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Sample records for susanville ca area

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Richmond Elementary School in Susanville, CA. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of an Aquatic Treatme...

  2. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Selective reinnervation of hippocampal area CA1 and the fascia dentata after destruction of CA3-CA4 afferents with kainic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, J V; Perry, B W; Cotman, C W

    1980-01-20

    Intraventricular injections of kainic acid were used to destroy the hippocampal CA3-CA4 cells, thus denervating the inner third of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata and stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of area CA1. The responses of intact afferents to such lesions were then examined histologically. The hippocampal mossy fibers densely reinnervated the inner portion of the dentate molecular layer after bilateral destruction of CA4 neurons and to a lesser extent after unilateral destruction. Septohippocampal fibers replaced CA4-derived fibers in the dentate molecular layer only after particularly extensive bilateral CA4 lesions. Medial perforant path fibers showed no anatomical response to any of these lesions. Neither septohippocampal, temporoammonic nor mossy fibers proliferated in or grew into the denervated laminae of area CA1. These results show a preferential ordering in the reinnervation of dentate granule cells which is not readily explained by proximity to the degenerating fibers and also that removal of CA3-CA4-derived innervation more readily elicits translaminar growth in the fascia dentata than in area CA1. These results may be relevant to clinical situations in which neurons of the hippocampal end-blade are lost.

  4. Multi-use geothermal-energy system with augmentation for enhanced utilization: a non-electric application of geothermal energy in Susanville, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.K.; Benner-Drury, D.L.; Cunnington, G.R.

    1979-02-01

    A site specific engineering and economic study of multi-use, augmented geothermal space/water heating and cooling systems was completed. The overall benefits to the City of Susanville, in both the public and private sectors, of using low temperature (150/sup 0/F to 240/sup 0/F) geothermal resources are explored. Options considered, alone and in combination, include heat pumps, fossil-fuel peaking, user load balancing, and cascading from the geothermal system serving the public buildings into a private Park of Commerce development. A range of well temperatures, depths, flow rates, and drilling costs are considered to provide system cost sensitivities and to make the study more widely useful to other sites. A planned development is emphasized for ease of financing of expansion. A preliminary design of Phase A of a Susanville Public Building Energy System and a conceptual design of an integrated Park of Commerce, Phase I, are included. This system was designed for a 150/sup 0/F resource and can be used as a model for other communities with similar resource temperatures.

  5. Hippocampal area CA2: an emerging modulatory gateway in the hippocampal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoy, Amrita; Dasgupta, Ananya; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2018-04-01

    The hippocampus is a critical brain region for the formation of declarative memories. While social memory had long been attributed to be a function of the hippocampus, it is only of late that the area CA2 of the hippocampus was demarcated as essential for social memory formation. In addition to this distinct role, CA2 possesses unique molecular, structural and physiological characteristics compared to the other CA regions-CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG). CA2 pyramidal neurons are positioned at a location between CA1 and CA3, receiving inputs from CA3 and DG, in addition to forming a powerful disynaptic circuit with direct input from the entorhinal cortical layer II neurons. CA2 also receives direct inputs from the hypothalamic regions and displays a unique expression pattern for receptors for neuromodulators. The location, inputs, and molecular signatures of the area CA2 point to the possibility that CA2 serves as a modulatory gateway that processes information from the entorhinal cortex and CA3, before relaying them onto CA1, the major output of the hippocampus. This review discusses recent findings regarding plasticity and neuromodulation in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, and how this may have the potential to influence plasticity in connecting circuits, and thereby memory and behaviour.

  6. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quicklime (CaO) Stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skels, Peteris; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    2011-01-01

    This study presents laboratory testing on quicklime (CaO) stabilization of fine-grained marine sediments in low temperature areas. The soil was sampled on the Fossil Plain in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and analyzed in the laboratory at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The optimum CaO content...... curing temperatures, comparing stabilization effectiveness between low and normal soil temperature conditions....... in a soil-CaO mixture was determined using a number of laboratory methods, such as pH test, consistency limit analysis, degree of compaction, and short term California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values. The study also numerically demonstrates a long term strength development of the soil-CaO mixture at 1°C and 10°C...

  8. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A S; Williams Avram, S K; Cymerblit-Sabba, A; Song, J; Young, W S

    2016-08-01

    Social cognition enables individuals to understand others' intentions. Social memory is a necessary component of this process, for without it, subsequent encounters are devoid of any historical information. The CA2 area of the hippocampus, particularly the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) expressed there, is necessary for memory formation. We used optogenetics to excite vasopressin terminals, originating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, in the CA2 of mice. This markedly enhanced their social memory if the stimulation occurred during memory acquisition, but not retrieval. This effect was blocked by an Avpr1b antagonist. Finally, this enhanced memory is resistant to the social distraction of an introduced second mouse, important for socially navigating populations of individuals. Our results indicate the CA2 can increase the salience of social signals. Targeted pharmacotherapy with Avpr1b agonists or deep brain stimulation of the CA2 are potential avenues of treatment for those with declining social memory as in various dementias.

  9. 78 FR 40958 - Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...-0515; Airspace Docket No. 13-AWP-8] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530; Sierra Army Depot, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the descriptions of restricted areas R...

  10. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, HAO; XU, FENG-LEI; YIN, YONG; DA, PENG; YOU, XIAO-DONG; XU, HUI-MIN; TANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  11. Space and time sequence and mosaicism of neurogenesis in hippocampal area CA1 in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarevskaya, G.D.; Reznikov, K. Yu.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the times and sequence of neuron formation in various structures of the mammalian brain has made substantial progress thanks to the use of autoradiographic techniques, by which the germinative precursors of neurons can be tagged with tritium-thymidine and the subsequent fate of the labeled cells can be followed. The authors study the space and time sequence of neuron formation and look for the presence of mosaicism of neurogenesis in area CA1 of Ammon's horn of the mouse hippocampus, one of the most regularly arranged hippocampal areas. An analysis of the distribution of intensively labeled neurons in areas CA1 showed the presence of groups of intensively labeled neurons alternating with unlabeled and weakly labeled cells.. Mice receiving tritium-thymidine on the 13th-16th day of embryogenesis were most marked when the isotope was injected on the 14th-15th day of embroygeneisis. The investigation showed that a mosaic pattern of neurogenesis exists in the hippocampus, just as in the neocortex, and it can be regarded as the result of asynchronous production of neurons by local areas of the germinative zone, each of which constructs a radial segment of cortex

  12. Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for Decommissioning of TAN-607 Hot Shop Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. P. Floerke

    2007-02-05

    Area in a final configuration that will be protective of human health and the environment. Decommissioning the TAN-607 Hot Shop Area is consistent with the joint DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, which establishes the CERCLA NTCRA process as the preferred approach for decommissioning surplus DOE facilities. Under this policy, a NTCRA may be taken when DOE determines that the action will prevent, minimize, stabilize, or eliminate a risk to human health and/or the environment. When DOE determines that a CERCLA NTCRA is necessary, DOE is authorized to evaluate, select, and implement the removal action that DOE determines is most appropriate to address the potential risk posed by the release or threat of release. This action is taken in accordance with applicable authorities and in conjunction with EPA and the State of Idaho pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. In keeping with the joint policy, this engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was developed in accordance with CERCLA as amended by the ''Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986'' and in accordance with the ''National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan.'' This EE/CA is consistent with the remedial action objectives (RAOs) of the Final Record of Decision, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-10 and supports the overall remediation goals established through the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for Waste Area Group 1. Waste Area Group 1 is located at TAN.

  13. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13424.001 PMID:27549340

  14. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-08-23

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we find that five hours of sleep deprivation decreases dendritic spine numbers selectively in hippocampal area CA1 and increased activity of the filamentous actin severing protein cofilin. Recovery sleep normalizes these structural alterations. Suppression of cofilin function prevents spine loss, deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and impairments in long-term memory caused by sleep deprivation. The elevated cofilin activity is caused by cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase-4A5 (PDE4A5), which hampers cAMP-PKA-LIMK signaling. Attenuating PDE4A5 function prevents changes in cAMP-PKA-LIMK-cofilin signaling and cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation. Our work demonstrates the necessity of an intact cAMP-PDE4-PKA-LIMK-cofilin activation-signaling pathway for sleep deprivation-induced memory disruption and reduction in hippocampal spine density.

  15. Diminished Dentate Gyrus Filtering of Cortical Input Leads to Enhanced Area Ca3 Excitability after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folweiler, Kaitlin A; Samuel, Sandy; Metheny, Hannah E; Cohen, Akiva S

    2018-04-06

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3. In this study, we assessed hippocampal function, specifically the interaction between the dentate gyrus and CA3, using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques in ex vivo brain slices 1 week following mild lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI). Behaviorally, LFPI mice were found to be impaired in an object-place recognition task, indicating that spatial information processing in the hippocampus is disrupted. Extracellular recordings and voltage-sensitive dye imaging demonstrated that perforant path activation leads to the aberrant spread of excitation from the dentate gyrus into area CA3 along the mossy fiber pathway. These results suggest that after mTBI, the dentate gyrus has a diminished capacity to regulate cortical input into the hippocampus, leading to increased CA3 network excitability. The loss of the dentate filtering efficacy reveals a potential mechanism by which hippocampal-dependent spatial information processing is disrupted, and may contribute to memory dysfunction after mTBI.

