it travels vertically downwards through the unsaturated zone to the water table, from where it flows according to the hydraulic gradient, until it reaches an area of discharge where it occurs as springs or seepages, providing part of the dry season flow and constituting part of the.

  14. 94 - 99_Nafiu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    destination for tourist, it promotes tourism and ecotourism in .... Malaysia. It is also similar with the work of Abuessaila et al., (2011) who reported Trichostrongylus spp. (13.5%) ... animals that tend to receives medical attention were reported to ...

  15. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  16. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  17. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  18. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, and Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  19. La enfermedad periodontal asociada al paciente con Síndrome de Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Demicheri A.

    Full Text Available Resumen: El Síndrome de Down es una de las condiciones de discapacidad más comunes. Dentro de las patologías bucales más prevalentes, la enfermedad periodontal es una de las asociadas con este síndrome. Se considera que la persona con Síndrome de Down presenta una mayor susceptibilidad a contraer esta enfermedad. En este artículo se describen los factores etiológicos y las características clínicas de la enfermedad en pacientes portadores del síndrome

  20. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

  1. Response to Lefebvre et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kou, I; Kawakami, N; Yasuhiko, Y; Ogura, Y; Imagawa, E; Miyake, N; Matsumoto, N; Sudo, H; Kotani, T; Nakamura, M; Matsumoto, M; Watanabe, K; Ikegawa, S

    2017-11-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a common vertebral malformation with incidence of up to 1 of 1000 births worldwide. Recently, TBX6 has been reported as the first disease gene for CS: about 10% of CS patients are compound heterozygotes of rare null mutations and a common haplotype composed by 3 SNPs in TBX6. Lefebvre et al in this journal reported that 2 patients with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD), a rare skeletal dysplasia affecting spine and ribs also have TBX6 mutations: 1 carried the microdeletion and a rare missense variant, and another 2 rare missense variants. We investigated the pathogenicity of the 3 missense variants in SCD by a luciferase assay. The results were negative for the proposal of Lefebvre et al. We consider these 2 SCD patients are more probably compound heterozygotes of null mutations and a common risk haplotype just as CS patients with TBX6 mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  3. Response to Lisovski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David

    2018-01-01

    Lisovski et al. [1] describe the widely recognized limitations of light-level geolocator data for identifying short-distance latitudinal movements, recommend that caution be used when interpreting such data, intimated that we did not use such caution and argued that environmental shading likely explained the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) movements described in our 2015 report [2] . Lisovski et al. [1] conclude that the bird movements we reported could not be disentangled from estimation error in stationary animals caused by environmental shading. We argue that, to the contrary, these hypotheses can easily be disentangled because the premise that environmental shading caused synchronous and parallel error among geolocators is false. With their assertion that our location estimates could be biased by >3,500 km on a day with no observable local sources of shading, Lisovski et al. [1] have taken a position of incredulity toward all geolocator-based animal movement data published to date.

  4. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  5. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  6. Structural control of polygonal cracks in La Pedriza del Manzanares (Madrid); Control estructural de agrietamientos poligonales en la Pedriza del Manzanares (Madrid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, M.; Aroztegui, J.; Lopez Portillo, H.

    2015-07-01

    Polygonal cracks represent a common way of modeling granite whose origin and evolution continues under study not even existing a systematization of these diverse structures. Some authors explain their origin by internal geo dynamic processes relating to movements of fracture planes in later stages of magmatic consolidation. Other authors attribute their formation and development to external factors related to climate regime. The great variety of polygonal cracks requires the use of a greater number of variables to define their different origins, the possible interrelations between external and internal factors, to explain the evolution of these structures and advance the classification of specific patterns. This work aims to contribute to systematize the mechanisms involved in the development of polygonal cracks. For that only polygonal cracks formed on flat vertical or sub vertical fractures are studied. In particular relations are established between the presence of polygonal cracks with: the fracturing network, height of appearance, angle and tilt of the wall, plaque morphology and depth of incision of the perimeter cracks. Moreover it establishes relationships between internal geo dynamic processes and external weathering processes. (Author)

  7. Comparison of one and two-neutron transfer near the Coulomb barrier for the 27Al(18O, 16O)29Al, 27Al(18O, 17O)28Al and 27Al(13C, 12C)28Al reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, S.A.; Eck, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Total reaction cross sections for the transfer reactions 27 Al( 18 O, 16 O) 29 Al, 27 Al( 18 O, 17 O) 28 Al and 27 Al( 13 C, 12 C) 28 Al are reported for center-of-mass energies between 13 and 20 MeV for 18 O projectiles and between 11 and 17.5 MeV for 13 C projectiles. The reaction products, 29 Al, and 28 Al, beta decay to 29 Si and 28 Si, respectively, and the subsequent γ decays of 29 Si and 28 Si were measured. Due to the relatively long beta decay half lives, data were taken in a beam-off mode, resulting in very clean spectra. Total cross sections were calculated and compared with a theoretical model for barrier penetration proposed by C.Y. Wong. Differences between 18 O induced one and two-neutron total transfer reaction cross sections are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.; Cong, H.T.; Wang, W.; Sun, C.H.; Cheng, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles

  9. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  10. Structural stability and electronic properties of AlCu3, AlCu2Zr in AlZr3: Stabilnost strukture in elektronske lastnosti AlCu3, AlCu2Zr in AlZr3:

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Rong; Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to study the alloying stability and electronic structure of the Al-based intermetallic compounds AlCusub3, AlCusub{2}Zr and AlZrsub3. The results show that the lattice parameters obtained after the full relaxation of the crystalline cells are consistent with the experimental data, and these intermetallics have a strong alloying ability and structural stability due to their negative formation energies and their cohesive energies. A further analysis ...

  11. A study of ion damage in Al, Al/Cu and Al/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marikar, P.

    1979-06-01

    Specimens of pure aluminium, aluminium-copper and aluminium-silver have been irradiated with 20 keV helium ions and/or 100 keV aluminium ions and the nature of the damage assessed using transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation with 20 keV helium ions to a dose of 2.7 x 10 15 ions cm -2 results in the formation of interstitial loops and helium gas bubbles. The helium bubbles were detectable only after annealing at a high temperature following irradiation. When the helium preinjected aluminium specimens were irradiated with 100 keV Al + ions to a dose of 84 dpa at temperatures above 150 0 C, voids were observed to form. At a lower dose of 64 dpa, only a high density of dislocation loops was observed. Al-1 wt% Cu alloy containing partially coherent theta' precipitates resists void formation to a considerable extent, and Al-10 wt% Ag alloy containing coherent G.P. zones offers complete resistance to both dislocation loop nucleation and void formation. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the current theories of irradiation induced damage in metals. The importance of the dislocation-sink efficiency for point defects, the gaseous impurity and the alloying elements in determining void formation is highlighted. (author)

  12. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, A. M., E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Abdallah, S. B. [University of Khartoum, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Ericsson, T. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Material Sciences (Sweden); Annersten, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  13. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  15. The ALS gun electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate the gun with a custom made socket and a high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  16. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  17. Aportes amazonicos al formativo andino*

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Chocano, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN La tesis de J.C Tello sobre los orígenes amazónicos de la cultura Chavín ha tenido en la iconografía amazónica presente en Chavin sus argumentos mas fuertes, sin embargo, falta mucho por investigar el aspecto ideológico que representan esos iconos como el jaguar, las cabezas trofeo y el uso de alucinógenos, los cuales indudablemente se vinculan al chamanismo amazónico.

  18. Gettysburg: Monumento al mundo libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En el verano del año 1958 fui invitado, por las autoridades de la Universidad de Arizona, en Tucson, a la colocación de la primera piedra de su futuro taller, construido para favorecer el desarrollo técnico del Estado. Varios alcaldes y ministros presenciaron la ceremonia, que fue muy interesante, y uno de los periodistas presentes, John Riddick, del "Tucson Daily Citizen", invitó cordialmente, a mi esposa y a mí, a atravesar, al día siguiente, la frontera mejicana, que cruzaba un vasto desierto.

  19. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  20. Nanoporous Al sandwich foils using size effect of Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, A. Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    The roll bonding technique is one of the most widely used methods to produce metal laminate sheets. Such sheets offer interesting research opportunities for both scientists and engineers. In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of the 'thickness effect' during laminate rolling for the first time. Using a four-high multifunction rolling mill, Cu/Al/Cu laminate sheets were fabricated with a range of thicknesses (16, 40, 70 and 130 μm) of the Al layer. The thickness of the Cu sheets was a constant 300 μm. After rolling, TEM images show good bonding quality between the Cu and Al layers. However, there are many nanoscale pores in the Al layer. The fraction of nanoscale pores in the Al layer increases with a reduction in the Al layer thickness. The finite element method was used to simulate the Cu/Al/Cu rolling process. The simulation results reveal the effect of the Al layer thickness on the deformation characteristics of the Cu/Al/Cu laminate. Finally, we propose that the size effect of the Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling may offer a method to fabricate 'nanoporous' Al sandwich laminate foils. Such foils can be used in electromagnetic shielding of electrical devices and noisy shielding of building.

  1. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  2. Muflikhah et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2017-10-13

    Oct 13, 2017 ... Human infection occurs mainly by ingesting food or water ... Humans can be infected by consumption of uncooked meat, contaminated food or water, ..... Malaysia, Alvarado-Esquivel et al., (2011) in Mexico, Wang et al., (2014) ...

  3. Heterotopia als sociaal-ruimtelijke constructie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Uitleg van het begrip heterotopia, waar het gaat om het gebruik van de ruimte. Volgens de auteur wordt heterotopia als persoonlijke ruimte en als vrijetijdsruimte op tal van manieren tot stand gebracht; het is een georganiseerde wereld

  4. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  5. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  6. Rekonstruksi Konsep Ijtihad: Studi Pemikiran Ben’umar tentang al-Ijtihad fi al-Waqi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duski Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research that evaluating the reconstruction the concept of ijtihad, by discuss the idea of al-Ijtihad Ben'umar fi al-waqi’. This paper concludes that Al-Ijtihad fi al-waqi’ is actually a form of collective ijtihad (al ijtihad al-jama'i, by gathering the experts of shari'ah law (fuqaha` ash-shar'i and experts Researchers and scientists (khubara` al-'ashr. Because experts know the nash purposes, while researchers and scientists (al-khubara` know the reality (al-waqi’, the effects in the future (ma'alat = future effect and challenges (tahaddiyat. The idea of formulating the concept of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ emerged based on a premise that ijtihad is a creation of experts to implement Islamic law in society. Therefore, the concept of ijtihad experienced a significant development, start from using the nash from the language aspects, continue to the using of logic. At the moment when the situation people are increasingly develop, then the creation of ijtihad become a necessary to developed, for example in the form of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ . About the source of the formation of the concept of al -ijtihad fi al-waqi’ comes from theory about the functions of nash, al-manath theory in Islamic law, and supported by the theory of al-mashlalah al-mursalah.

  7. Perfiles de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos clínicos de cocos Gram positivos provenientes de hospitales colombianos, 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Arias

    2008-06-01

    Conclusión. Los aislamientos colombianos de S. pneumoniae mantienen susceptibilidad a las fluoroquinolonas de última generación. La resistencia a fluoroquinolonas es alta en S. aureus, especialmente en aislamientos resistentes a la meticilina (cercana al 100%.

  8. Al-quran dalam Perspektif Budaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Ajat

    2009-01-01

    Al-Quran merupakan kitab suci terakhir yang diturunkan kepada manusia. Tujuan utama diturunkannya al-Quran adalah sebagai kitab petunjuk yang meliputi bidang akidah, syariah, dan akhlak. Akan tetapi di luar ketiga petunjuk tersebut, al-Quran telah memberikan motivasi dan inspirasi kepada umat Islam dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan sehingga melahirkan jenis budaya tertentu. Dialog intelektual yang dilakukan secara kreatif oleh umat Islam terhadap al-Quran ternyata telah menghasilkan lahirnya ge...

  9. A study of the Al-rich part of the Al-Re alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanetskyy, S.; Grushko, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Al-rich part of the Al-Re phase diagram was reinvestigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The earlier reported Al 12 Re, Al 6 Re, and Al 11 Re 4 phases were confirmed. Close to the Al 4 Re composition a high-temperature h-Al 4 Re and a low-temperature l-Al 4 Re phase were found to be formed at slightly different compositions. Both exhibited compositional ranges. A new phase was revealed close to the Al 3 Re composition. The Al 11 Re 4 phase is formed congruently at 1650 deg. C, Al 3 Re peritectically at 1610 deg. C, h-Al 4 Re peritectically at 1410 deg. C, l-Al 4 Re peritectically at ∼1000 deg. C, Al 6 Re peritectically at 813 deg. C and Al 12 Re peritectically at 746 deg. C. Finally, the Al 12 Re-(Al) eutectic is formed at 658 deg. C. The Al 3 Re and h-Al 4 Re are decomposed by eutectoid reactions at ∼946 and 833 deg., respectively. The structure of the h-Al 4 Re phase has not yet been clarified, but it is distinctly different from the Al 4 W phase suggested earlier. The structure of l-Al 4 Re was confirmed. The Al 3 Re phase was found to have a monoclinic structure with a = 0.5180(4) nm, b = 3.97641(9) nm, c = 0.4955(3) nm and β = 99.55(7) o

  10. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  11. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  12. The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C.R.; Michel, D.J.; Crowe, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti 3 Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB 2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB 2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti 3 Al interface

  13. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR) This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.' The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth. The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars. Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to

  14. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  15. Compliance als Schutz vor Verbandsverantwortlichkeit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tipold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance bedeutet nicht nur Einhaltung und Beachtung von Vorschriften, sondern betrifft auch Maßnahmen, die die Einhaltung der Rechtsnormen absichern sollen und läuft somit auf eine Übererfüllung von Verpflichtungen hinaus. Wenn es keinen klaren Maßstab für Kontroll- und Überwachungspflichten gibt, besteht die Gefahr, dass Strafverfolgungsbehörden die Compliance-Maßnahmen als Maßstab heranziehen und so eine Verschärfung der Pflichten erzeugen. Nach den Regeln des Verbandsverantwortlichkeitsgesetzes schließt im Übrigen das beste Compliance-System nicht zwingend die Verbandsverantwortlichkeit aus, steht aber unter Umständen einem Verfahren gegen den Verband entgegen.