  16. Excitation/inhibition imbalance and impaired synaptic inhibition in hippocampal area CA3 of Mecp2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfa, Gaston; Li, Wei; Rutherford, John M; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopment disorder associated with intellectual disabilities and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding Protein-2 (MeCP2). Neuronal dysfunction and changes in cortical excitability occur in RTT individuals and Mecp2-deficient mice, including hippocampal network hyperactivity and higher frequency of spontaneous multiunit spikes in the CA3 cell body layer. Here, we describe impaired synaptic inhibition and an excitation/inhibition (E/I) imbalance in area CA3 of acute slices from symptomatic Mecp2 knockout male mice (referred to as Mecp2(-/y) ). The amplitude of TTX-resistant miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons of Mecp2(-/y) slices than in wildtype controls, while the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) was significantly larger in Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistently, quantitative confocal immunohistochemistry revealed significantly lower intensity of the alpha-1 subunit of GABAA Rs in the CA3 cell body layer of Mecp2(-/y) mice, while GluA1 puncta intensities were significantly higher in the CA3 dendritic layers of Mecp2(-/y) mice. In addition, the input/output (I/O) relationship of evoked IPSCs had a shallower slope in CA3 pyramidal neurons Mecp2(-/y) neurons. Consistent with the absence of neuronal degeneration in RTT and MeCP2-based mouse models, the density of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in area CA3 was not affected in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Furthermore, the intrinsic membrane properties of several interneuron subtypes in area CA3 were not affected by Mecp2 loss. However, mEPSCs are smaller and less frequent in CA3 fast-spiking basket cells of Mecp2(-/y) mice, suggesting an impaired glutamatergic drive in this interneuron population. These results demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in Mecp2 causes impaired E/I balance onto CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a

  17. 75 FR 19422 - Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [CACA 47740, LLCAD07000 L51030000] Notice of Closure of Airport Mesa/Carizzo Creek Shooting Area in Eastern San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of temporary closure. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has...

  18. Interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 area is essential for episodic-like memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Owen Y; Nikolaus, Susanne; Lira Brandão, Marcus; Huston, Joseph P; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    The interplay between medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus, particularly the hippocampal CA3 area, is critical for episodic memory. To what extent the mPFC also interacts with the hippocampus CA1 subregion still requires elucidation. To investigate this issue, male rats received unilateral N-methyl- D -aspartate lesions of the mPFC together with unilateral lesions of the hippocampal CA1 area, either in the same (control) or in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection). They underwent an episodic-like memory test, combining what-where-when information, and separate tests for novel object preference (what), object place preference (where) and temporal order memory (when). Compared to controls, the disconnected mPFC-CA1 rats exhibited disrupted episodic-like memory with an impaired integration of the what-where-when elements. Both groups showed intact memories for what and when, while only the control group showed intact memory for where. These findings suggest that the functional interaction of the mPFC-CA1 circuit is crucial for the processing of episodic memory and, in particular, for the integration of the spatial memory component. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CaMKII Activity in the Ventral Tegmental Area Gates Cocaine-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Liu, Yong; Zhong, Peng; Wilkinson, Brianna; Qi, Jinshun; Olsen, Christopher M; Bayer, K Ulrich; Liu, Qing-song

    2014-01-01

    Addictive drugs such as cocaine induce synaptic plasticity in discrete regions of the reward circuit. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) is causally linked. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a central regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity, learning, and drug addiction. We examined whether blocking CaMKII activity in the VTA affected cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) and cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in its target brain region, the NAc. TatCN21 is a CaMKII inhibitory peptide that blocks both stimulated and autonomous CaMKII activity with high selectivity. We report that intra-VTA microinjections of tatCN21 before cocaine conditioning blocked the acquisition of cocaine CPP, whereas intra-VTA microinjections of tatCN21 before saline conditioning did not significantly affect cocaine CPP, suggesting that the CaMKII inhibitor blocks cocaine CPP through selective disruption of cocaine-cue-associated learning. Intra-VTA tatCN21 before cocaine conditioning blocked cocaine-evoked depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the shell of the NAc slices ex vivo. In contrast, intra-VTA microinjection of tatCN21 just before the CPP test did not affect the expression of cocaine CPP and cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the NAc shell. These results suggest that CaMKII activity in the VTA governs cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity in the NAc during the time window of cocaine conditioning. PMID:24154664

  20. 77 FR 30884 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-2502E; Fort Irwin, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Administration, High-Desert Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON), Edwards, CA, to FAA, Los Angeles Air Route... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 [Docket No. FAA-2012... AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action changes the...

  1. Association of Plages with Sunspots: A Multi-Wavelength Study Using Kodaikanal Ca ii K and Greenwich Sunspot Area Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sudip; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Banerjee, Dipankar, E-mail: sudip@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Plages are the magnetically active chromospheric structures prominently visible in the Ca ii K line (3933.67 Å). A plage may or may not be associated with a sunspot, which is a magnetic structure visible in the solar photosphere. In this study we explore this aspect of association of plages with sunspots using the newly digitized Kodaikanal Ca ii K plage data and the Greenwich sunspot area data. Instead of using the plage index or fractional plage area and its comparison with the sunspot number, we use, to our knowledge for the first time, the individual plage areas and compare them with the sunspot area time series. Our analysis shows that these two structures, formed in two different layers, are highly correlated with each other on a timescale comparable to the solar cycle. The area and the latitudinal distributions of plages are also similar to those of sunspots. Different area thresholdings on the “butterfly diagram” reveal that plages of area ≥4 arcmin{sup 2} are mostly associated with a sunspot in the photosphere. Apart from this, we found that the cyclic properties change when plages of different sizes are considered separately. These results may help us to better understand the generation and evolution of the magnetic structures in different layers of the solar atmosphere.

  2. Acupuncture attenuates cognitive deficits and increases pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area of vascular dementia rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Liu, Yi; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2015-04-28

    Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity. Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension. Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells. We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P 0.05). These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

  3. Changes in the content of fatty acids in CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats after single and fivefold audiogenic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Tatyana; Aripovsky, Alexander; Kulagina, Tatyana

    2017-09-01

    Audiogenic seizures (AS) are generalized seizures evoked by high frequency sounds. Since the hippocampus is involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, the effect of AS on the composition and content of fatty acids in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas of AS-susceptible Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) rats on days 1, 3, and 14 after single and fivefold seizures were examined. The total content of all fatty acids in field СА1 was found to be lower compared with the control at all times of observation after both a single seizure or fivefold seizures. The total content of fatty acids in field СА3 decreased at all times of examination after a single seizure, whereas it remained unchanged on days 3 and 14 following five AS. The content of omega-3 fatty acids in both fields at all times of observation after a single seizure and fivefold AS did not significantly differ from that in intact animals. The absence of significant changes in the content of stearic and α-linolenic acids and a considerable decrease in the levels of palmitic, oleic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were common to both fields at all times after both a single seizure or fivefold AS. The changes in the content of fatty acids in the СА3 and СА1 fields of the brain of AS-susceptible rats indicate that fatty acids are involved in both the development of seizure activity and neuroprotective anticonvulsive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. San Francisco Bay Area Baseline Trash Loading Summary Results, San Francisco Bay Area CA, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The San Francisco Bay Area stormwater permit sets trash control guidelines for discharges through the storm drain system. The permit covers Alameda, Contra Costa,...

  5. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats.