  16. Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Fukui, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Al-Al 3 Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al 3 Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al 3 Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al 3 Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al 3 Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al 3 Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al 3 Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.)

  17. Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, R.R.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

  18. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  19. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Beltran, A.; Gallegos-Orozco, V.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Bejar-Gomez, L.; Espinosa-Magana, F.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al 2 O 3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al 3 C 4 and Al 2 Cu structures, respectively

  20. La "historia de los omeyas de al-Andalus" en los Masalik al-Absar

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Luis

    2005-01-01

    [ES]Los Masalik al-absar de Ibn Fadl Allah al-`Umari incluyen un breve resumen de la Historia de los omeyas de al-Andalus. En este trabajo se analizan las relaciones textuales entre ese pasaje y el Muqtabis de Ibn Hayyan, crónica que resulta ser la fuente casi única utilizada por al-`Umari para redactar ese capítulo. [EN]The Masalik al-absar by Ibn Fadl Allah al-`Umari contains a brief summary of the Umayyad history in al-Andalus. In this article, the textual relationship between this p...

  1. Atomistic simulations of diffusion mechanisms in off-stoichiometric Al-rich Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jinsong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics simulation results of diffusion in off-stoichiometric Al-rich Ni 3 Al (Ni 73 Al 27 ) at temperature ranging from 1300 to 1550 K. The interatomic forces are described by the Finnis-Sinclair type N-body potentials. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of the extra 2% of Al atoms sitting on the Ni sublattice as antisite point defects (Al Ni ) on diffusion. Simulation results show that Ni atoms mainly diffuse through the Ni sublattice at the temperatures investigated. Al atoms diffuse via both the intrasublattice and antistructure bridge (ASB) mechanisms. The contribution to Al diffusion from the ASB mechanism decreases at the lower temperature (T Ni ) enhances both Al and Ni diffusion in Ni 73 Al 27 . The Ni-Al coupled diffusion effect is observed and understood at the atomic level for the first time

  2. Piezo-tunnel effect in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, R.; Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the electrical transport in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions under mechanical stress is investigated in the perspective to use them as strain sensors. The metal/insulator/metal junctions are elaborated with a low temperature process (≤200 °C) fully compatible with CMOS back-end-of-line. The conduction mechanism in the structure is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, and efforts are made to extract the relevant physical parameters. Gauge factors up to -32.5 were found in the fabricated devices under tensile stress. Finally, theoretical mechanical considerations give strong evidence that strain sensitivity in Al/Al2O3/Al structures originates not only from geometrical deformations but also from the variation of interface barrier height and/or effective electronic mass in the tunneling oxide layer.

  3. Al-Qurû’ fi Al-Qur’an ‘Inda Al-Anbary fi Al-Adhdâd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushani Azza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines about the term al-Qurû in the Qur’an. Al-Qurû is one of the most popular discussions among muslim scholars and mufasir, both in terms of language and fiqh. However, there is a bate among muslim scholar and mufasir about the meaning of al-Qurû. It’s because al-Qurû is one of the sentence of al-Adhdâd wich has two meaning, especially in the Qur’an, namely haid (menstruation and thahr. One of the most popular muslim scholar who concern in Qur’an and Arabic is al-Anbari with his book al-Adhdâd. Al-Anbari explains that Qurû has two meanings, First, al-Qurû in etymology is the form of Jama’ from aqra and qurû. Second, al-Qurû has a meaning of menstruation, thahr, or the period of iddah as a sign of being allowed to remarry after certain period of time.

  4. Interfacial phenomena in the reactions of Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B alloys with KF-AlF3 and NaF-AlF3 melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.S.; Terry, B.S.; Grieveson, P.

    1993-01-01

    The interfacial phenomena occurring during the contacting of liquid Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B melts with KF-AlF 3 liquid fluxes have been investigated by optical examination of quenched metal drops previously immersed in the liquid fluxes. Reactions in the Al-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of metastable AlB 12 at the metal/flux interface. At high KBF 4 levels in the flux, the AlB 12 is dispersed in the flux and also at low KBF 4 levels in the metal. Reactions in the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of TiB 2 , which may be dispersed in either the metal or the flux depending upon the composition of the flux. The results obtained for the Al-Ti-B/NaF-AlF 3 and Al-Zr-B/KF-AlF 3 systems were similar to those observed for the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system

  5. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  6. Plastic deformation of Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Al13Fe4 by high-speed compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, N.; Mizoguchi, K.; Kumai, S.; Sato, A.; Kiritani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spray-formed Al-Fe alloys having undergone high-speed deformation were examined under a high-voltage electron microscope. Two types of specimens were examined; one containing fine Al 13 Fe 4 particles, and the other containing large particles. In the former specimen, deformation is found to proceed in three patterns, depending on specimen thickness and strain rate: (1) without deformation of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; (2) breaking of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; or (3) melting of the Al 13 Fe 4 . Local melting is found to alter some of the Al 13 Fe 4 particles, to impart five-fold symmetry in diffraction or an amorphous structure. In the latter specimen, introduction of glide dislocations enabled us to determine a shear system in the mc102 monoclinic c2/m crystal of Al 13 Fe 4 . On the bases of these observations, the mechanism of high-speed deformation is discussed while taking into account the highly stressed and/or heated states of Al 13 Fe 4 embedded in Al matrix

  7. Entrevista al narrador Tommaso Pincio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zangrilli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El autor Tommaso Pincio, seudónimo di Marco Colapietro (Roma, 1963, es sin lugar a dudas uno de los narradores de mayor proyección en el panorama literario de los últimos tiempos. Iniciada su carrera en 1999 con M., ha publicado títulos como Lo spazio sfinito (2000 y Un amore dell'altro mondo (2002, en el que narra la vida de Kurt Cobain, líder del grupo Nirvana, a través de la visión de un amigo imaginario. A estas dos novelas siguieron La ragazza che non era lei (2005, Gli alieni (2006 o Cinacittà. Memorie del mio delitto efferato (2008, ambientada en una Roma colonizada por los chinos y abandonada por los mismos romanos a causa de problemas medioambientales. Títulos como L'hotel a zero stelle (2011, un ensayo autobiográfico en el que plantea diálogos ficticios con algunos de los grandes nombres de la literatura o la más reciente Panorama (2015, le han hecho valerse un hueco provilegiado entre los nuevos narradores surgidos en estas primeras décadas de siglo. Justamente la publicación de esta última novela, Panorama, ha servido de excusa al profesor Franco Zangrilli, gran conocedor de su obra, a plantearle algunas preguntas sobre temas clave de su producción.

  8. Comentario al libro: ACADEMIA MUTISIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Por tercera vez en un quinquenio ocupo este podio para ocuparme de uno de los libros del grupo de inmunogenética (o de anti-inmunohistoria, diría yo de la Universidad Javeriana, esta vez enriquecido con la presencia del P. Ortiz Valdivieso, orquídeologo y mutisiólogo y del Dr. Uribe Angel notable historiador educativo, y presentado admirablemente por el P. Durán Casas, Vicerrector Académico de la Universidad Javeriana. En el prólogo, citando desde Sarton y Ziman en los 70s. hasta Mauro Torres en el 2011 afirmo que, aunque suene extraño, parece como si las Academias florecieran entre las guerras. Tal sucedió con la de Platón, “la máxima institución de enseñanza superior surgida en el mundo”, -al decir de Sartonenmarcada desde las guerras del Peloponeso, hasta el final de la dominación espartana de Atenas en el siglo IV antes de Cristo. Según dichos autores, las Academias han simbolizado una manera de continuar la vida espiritual entre uno y otro conflicto.

  9. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  10. Fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by gas injection processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huashun; CHEN Hongmei; MA Rendian; MIN Guanghui

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by carbon-and nitrogen-containing gas injection into Al-Mg-Ti melts was studied. It was shown that AlN and TiC particles could be formed by the in situ reaction of mixture gas (N2+C2H2+NH3) with Al-Mg-Ti melts. The condition for the formation of AlN was that the treatment temperature must be higher than 1373 K, and the amounts of AlN and TiC increased with the increase of the treatment temperature and the gas injection time.It was considered that AlN was formed by the direct reaction of Al with nitrogen-containing gas at the interface of the gas bubble and the melt. However, the mechanism of TiC formation is a combination mechanism of solution-precipitation and solid-liquid reaction.

  11. Electrodeposition of Al from a 1-butylpyrrolidine-AlCl3 ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Pulletikurthi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 1-butylpyrrolidine to AlCl3 results in the formation of an electrolyte that is suited to Al deposition. The feasibility of electrodepositing Al from the synthesized electrolyte was investigated. Several compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine were prepared for this purpose. These mixtures show a different phase behavior at various compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine. IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy were employed to characterize the synthesized liquids. Among the prepared compositions, 1:1.2 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 and the upper phase of 1:1.3 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 were found to be suitable for Al electrodeposition at room temperature (RT. Uniform and thick (~µm thick layers of Al were obtained on copper at RT. Al deposition occured from the cationic species of AlCl3−xLy+ (where x≤2, y=1–2, and L=1-butylpyrrolidine in this electrolyte. This behavior is contrary to the well investigated classic AlCl3 based ionic liquids, where the deposition of Al occurs mainly from anionic Al2Cl7− ions.

  12. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

  13. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  14. Decoding ALS: From Genes to Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Paul; Brown, Robert H.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2017-01-01

    Preface Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors underlying ALS have now been identified that drive motor neuron degeneration, increase susceptibility to the disease, or influence the rate of progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through the process of liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary recent progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new grounds for optimism that meaningful therapies for ALS will be identified. PMID:27830784

  15. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  16. PEMAHAMAN HADITS TARBAWI BURHAN AL ISLAM AL ZARNUJI DALAM KITAB TA’LIM AL MUTA’ALLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Afwadzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the understanding of tarbawi (education hadith from one of the major influential clerics in the Islamic educational system, especially in pesantren. He is Burhan al Islam al Zarnuji with his landmark book Ta’lim al Muta’allim. The conclusion that can be drawn is that al Zarnuji has shades of sufistical view in understanding tarbawi hadith. This can be seen in his understanding of hadith on obligation to seek knowledge (thalab al ilmi faridhatun ‘ala kulli muslimin wa muslimatin, which is interpreted as ilm al hal, the science concerning the condition of the human religious or simplistically said as the religious sciences; and the hadith of intention of studying (innama al a’malu bi al niyyat with the intention for the sake of the hereafter and religion, not mundane. Such an understanding is not something taken for granted, but it can be reinterpreted and perfected in accordance with the spirit of the times of context.

  17. The code of light: al-ghazali and al-suhrawardi

    OpenAIRE

    Gediminaitė, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Code of Light: Al-Ghazali and Al-Suhrawardi The Bachelor’s thesis The Code of Light in Islam: al-Ghazali and al-Suhrawardi presents a comparative study of light. The study analyses the philosophical systems of al-Ghazali and al-Suhrawardi through the reconstruction of the image of light and its operation principles. The main subject of the thesis are the attributes of light. The main problem of the research is the semantics and contextuality of light in Islamic theology and philosophy. Th...

  18. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  19. Tadris Al Mufradat Li Tathbiq Maharah Al Kalam Fi Madrasah Al Muallimin Al Islamiyyah Li Mahad Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are four  skills in teaching Arabic. Ie listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Among these four, speaking considered one of the most important objectives of learning foreign language. In order to speak properly, one must know the vocabulary and apply it in a sentence. The aims of this research is to describe the teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill in the school of Islamic teachers in the Institute of Bait al Arqom Balong Jember. This study used qualitative approach. The data collection was taken trough observation, personal interview, history and documentation. The teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill at the Islamic Teachers' School at the Institute of Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember has gone well in terms of planning (general objectives and specific objectives, implementation (materials, use of the teaching method and teaching aids, and evaluation (assessment and evaluation. This teaching is to apply the speaking skill in terms of conversation or dialogue and lecture.