  6. Area of Concern (AOC) 314 Verification Survey at Former McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-31

    vegetation located within a triangle of three taxiways on a Sacramento County Airport controlled area (see Figure 1). Although existing records do not show...potentially affected analysis. c. Gamma Walkover Survey: The survey team used the Scionix Model 76BRS76/3M-E1-X 3x3-inch thallium -doped sodium

  7. Expedited response action proposal (EE/CA ampersand EA) for 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The report contains the proposal for an expedited response action (ERA) for the remediation of carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils beneath the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. It provides the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) with information regarding the need for the ERA and an evaluation of alternatives to reduce the mobility, toxicity, and/or volume of the carbon tetrachloride in the unsaturated soils. This report is intended to aid the EPA and Ecology in selecting a preferred alternative for implementing the ERA. This proposal does not address remediation of carbon tetrachloride in the ground water underlying the 200 West Area; nor is the radioactive waste mixed with the carbon tetrachloride in the disposal site the subject of this ERA. This report has also been prepared to address the requirements for an environmental assessment (EA). The purpose of this ERA is to prevent, or at least minimize, further migration of carbon tetrachloride contamination from the unsaturated soils to uncontaminated areas. This action is needed to ensure that the environment and public health are adequately protected and to reduce the threat of further groundwater contamination. Information on the origin, nature, and extent of carbon tetrachloride (and co-contaminants), and other site characteristics used as a basis for evaluating remedial alternatives is presented

  8. Contribution of hippocampal area CA1 to acetone cyanohydrin-induced loss of motor coordination in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, E; Vázquez-Luna, A; Díaz-Sobac, R; Briones-Céspedes, E E; Rodríguez-Landa, J F

    2017-05-01

    Some vegetable foodstuffs contain toxic compounds that, when consumed, favour the development of certain diseases. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food source, but it contains cyanogenic glucosides (linamarin and lotaustralin) that have been associated with the development of tropical ataxic neuropathy and konzo. In rats, intraperitoneal administration of acetone cyanohydrin (a metabolite of linamarin) produces neurological disorders and neuronal damage in the hippocampus. However, it is unknown whether hippocampal area CA1 plays a role in neurological disorders associated with acetone cyanohydrin. A total of 32 male Wistar rats 3 months old were assigned to 4 groups (n=8 per group) as follows: vehicle (1μl physiological saline), and 3 groups with acetone cyanohydrin (1μl of 10, 15, and 20mM solution, respectively). The substances were microinjected intrahippocampally every 24hours for 7 consecutive days, and their effects on locomotor activity, rota-rod and swim tests were assessed daily. On the fifth day post-treatment, rats underwent further assessment with behavioural tests to identify or rule out permanent damage induced by acetone cyanohydrin. Microinjection of acetone cyanohydrin 20mM resulted in hyperactivity, motor impairment, and reduced exploration from the third day of treatment. All concentrations of acetone cyanohydrin produced rotational behaviour in the swim test from the first day of microinjection. The hippocampal area CA1 is involved in motor alterations induced by microinjection of acetone cyanohydrin, as has been reported for other cassava compounds. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the Susanville California geothermal resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.; Goranson, C.; Noble, J.; Schroeder, R.; Corrigan, D.; Wollenberg, H.

    1980-06-01

    Twelve exploratory temperature gradient holes have been drilled (bringing the total number of old and new holes and wells to 23), subsurface geologic and geophysical data have been analyzed, and a well test has been conducted. Interpretation of data obtained from well testing, drillers' and lithologic logs and geophysical surveys suggests the presence of a fault-related reservoir of high permeability, shallow depth, limited thickness and limited lateral extent. Temperature contours and profiles suggest the upwelling of fluids on a northwest-trending fault, from where they are dispersed into the reservoir along a highly permeable, fractured agglomerate-basalt interface and fractured volcanic units. Well tests show a high lateral permeability associated with the fractured interface, and porosity values are low, supporting evidence for a fracture-dominated producing aquifer(s). The areal confinement of the anomaly has been established on three sides (west, south, east) to a depth of 200 m. In the southern portion, temperature reversals below an aglomerate-basaltic interface suggest a vertically confined aquifer. Water samples and petrologic data indicate that in the past, fluids of temperatures between 70/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C flowed through the fracture system. Computer modeling indicates that a horizontal, regional flow of hot fluids is required to match the observed temprature distribution.

  10. Zbtb20-Induced CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Development and Area Enlargement in the Cerebral Midline Cortex of Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Blom, Jonas B; Noraberg, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is confined to the hippocampal primordium of the developing dorsal midline cortex in mice. Here, we show that misexpression of Zbtb20 converts projection neurons of the subiculum and postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) to CA1 pyramidal neurons...... that are innervated by Schaffer collateral projections in ectopic strata oriens and radiatum. The Zbtb20-transformed neurons express Bcl11B, Satb2, and Calbindin-D28k, which are markers of adult CA1 pyramidal neurons. Downregulation of Zbtb20 expression by RNA interference impairs the normal maturation of CA1...... pyramidal neurons resulting in deficiencies in Calbindin-D28k expression and in reduced apical dendritic arborizations in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Overall, the results show that Zbtb20 is required for various aspects of CA1 pyramidal neuron development such as the postnatal extension of apical...

  11. Regular exercise prevents sleep deprivation associated impairment of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagaar, Munder; Dao, An; Levine, Amber; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Alkadhi, Karim

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on sleep deprivation (S-D)-induced impairment of hippocampal dependent long-term memory, late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area. Animals were conditioned to run on treadmills for 4 weeks then deprived of sleep for 24 h using the columns-in-water method. We tested the effect of exercise and/or S-D on behavioral performance using a post-learning paradigm in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) and in vivo extracellular recording in the CA1 area. The levels of L-LTP-related molecules in the CA1 area were then assessed both before and after L-LTP induction. After 24 h of S-D, spatial long-term memory impairment in the RAWM and L-LTP suppression was prevented by 4 weeks of regular exercise. Regular exercise also restored the S-D-associated decreases in the basal levels of key signaling molecules such as: calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the CA1 area. After L-LTP induction, regular exercise also prevented the S-D-induced down regulation of BDNF and P-CREB protein levels. The results suggest that our exercise protocol may prevent 24-h S-D-induced impairments in long-term memory and LTP by preventing deleterious changes in the basal and post-stimulation levels of P-CREB and BDNF associated with S-D.

  12. Calcinaksite, KNaCa(Si4O10) H2O, a new mineral from the Eifel volcanic area, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukanov, Nikita V.; Aksenov, Sergey M.; Rastsvetaeva, Ramiza K.; Blass, Günter; Varlamov, Dmitry A.; Pekov, Igor V.; Belakovskiy, Dmitry I.; Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.

    2015-08-01

    The new mineral calcinaksite, ideally KNaCa(Si4O10) · H2O, the first hydrous and Ca-dominant member of the litidionite group, is found in a xenolith of metamorphosed carbonate-rich rock from the southern lava flow of the Bellerberg volcano, Eastern Eifel region, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany. It is associated with wollastonite, gehlenite, brownmillerite, Ca2SiO4 (larnite or calcio-olivine), quartz, aragonite, calcite, jennite, tobermorite and ettringite. Calcinaksite occurs as clusters of colourless to light-grey subhedral prismatic crystals. The mineral is brittle, with Mohs' hardness of 5; Dmeas is 2.62(2) g/cm3 and Dcalc is 2.623 g/cm3. The IR spectrum shows the presence of H2O molecules forming three different H-bonds. Calcinaksite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.542(2), β = 1.550(2), γ = 1.565(3), 2 V meas = 75(10). The chemical composition (electron-microprobe data, H2O determined by the Alimarin method, wt%) is: Na2O 6.69, K2O 12.01, CaO 15.04, FeO 0.59, SiO2 61.46, H2O 4.9, total 100.69. The empirical formula is H2.11 K0.99Na0.84Ca1.04Fe0.03Si3.98O11. The crystal structure was solved and refined to R 1 = 0.053, wR 2 = 0.075 based upon 3057 reflections having I > 3σ( I). Calcinaksite is triclinic, space group P , a = 7.021(2), b = 8.250(3), c = 10.145(2) Å. α = 102.23(2)°, β = 100.34(2)°, γ = 115.09(3)°, V = 495.4(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections of the X-ray powder pattern [ d, Å ( I,%) ( hkl)] are: 3.431 (70) (-121, -211, -210, 012, 0-22), 3.300 (67) (-031), 3.173 (95) (-103, -201, -220, 003, 111), 3.060 (100) (-212, 2-11, -221, 200, -1-13, 021, -202), 2.851 (83) (0-23, -122, 1-13, 1-31), 2.664 (62) (1-23, -222, 201).

  13. Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 Ma) magnesian andesites in the Biluoco area, southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyang; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Zhou, Aorigele; Qian, Xinyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Du, Lintao; Bi, Wenjun

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolutionary history of the Lhasa and Qiangtang collision zones remains hotly debated because of the lack of pivotal magmatic records in the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. We present zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace-element geochemical analyses, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the newly discovered Biluoco volcanic rocks from the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were crystallized at ca. 95 Ma. The samples are characterized by low SiO2 (50.26-54.53 wt%), high Cr (109.7-125.92 ppm) and Ni (57.4-71.58 ppm), and a high Mg# value (39-56), which plot in the magnesian andesites field on the rock classification diagram. They display highly fractionated rare earth element patterns with light rare earth element enrichment ([La/Yb]N = 21.04-25.24), high Sr/Y (63.97-78.79) and no negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.98-1.04). The Biluoco volcanic rocks are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, Th, U and Pb. Moreover, the eight samples of Biluoco volcanic rocks display constant (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.70514-0.70527), a positive εNd(t) value (2.16-2.68) and younger Nd model ages (0.56-0.62 Ga). These geochemical signatures indicate that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of the mantle wedge peridotite metasomatized by melts of subducted slab and sediment in the subducted slab, invoked by asthenospheric upwelling resulting from the slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere. Identification of ca. 95 Ma Biluoco magnesian andesites suggests they were a delayed response of slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere at ca. 100 Ma.

  14. The Effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on Memory Retrieval and the Number of Intact Neurons of Hippocampal CA1 Area in Streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloufar Darbandi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Alzheimer is a neurodegenerative disease wich caused memory impairment, reduced cognitive functions, intellectual ability and behavior changes. In this study, the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC as a strong antioxidant on memory deficiency and number of CA1 pyramidal neurons in Streptozotocine (STZ - induced Alzheimeric rats were studied. Materials and Methods: 32 Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham group, streptozotocin group, treated group with streptozotocin plus N-acetyl-cysteine, and treated group with N-acetyl-cysteine alone. Intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of STZ was done in the first and the third day of surgery and i.p injection of N-acetyl-cysteine was done in the fourth of surgery. After the memory test, the animals were killed and their brains were fixed and density of intact neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus was investigated. Statistical analysis was performed with software SPSS, ANOVA and Prisme software. The level of statistical significance was set at p 0.05. Conclusion: N-acetyl-cysteine improved memory retrieval and hippocampal CA1 area intact neurons in streptozotocin-induced Alzheimeric male rats.

  15. Radioactivity of β / γ and the Content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the Spring of Ponorogo East Java Lime Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto

    2002-01-01

    Radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the source of Ponorogo East-Java lime area has been studied. This research was carried out to know radioactivity of β / γ and the content of Ca, Fe, Mn, Mg, Na on the spring of different three places were Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source. Samples taken, preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis and water sampling guidelines. The instrument used for the analysis radioactivity were low level β counter modified P3TM-BATAN Yogyakarta with detector GM and spectrometer γ with detector Ge(Li). Radioactivity of β (gross) from the source of different three places (β ≤ 1 Bq/L) are lower than the value of PPRI No. 20/1990. Radioactivity of γ comes from the natural radionuclides of Tl-208 and K-40 are lower than 1 Bq/L for the different of three places, respectively. The metals concentration of Ngebel-lake source were Ca ≤ 14.34 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.75 ppm; Na ≤ 14.63 ppm, Ngembak source were Ca ≤ 11.6 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.04 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 11.13 ppm; Na ≤ 16.75 ppm and Gonggang source were Ca ≤ 13.78 ppm; Fe ≤ 0.26 ppm; Mn ≤ 0.02 ppm; Mg ≤ 6.13 ppm; Na ≤ 15.00 ppm. The water of Ngebel-lake source, Ngembak source and Gonggang source can be classified as B category water based on radioactivity and the content of the metals concentration in its. (author)

  16. Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2007-10-01

    This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4

  17. Fabrication of Fe{sub 3}Si/CaF{sub 2} heterostructures ferromagnetic resonant tunneling diode by selected-area molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadakuni-Makabe, Kenji; Suzuno, Mitsushi; Harada, Kazunori [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennohdai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi, E-mail: suemasu@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennohdai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiro [Nanodevice Innovation Research Center and Nanotechnology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2011-10-03

    We have fabricated 200-nm-diameter ferromagnetic resonant tunneling diodes (FM-RTDs) using CaF{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}Si heterostructures on Si(111) substrates, by selected-area molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using electron-beam (EB) lithography. Clear negative differential resistances (NDRs) were observed in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics at room temperature (RT). The reproducibility of the I-V characteristics was greatly improved, and approximately 40% of the FM-RTDs showed clear NDRs at RT.

  18. Jurassic tetrapods and flora of Cañadón Asfalto Formation in Cerro Cóndor area, Chubut Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio H. Escapa; Juliana Sterli; Diego Pol; Laura Nicoli

    2008-01-01

    The plant and tetrapod fossil record of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation (Middle to Late Jurassic) found in Cerro Cóndor area (Chubut Province) is summarized here. The flora is dominated by conifers (Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae sensu lato) but also includes ferns and equisetaleans. The tetrapod fauna is composed of dinosaur taxa described in the 70's as well as other remains recently described and other vertebrate groups such as amphibians, turtles, and mammals. The amphibian remains have been i...

  19. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-05

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in mangrove vegetation area and character in a war and land use change affected region of Vietnam (Mui Ca Mau) over six decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, T. T.; Wilson, N.; Thanh-Tung, H.; Quisthoudt, K.; Quang-Minh, V.; Xuan-Tuan, L.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N.

    2015-02-01

    Aerial photographs and satellite images have been used to determine land cover changes during the period 1953 to 2011 in the Mui Ca Mau, Vietnam, especially in relation to changes in the mangrove area. The mangrove area declined drastically from approximately 71,345 ha in 1953 to 33,083 ha in 1992, then rose to 46,712 ha in 2011. Loss due to herbicide attacks during the Vietnam War, overexploitation, and conversion into agriculture and aquaculture encouraged by land management policies are being partially counteracted by natural regeneration and replanting, especially a gradual increase in plantations as part of integrated mangrove-shrimp farming systems. The nature of the mangrove vegetation has markedly been transformed over this period. The results are valuable for management planning to understand and improve the contribution of mangrove forests to the provision of ecosystem services and resources, local livelihood and global interest.

  1. An Adaptive Allocation Algorithm Using Directional CSMA/CA over mmWave Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunhee Park

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Directional antennas have the considerable benefits of higher antenna gain, long transmission distance and spatial reuse compared to omni-antennas. To support a directional antenna, IEEE 802.15.3c specifies a high data transmission rate and short frequency range communication based on the characteristics of 60GHz band. However, the contention-based protocol of IEEE 802.15.3c may cause channel collisions and throughput degradation as the number of stations in the network increases. In order to resolve this problem and reduce channel access latency, we propose an adaptive allocation algorithm in which the contention window size for optimal transmission probability is derived after the directional information has been obtained by means of AP control procedures. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing channel access scheme in IEEE 802.15.3c wireless personal area networks under different situations, especially when the number of contending stations is large.

  2. Sequestration of Sr-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of a Ca-Citrate-Phosphate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Oostrom, Martinus; Moore, R. C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Williams, Mark D.; Zhong, Lirong; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; McKinley, James P.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Covert, Matthew A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Garcia, Ben J.

    2009-03-01

    subsurface area. However, the use of real-time surface and cross-borehole geophysics can be used to track the infiltrating Ca-citrate-PO4 front so some adjustments can be made in the infiltration rate to precipitate apatite in desired zones. In addition, the reactive transport code used in this study with field scale physical parameters for sediments can be used to evaluate infiltration strategies along with preliminary water infiltration tests at field scale.

  3. Floodplain Assessment for the Upper Cañon de Valle Watershed Enhancement Project in Technical Area 16 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Keller, David Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sartor, Karla A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This floodplain assessment was prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022 Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements, which was promulgated to implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements under Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management and Executive Order 11990 Wetlands Protection. According to 10 CFR 1022, a 100-year floodplain is defined as “the lowlands adjoining inland and coastal waters and relatively flat areas and flood prone areas of offshore islands.” In this action, DOE is proposing to control the run-on of storm water by slowing water velocity and managing sediments from the upper portions of the Cañon de Valle watershed on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) property with a number of new watershed controls near and within the 100-year floodplain (hereafter floodplain). The proposed work will comply with requirements under the Settlement Agreement and Stipulated Final Compliance Order (Settlement Agreement) Number HWB-14-20.

  4. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  5. Subglacial hydrology of the lake district ice lobe during the Younger Dryas (ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago) in the Kylaeniemi area, SE Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunkka, J. P.; Moisio, K.; Vainio, A.