  20. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  1. ALS and other motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Ezgi; Horak, Holli A

    2014-10-01

    This review describes the most common motor neuron disease, ALS. It discusses the diagnosis and evaluation of ALS and the current understanding of its pathophysiology, including new genetic underpinnings of the disease. This article also covers other motor neuron diseases, reviews how to distinguish them from ALS, and discusses their pathophysiology. In this article, the spectrum of cognitive involvement in ALS, new concepts about protein synthesis pathology in the etiology of ALS, and new genetic associations will be covered. This concept has changed over the past 3 to 4 years with the discovery of new genes and genetic processes that may trigger the disease. As of 2014, two-thirds of familial ALS and 10% of sporadic ALS can be explained by genetics. TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), for instance, has been shown to cause frontotemporal dementia as well as some cases of familial ALS, and is associated with frontotemporal dysfunction in ALS. The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement: motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking) lead patients to seek medical attention. Neurologists are the most likely practitioners to recognize and diagnose damage or loss of anterior horn cells. ALS, the prototypical motor neuron disease, demonstrates the impact of this class of disorders. ALS and other motor neuron diseases can represent diagnostic challenges. Neurologists are often called upon to serve as a "medical home" for these patients: coordinating care, arranging for durable medical equipment, and leading discussions about end-of-life care with patients and caregivers. It is important for neurologists to be able to identify motor neuron diseases and to evaluate and treat patients affected by them.

  2. Optical phonon scattering on electronic mobility in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. J.; Qu, Y.; Ban, S. L.; Wang, Z. P.

    2017-12-01

    Considering the built-in electric fields and the two-mode property of transverse optical phonons in AlGaN material, the electronic eigen-energies and wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation with the finite difference method. The dispersion relations and potentials of the optical phonons are given by the transfer matrix method. The mobility of the two dimensional electron gas influenced by the optical phonons in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is investigated based on the theory of Lei-Ting force balance equation. It is found that the scattering from the half-space phonons is the main factor affecting the electronic mobility, and the influence of the other phonons can be ignored. The results show that the mobility decreases with increasing the thicknesses of Al2O3 and AlN layers, but there is no definite relationship between the mobility and the thickness of AlGaN barrier. The mobility is obviously reduced by increasing Al component in AlGaN crystal to show that the effect of ternary mixed crystals is important. It is also found that the mobility increases first and then decreases as the increment of the fixed charges, but decreases always with increasing temperature. The heterostructures constructed here can be good candidates as metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility-transistors since they have higher electronic mobility due to the influence from interface phonons weakened by the AlN interlayer.

  3. Experimental investigation of the Al-Y phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhong; Du Yong; Xu Honghui; He Cuiyun; Schuster, Julius C.

    2006-01-01

    The Al-Y phase diagram has been reinvestigated with 16 key alloys over its whole composition range by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The existence of five intermetallic phases, Al 3 Y, Al 2 Y, AlY, Al 2 Y 3 , and AlY 2 , has been confirmed. Al 2 Y and Al 2 Y 3 melt congruently at 1490 ± 2 and 1105 ± 2 deg. C, respectively. Al 3 Y, AlY, and AlY 2 are formed via the peritectic reactions L + Al 2 Y ↔ Al 3 Y at 980 ± 2 deg. C, L + Al 2 Y ↔ AlY at 1138 ± 2 deg. C, and L + Al 2 Y 3 ↔ AlY 2 at 977 ± 2 deg. C, respectively. Three eutectic reactions L ↔ (Al) + Al 3 Y at 637 ± 2 deg. C, L ↔ AlY + Al 2 Y 3 at 1081 ± 2 deg. C, and L ↔ AlY 2 + (αY) at 955 ± 2 deg. C , are observed. The previously reported Al 3 Y 5 , AlY 3 compounds were not found. A revised Al-Y phase diagram is presented mainly based on the present experimental results

  4. Explosive destruction of "2"6Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of "2"6Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic "2"6Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of "2"6Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on "2"6Al, such as (n,p) and (n,α), have among the largest impacts on the total "2"6Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of "2"6Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n TOF at CERN with an "2"6Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the "2"6Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  5. Handlung und Kommunikation als Grundbegriffe der Soziologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, W.P.M.; Albert, H.; Greshoff, R.; Schützeichel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Handlung und Kommunikation gelten in der Soziologie manchmal als alternative, konkurrierende Grundbegriffe für die Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Zusammenhänge (siehe u.a. Luhmann 1984; 1990; Schneider 1994; Stichweh 2000; Greshoff 1999; Schwinn 2001; Albert et. al. 2003). Eine Soziologie,

  6. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  7. Miércoles al cine

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Franco, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Fundamentos del Análisis Económico

  8. Oke et al 2 (12).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    The study revealed that PES contained calcium, aluminum, and iron as part of its major components. 2+. 2+ ... carbon (Chan et al., 1994) , chitosan (Schmub et al., .... (1.735 g of nickel chloride) in 200 ml of distilled. ÷. ÷. ר. צ. ח. ח. ט. ז. -. = 1. 2. 1. 100. (%). W. W. W. Mc. ÷. ÷. ר. צ. ח. ח. ט. ז. -. = 2. 3. 2. 100. (%). W. W. W. VS. ÷. ÷.

  9. Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 6 November 2009 pp 983-987. Multifunctional switches based on bis-imidazole derivative · Abdullah M A Asiri Gameel A Baghaffar Khadija O Badahdah Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi ...

  10. Primary (AL) amyloidosis with gastrointestinal involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone Galmstrup; Gimsing, Peter; Schiødt, Frank V

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare disease that can affect several organs. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with gastrointestinal manifestations of AL amyloidosis, in terms of symptoms, biochemistry, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospectivel...

  11. Kultur als Ordnungshypothese über Raum?

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inhalt: 1 Einleitung 2 Zur Attraktivität von Kultur 3 Kulturologische Methodik 4 Schnittmengen mit und Bindearme zur Kulturgeographie 5 Kritische Argumente gegen Kultur als Ordnungshypothese über Raum 6 Räumliche Abstraktion als Ordnungsstrategie über „Kultur“? 7 Zusammenfassung

  12. Al-Biruni: A Muslim Critical Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noviani Ardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an academic course, critical thinking has emerged in the last century as the one of the important subjects, especially in the second half. But as a kind of thinking and a process of the human reason, it was exist as old as mankind. What are known, nowadays, as (standards of critical thinking or (characteristic of critical thinker were used by some ancient Greek philosophers, e.g. Socrates, Aristotle, as well as great Muslim scholars, e.g. al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, etc. al-Biruni was known as a great Muslim scholar due to objectively scientific method in his works. Moreover, he also was famed in comparative religion which early in history of discipline of comparative religion. However, this study attempts to talk about al-Biruni, one of greatest Muslim scholar in history from another side of previously discussion. It is tries to analyze al-Biruni as a Muslim critical thinker based on his monumental work of Tahqiq ma li al-Hind min Maqulah Maqbulah fi al-‘Aql aw Mardhulah or it is known by Kitab al-Hind.

  13. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrom, A.K.; Foo, L.C.; Ismail, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  14. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  15. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  16. Synthesis and structural transformations of hydrotalcite-like materials Mg-Al and Zn-Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prihod'ko, R.V.; Sychev, M.V.; Astrelin, I.M.; Erdmann, K.; Mangel, A.; Santen, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mg-Al and Zn-Al hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides of various compositions were synthesized and characterized. A detailed comparative analysis of the structure and composition of starting and reconstructed layered double hydroxides was made

  17. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti2AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150◦C. The composite mainly consisted ... Metal–matrix composites; mechanical properties; microstructures; sintering. 1. Introduction γ-TiAl-based intermetallic alloys have been extensively.

  18. Electric quadrupole moments of neutron-rich nuclei {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, D., E-mail: kameda@ribf.riken.jp; Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K.; Nagae, D.; Takemura, M.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Nagatomo, T.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Takase, K.; Suda, S.; Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics (Australia); Kobayashi, Y.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The electric quadrupole moments for the ground states of {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al have been measured by the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance method. Spin-polarized {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stopper. The measured Q moment of {sup 32}Al, |Q({sup 32}Al)| = 24(2) mb, is in good agreement with a conventional shell-model calculation with a full sd model space and empirical effective charges, while that of {sup 31}Al is considerably smaller than the sd calculations.

  19. The Y-Cu-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachan, T.; Stel'makhovych, B.; Kuz'ma, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Y-Cu-Al system at 820 K has been constructed using X-ray powder diffraction. The existence of earlier known ternary aluminides has been confirmed and their homogeneity regions and atomic distributions in the structures have been determined: YCu 4.6-4.0 Al 7.4-8.0 (ThMn 12 -type R I =0.049), Y 2 Cu 12.0-10.5 Al 5.0-6.5 (Th 2 Zn 17 -type R I =0.092), YCu 1.0-1.1 Al 1.0-0.9 (Fe 2 P-type R I =0.068). It has been shown that the structure of Y(Cu,Al) 3 is characterized by an ordered distribution of the Cu and Al atoms and it should be referred as Ca 3 Cu 2 Al 7 structure type (R I =0.060) besides the PuNi 3 structure type with statistical occupancies of the smaller atoms. At the investigated temperature the compound YCu 1.0-0.25 Al 3.0-3.75 (BaAl 4 -type) was not observed. However, we found the ternary aluminide with composition Y 3 Cu 2.7-2.0 Al 8.3-9.0 and related La 3 Al 11 -type (space group Immm, a=0.4192-0.4228, b=1.2423-1.2557, c=0.9812-0.9895 nm, R I =0.069). The compounds YCu 6.8 Al 4.2 (space group Fddd, Tb(Cu 0.58 Al 0.42 ) 11 -type, a=1.42755, b=1.48587, c=0.65654 nm, R I =0.062) and YCu 6.5 Al 4.5 (space group I4 1 /amd, BaCd 11 -type, a=1.02774, c=0.65838 nm, R I =0.071) have been found and structurally refined for the first time

  20. Pemikiran Filosofis Sadra Dalam Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-Karim : Surah Al-’A‘la

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwanto Kerwanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Dalam tafsir atas Surah al-’A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, melalui karyanya Tafsīr al Qur’ān al-Karīm, mengajak jiwa kita berpetualang menuju lapisan makna terdalam untuk mengenali realitas ketauhidan (al- mabdā’, kenabian (shirāth atau nubuwwah dan kebangkitan (ma‘ād dan mengulasnya secara filosofis. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu upaya untuk menggali manfaat dari aspek-aspek penting dari sumber-sumber keagamaan yang tergali dari petunjuk al Qur’an yang berpadu dengan prinsip- prinsip rasional filosofis dan pengalaman mistik (intuitif Sadra. Setiap bab pada tafsir ini diberikan judul dengan tasbīḥ (pernyataan pemujian dan pensucian, dengan tetap memaparkan beragam pokok persoalan terkait metafisika al-Qur’an. Prinsip-prinsip filosofis yang digunakan dalam risalah tafsir ini bisa menjadi salah satu bukti ketidakberjarakan antara filsafat dengan teks-teks keagamaan. Sadra menggunakan metode tafsir yang tetap menerima sisi lahiriah al-Qur’an, dan selanjutnya mencari misteri-misteri, rahasia-rahasia, dan dengan bantuan intelek (akal, intuisi dan iluminasi Tuhan untuk memperoleh realitas-realitas dan makna- makna dibalik selaput ekternalnya (aspek literalnyaKata kunci : Ḥikmah Muta’āliyah, irfan, al-mabdā’, kebangkitan setelah mati, nubuwwah, takwīl, gerak substansial (ḥarakah jawhariyyah, denotasi utama (al-maqshūd al-ashlī, penyempurnaan diri (takammul, tasbīḥ.  Abstract : In his commentary on Surah al-’ A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, through his Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm invites our souls to ventureinto the deepest layers of meaning to recognize the reality of Divinity (al- mabdā’, prophethood (Ṣirāṭ or nubuwwah and resurrection (ma‘ād and discusses it in a more philosophical manner. This study is an attempt to explore the benefits of these important aspects of religious sources unearthed from Qur’anic injunctions combined with rational principles of philosophical and mystical experiences

  1. KRITIK ATAS KRITIK EPISTEMOLOGI TAFSIR M. ABIED AL JABIRI: Studi Kritis atas Madkhal ila al Quran al Karim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fawaid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically views the epistemology of Muhammad Abid al Jabiri’s interpretation in his book, Madkhal ila al Quran al Karim. His latest work is projected to make the Quran relevant to mankind today and with certainly critiquing classical Quranic studies that have been constructed by previous scholars. Starting from Arab criticism, which is expected to synergize the gap between Turath and modernity, al Jabiri tried out his theory in the realm of Quranic studies oriented to maintain its originality and interpretation from sectarian influence. Focusing on al Jabiri’s review on the Quran, this paper examines and associates some of the problems with the epistemology of critique in Arab reasoning. Finally, it is inferred that the epistemologic offer of al Jabiri used in Turath is not fully applicable in Quranic studies for several reasons. First, the Quranic studies existed within the chain of sanad in its formation. Secondly, at the application stage, al Jabri often overlooked the sanad and narrations from the companions.

  2. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.W.; Chave, R.A.; Hippsley, C.A.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti 3 Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temperature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti 3 Al and Ti'Al based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly. (orig.)

  3. Density and atomic volume in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Metal Physics; Egry, I.; Brillo, J.; Holland-Moritz, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Kaban, I. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technolgy (Germany). Inst. of Physics

    2007-02-15

    The density of liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys have been determined over a wide temperature range by a noncontact technique combining electromagnetic levitation and optical dilatometry. The temperature and composition dependences of the density are analysed. A negative excess volume correlates with the negative enthalpy of mixing, compound forming ability and chemical short-range ordering in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. (orig.)

  4. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  5. HOMENAJE AL DOCTOR JORGE CAVELIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rueda Montaña

    1979-06-01

    ósitos. Jamás concibió nada pequeño, ni en lo material, ni en lo espiritual. Su propio mundo de acción y movimiento, tallado a su imagen y semejanza, no le permitía detenerse en pequeñeces. Cabalgaba
    contra el tiempo, y este no le era suficiente para sus designios. Por eso no podía detenerse en minucias, jamás fue mediocre, ni toleró la mediocridad.

    JORGE CAVELIER pasa al Panteón de los grandes de Colombia, su excepcional condición humana así lo impone, sus valiosos servicios a la Patria así lo demandan, y el profundo rastro que deja de su paso por la vida, así lo decide.

    La CRUZ ROJA COLOMBIANA, que le debe casi todo, ya no será la misma. Será imposible ocupar el inmenso vacío que deja la desaparición del titán. Ocuparemos su sitio, mas no lo reemplazaremos.
    Como las criaturas del bosque milenario, permaneceremos silenciosos y cavilantes ante el majestuoso y doloroso espectáculo de su caída.

    Descanse en Paz.

  6. Magnetic tunnel junctions with AlN and AlNxOy barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, M. M.; Childress, J. R.; Fontana, R. E.; Kellock, A. J.; Rice, P. M.; Ho, M. K.; Thompson, T. J.; Gurney, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    Nonoxide tunnel barriers such as AlN are of interest for magnetic tunnel junctions to avoid the oxidation of the magnetic electrodes. We have investigated the fabrication and properties of thin AlN-based barriers for use in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions. Electronic, magnetic and structural data of tunnel valves of the form Ta (100 Aa)/PtMn (300 Aa)/CoFe 20 (20 Aa - 25 Aa)/barrier/CoFe 20 (10 - 20 Aa)/NiFe 16 (35 - 40 Aa)/Ta (100 Aa) are presented, where the barrier consists of AlN, AlN x O y or AlN/AlO x with total thicknesses between 8 and 15 Aa. The tunnel junctions were sputter deposited and then lithographically patterned down to 2 x 2μm 2 devices. AlN was deposited by reactive sputtering from an Al target with 20% - 35% N 2 in the Ar sputter gas at room temperature, resulting in stoichiometric growth of AlN x (x=0.50±0.05), as determined by RBS. TEM analysis shows that the as-deposited AlN barrier is crystalline. For AlN barriers and AlN followed by natural O 2 oxidation, we obtain tunnel magnetoresistance >10% with specific junction resistance R j down to 60Ωμm 2 . [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  7. Dakwah Kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Kayu Khas Melayu Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pahlevi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berusaha mengungkap berbagai fenomena yang menggambarkan serangkaian kegiatan dakwah kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. Sehingga dapat diperoleh sejumlah informasi mengenai berbagai upaya penerapan program yang dimaksud. Penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan, pertama kontribusi Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang terhadap perkembangan metode dakwah kultural adalah dakwah melalui seni. Kedua, Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang sebagai tempat Wisata Religi yang sangat signifikan.   This research tries to reveal the various phenomenon that describe a series of cultural propaganda activities Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. In order to obtain some informations about the efforts of the implementation of the program in question. It can be concluded, the first contribution of Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang on the development of methods of cultural propaganda is propaganda through art. Second Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang as a very significant Religious Tourism.

  8. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  9. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of grain refiner, modifier, and combination of grain refiner cum modifier was studied on Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys using computer aided cooling curve analysis. For combined grain refinement and modification effect, Al-Ti-B-Sr single master alloy was developed that acted as both grain refiner and modifier.

  10. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  11. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does Al Qaeda Central Still Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangil Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute si Al Qaeda central es todavía relevante o no. Tras estudiar la actividades de Al Qaeda central cuyo objetivo es provocar la violencia en Afganistán y Pakistán, así como los planes continuos de ataques directos contra los Estados Unidos, el artículo muestra que la capacidad operativa de Al Qaeda es más sólida y fuerte que la que Estados Unidos y otros investigadores y eruditos han anticipado. Además, el apoyo virulento y la contribución Al Qaeda en la Península Arábiga a la red de Al Qaeda muestra que la longevidad de Al Qaeda depende de la relación con sus afiliados. El artículo concluye que, en estas condiciones, Al Qaeda central todavía ocupa un lugar en las discusiones de seguridad global.

  13. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Wien, W.L.; Stoner, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  15. [Lessons from Guam ALS/PDC study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Hirano

    2007-11-01

    An extraordinarily high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) affecting the native population was discovered on the island of Guam a half century ago. Guam ALS is identical to classic ALS clinically and pathologically while PDC is marked by progressive parkinsonism and dementia. The unusual histological finding in these fetal neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles in a selective topographic distribution unassociated with senile plaques. There have been remarkable advances in field of age-associated neurodegenerative disease after our initial study of Guam cases. Four noteworthy topics are presented in this communication. 1) Clinically, the coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia was frequently recognized in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Some other new disease entities characterized by coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia have been reported. These include progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. 2) Neuropathologically, abundant neurofibrillary tangles unassociated with senile plaques were demonstrated in many diseases such as aftermath of boxing and tangle-only dementia. Furthermore, tau-positive structures were recognized not only in neurons but in glial cells in certain diseases. Tauopathy is one of the current hot research subjects. 3) Familial aggregation of Guam ALS patients provoked investigation of familial ALS elsewhere. Familial motor neuron disease with SOD1 mutation is the target of worldwide intense investigation at the present time. SOD1 gene mutation is, however, not found in Guam ALS. 4) The most striking findings of the Guam study is the gradual decline in the incidence of ALS on Guam during a quarter century and virtual disappearance of new patients. This may be linked to a remarkable change in environment and life style of the Chamorro population. The etiology of ALS is still unknown and

  16. Al-Âyah al-Mutasyâbihât al-Lafzhiyyah fi Sûrah al-An’âm ‘Inda al-Kirmâny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatiar Pasya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the verses of mutasyâbihât in the Quran. The debate of this verses caused various opinions. The meaning of the mutasyâbihât in this paper is the similarity and difference of the words in the Qur'an. Mufasir have different opinion about the meaning of the verse of mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi. In addition, many Hufadz of the Quran who are confused from one verse to another, or one chapter to another. It’s because similarity of verses in the Qur'an with other verses. So the writer wants to explain the verses mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi in the perspective of Hamzh al-Karmani in Surah al-An'âm. In this discussion the author discovers some passages in mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi, namely Asrâru al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-lafdzi, Asrar al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-hurf, and murâ'ah al-ikhtilâfmurâd bi al-lafdzi al-mukarrar.

  17. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  18. Optical, structural, and nuclear scientific studies of AlGaN with high Al composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tse Yang; Chung, Yee Ling; Li, Lin; Yao, Shude; Lee, Y. C.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Ferguson, Ian T.; Lu, Weijie

    2010-08-01

    AlGaN epilayers with higher Al-compositions were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire. Trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylaluminium (TMAl) and NH3 were used as the source precursors for Ga, Al, and N, respectively. A 25 nm AlN nucleation layer was first grown at low-temperature of 590 °C at 300 Torr. Followed, AlxGa1-xN layers were grown at 1080 °C on low-temperature AlN nucleation layers. The heterostructures were characterized by a series of techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering. Precise Al compositions were determined through XRD, RBS, and SEM combined measurements. Room Temperature Raman Scattering spectra shows three major bands from AlGaN alloys, which are AlN-like, A1 longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes, and E2 transverse optical (TO) band, respectively, plus several peak comes from the substrate. Raman spectral line shape analysis lead to an optical determination of the electrical property free carrier concentration of AlGaN. The optical properties of AlGaN with high Al composition were presented here.

  19. Formation of epitaxial Al 2O 3/NiAl(1 1 0) films: aluminium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykhach, Y.; Moroz, V.; Yoshitake, M.

    2005-02-01

    Structure of epitaxial Al 2O 3 layers formed on NiAl(1 1 0) substrates has been studied by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The elucidated structure was compared to the model suggested for 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers [K. Müller, H. Lindner, D.M. Zehner, G. Ownby, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 25 (1990) 1130; R.M. Jaeger, H. Kuhlenbeck, H.J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 259 (1991) 235]. The stepwise growth of Al 2O 3 film, involving deposition and subsequent oxidation of aluminium onto epitaxial 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers, has been investigated. Aluminium was deposited at room temperature, whereas its oxidation took place during annealing at 1070 K. The Al 2O 3 thickness was monitored by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It was found that Al 2O 3 layer follows the structure of 0.5 nm thick Al 2O 3 film, although a tilting of Al 2O 3(1 1 1) surface plane with respect to NiAl(1 1 0) surface appeared after Al deposition.

  20. Structural and electrical characterization of AuPtAlTi ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN with varying annealing temperature and Al content

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Mike W.; Han, Y.; Brown, Paul D.; Harrison, Ian; Hilton, K.P.; Munday, A.; Wallis, D.; Balmer, R.S.; Uren, M.J.; Martin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of varying annealing temperature and Al layer thickness on the structural and electrical characteristics of AuPtAlTi/AlGaN/GaN ohmic contact structures has been systematically investigated. The relationship between annealing temperature, Al content, interfacial microstructure, surface planarity and contact resistance is\\ud examined. In particular, the presence of a detrimental low temperature Pt-Al reaction is identified. This is implicated in both the requirement for a higher Al:T...

  1. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgobba, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.; Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

  2. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  3. Analisis Kecenderungan Manhaj Akidah Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD HAIDHAR KAMARZAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i is a very great and respected scholar during 16th and 17th century of Acheh. His knowledge in various fields recognized by local and international scholars. He had been a Qadi Malik al-’Adil, a religious leader, who became a referred by communities and country during the reign of the three Sultans of Aceh. He has authored nearly 40 pieces of books related to the theology and sufism. This study focuses on the methods used by Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i in his theological writings. This study found that Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i had used six methods in the such writings.

  4. MINERALOGIA E QUÍMICA DE SOLO DE VÁRZEA E SUAS SUSCEPTIBILIDADES NO PROCESSO DE TERRAS CAÍDAS NA COMUNIDADE DO DIVINO ESPÍRITO SANTO-AM / Mineralogy and chemistry of the lowland soil and its sensibilities in the process of lands falls in community Divino Espírito Santo (Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Campos Magalhães

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study about the mineralogical and chemical lowland soils generate information to compose a current survey about the susceptibility of lowland soil to process Fallen Lands. With this purpose we studied five profiles the banks of the Solimões River, located in the municipality of Iranduba (AM. The information obtained allowed to determine the Neosoil Fluvic the study area has favorable conditions for cultivation with an average pH of 6.2, with high levels of Ca, Mg, K, P, micronutrients and zero Al content, with high levels of C and M. O. in the first layer and a decrease in depth. Thus, Neosoil Fluvic was characterized as Tb eutrophic, with base saturation above 50%, with good CTC. The mineralogy was homogeneous in all profiles, with a predominance of primary minerals: Quartz, Albite and rutile, with low proportions of clay minerals Muscovite, Kaolinite, Muscovite-Illite interstratified and Illite.

  5. ALS-Plus Syndrome: Non-Pyramidal Features in a Large ALS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Leo; Vandriel, Shannon; Elman, Lauren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Powers, John; Boller, Ashley; Wood, Elisabeth McCarty; Woo, John; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autopsy studies show widespread pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but clinical surveys of multisystem disease in ALS are rare. We investigated ALS-Plus syndrome, an understudied group of patients with clinical features extending beyond pyramidal and neuromuscular systems with or without cognitive/behavioral deficits. Methods In a large, consecutively-ascertained cohort of 550 patients with ALS, we documented atypical clinical manifestations. Genetic screening for C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions was performed in 343 patients, and SOD1, TARDBP, and VCP were tested in the subgroup of patients with a family history of ALS. Gray matter and white matter imaging was available in a subgroup of 30 patients. Results Seventy-five (13.6%) patients were identified with ALS-Plus syndrome. We found disorders of ocular motility, cerebellar, extrapyramidal and autonomic functioning. Relative to those without ALS-Plus, cognitive impairment (8.0% vs 2.9%, p=0.029), bulbar-onset (49.3% vs 23.2%, pALS-Plus. Survival was significantly shorter in ALS-Plus (29.66 months vs 42.50 months, p=0.02), regardless of bulbar-onset or mutation status. Imaging revealed significantly greater cerebellar and cerebral disease in ALS-Plus compared to those without ALS-Plus. Conclusions ALS-Plus syndrome is not uncommon, and the presence of these atypical features is consistent with neuropathological observations that ALS is a multisystem disorder. ALS-Plus syndrome is associated with increased risk for poor survival and the presence of a pathogenic mutation. PMID:25086858

  6. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  7. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van den P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In acht hoofdstukken is dit beleid uiteengezet. 1. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie. 2. Eigenbelang van een meer marktgericht landbouwbeleid. 3. uitdagingen voor landbouwcooperaties. 4. Het westers landbouwbeleid en het wereldvoedselprobleem. 5. Landbouw heeft nu een eigen

  8. (14) Akinwole et al Influence of Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African ... 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of ... areas (Eyo et al., 2003). .... systems. Nigerian Journal of Rural. Extension and Development. 6: 38-. 42.