    2013-07-01

    It is essential to gain knowledge on the subglacial hydrological conditions at the glacier bed / bedrock interface when assessing how bedrock fracture zones affect subglacial melt water flow and in which subglacial zones pressurized and oxygen-rich melt water penetrates into the bedrock fracture systems. In the warm-based glacier zones, a part of subglacial melt water will penetrate deep into the fracture systems although the major part of melt water is drained to and beyond the ice margin via subglacial tunnel networks especially in the areas where ice is flowing on the crystalline bedrock. During the last deglaciation phase of the former Scandinavian Ice Sheet, glaciofluvial accumulations were deposited and these sediment accumulations are highly important when picturing the subglacial hydrology of different ice streams during deglaciation in the crystalline bedrock area. The aim of the present work was to map the bedrock fracture zones in the Kylaeniemi area and to shed light on the subglacial hydrology of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet's Lake District Ice Stream that occupied the Kylaeniemi area during the Younger Dryas between ca. 12 500 - 11 600 years ago. The special emphasis within this general aim was to study the relationship between bedrock fracture zones and the routes of subglacial drainage paths. The methods used to map and study bedrock fracture zones and subglacial drainage paths included remotes sensing methods, field observations, ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations and GIS-based reconstructions. Conventional geological field methods aided by the GPR-method were also used to map bedrock exposures and their structures and to define the type of glaciofluvial sediments and glaciofluvial landform associations. Two main fracture zone sets occur in the study area. The most prominent bedrock fracture zone set trends NW-SE while the other, less prominent fracture zone set is aligned in NE-SW direction. The majority of the minor joint sets in

  6. Optogenetic Activation of the Excitatory Neurons Expressing CaMKIIα in the Ventral Tegmental Area Upregulates the Locomotor Activity of Free Behaving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songchao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral tegmental area (VTA plays an important role in motivation and motor activity of mammals. Previous studies have reported that electrical stimulations of the VTA’s neuronal projections were able to upregulate the locomotor activity of behaving rats. However, which types of neurons in the VTA that take part in the activation remain elusive. In this paper we employed optogenetic technique to selectively activate the excitatory neurons expressing CaMKIIα in the VTA region and induced a higher locomotor activity for free behaving rats. Further behavioral studies indicated that reward learning mediated in the enhancement of the rat locomotor activity. Finally the immunohistochemistry studies explored that the excitatory neurons under the optogenetic activation in VTA were partly dopaminergic that may participate as a vital role in the optogenetic activation of the locomotor activity. In total, our study provided an optogenetic approach to selectively upregulate the locomotor activity of free behaving rats, thus facilitating both neuroscience researches and neural engineering such as animal robotics in the future.

  7. Influences of different developmental periods of taurine supplements on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 area of rats following prenatal and perinatal lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui-Li

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous study has demonstrated that dietary taurine supplement protected rats from impairments of synaptic plasticity induced by postnatal lead exposure. However, little is known about the role of taurine in the presence of prenatal and perinatal lead exposure. We investigated the possible effect of taurine supplement on prenatal and perinatal lead-induced synaptic plasticity deficit and determined developmental periods critical for the effect of taurine. Results In the present study, taurine was administrated to prenatal and perinatal lead-exposed rats in different developmental periods: from prenatal to weaning (Lead+PW-Tau, from weaning to life (Lead+WL-Tau, and from prenatal to life (Lead+PL-Tau. We examined the input-output (I/O function, paired-pulse facilitation (PPF and the long-term potentiation (LTP of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP in the hippocampal CA1 area of rats on postnatal days 18–25 (P18–25 or days 60–75 (P60–75. We found that (1 on P18–25, taurine had no evident effect on I/O functions and PPF ratios of lead-exposed rats but caused a 12.0% increase in the LTP amplitudes of these animals; (2 on P60–75, taurine significantly elevated lead depressed I/O functions and PPF ratios in Lead+PW-Tau and Lead+PL-Tau rats, but failed in Lead+WL-Tau rats. The amplitudes of LTP of lead-exposed rats were all significantly increased by additional taurine supplement in any developmental period compared with untreated rats. Thus, taurine appeared to have the most effect during the prenatal and lactation periods and its effects on younger rats would not be manifest until the adult life; and (3 the level of lead deposition in hippocampus was evidently reduced by additional treatment of taurine in lead-exposed rats, compared with untreated rats. Conclusion Taurine supplement can protect the adult rats from synaptic plasticity deficits following prenatal and perinatal lead exposure, and the

  8. Anisomycin Injection in Area CA3 of the Hippocampus Impairs Both Short-Term and Long-Term Memories of Contextual Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Jessica; Ceccom, Johnatan; Carponcy, Julien; Dugué, Laura; Menchon, Gregory; Pech, Stéphane; Halley, Helene; Francés, Bernard; Dahan, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is involved in the consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. Previous electrophysiological data concerning LTP in CA3 suggest that protein synthesis in that region might also be necessary for short-term memory. We tested this hypothesis by locally injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin in hippocampal…

  9. Optogenetically Blocking Sharp Wave Ripple Events in Sleep Does Not Interfere with the Formation of Stable Spatial Representation in the CA1 Area of the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztián A Kovács

    Full Text Available During hippocampal sharp wave/ripple (SWR events, previously occurring, sensory input-driven neuronal firing patterns are replayed. Such replay is thought to be important for plasticity-related processes and consolidation of memory traces. It has previously been shown that the electrical stimulation-induced disruption of SWR events interferes with learning in rodents in different experimental paradigms. On the other hand, the cognitive map theory posits that the plastic changes of the firing of hippocampal place cells constitute the electrophysiological counterpart of the spatial learning, observable at the behavioral level. Therefore, we tested whether intact SWR events occurring during the sleep/rest session after the first exploration of a novel environment are needed for the stabilization of the CA1 code, which process requires plasticity. We found that the newly-formed representation in the CA1 has the same level of stability with optogenetic SWR blockade as with a control manipulation that delivered the same amount of light into the brain. Therefore our results suggest that at least in the case of passive exploratory behavior, SWR-related plasticity is dispensable for the stability of CA1 ensembles.

  10. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  11. Determinación de la configuración geométrica óptima de la zona de carga de un remolque cañero // Determination of the dimensions of the load area of cane troiler.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presenta la modelación matemática y el procedimiento de optimización de lasdimensiones de la zona de carga de un remolque cañero como parte componente de su diseño.Como criterio de optimización se selecciona la masa de los conjuntos que conforman dicha zona. Elmodelo matemático del área desarrollada de los conjuntos que conforman la zona de carga, sesupone que la masa de los conjuntos es proporcional a su área. Como restricciones del modelo seestablecen: el ancho máximo de la zona de carga, la altura máxima de la misma y el ancho delbastidor.Palabras claves: Optimización de remolques cañeros, diseño óptimo, equipos de cosecha, modelaciónmatemática.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the present work the mathematical model and the optimization procedure of the task ofdetermination of the dimensions of the load area of CANE TROILER as component part of it designare shown. As optimization criteria the mass of the sets that conform this area is selected. In themathematical model it is supposed that the mass of the sets it is proportional to its area. Asrestrictions of the model the maximum width and the maximum height of the load area and thewidth of the wing are settled down.Key words: cane troiler optimization, crop teams, mathematical modelling

  12. Large screening of CA-MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus colonizing healthy young children living in two areas (urban and rural of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miragaia Maria

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of pediatric infections due to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA, including children with no identifiable risk factors, has increased worldwide in the last decade. This suggests that healthy children may constitute a reservoir of MRSA in the community. In this study, nested within a larger one on nasopharyngeal ecology, we aimed to: (i evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonizing young children in Portugal; and (ii compare results with those obtained in a study conducted a decade ago, when this prevalence was Methods In the years 2006, 2007, and 2009, nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from 2,100 children aged up to 6 years attending day-care centers. S. aureus were isolated by routine procedures and strains were tested for susceptibility against a panel of 12 antimicrobial agents. MRSA isolates were further characterized by SmaI-PFGE profiling, MLST, spa typing, SCCmec typing, and presence of virulence factors. Results Seventeen percent of the children carried S. aureus. Among the 365 isolates, non-susceptibility rates were 88% to penicillin, 14% to erythromycin, 6% to clindamycin, 2% to tetracycline, and spa type t148; the other was ST939-IVa (ST939 is a single locus variant (SLV of ST72, spa type t324. The third strain was related to USA300 (ST8-IV being characterized by ST931 (SLV of ST8-VI, spa type t008. The three MRSA strains were PVL-negative, but all carried LukE-LukD leukocidin, hemolysins gamma, gamma variant and beta, and staphylococcal enterotoxin sel. Conclusions Our results, based on analysis of S. aureus isolated from nasopharyngeal samples, suggest that in Portugal the prevalence of CA-MRSA carriage in healthy young children remains extremely low favoring the exclusion of this group as a reservoir of such isolates.

  13. Opioid withdrawal for 4 days prevents synaptic depression induced by low dose of morphine or naloxone in rat hippocampal CA1 area in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Cao, Jun; Xu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    The formation of memory is believed to depend on experience- or activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which is exquisitely sensitive to psychological stress since inescapable stress impairs long-term potentiation (LTP) but facilitates long-term depression (LTD). Our recent studies demonstrated that 4 days of opioid withdrawal enables maximal extents of both hippocampal LTP and drug-reinforced behavior; while elevated-platform stress enables these phenomena at 18 h of opioid withdrawal. Here, we examined the effects of low dose of morphine (0.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on synaptic efficacy in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats. A form of synaptic depression was induced by low dose of morphine or naloxone in rats after 18 h but not 4 days of opioid withdrawal. This synaptic depression was dependent on both N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor and synaptic activity, similar to the hippocampal long-term depression induced by low frequency stimulation. Elevated-platform stress given 2 h before experiment prevented the synaptic depression at 18 h of opioid withdrawal; in contrast, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486 treatment (20 mg kg(-1), s.c., twice per day for first 3 days of withdrawal), or a high dose of morphine reexposure (15 mg kg(-1), s.c., 12 h before experiment), enabled the synaptic depression on 4 days of opioid withdrawal. This temporal shift of synaptic depression by stress or GR blockade supplements our previous findings of potentially correlated temporal shifts of LTP induction and drug-reinforced behavior during opioid withdrawal. Our results therefore support the idea that stress experience during opioid withdrawal may modify hippocampal synaptic plasticity and play important roles in drug-associated memory. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. An urban-forest control measure for ozone in the Sacramento, CA federal non-attainment area (SFNA) Sustainable Cities and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider Taha; James Wilkinson; Robert Bornstein; Qingfu Xiao; E. Gregory McPherson; Jim Simpson; Charles Anderson; Steven Lau; Janice Lam; Cindy. Blain

    2015-01-01

    Urban forest strategies of gradually replacing high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) with low-emitting species are being considered as voluntary or emerging control measures for maintenance of the 8-h ozone standard in the Sacramento Federal Non-Attainment Area (SFNA). We describe a regulatory modeling study demonstrating the air-quality impacts...