  9. Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2004-01-01

    ... [April and October 2004] have led some terrorism analysts to speculate that the messages may signal a new attempt by him to create a lasting political leadership role for himself and Al Qaeda as the vanguard...

  10. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  11. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future

  12. AL Amyloidosis Complicated by Persistent Oral Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Liarte Marconcini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of amyloid light chain (AL amyloidosis is presented here with uncontrolled bleeding after a nonsurgical dental procedure, most likely multifactorial in nature, and consequently treated with a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Arfiputri et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dharin Serebrina Arfiputri

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Diagnosis of VVC are from history taking, physical examination (Linhares et al, 2001; ... From the appearance of vaginal discharge usually minimal, ... (69.48%), and the rest are not yet married, divorce and widow, not yet.

  14. Ayinmode et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle

    Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked ... milk production in both dairy and beef cattle (Hernandez et al., 2001; Dubey and Schares, 2011). ..... Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Paris ...

  15. PEMBARUAN MASLAḤAH DALAM MAQĀṢID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of maṣlaḥah contained in the maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of maṣlaḥah in ḥifẓ al-dīn is technically defined as al-ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ḥifẓ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ḥifẓ al-nasl as ḥifẓ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ḥifẓ al-māl as al-taḍammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ḥifẓ al-‘aql as al-ḥuqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep maṣlaḥah yang terkandung dalam maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep maṣlaḥah dalam ḥifẓu al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ḥifẓu al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ḥifẓu al-nasl sebagai ḥifẓu al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ḥifẓu al-māl sebagai al-taḍammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ḥifẓu al-‘aql sebagai al-ḥuqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  16. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  17. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1993-05-01

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  18. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...... which is approximately 50 times greater than that of LiF:Mg,Ti is an interesting dosimetry material; however due to a high fading rate of the TL of AlN:Y2O3 on storage at room temperature, a further development of the material for improving the fading characteristics is needed for its application...

  20. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies.

  1. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng; Horsfield, Andrew; Lee, Peter D.; Brommer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  3. Compressive performance and crack propagation in Al alloy/Ti{sub 2}AlC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaor, D.A.H., E-mail: dorian.hanaor@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hu, L. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kan, W.H.; Proust, G. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Foley, M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Karaman, I.; Radovic, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Composite materials comprising a porous Ti{sub 2}AlC matrix and Al 6061 alloy were fabricated by a current-activated pressure assisted melt infiltration process. Coarse, medium and fine meso-structures were prepared with Al alloy filled pores of differing sizes. Materials were subjected to uniaxial compressive loading up to stresses of 668 MPa, leading to the failure of specimens through crack propagation in both phases. As-fabricated and post-failure specimens were analysed by X-ray microscopy and electron microscopy. Quasi-static mechanical testing results revealed that compressive strength was the highest in the fine structured composite materials. While the coarse structured specimens exhibited a compressive strength of 80% relative to this. Reconstructed micro-scale X-ray tomography data revealed different crack propagation mechanisms. Large planar shear cracks propagated throughout the fine structured materials while the coarser specimens exhibited networks of branching cracks propagating preferentially along Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces and through shrinkage pores in the Al alloy phase. Results suggest that control of porosity, compensation for Al alloy shrinkage and enhancement of the Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces are key considerations in the design of high performance metal/Ti{sub 2}AlC phase composites.

  4. The formation of AlB2 in an Al-B master alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    The formation of borides in an Al-3 wt.%B master alloy, produced via chemical reactions of KBF 4 and aluminium has been investigated. The chemical reactions produce boron, which dissolves into molten aluminium and subsequently forms aluminium borides. Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) of the Al-3 wt.%B master alloy under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the presence of two types of phases that contain different levels of boron. Combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the two types of phases are identified as AlB 2 on AlB 12 . This gives a direct evidence for a peritectic reaction of AlB 12 and aluminium, which produces AlB 2 . The thermodynamic properties of the reactions that may be involved are examined, and the presence of AlB 12 phase in the master alloy explained. The observed microstructure is explained according to the peritectic reaction in an Al-B phase diagram. The stability of AlB 2 and AlB 12 at lower temperature than 975 deg. C is clarified

  5. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  6. Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargarella, P.; de Oliveira, M.F.; Kiminami, C.S.; Pauly, S.; Kuehn, U.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Eckert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the λ* and the λ.Δe criteria. → Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. → Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the λ.Δe criterion. → The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (λ) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (Δe) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the λ.Δe criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the λ.Δe criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (ΔT x ) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the λ.Δe criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the λ.Δe criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

  7. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ligang; Masset, Patrick J.; Cao Fuyong; Meng Fangui; Liu Libin; Jin Zhanpeng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → One ternary phase τ 1 -Al 8 Cu 4 Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al 3 Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. → The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. → It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase τ 1 -Al 8 Cu 4 Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al 3 Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Liquidus projection of the Nb-Cr-Al system near the Al3(Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nunes, C.A.; Coelho, A.A.; Caram, R.

    2006-01-01

    The system Nb-Cr-Al was investigated in the region near the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic and the liquidus projection of that region was determined based on the microstructural characterization of arc melted alloys. The characterization utilized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results allowed one to determine three primary solidification liquidus surfaces ((Cr,Al) 2 Nb, Cr(Al,Nb) and Al 3 (Nb,Cr)), that are originated from the binary systems Cr-Nb, Cr-Al and Al-Nb. It is proposed the occurrence of the invariant reaction L + (Cr,Al) 2 Nb ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) and of a point of minimum, which involves a three phase reaction, L ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb). All alloys studied showed formation of the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic as the last solidification step with Al(Nb)Cr 2 precipitating from Cr(Al,Nb)

  9. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  10. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Funahashi, Shiro; Asaka, Toru; Hirosaki, Naoto; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al 10 O 3 N 8 ) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm 3 . The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R wp =6.97%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.68, R p =5.45%, R B =5.13% and R F =4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N) 6 ] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N) 4 ] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n O +n T ) with n O /(n O +n T ). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n O and n T are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  11. Ilhaq al-Masa'il bi Nazairiha dan Penerapannya dalam Bahth al-Masa'il

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Hadi Aminuddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ilh}a>q al-Masa>’il bi Naz}a>iriha is one of the methods used by Nahdlatul Ulama in resisting the opinion based on (manhaji analytical concept of Islamic jurisprudence (the solution for complex social problems as the main purpose of Islamic shari’ah. As known that, up to now, ilh}a>q has been understood as a process of answering a new case by the way of equating to the old one which is written in the book called al-mu’tabarah. Such ilh}a>q has got many criticisms both from the definitions, procedures and its epistemogical footing. This paper is about to reveal how the NU clerics of Islam understand the concept of Ilh}a>q}, what its epistemological footing was and how the concept was applied in discussing many cases (bah}th al-masa>’il. Based on the writer’s study to several documents of decision results of NU that Ilh}a>q did not only simplify to equate the new cases with the old ones that have been freely discussed in the books of al-mu’tabarah, but both cases should have similar legal substance, that is, both should be under the decrees of laws of al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah. Thus, Ilh}a>q is actually answering the problem by applying al-qawa>‘id al-fiqhi>yah, whereas the formulation al-qawa>‘id al-fiqhi>yah itself was set off from the examination of a number of furu>’ generated by qiya> s. This paper also found three variations of the implementation of Ilh}a>q in bah}th al-masa>’il. First, the application of Ilh}a>q was without mentioning al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah which covered new cases (mulh}aq and the old case law that has been known in the books of fiqh (mulh}aq bih/attached to. Second, the application of Ilh}a>q was accompanied by mentioning mulh}aq bih and al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah. Third, the application of Ilh}a>q, was only by the mentioning al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah.

  12. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  13. Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruzzi Bardella, A.; Bolcich, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The T β/α+β of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The T β/α+β of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author) [es

  14. KONSEPSI AL-QURAN DAN AL-HADITS TENTANG OPERASIONAL BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam hadir dengan beberapa tujuan, diantaranya adalah terciptanya khoirul ummah dan rahmatan lil’alamin dengan al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits sebagai penuntun umat Islam demi tercapainya tujuan tersebut. Sebagai pedoman hidup, al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits memberikan berbagai petunjuk tentang keteraturan dan permasalahan hidup, termasuk didalamnya mengenai perbankan yang telah memenuhi hampir separuh sisi-sisi kehidupan manusia. Untuk memaksimal ajaran syariah secara kaffah, maka nilai-nilai yang terdapat dalam al-Quran harus mampu diturunkan pada tataran praktis. Salah satu usaha dan langkah dalam rangka menemukan formula perbankan masa depan, al-Quran dan Hadits memiliki konsepsi dalam kegiatan operasional Bank Syariah. Hal ini dilakukan untuk membentuk sikap mental atau watak yang terjabarkan dalam pola berpikir, cara berbicara, dan etika bertingkah laku, sebagai ekspresi jiwa dari manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Allah Swt. Agar umat Islam mampu menjadi umat yang unggul (khayr ummah.

  15. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  16. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  17. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanping; Luo Yinhong; Wang Wei; Zhang Keying; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Wang Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60 Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  18. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudo, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D.; Onuki, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present 27 Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd 5 Al 2 (T c =4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27 Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T c . The temperature dependence of the 27 Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T c , indicating that NpPd 5 Al 2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd 5 Al 2 .

  19. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-07-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  20. A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Gan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

  1. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroid, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  3. Solutional Landforms of Gabal Al-Qaraha, the Oasis of Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Embabi, Nabil S.

    1981-01-01

    Jabal Al-Qarah is one of the small outlier hills at the Oasis of Al-Hasa, lying at about lOkm ENE of Al-Hafuf Town. The solutional forms of Al-Qarah hill discussed in this paper are as follows : 1. A calcareous duricrust which covers the top and some of the slopes of the hill. 2. Rock Pillars which are long columns of white lime-stone. 3. Huge crevasses which are wide erosional openings along vertical joints. 4. Narrow, sinuous caves inside the hill. 5. Pedestal rocks with mushroo...

  4. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshi, L.; Zenou, V.; Ezersky, V.; Munitz, A.; Talianker, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new ternary aluminide U 2 FeAl 20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  5. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  6. The effectiveness of ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses for the retention of ALS knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical failure modes of AlQ3-based OLEDs: AlQ3 hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, John E; Halls, Mathew D; Hratchian, Hrant P; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2006-03-28

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), AlQ3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron-transport material and emitting layer. The reaction of AlQ3 with trace H2O has been implicated as a major failure pathway for AlQ3-based OLEDs. Hybrid density functional calculations have been carried out to characterize the hydrolysis of AlQ3. The thermochemical and atomistic details for this important reaction are reported for both the neutral and oxidized AlQ3/AlQ3+ systems. In support of experimental conclusions, the neutral hydrolysis reaction pathway is found to be a thermally activated process, having a classical barrier height of 24.2 kcal mol(-1). First-principles infrared and electronic absorption spectra are compared to further characterize AlQ3 and the hydrolysis pathway product, AlQ2OH. The activation energy for the cationic AlQ3 hydrolysis pathway is found to be 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the neutral reaction, which is significant since it suggests a role for charge imbalance in promoting chemical failure modes in OLED devices.

  8. Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J; Laplanche, G; Joulain, A; Gauthier-Brunet, V; Dubois, S

    2010-01-01

    Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ω-Al0 0.70 Cu 0.20 Fe 0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/ω, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T ≤ 570K), the yield stress of the Al/ω composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

  9. Rupture of Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel by fission induced creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Sohn, Dong Seong [UNIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonnge (United States); Lee, Kyu Hong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This phenomenon was found specifically in the dispersion fuel plate with Si addition in the Al matrix to suppress interaction layer (IL) formation between UMo and Al. It is known that the stresses induced by fission induced swelling in U-Mo fuel particles are relieved by creep deformation of the IL, surrounding the fuel particles, that has a much higher creep rate than the Al matrix. Thus, when IL growth is suppressed, the stress is instead exerted on the Al matrix. The observed rupture in the Al matrix is believed to be caused when the stress exceeded the rupture strength of the Al matrix. In this study, the possibility of creep rupture of the Al matrix between the neighboring U-Mo fuel particles was examined using the ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) tool. The predicted rupture time for a plate was much shorter than its irradiation life indicating a rupture during the irradiation. The higher stress leads Al matrix to early creep rupture in this plate for which the Al matrix with lower creep strain rate does not effectively relieve the stress caused by the swelling of the U-Mo fuel particles. For the other plate, no rupture was predicted for the given irradiation condition. The effect of creeping of the continuous phase on the state of stress is significant.

  10. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Villarosa, Al-Qaeda in Yemen, Carnegie Endowment, July 7, 2009, http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in-yemen- event-1372. 53 Brian Whitaker...73 Khaled Fattah, “Yemen’s Insecurity Dilemma,” Yemen Times, February 11, 2014, http:// carnegie -mec.org/2014/02...Johnsen, and Shari Villarosa, “Al-Qaeda in Yemen.” Carnegie Endowment. July 7, 2009. http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in- yemen-event

  11. KITAB AL-SANĪ AL-MAṬĀLIB: INTERKONEKSI NAHWU DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyah Zakiyah

    2012-12-01

    Tulisan ini mereview buku yang berjudul al-Sanī al-Maṭālib yang ditulis oleh Kiai Nur Iman Mlangi Yogyakarta. Buku ini ditulis dalam bahasa Arab yang me­ngandung interkoneksi antara ilmu Nahwu (tata bahasa Arab dengan mis­tisis­me. Buku ini sangat menarik karena kenyataan bahwa kedua pengetahuan tersebut memiliki aturan sendiri-sendiri. Selain itu, sangat sedikit penulis yang menulis dengan gaya seperti itu. Salah satunya adalah Syaikh Abdul Qadir bin Ahmad al-Kuhany dengan karyanya yang berjudul Manniyat al-Fāqir al-Munjarid wa Sayrat al-Murīd al-Mutafarrid. Buku al-Saniy al-Muthalib diduga telah ditulis pada akhir abad ke-18 atau awal abad ke-19, menurut periode kehidupan Kiai Nur Iman yaitu sekitar pertengahan abad ke-18. Aturan Nahwu dalam buku ini dijelaskan secara teosofi yang dimulai dengan penjelasan mengenai tauhid (keesaan Tuhan sebagai kajian dasar bagi orang Islam, yang diikuti dengan makna dari masing-masing aturan bahasa Arab dalam aspek mistiknya.

  12. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic studies of ALS cases in ALS-SMA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Blasco, Helene; Couratier, Philippe; Dangoumau, Audrey; Bellance, Remi; Desnuelle, Claude; Viader, Fausto; Pautot, Vivien; Millecamps, Stephanie; Bakkouche, Salah; Salachas, FranÇois; Andres, Christian R; Meininger, Vincent; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are the most frequent motor neuron disorders in adulthood and infancy, respectively. There is a growing literature supporting common pathophysiological patterns between those disorders. One important clinical issue for that is the co-occurrence of both diseases within a family. To collect families in which ALS and SMA patients co-exist and describe the phenotype and the genotype of ALS patients. Nine families with co-occurrence of SMA and ALS have been gathered over the last 15 years. Epidemiological, phenotype and genetic status were collected. Out of the nine families, six corresponded to the criteria of familial ALS (FALS). Clinical data were available for 11 patients out of the 15 ALS cases. Mean age of onset was 58.5 years, site of onset was lower limbs in nine cases (81.8%), median duration was 22 months. Four ALS patients carried a mutation: three mutations in SOD1 gene (G147N in two cases and one with E121G) and one repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. Three patients had abnormal SMN1 copy numbers. While the high proportion of familial history of ALS cases in these ALS-SMA pedigrees could have suggested that these familial clusters of the two most frequent MND rely on a genetic background, we failed to exclude that this occurred by chance.

  14. Characterization of N-polar AlN in GaN/AlN/(Al,Ga)N heterostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bonef, Bastien; Keller, Stacia; Wienecke, Steven; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-11-01

    In GaN/(Al,Ga)N high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT), AlN interlayer between GaN channel and AlGaN barrier suppresses alloy scattering and significantly improves the electron mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. While high concentrations of gallium were previously observed in Al-polar AlN interlayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the N-polar AlN (Al x Ga1-x N) films examined by atom probe tomography in this study exhibited aluminum compositions (x) equal to or higher than 95% over a wide range of growth conditions. The also investigated AlN interlayer in a N-polar GaN/AlN/AlGaN/ S.I. GaN HEMT structure possessed a similarly high x content.

  15. 26Al in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Leising, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several different lines of physical reasoning have converged on the importance of the radioactive nucleus 26 Al. The sciences of meteoritics, nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray astronomy, galactic chemical evolution, solar system formation, and interstellar chemistry all place this nucleus in a central position with possible profound implications. Perhaps more importantly the study of this radioactivity can unite these diverse fields in a complicated framework which will benefit all of them. This review traces the evolution of ideas concerning 26 Al in the context of these disciplines. 26 Al was first discussed for the possibility that its decay energy could melt meteorite parent bodies, and its daughter, 26 Mg, was later found in meteorites with enhanced abundance. It was also among the first radioactivities expected to be synthesized in interestingly large quantities in nulceosynthetic events. The first definitive detection of gamma-rays from an interstellar radioactivity is that of 1.809 MeV gamma-rays from 26 Al. This discovery has many implications, some of which are outlined here. The whole problem of isotopic anomalies in meteorites is greatly influenced by the specific issues surrounding excess 26 Mg, whether it represents in situ decay of 26 Al or memory of conditions of the ISM. The relationships among these ideas and their implications are examined. (orig.)

  16. Kerja Perspektif Al-Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The moslem ethics of life is based on movement as ex­pressed in certain terms like al-sharī’ah, al-tarīqah, al-sirāt, al-sabīl and al-manhaj, that make sense of way and teachings to achieve good life. Islam obliges and gives appreciation of the achievements of Mus­lims. The Qur’an uses several terms to refer to such work; ‘charity, kasb, juhd, ibtighâ’, sa ’yu and su ’âl. From this concept, the Qur’an considers work as nob­le, while begging is despicable. Work means thankful to God for the potential He bestows. The Qur’an promotes work not only because it is the way to achieve the wealth, but also because it possesses the its sacred value for the benefit of fulfilling livelihood. Therefore the work should also be done based on ethical values .

  17. Neuropsychoanalyse: Hirntätigkeit als Zeichenprozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Scheidegger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fassen wir Geist und Natur nicht als Dichotomie sondern im Sinne von Peirce als Kontinuität auf, dann lässt die genauere Betrachtung des Körpers semiotische Leibphänomene als Zeichen einer Sprache erkennen, deren Grammatik es – im Sinne einer «Bioarchäologie» – zu entschlüsseln gilt. Hierfür stellen die Neurowissenschaften mit modernen Visualisierungstechniken geeignete epistemische Hilfsmittel bereit: Sie machen körperliche Vorgänge des Informationsaustausches sichtbar und heben die semiotisch wenig erschlossene Ebene komplexer neuronaler Zeichentransformationen ans Licht. Um eine Integration der physiologischen und psychologischen Perspektive bemüht sich das transdisziplinäre Projekt der «Neuropsychoanalyse». Sie hebt die Relevanz natürlicher Verarbeitungsmechanismen des Körpers für die subjektiv geprägten Zeichentransformationen des mentalen Erlebens hervor und weicht eine semiotisch allzu undurchlässige Grenzziehung zwischen Psycho- und Neurodynamik etwas auf. Die Hirntätigkeit als potenziell erkenntnisleitenden Zeichenprozess zu verstehen, darf aber nicht in einer unreflektierten Bezugnahme auf neuronale Zeichensysteme münden, wenn die Neuropsychoanalyse mehr als nur eine medienwirksame Neurokarikatur psychodynamischer Konzepte erreichen will.

  18. Threshold states in /sup 26/Al revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E; McDonald, A B; Wang, T F; Howard, A J; Magnus, P V; Parker, P D

    1986-03-31

    Threshold states in /sup 26/Al have been re-examined using the /sup 27/Al(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 26/Al and /sup 25/Mg(/sup 3/He,d..gamma..)/sup 26/Al reactions in order to resolve apparent ambiguities in some of the previously reported properties of these states. In particular, the s-wave resonance strength reported at E=37 keV is now found to be located at E/sub c.m./=57.54 keV, and the proton width for the 374 keV resonance has been revised to GAMMA/sub p/=0.82 eV. These results have been used to calculate a new resonance strength of ..omega gamma..= 1.6 x 10/sup -13/ eV for the 57.54 keV resonance. As a result, the stellar production rate for /sup 26/Al is increased by a factor approx.=3-38 for temperatures T/sub 9/=0.05-0.1.

  19. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, XIAOMIN; OH, SOON-HWAN; HOYER, LOIS L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  20. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  1. Is tumor necrosis factor - 376a promoter polymorphism associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis? ¿El polimorfismo-376A del promotor del gen del factor de necrosis tumoral se asocia con una mayor susceptibilidad a padecer esclerosis múltiple?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Kauffman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position -376 of the tumor necrosis factor á gene (TNFA has been associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS in Spain. However, no association was found in populations from the USA and The Netherlands. Here we investigate the association between the TNFA - 376A SNP and MS susceptibility in Argentinean patients with MS. The A/G genotype was found in 4.4% of patients (n=90 and in 4.8% of healthy individuals (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; confidence interval: 0.23- 3.84. Thus, no significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies were found between healthy individuals and patients with MS in Argentina.Un polimorfismo de nucleótido único (SNP, por sus iniciales en inglés en la posición -376 del gen codificante del factor de necrosis tumoral á (TNFA ha sido asociado en España con un mayor riesgo a padecer esclerosis múltiple (EM. Sin embargo, esta asociación no fue encontrada en estudios hechos en poblaciones provenientes de los EE.UU. y Holanda. Aquí investigamos la asociación entre el SNP TNFA -376A y el desarrollo de EM en una población de pacientes argentinos con EM. El genotipo A/G fue encontrado en 4.4% de los pacientes (n=90 y en 4.8% de los controles sanos (n=84; p=0.92; odds ratio=0.93; intervalo de confianza: 0.23-3.84. En consecuencia, no encontramos diferencias en las frecuencias alélicas y genotípicas entre los sujetos enfermos y los controles sanos en Argentina.

  2. Ultrasonic spot welding of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Patel, V.K.; Jiang, X.Q.; Li, C.; Bhole, S.D.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal welding condition is achieved at 100 J and 0.1 s. • Failure load first increases and then decreases with increasing welding energy. • The highest failure load after welding is close to that of the clad sheets. • At low energy levels failure occurs in the mode of interfacial failure. • At high energy levels failure takes place at the edge of nugget region. - Abstract: Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) was used to join Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets, aiming at exploring weldability and identifying failure mode in relation to the welding energy. It was observed that the application of a low welding energy of 100 J was able to achieve the optimal welding condition during USW at a very short welding time of 0.1 s for the tri-layered clad sheets. The optimal lap shear failure load obtained was equivalent to that of the as-received Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets. With increasing welding energy, the lap shear failure load initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum value. At a welding energy of 25 J, failure occurred in the mode of interfacial failure along the center Al/Al weld interface due to insufficient bonding. At a welding energy of 50 J, 75 J and 100 J, failure was also characterized by the interfacial failure mode, but it occurred along the Al/Mg clad interface rather than the center Al/Al weld interface, suggesting stronger bonding of the Al/Al weld interface than that of the Al/Mg clad interface. The overall weld strength of the Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets was thus governed by the Al/Mg clad interface strength. At a welding energy of 125 J and 150 J, thinning of weld nugget and extensive deformation at the edge of welding tip caused failure at the edge of nugget region, leading to a lower lap shear failure load

  3. Core electron binding energy shifts of AlBr3 and Al2Br6 vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Astrid M.; Plenge, Juergen; Leone, Stephen R.; Canton, Sophie E.; Rude, Bruce S.; Bozek, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The Al 2p and Br 3d inner-shell photoelectron spectra of aluminum tribromide monomer and dimer vapor were measured at 90 and 95 eV photon energy, respectively, to determine the core electron binding energies of the atoms in the two molecular species. While AlBr 3 has three identical Br atoms, Al 2 Br 6 exhibits four terminal and two bridging Br atoms. The species are identified by their distinct valence photoelectron spectra. Comparison of the observed Al 2p 1/2 and Al 2p 3/2 electron binding energies of AlBr 3 with those of Al 2 Br 6 shows that there is a chemical shift of (0.15 ± 0.03) eV to lower energy in the dimer. In Al 2 Br 6 , an assignment is proposed in which the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of terminal Br atoms are (1.18 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms. This assignment assumes that both types of Br atoms have similar cross-sections for ionization. With this result, the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of Br atoms in AlBr 3 are (0.81 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms of the dimer but (0.37 ± 0.03) eV higher than those of terminal Br atoms of the dimer. The obtained chemical shifts are considered in terms of the binding relations and electron density distributions in both molecules. Chemical shifts that are larger than a few hundred millielectron volts, as observed in the Al 2 Br 6 /AlBr 3 system, offer potential to study the dissociation dynamics of the dimer in a femtosecond visible or ultraviolet-pump/XUV-probe experiment

  4. Solute trapping of Ge in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; West, J.A.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on partitioning during rapid solidification of dilute Al-Ge alloys. Implanted thin films of Al have been pulsed-laser melted to obtain solidification at velocities in the range of 0.01 ms to 3.3 m/s, as measured by the transient conductance technique. Previous and subsequent Rutherford Backscattering depth profiling of the Ge solute in the Al alloys has been used to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient k. A significant degree of lateral film growth during solidification confines determination of k to the placing of an upper bound of 0.22 on k for solidification velocities in this range. The authors place a lower limit of 10 m/s on the diffusive velocity, which locates the transition from solute partitioning to solute trapping in the Continuous Growth Model

  5. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  6. Superbends expand the scope of Berkeley's ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Tamura, Lori S.