  15. Special Analysis: 2016-003 Upgrade of Area G PA=CA Model to Updated Versions of GoldSim Software and to LANL Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shuman, Rob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several onsite and offsite exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data, and assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal.

  16. Determination of Aquifer and Fault Permeabilities by Studying the Poroelastic Response of Rocks Using InSAR in the Upper Coachella Valley Area, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appana, R.; Saar, M. O.

    2007-12-01

    Coachella Valley in California is an area enclosed between Little Bernardino, San Jacinto, and San Bernardino Mountains. The San Andreas Fault system runs through the valley. Satellite interferometry (InSAR) has revealed a differential uplift of the land surface over a period of time across two basin-cutting faults, the Banning Fault (BF) and the Garnet Hill Fault (GHF), in the upper Coachella valley region. This uplift is due to a combined effect of both elastic response of the aquifer due to groundwater recharge at the White Water Spreading Facility and tectonic stresses in the region (Wisely et. al., AGU 2006). In this region, faults appear to act as semi-permeable barriers to groundwater flow (Wisely et. al., AGU 2005). As a result, water levels are not restored uniformly throughout the entire aquifer leading to differential uplift of the land surface. Hence, by developing a numerical model of groundwater flow in this aquifer system, that includes hydraulic representations of the existing faults, a better water management strategy can be achieved which aims at restoring the groundwater levels throughout the aquifer. In addition, the proposed model would better constrain fault permeabilities with implications for research related to earthquake dynamics and assessment of potential slip along segments of the San Andreas Fault system. A finite element code is being used to implement the groundwater flow model. The model simulates the poroelastic response of the faulted aquifer to changing groundwater levels. InSAR data and well data collected in this region will be used to constrain the model yielding parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity field of the aquifer and fault system, storage co-efficients, skeletal compressibilities, and the grounwater influx, and outflux, of the basin.

  17. Cohort profile: 'Centenari a Trieste' (CaT), a study of the health status of centenarians in a small defined area of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanti, Mauro; Marcon, Gabriella

    2018-02-08

    Centenarians, a segment of the population which some 50 years ago comprised only a few individuals, now count thousands in many countries, and demographic projections forecast that this growth will continue. The study of this new population will give us new information on extreme longevity and help prepare for their health and social needs. The aim of the Centenari a Trieste study is to describe the health and health service use by centenarians, with specific focus on cognitive status. This is a population-based study of centenarians living in the province of Trieste (Italy), a small area with a high prevalence of centenarians and a close network of health and social services, which makes it possible to conduct a study. Consenting individuals were visited by a clinician, tested by neuropsychologists and also gave a sample of their blood. Administrative data were retrieved as well. Of the 163 centenarians, 70 could be contacted and participated in the study. The main reasons for non-participation were impossibility to contact the subject (70) and death (20). Centenarians were mostly women (90%), tended to live in a nursing home (60%) and were generally severely functionally impaired (Barthel Index <50: 61%). Data from the administrative database showed that about one out of five needed hospitalisation in the preceding year and more than three out of four had at least one drug prescription. In 2017, we started a new wave of the study enrolling people who had just become centenarian and reassessing subjects already seen; we hope to extend this recruitment in the next years. Subjects are now examined also by cardiologists and dental specialists. We are collecting further different biological specimens to investigate new hypotheses on the cognitive function of the centenarians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  19. CA-125 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian cancer - CA-125 test ... CA-125 is a protein that is found more in ovarian cancer cells than in other cells. This ... ovarian cancer . The test is useful if the CA-125 level was high when the cancer was first ...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  1. crdi.ca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et des enfants d'Afrique. INITIATIVE CONCERTÉE. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique. Centre de recherches pour le développement international. CP Box 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Téléphone : +1 613 236 6163 • Télécopieur : +1 613 657 7749 ismea@crdi.ca | www.crdi.ca/ismea crdi.ca.

  2. PIK3CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Aguirre, Andrew J; Kory, Nora; Pacold, Michael E; Singh, Shambhavi; Moody, Susan E; DeAngelo, Joseph D; Spardy, Nicole A; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Weir, Barbara A; Tsherniak, Aviad; Cowley, Glenn S; Root, David E; Asara, John M; Vazquez, Francisca; Widlund, Hans R; Sabatini, David M; Hahn, William C

    2017-04-25

    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). To understand the relationship between oncogenic PIK3CA and OGDH function, we interrogated metabolic requirements and found an increased reliance on glucose metabolism to sustain PIK3CA mutant cell proliferation. Functional metabolic studies revealed that OGDH suppression increased levels of the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). We found that this increase in 2OG levels, either by OGDH suppression or exogenous 2OG treatment, resulted in aspartate depletion that was specifically manifested as auxotrophy within PIK3CA mutant cells. Reduced levels of aspartate deregulated the malate-aspartate shuttle, which is important for cytoplasmic NAD + regeneration that sustains rapid glucose breakdown through glycolysis. Consequently, because PIK3CA mutant cells exhibit a profound reliance on glucose metabolism, malate-aspartate shuttle deregulation leads to a specific proliferative block due to the inability to maintain NAD + /NADH homeostasis. Together these observations define a precise metabolic vulnerability imposed by a recurrently mutated oncogene.

  3. CAED Document Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) documents to all CAED staff. The respository will also include supporting documents, images, etc.

  4. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  5. Assessment of diagnostic value of various tumors markers (CEA, CA199, CA50) for colorectal neoplasm with logistic regression and ROC curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ping; Huang Gang; Han Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA, CA199 and CA50 for colorectal neoplasm by logistic regression and ROC curve. Methods: Serum CEA (with CLIA), CA199 (with ECLIA) and CA50 (with IRMA) levels were measured in 75 patients with colorectal cancer, 35 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 49 controls. The area under the ROC curve (AUC)s of CEA, CA199, CA50 from logistic regression results were compared. Results: In the cancer-benign disorder group, the AUC of CA50 was larger than the AUC of CA199. AUC of combined CEA, CA50 was largest: not only larger than any AUC of CEA, CA50, CA199 alone but also larger than the AUC of the combined three markers (0.875 vs 0.604). In cancer-control group, the AUC of combination of CEA, CA199 and CA50 was larger than any AUC of CEA, CA199 or CA50 alone. Both in the cancer-benign disorder group or cancer-control group, the AUC of CEA was larger than the AUC of CA199 or CA50. Conclusion: CEA is of definite value in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. For differential diagnosis, the combination of CEA and CA50 can give more information, while the combination of three tumor markers is less helpful. As an advanced statistical method, logistic regression can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  6. Biomarker CA125

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Anette Stolberg

    be detected months before symptoms arise and recurrence is visible on imaging. Therefore, biochemical detection of potential relapse by CA125 assessment can cause significant distress. A decision aid (DA) is a tool that provides information and describes advantages and disadvantages of a specific intervention...... patient organisations and cancer societies. First, a focus group of seven former OC patients was performed followed by a quantitative rating of the DA pilot version. The DA was adapted accordingly and then tested in 14 OC patients with recurrence using a structured interview guide (alpha testing). A final...... agreed that the DA prepared them to make a better decision and helped them reflecting on their concerns regarding CA125. Conclusion: The DA was useful in decision making regarding monitoring CA125 during follow up after OC. The majority of participants indicated that the DA was helpful in clarifying...

  7. A Comparison of the Dynamics of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA Expression in Hippocampal CA1 Area of Rats during Long-Term Potentiation and after Low-Frequency Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lisachev, Pavel D.; Shtark, Mark B.; Sokolova, Olga O.; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.; Salakhutdinova, Mary Yu.; Epstein, Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    The interest in tissue- and cell-specific S100 proteins physiological roles in the brain remains high. However, necessary experimental data for the assessment of their dynamics in one of the most important brain activities, its plasticity, is not sufficient. We studied the expression of S100B, S100A1, and S100A6 mRNA in the subfield CA1 of rat hippocampal slices after tetanic and low-frequency stimulation by real-time PCR. Within 30?min after tetanization, a 2?4 fold increase of the S100B mRN...