    2002-01-01

    While the ALS has turned out to be a world-leader in providing beams of soft X-rays -- indeed, furnishing these beams remains its core mission -- there has nonetheless been a steadily growing demand from synchrotron radiation users for harder X-rays with higher photon energies. The clamor has been strongest from protein crystallographers whose seemingly insatiable appetite for solving structures of biological macromolecules could not be satisfied by the number of crystallography beamlines available worldwide. But how to provide these X-rays in a cost-effective way without disrupting the thriving research programs of the existing ALS users was the problem. Superconducting bend magnets (superbends) provided the answer for the ALS, which adopted a proposal to replace some of the normal combined-function (gradient) magnets in the curved arcs of the storage ring with superconducting dipoles that could generate higher magnetic fields and thus synchrotron light with a higher critical energy

  7. Evaluation of Functional Disability in ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Soltan-Zadeh

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive degenerative fatal disorder of motor neuron. In this research course of functional disability and possible underlying factors affecting disability were studied. Materials & Methods: First 59 patients with definite ALS were selected and for each patient ALSFRS (ALS Functional Rating Scale was determined at Initial and the end of a six month period. Results: During this period 9 patients expired. Bulbar onset localization showed a more rapid course than non-bulbar onset group. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the age group or gender with progression of disability. In expired group, mean survival in bulbar onset and older patients were significantly less than those with non-bulbar onset and younger ones. There was no significant relationship between survival and gender.

  8. Grain refinement of Al wrought alloys with newly developed AlTiC master alloys; Kornfeinung von Al-Knetlegierungen mit neu entwickelten AlTiC-Vorlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. [Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke AG, Bonn (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    AlTiC master alloys are a new grain refiner type to produce an equiaxed grain structure of cast extrusion and rolling ingots. These master alloys contain Ti carbides which act as nucleants of the {alpha} solid solution during solidification. The TiC content is lower than the TiB{sub 2} content of the industrial proved AlTiB master alloys. Benefits of the AlTiC master alloys are the low agglomeration tendency of the Ti carbides in the melt and that no Zr poisoning takes place. Despite of the low Ti carbide content the grain refinement performance can be very efficient, if low melt temperatures during casting will be used and as result of this a sufficient constitutional supercooling at the solidification front is achieved. (orig.)

  9. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  10. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  11. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  12. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced....

  13. PERFILES PROFESIONALES Y VALORES RELATIVOS AL TRABAJO

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, José Eduardo; Marcaccio, Antonela

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la relación existente entre los valores relativos al trabajo y algunos perfiles profesionales (contabilidad y administración, marketing y ventas, y recepción). El instrumento utilizado es la Escala Argentina de Valores Relativos al Trabajo (Moreno & Marcaccio, 2012) que contiene cuatro subescalas de cinco ítems cada una, a saber: Realización Personal, Reconocimiento Social, Altruismo y Aspiraciones Económicas. La muestra incluye a 425 sujetos (40% v...

  14. Trastornos temporomandibulares en adictos al qat

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Guerra Cobián; Raúl J Pupo Triguero; Humberto Sarracent Pérez; Kirenia M Rabilero Salgado

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: los trastornos temporomandibulares se asocian frecuentemente al hábito de masticar qat, pero se carece de estudios que detallan sus particularidades, por lo que se realiza este trabajo, con los objetivos de determinar la prevalencia de trastornos temporomandibulares en pacientes adictos al qat, identificar los hallazgos clínicos- radiográficos asociados y clasificar los trastornos temporomandibulares presentes en la población estudiada. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo...

  15. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  16. Surface study and thickness control of thin Al2O3 film on Cu-9%Al(111) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Yoshitake, Michiko; Song Weijie

    2004-01-01

    We were successful in growing a uniform flat Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al(111) surface using the improved cleaning process, low ion energy and short time sputtering. The growth of ultra-thin film of Al 2 O 3 on Cu-9%Al was investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Al 2 O 3 film whose maximum thickness was about 4.0 nm grew uniformly on the Cu-9%Al surface. The Al and O KLL Auger peaks of Al 2 O 3 film shifted toward low kinetic energy, and the shifts were related to Schottky barrier formation and band bending at the Al 2 O 3 /Cu-9%Al interface. The thickness of Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al surface was controlled by the oxygen exposure

  17. Isothermal cross-sections of Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems at 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenok, N.L.; Yanson, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray and microstructural analyses are used to study phase equilibria in Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems. Existence of SrAl 2 Ge 2 , Sr(Al, Ge) 2 Ba(Al, Ge) 2 , Sr 3 Al 2 Ge 2 , Ba 3 Al 2 Ge 2 ternary compounds is confirmed, a new BaGe 4 binary compound and also new ternary compounds of approximate composition Sr 57 Al 30 Ge 13 and Ba 20 Al 40 Ge 40 , which crystal structure is unknown, are detected. Aluminium solubility in SrAl 4 and BaAl 4 binary compounds (0.05 atomic fraction) is determined. Ba(Al, Ge) 2 compound homogeneity region is defined more exactly (aluminium content varies from 0.27 to 0.51 at. fractions)

  18. A study on preparation and hydriding of β-Mg2Al3 and γ-Mg17Al12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suwarno

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the synthetic formation of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 has been studied. Mechanical alloying of Mg and Al powders with the atomic ratio of Mg:Al = 2:3 in toluene solution yields β-Mg 2 Al 3 compound after milling for 30 h. The γ-Mg 17 Al 12 can be formed by heating the β-Mg 2 Al 3 at 430°C under high vacuum. The measured hydrogen capacities of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 as hydride at 300°C are 3.2 and 4.9 wt%, respectively. Microstructure of the Mg-Al specimen shows that on hydriding at 300°C the polygonal shape of the γ-Mg 17 Al 12 changes into irregular shapes which are composed of γ-MgH 2 and Al. (author)

  19. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fine fibrous form (Hess and Blackmun, 1975; Dahle et al., 2005). ..... grain structure in the casting (Apelian et al., 1984), which in turn are supported in the present work by a decreased ..... Liao H., Zhang M., Wu Q., Wang H. and Sun G., 2007.

  20. Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional Al-Sn and Al-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ɛ = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.

  1. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, and less agglomerated and had good adhesion to the matrix in composites containing 1 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNT content to 2 wt.% led to the formation of CNT clusters which resulted in less uniform and homogenous composite powders. Almost full densification of Al6061 reinforced with CNTs was achieved at 500°C. Also, CNTs reinforced Al2124 nanocomposites reached very high densities at 500°C. Composites reinforced with 1 wt.% CNTs displayed better densification compared to composites containing 2 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNTs content from 0.5 to 1 wt.% increased the hardness of the Al6061 and Al2124 alloys to maximum values. Further increase of CNTs content to 2 wt.% decreased the hardness to values lower than that of the monolithic alloys.

  2. Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1):17- .... Feed and water were provided ad libitum for one week before the start of experiment for adaptation. The basal .... The mean value of feed intake (g/day/rat) for all treated groups was slightly reduced as compared to the negative control group. On the.

  3. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherafat, Z.; Paydar, M.H.; Ebrahimi, R.; Sohrabi, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 o C. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

  4. Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    guest group into a host structure without a major struc- tural modification of the ... on nano-structure size (Li et al 2009). Among ... naocomposite by the decrease of interfacial areas between ... pling agent which usually has a long alkyl tail shows a good ... the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers (Li et al. 2010).

  5. The ALS-FTD-Q: A new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; de Visser, M.; de Haan, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  6. The ALS-FTD-Q: a new screening tool for behavioural disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; van den Berg, L.H.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; de Visser, M.; de Haan, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  7. The ALS-FTD-Q A new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, Joost; Beeldman, Emma; Schmand, Ben; Berkhout, Joris; Linssen, Wim H. J. P.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.; Grupstra, Hepke F.; Weikamp, Janneke G.; Schelhaas, H. Jurgen; Papma, Janne M.; van Swieten, John C.; de Visser, Marianne; de Haan, Rob J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  8. The ALS-FTD-Q: a new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.A.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; Berg, L.H. van den; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; Visser, M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  9. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  10. Direct observations of grain boundary phenomena during indentation of Al and Al-Mg thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM; Minor, AM; Stach, EA; Morris, Joan K.; Corcoran, SG; Joo, YC; Moody, NR; Suo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of Al and Al-Mg thin films has been studied with the unique experimental approach of in-situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope. This paper concentrates on the role of solute Mg additions in the transfer of plasticity across grain boundaries. The

  11. Burden of rare variants in ALS genes influences survival in familial and sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Li, Yan; Kung, Michelle H W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Li, Miaoxin; Sham, Pak-Chung; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variants are implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is unclear whether the burden of rare variants in ALS genes has an effect on survival. We performed whole genome sequencing on 8 familial ALS (FALS) patients with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation and whole exome sequencing on 46 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients living in Hong Kong and found that 67% had at least 1 rare variant in the exons of 40 ALS genes; 22% had 2 or more. Patients with 2 or more rare variants had lower probability of survival than patients with 0 or 1 variant (p = 0.001). After adjusting for other factors, each additional rare variant increased the risk of respiratory failure or death by 60% (p = 0.0098). The presence of the rare variant was associated with the risk of ALS (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.61, p = 0.03), and ALS patients had higher rare variant burden than controls (MB, p = 0.004). Our findings support an oligogenic basis with the burden of rare variants affecting the development and survival of ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. First-principles study of L10 Ti-Al and V-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, S.R.; Papaconstantopoulos, D.A.; Klein, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    As a first step towards understanding the reduced embrittlement of L1 0 Ti-Al alloys which accompanies the introduction of small concentrations of V, we have determined from first principles, using full-potential linearized--augmented-plane-wave calculations, the equilibrium values of the structural parameters and the associated electronic structure for the stoichiometric (L1 0 ) Ti-Al (tetragonal) compound. Our calculated values of c/a and a are in good agreement with experiment. Using the same method of calculation, we have also studied the electronic structure associated with the (hypothetical) L1 0 V-Al alloy that would form when V is substituted for Ti. We find that (1) the electronic structures of these V-Al alloys are relatively insensitive to variations of c/a and a; (2) near the Ti-Al equilibrium geometry, the electronic structures of the V-Al and Ti-Al alloys are very similar; and (3) that a rigid-band model involving substitution of V for Ti can be used to gain a qualitative understanding of the reduction in c/a which accompanies the introduction of small concentrations of V. We relate the reduction in c/a to important changes in the bonding that accompany the occupation of bands immediately above the Fermi level of the stoichiometric Ti-Al compound

  13. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  15. Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, I.; Andronic, A.; Duma, M.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ω·τ (ω - the angular velocity of the DNS and τ its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ω·τ was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ω·τ excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The α particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in σ Z and ω·τ excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for

  16. 26Mg(p,n)26Al and 23Na(α,n)26Al reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Cross sections for the 26 Mg(p,n) 26 Al reaction were measured from threshold at 4.988 MeV to 5.820 MeV. Cross sections for the 23 Na(α,n) 26 Al reaction were measured from threshold at 3.483 MeV to 4.597 MeV. In each case, separate measurements were to the ground state and to the first and second excited states of 26 Al. Cross sections for the inverse reactions were calculated and reaction rate factors relating to the destruction of 26 Al in a supernova environment were determined. Astrophysical implications relating to the observation of live and extinct 26 Al are discussed. Excitation functions for several additional exit channels for the 26 Mg + rho and 23 Na + α reactions are reported

  17. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  18. Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al 2 O 3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO 2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al 2 O 3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al 2 O 3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO 2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

  19. Production of 26Al by spallation of Fe, Si, Al nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, P.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for 7 Be, 10 Be and 26 Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low level background counters. Results for 26 Al at 0.6GeV are in mb: 17.9 + or - 2.7 in Al, 12.5 + or - 2.5 in Si and 0.45 + or - 0.14 in Fe; at 24GeV 2.6 + or - 0.5mb in Fe. Results for 10 Be are not valid on account of experimental difficulties. It is deduced from these values of aluminium in cosmic ray propagation that 26 Al is not yet cosmic ray chronometer [fr

  20. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, A.; Flouquet, J.; Palleau, J.; Buevoz, J.L.

    1979-08-01

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al 3 Ce and Al 11 Ce 3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al 3 Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al 3 Ce. For Al 11 Ce 3 , two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  1. Phase constituents and microstructure of laser cladding Al2O3/Ti3Al reinforced ceramic layer on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianing; Chen Chuanzhong; Lin Zhaoqing; Squartini, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this study, Fe 3 Al has been chosen as cladding powder due to its excellent properties of wear resistance and high strength, etc. → Laser cladding of Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can increase wear resistance of substrate. → In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of Ti 3 Al and B. → This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser-cladded coating. - Abstract: Laser cladding of the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can greatly increase wear resistance of titanium alloy. In this study, the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer has been researched by means of electron probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and micro-analyzer. In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of amount of Ti 3 Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser cladded coating, it was found that with addition of Al 2 O 3 , the microstructure performance and micro-hardness of the coating was obviously improved due to the action of the Al-Ti-B system and hard phases.

  2. The Existence of a Designer Al=Al Double Bond in the LiAl2 H4- Cluster Formed by Electronic Transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Katie A; Zhang, Xinxing; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Bowen, Kit H

    2017-12-22

    The Al=Al double bond is elusive in chemistry. Herein we report the results obtained via combined photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio studies of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster that confirm the formation of a conventional Al=Al double bond. Comprehensive searches for the most stable structures of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster have shown that the global minimum isomer I possesses a geometric structure which resembles that of Si 2 H 4 , demonstrating a successful example of the transmutation of Al atoms into Si atoms by electron donation. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum discovered the coexistence of two isomers in the ion beam, including the one with the Al=Al double bond. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo 3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, Al Mo and Mo Al , as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair Al Mo +Mo Al , in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al 5 Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author) [es

  4. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  5. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering; Zupanic, F. [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-09-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation ({alpha}{sub Al}, {beta}{sub Si}, Al{sub 3}Sm, Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + {beta}{sub Si} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al{sub 3}Sm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  6. Electronic Structures and Bonding Properties of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Xinmin; REN Yi

    2007-01-01

    The relation among electronic structure, chemical bond and property of Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and doping Si into Ti2AlC was studied by density function and the discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method. After adding Si into Ti2AlC, the interaction between Si and Ti is weaker than that between Al and Ti, and the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds decrease both. The ionic and covalent bonds in Ti3AlC2, especially in Ti-Al, are stronger than those in Ti2AlC. Therefore, in synthesis of Ti2AlC, the addition of Si enhances the Ti3AlC2 content instead of Ti2AlC. The density of state (DOS) shows that there is mixed conductor characteristic in Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2. The DOS of Ti3AlC2 is much like that of Ti2AlC. Ti2SixAl1-x C has more obvious tendency to form a semiconductor than Ti2AlC, which is seen from the obvious difference of partial DOS between Si and Al3p.

  7. NMR evidence for Co-Al-Co molecular groups trapped in cages of Co4Al13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeglic, P.; Heggen, M.; Feuerbacher, M.; Bauer, B.; Gille, P.; Haarmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the phase Co 4 Al 13 . These results are compared to a recent structure model [1], which demonstrates a unique bonding for Al atoms in the Co-Al-Co molecular groups. In our measurement, two 27 Al signals were identified. The first one originates from Al atoms forming cages. The second signal corresponds to Al sites with exceptionally large almost axially symmetric quadrupole coupling. This finding is in perfect agreement with isolated Co-Al-Co molecular groups in accordance to Ref. [1].

  8. Control al doping Compromiso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prieto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento da a conocer la importante noticia de la aprobación, por parte del Comité Olímpico Internacional (COl, de un laboratorio colombiano, para el control al doping, a la vez que aprovecha la oportunidad para ampliar alguna información sobre este tema.

  9. EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST BEAM-SLAB. CONSTRUCTION. Girma Zerayohannes and Adil Zekaria. Department of Civil Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The use of partially precast beam elements ivith shear connectors in slab construction relieves the requirement of ...

  10. INTERAKSI EDUKATIF MENURUT PEMIKIRAN AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizal Anhar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Education is an interaction activity between teachers and students in a classroom learning. Harmonious interaction between teachers and students greatly affect the success of learning. But in reality, the issue of today's educational interaction is less attention of the education stakeholder. The evidence is that some educators develop bad relationship with the students as being arrogant and violent means in resolving problems in the classroom. These conditions depreciate the relation between the teacher and the students in or outside the class that it is not surprising some students attack the teachers. In fact, the problem of educational interaction is not a new problem in educational world. Al-Ghazali is an Islamic education leaders who concentrated on the issue since the 5th century H. This article aims at examining a depth theory of al-Ghazali on educational interaction in a number of work related to education. This research is library research through ccontent analysis to find its relevance to the world of Islamic education at the moment. The results show that Al-Ghazali has a major contribution in developing the concept of educational interaction in Islamic education. The concept of Al-Ghazali can be reference in overcoming the problems of educational interaction nowadays through an approach which is in line with the the latest developments.

  11. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  12. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  13. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  14. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...

  15. Olawumi et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... Consequently pathogen reduction using riboflavin and UV light, which is a method by which infectious pathogens, including plasmodium in blood for transfusion are inactivated by adding riboflavin and irradiating with UV light , is another effort in transfusion medicine to ensure blood safety. (Hardwick et al,.

  16. Studentopinie als onderdeel van Cursuskwaliteit : Quickscan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, Hanny; Groenewoud, Jan; Ike, Paul; Loth, Betram; Reitsma, Sieuwke; Schotanus, Janke; Schuurman, Mieke; Steur, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In het kader van dit onderzoek is een quickscan (15 vragen) opgesteld met als doel die informatie te verzamelen die nodig is om een eerste indicatie te krijgen van de kwaliteit van een cursus (vak). De quickscan is gebaseerd op literatuuronderzoek en best practices van de faculteiten van de

  17. 68 - 75 Galadanchi et al.c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Restricted HartreeFock (RHF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies were carried out on the organic semi ... arrays), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells and low-cost devices (Kitamura,Arakawa, 2008;. Hwan et al.2004; Byoungnan,2008). Organic semiconductors are materials with semiconducting.

  18. Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    .... interests abroad, and against Western countries. But many believe that the Al Qaeda organization and its leadership are no longer as relevant to assessing the global Islamic terrorist threat as they were on September 11, 2001. Some believe U.S...

  19. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscopes This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Materials Importation Act of...

  20. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29828; File No. 812-13922] Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Investment Company...

  1. Correction to Rothermund et al. (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et al. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following…

  2. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  3. Uses of a Myth: al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Fanjul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Spanish press treatment of the Muslim world reflects a change of tone from unsympathetic to enthusiastic, although the information is still marred by confusion and ignorance. This change of attitude has occurred in other Western countries as well, and it is due in part to immigration trends, control over oil resources, and the relativism of official discourses towards the Third World. In the case of Spain, however, there is an additional internal element at play: the mass-media reinvention of a mythical al-Andalus as a tolerant and pluralistic society. This idealized interpretation of seven centuries of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is fraught with ignorance and distortion of the historical record but is not new. The mystification of al-Andalus has its precedent in romantic accounts that saw in “Muslim Spain” a differential fact that reinforced the exotic image of the country. It can be attributed also to the strategy to “hispanicize” al-Andalus employed by Arabists and historians to make the subject matter appealing to unsympathetic Spanish audiences conditioned by the myth of the Reconquest. Intended or not, the manipulation of the myth of al-Andalus as a historical fact has ideological and political implications that demand an objective and balanced consideration.

  4. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  5. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales H, A.; Zarate M, J.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO 3 :Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2μm were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO 3 :Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO 3 :Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  6. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al 2 O 3 , or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na + ions. The loading of SiC or Al 2 O 3 particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  7. 1 ITALIAN COLONISATION & LIBYAN RESISTANCE THE AL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    ... was conquered and pacified by European arms, ensuring caravans could travel .... eventually attacked the Order (at Qiru) in 1902 (at which time al-Mahdi passed ... Ottoman rule was nominal, with real power in the hands of the local rulers ...

  8. Una ventana al mundo de Kafka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available

    COMENTARIO AL LIBRO " EL MUNDO PSICOLÓGICO DE KAFKA" POR EL ACADÉMICO ADOLFO DE FRANCISCO ZEA.

     

    Fui invitado en forma comedida, por el doctor Adolfo De Francisco, para comentar su obra: "El Mundo Psicológico de Kafka". Respondí que no era literato y menos crítico de Kafka. Sin embargo, acepté
    hacerlo siendo consciente de las limitaciones que me acompañan y para las que pido de todos ustedes su consideración. Tenía sí el deseo al reto de lo incógnito.
    Además sus argumentos fueron contundentes, pues se referían al compromiso con la Academia y, sin decírmelo, era también con él en nuestra historia compartida. Mis motivaciones y expectativas personales conscientes eran múltiples para sumergirme en sus ideas que mueven el espíritu desde la piel a lo trascendente, de lo interno a lo externo y viceversa, y en que cada palabra puede ser objeto de análisis profundo, pues esa es su esencia. Por ejemplo cuando el doctor De Francisco se refiere a la sublimación y a la estética, a la política, a la religiosidad, a la burguesía, al campesinado, a la nobleza, al absolutismo, al arte o a la historia, a la cosmovisión sociológica y literaria, al psicoanálisis para afrontar la realidad interna y externa, entonces el autor penetra en el mundo de la fantasía y del psiquismo, para entender el simbolismo implícito de Kafka.
    Las motivaciones personales inconscientes, pertenecen a las tendencias irracionales de hundirme en espacios complejos para luego intentar'ordenarlos; en medio está
    la contratransferencia que me une con el autor Adolfo De Francisco y otra la que se refiere a la temática kafkiana...

  9. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.

    2000-06-01

    The excitation function for the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26 Al (t 1/2 =7.2*10 5 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al cross sections in the near threshold region (E n =13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (E th =13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26 Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26 Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10 -15 for 26 Al/ 27 Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found

  10. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  11. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun, E-mail: forsjun@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiwu, E-mail: zhangqw@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 China (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  12. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu_2(OH)_2CO_3) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)_3) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  13. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  14. Superstructure formation in PrNi_2Al_3 and ErPd_2Al_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd_2Al_3 was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd_2Al_3 was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi_2Al_3 - a CaCu_5 derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F"2 values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi_2Al_3 (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F"2 values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T_2Al_3]"δ"-, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi_2Al_3 type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  15. Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, data on Al – a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996. Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization or stagnation has been observed in the exploitation of bauxite and production of Al during nineties, which a tendency is directly reflected in the world price of this commodity. When analyzing the Al prices for a longer period, some serious deviations can be noticed, that however presently represent a long-term minimum. We hope the stagnation of the production and the price decline are only temporary and new possibilities of the utilization of Al will be found soon.

  16. Morteros Reforzados con Fibras de Bambú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeláez Arce Anacilia

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available El término fibras de bambú, hace referencia al material de desecho (aserrín, seleccionado por diferencia de peso, en inmersión en agua. Se atiene a la definición de fibras que presentan la Norma ASTM C-JI16-89 "Standard Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Concrete ". Se estudian las propiedades físico-mecánicas del mortero 1.3, reforzado con 15, 50 y 100 kg de fibras de bambú, por metro cúbico de mortero, con el objeto de determinar la factibilidad de uso de este material, como matriz para muros estructurales. En el caso de matrices de mortero reforzados para paneles, además de determinar el porcentaje de refuerzo, que permita mantener la resistencia mecánica dentro de los límites establecidos,éste debe lograr un control en el agrietamiento. De hecho en condiciones normales bajo carga, el agrietamiento es inevitable, sea cual fuere la cantidad y calidad de refuerzo usado: Sinembargo, las fibras tienen la propiedad de controlar la propagación del agrietamiento ypor ende transformaruna matrizfrágil, en un material con cierto grado de ductilidad. Los compuestos son probados a compresión axial, flexión e impacto. Las propiedades físicas de absorción de humedad ycontracciones por secado se miden en probetas con dosificación deporcentaje de refuerzo seleccionado de las pruebas mecánicas.

  17. Pemikiran Politik al-Shawkânî dalam Fath al-Qadîr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad b. ‘Alî Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allâh al-Shawkânî al-San‘ânî. He was born in the Hijrah in Shawkân village, Yemen on Monday 28 Dhû al-Qa‘dah 1172 H and died on Tuesday, 27 Jumâd al-Akhîr 1250 H at the age about 78 years. Al-Shawkânî grew up in the San‘a city, it is the capital of the republic of Yemen now. He study first time about religion from his father, then from renowed scholars in San‘a and its surrounding, he was known as a scolar who mastered the various branches of religious sciences. Such as tafsîr, h}adîth, fiqh, us}ûl al-fiqh, history, science of kalâm, philosophy, balâghah, mant}iq etc. the main issue in this article is how political thought in the book of tafsir Fath al-Qadîr is the work of Shawkânî. At the end of article, the authors found that the intended political thinking in the study of Fath al-Qadîr is about constitutional ideas. These ideas about the constitution is limited to the concept of leadership and deliberation, the concept of the right of citizen to obtain justice, and the concept pf the right of citizens to live association and assembly

  18. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munitz, A.; Cotler, A; Talianker, M.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x10 25 and 8x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 (E -3 s -1 . In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  19. Thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Ru system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prins, SN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available describes the order disorder transformation with one Gibbs energy function. The RuAl6 phase was described as a stoichiometric phase and the remaining intermetallic phases (Ru4Al13, RuAl2 and Ru2Al3) were modelled with the sublattice model. The solubility...

  20. Calculation of Gibbs energy of Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu and Zr-Al-Ni-Cu liquid alloys based on quasiregular solution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Tong, W.H.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    With the effects of electronic structure and atomic size being introduced, the mixing enthalpy as well as the Gibbs energy of the ternary Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu, Zr-Ni-Al and quaternary Zr-Al-Ni-Cu systems are calculated based on quasiregular solution model. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. The sequence of Gibbs energies of different systems is: G Zr-Al-Ni-Cu Zr-Al-Ni Zr-Al-Cu Cu-Al-Ni . To Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu and Zr-Ni-Al, the lowest Gibbs energy locates in the composition range of X Zr 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.61; X Ni = 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.60 and X Zr = 0.32-0.67, X Al = 0.32-0.66, respectively. And to the Zr-Ni-Al-Cu system with 66.67% Zr, the lowest Gibbs energy is obtained in the region of X Al = 0.63-0.80, X Ni = 0.14-0.24