  8. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ca2+ current versus Ca2+ channel cooperativity of exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Victor; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2009-09-30

    Recently there has been significant interest and progress in the study of spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca(2+) that triggers exocytosis at a fast chemical synapse, which requires understanding the contribution of individual calcium channels to the release of a single vesicle. Experimental protocols provide insight into this question by probing the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca(2+) influx. While varying extracellular or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration assesses the intrinsic biochemical Ca(2+) cooperativity of neurotransmitter release, varying the number of open Ca(2+) channels using pharmacological channel block or the tail current titration probes the cooperativity between individual Ca(2+) channels in triggering exocytosis. Despite the wide use of these Ca(2+) sensitivity measurements, their interpretation often relies on heuristic arguments. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the Ca(2+) sensitivity measures probed by these experimental protocols, present simple expressions for special cases, and demonstrate the distinction between the Ca(2+) current cooperativity, defined by the relationship between exocytosis rate and the whole-terminal Ca(2+) current magnitude, and the underlying Ca(2+) channel cooperativity, defined as the average number of channels involved in the release of a single vesicle. We find simple algebraic expressions that show that the two are different but linearly related. Further, we use three-dimensional computational modeling of buffered Ca(2+) diffusion to analyze these distinct Ca(2+) cooperativity measures, and demonstrate the role of endogenous Ca(2+) buffers on such measures. We show that buffers can either increase or decrease the Ca(2+) current cooperativity of exocytosis, depending on their concentration and the single-channel Ca(2+) current.

  10. 75 FR 30689 - Modification of Class C Airspace; Beale Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Base, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the legal description of the Beale Air Force Base (AFB), CA, Class C airspace area by allowing the...

  11. CA 125 in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M. E.; Lammes, F. B.; Verweij, J.

    1992-01-01

    The serum tumour marker CA 125 is useful in the management of ovarian cancer, although it has its limitations. Approximately 85% of the ovarian cancer patients have an increased serum CA 125 at the start of treatment. There is a good correlation between the course of CA 125 and the clinical response

  12. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  13. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Avigliano

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela. The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method. Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State. A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area.

  14. Is otolith microchemistry (Sr: Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) useful to identify Mugil curema populations in the southeastern Caribbean Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigliano, E; Callicó-Fortunato, R; Buitrago, J; Volpedo, A V

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential use of otolith microchemistry (Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios) to identify silver mullet, Mugil curema, populations in Southeastern Caribbean Sea. Fish samples were collected in 7 areas of Nueva Esparta State (Venezuela). The otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and water Sr:Ca were determined (by ICP-OES and EDTA volumetric method). Otoliths Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios and Sr:Ca partition coefficient of mullets in Cubagua island (south of the State) were significantly different from ratios in La Guardia (north of the State). A discriminant analysis of otolith Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios separated Cubagua Island from La Guardia values. These results suggest the existence of different mullet groups in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. For this, the simultaneous use of Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios could be a potential tool to identify populations in the study area.

  15. A close association of RyRs with highly dense clusters of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels underlies the activation of STICs by Ca2+ sparks in mouse airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rongfeng; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Tuft, Richard A; Bellvé, Karl; Fogarty, Kevin E; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2008-07-01

    Ca(2+) sparks are highly localized, transient releases of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In smooth muscle, Ca(2+) sparks trigger spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) by opening nearby clusters of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and also gate Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (Cl((Ca))) channels to induce spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs). While the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of STOCs by Ca(2+) sparks is well understood, little information is available on how Ca(2+) sparks activate STICs. In the present study, we investigated the spatial organization of RyRs and Cl((Ca)) channels in spark sites in airway myocytes from mouse. Ca(2+) sparks and STICs were simultaneously recorded, respectively, with high-speed, widefield digital microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp. An image-based approach was applied to measure the Ca(2+) current underlying a Ca(2+) spark (I(Ca(spark))), with an appropriate correction for endogenous fixed Ca(2+) buffer, which was characterized by flash photolysis of NPEGTA. We found that I(Ca(spark)) rises to a peak in 9 ms and decays with a single exponential with a time constant of 12 ms, suggesting that Ca(2+) sparks result from the nonsimultaneous opening and closure of multiple RyRs. The onset of the STIC lags the onset of the I(Ca(spark)) by less than 3 ms, and its rising phase matches the duration of the I(Ca(spark)). We further determined that Cl((Ca)) channels on average are exposed to a [Ca(2+)] of 2.4 microM or greater during Ca(2+) sparks. The area of the plasma membrane reaching this level is <600 nm in radius, as revealed by the spatiotemporal profile of [Ca(2+)] produced by a reaction-diffusion simulation with measured I(Ca(spark)). Finally we estimated that the number of Cl((Ca)) channels localized in Ca(2+) spark sites could account for all the Cl((Ca)) channels in the entire cell. Taken together these results lead us to propose a model in which

  16. Rates for some reactions involving 42Ca and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.; King, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-state reaction rates have been deduced from recent cross section measurements for the 42 CA(α, n) 45 Ti, 42 Ca(p, γ) 43 Sc, and 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reactions. Comparison of these rates with those calculated from a statistical model of nuclear reactions. (Woosley et al) shows good agreement for the first two, but the 44 Ca(p, n) rate is more than a factor of 2 less than the theoretical prediction. Stellar reaction rates have been derived from the ground-state rates by multiplying the ground-state rates by the ratio of stellar to ground-state rates given by the statistical model. Both ground-state and stellar rates have been represented by analytic functions of the temperature. The role of these reactions in the approach to quasi-equilibrium during explosive silicon burning is discussed

  17. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    in the enzyme or its membrane lipid environment is still a matter of discussion. In this study we compared the temperature dependence and Ca2+-dependence of SR Ca2+-ATPase in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), salmon (Salmo, salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2...

  18. Capillary changes in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas of the aging rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuker, JIH; Luiten, PGM; Fuchs, E

    2000-01-01

    The rhesus monkey is considered a useful animal model for studying human aging, because non-human primates show many of the neurobiological alterations that have been reported in aging humans. Cognitive impairment that accompanies normal aging may, at least partially, originate from capillary

  19. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  20. Effects of Ca antagonists on Ca fluxes in resistance vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, C.; Saida, K.; van Breemen, C.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have examined contractions and 45 Ca fluxes induced by norepinephrine (NE) and 80 mM potassium (high K) depolarization and their inhibition by dilitazem in rabbit mesenteric resistance vessels. Contraction induced by both NE and high K depended almost completely on extracellular Ca. Dose-response curves for diltiazem inhibition of NE (10(-5) M) and high K contractions showed ED50 values of 1 X 10(-8) and 6 X 10(-7) M, respectively, indicating that the receptor-operated channel (ROC) was more sensitive than the potential-operated channel (POC) to the action of diltiazem. Diltiazem (10(-6) M) was shown to inhibit NE- and 80 mM K-stimulated 45 Ca influx effectively by 87 +/- 15 and 85 +/- 10%, respectively. Comparison of these data to those obtained from aorta suggest that although the sensitivity of the POC is approximately the same in aorta and mesenteric resistance vessels, the sensitivity of the ROC is much greater in the latter. This increased sensitivity is paralleled by a greatly decreased role of intracellular Ca release in NE contraction in mesenteric resistance vessels

  1. A Close Association of RyRs with Highly Dense Clusters of Ca2+-activated Cl− Channels Underlies the Activation of STICs by Ca2+ Sparks in Mouse Airway Smooth Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Rongfeng; Lifshitz, Lawrence M.; Tuft, Richard A.; Bellvé, Karl; Fogarty, Kevin E.; ZhuGe, Ronghua

    2008-01-01

    Ca2+ sparks are highly localized, transient releases of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In smooth muscle, Ca2+ sparks trigger spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) by opening nearby clusters of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and also gate Ca2+-activated Cl− (Cl(Ca)) channels to induce spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs). While the molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of STOCs by Ca2+ sparks is well understood, little information is available on how Ca2+ sparks activate STICs. In the present study, we investigated the spatial organization of RyRs and Cl(Ca) channels in spark sites in airway myocytes from mouse. Ca2+ sparks and STICs were simultaneously recorded, respectively, with high-speed, widefield digital microscopy and whole-cell patch-clamp. An image-based approach was applied to measure the Ca2+ current underlying a Ca2+ spark (ICa(spark)), with an appropriate correction for endogenous fixed Ca2+ buffer, which was characterized by flash photolysis of NPEGTA. We found that ICa(spark) rises to a peak in 9 ms and decays with a single exponential with a time constant of 12 ms, suggesting that Ca2+ sparks result from the nonsimultaneous opening and closure of multiple RyRs. The onset of the STIC lags the onset of the ICa(spark) by less than 3 ms, and its rising phase matches the duration of the ICa(spark). We further determined that Cl(Ca) channels on average are exposed to a [Ca2+] of 2.4 μM or greater during Ca2+ sparks. The area of the plasma membrane reaching this level is <600 nm in radius, as revealed by the spatiotemporal profile of [Ca2+] produced by a reaction-diffusion simulation with measured ICa(spark). Finally we estimated that the number of Cl(Ca) channels localized in Ca2+ spark sites could account for all the Cl(Ca) channels in the entire cell. Taken together these results lead us to propose a model in which RyRs and Cl(Ca) channels in Ca2+ spark sites localize

  2. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...

  3. Control of ciliary motility by Ca2+: Integration of Ca2+-dependent functions and targets for Ca2+ action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca 2+ -induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca 2+ current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca 2+ current from Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca 2+ -dependent K + and Ca 2+ -dependent Na + currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca 2+ action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a 125 I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed

  4. Ca isotopic fractionation patterns in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are an emerging tracer of the biogeochemical cycle of Ca that are just beginning to see significant application to forest ecosystems. The primary source of isotopic fractionation in these systems is discrimination against light Ca during uptake by plant roots. Cycling of vegetation-fractionated Ca establishes isotopically distinct Ca pools within a forest ecosystem. In some systems, the shallow soil exchangeable Ca pool is isotopically heavy relative to Ca inputs. This has been explained by preferential removal of light Ca from the soil. In other systems, the soil exchange pool is isotopically light relative to inputs, which is explained by recycling of plant-fractionated light Ca back into soil. Thus vegetation uptake of light Ca has been called on to account for both isotopically heavy and light Ca in the shallow soil exchange pools. We interpret patterns in ecosystem δ44Ca with the aid of a simple box model of the forest Ca cycle. We suggest that the δ44Ca of exchangeable Ca in the shallow soil pool primarily reflects the relative magnitude of three key fluxes in a forest Ca cycle, 1) the flux of external Ca into the system via weathering or atmospheric deposition, 2) the uptake flux of Ca from soils into the vegetation pool, and 3) the return flux of Ca to shallow soils via remineralization of leaf litter. Two observations that emerge from our model may aid in the application of Ca isotopes to provide insight into the forest Ca cycle. First, regardless of the magnitude of both vegetation Ca uptake and isotopic fractionation, the δ44Ca of the soil exchange pool will equal the input δ44Ca unless the plant uptake and remineralization fluxes are out of balance. A second observation is that the degree to which the shallow soil exchange pool δ44Ca can differ from the input ratio is controlled by the relative rates of biological uptake and external Ca input. Significant differences between soil exchange and input δ44Ca are seen only

  5. CaII Κ Imaging to Understand UV Irradiance Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    (NSO/Sac Peak). The main purpose of the present paper is to separate and to derive the relative intensity and area of various chromospheric features from 424 ... 2. Results and discussion. To analyze the CaII Κ spectroheliograms and to separate various chromospheric magnetic features, we have calculated histograms ...

  6. Spatial information is preferentially processed by the distal part of CA3: implication for memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasbeck, Vera; Atucha, Erika; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2018-03-05

    For the past decades, CA3 was considered as a single functional entity. However, strong differences between the proximal (close to the dentate gyrus) and the distal (close to CA2) parts of CA3 in terms of connectivity patterns, gene expression and electrophysiological properties suggest that it is not the case. We recently showed that proximal CA3 (together with distal CA1) preferentially deals with non-spatial information [1]. In contrast to proximal CA3, distal CA3 mainly receives and predominantly projects to spatially tuned areas. Here, we tested if distal CA3 preferentially processes spatial information, which would suggest a segregation of the spatial information along the proximodistal axis of CA3. We used a high-resolution imaging technique based on the detection of the expression of the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We showed that distal CA3 is strongly recruited in a newly designed delayed nonmatching-to-location task with high memory demands in rats, while proximal CA3 is not. These results indicate a functional segregation of CA3 that mirrors the one reported in CA1, and suggest the existence of a distal CA3- proximal CA1 spatial subnetwork. These findings bring further evidence for the existence of 'specialized' spatial and non-spatial subnetworks segregated along the proximodistal axis of the hippocampus and put forward the 'segregated' view of information processing in the hippocampus as a reasonable alternative to the well-accepted 'integrated' view, according to which spatial and non-spatial information are systematically integrated in the hippocampus to form episodic memory. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Vertebrados terrestres registrados mediante foto-trampeo en arroyos estacionales y cañadas con agua superficial en un hábitat semiárido de Baja California Sur, México Terrestrial vertebrates recorded by camera traps in areas with seasonal streams and creeks of superficial waters in a semiarid habitat of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mesa-Zavala

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cuerpos de agua superficial (CAS permanentes o efímeros (pozas, tinajas, escurrimientos, etc. que se encuentran en depresiones del terreno, como arroyos y cañadas, son soporte fundamental para el ecosistema en zonas áridas. Mediante el uso de cámaras-trampa, en este estudio se identifican especies de vertebrados terrestres silvestres presentes en 4 sitios con agua superficial, en el extremo sur de la sierra El Mechudo, Baja California Sur, y se analiza el uso de los CAS por las especies en los periodos de actividad. En cada sitio se caracterizó el hábitat (topografía, vegetación y agua. Los 4 sitios mostraron diferencias en sus características ambientales. Se identificaron 41 especies de vertebrados terrestres (3 reptiles, 31 aves y 7 mamíferos. Se encontraron también varias especies de murciélagos que no fueron identificadas. La riqueza de especies y frecuencia de visita fue diferente en cada sitio. Con excepción de 3 especies de mamíferos, el horario de actividad fue similar en los 4 sitios. La presente investigación aporta información sobre la importancia de los CAS en zonas semiáridas, describiendo el hábitat, las especies y su comportamiento, elementos básicos para la conservación y manejo de los recursos naturales.Permanent or ephemeral water ponds (puddles, catchments, drains, and so on located on ground depressions, such as streams and creeks, are a fundamental support for ecosystems in dry areas. This study identified the species of native terrestrial vertebrates in 4 sites in the southernmost part of the Sierra El Mechudo, B.C.S., including how such species use these bodies of water based on the periods of species activity. Habitats were characterized in 4 sites (topography, vegetation, and water sources; camera-traps were placed around water ponds from March to October 2007. The 4 sites differed in their environmental characteristics. Overall, there were 41 species of terrestrial vertebrates (3 reptiles, 31

  8. Study of the Sextans dwarf spheroidal galaxy from the DART Ca II triplet survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Tolstoy, E.; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Parisi, P.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.

    We use Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) intermediate-resolution (R˜ 6500) spectra of individual red giant branch stars in the near-infrared Ca II triplet (CaT) region to investigate the wide-area metallicity properties and internal kinematics of the

  9. 78 FR 68995 - Safety Zone: Vessel Removal From the Oakland Estuary, Alameda, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Bridge in Alameda, CA. Crane operations to remove sunken vessels are scheduled to take place on November... Street Bridge in Alameda, CA in support of the Oakland Estuary Closure for the Vessel Removal Project on..., mariners, and other vessels transiting the area from the dangers associated with cranes operating under...

  10. Tissue expression of CA 125 in benign and malignant lesions of ovary and fallopian tube: a comparison with CA 19-9 and CEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunteufel, W; Breitenecker, G

    1989-03-01

    Sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of 11 normal ovaries and tubes, 13 tubo-ovarian abscesses, 3 tubal carcinomas, and 115 ovarian tumors were investigated by immunohistochemistry. CA 125 and CA 19-9 were demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies, CEA with polyclonal antibodies. The tissue expression was visualized by the avidin-biotin method. In the germinal epithelium of all ovaries no tumor marker was confirmed. In 4 out of 11 tubes the epithelium was CA 125 positive, in 2 out of 11 cases CA 19-9 positive. Nine out of 13 tubo-ovarian abscesses were CA 125 and 5 out of 13 were CA 19-9 positive in their epithelium. Elevated serum levels of these markers might be due to expression via the epithelial cell of the inflamed tube. All normal and inflammatory adnexal tissues were CEA negative. In serous tumors and undifferentiated carcinomas, CA 125 was most frequently confirmed (85 and 70%, respectively). All mucinous tumors were CA 125 negative. The most frequently confirmed tumor marker was CA 19-9 (77%). In endometrioid tumors, CEA was most frequent (44%). In 42% of the borderline tumors and carcinomas only one marker was demonstrated, in 7% none. Here, immunohistochemistry may indicate the most adequate marker. Tumor marker expression was markedly heterogenous: tumor areas with strong, weak, and no reaction were adjacent. The tumor markers revealed no specificity for malignancy or disease.

  11. A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, D M

    1982-05-01

    A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-buffered Ca solutions is described. This method is useful for calibration of Ca macro- and microelectrodes to low free [Ca] and should improve the reliability of calculated free [Ca] in more complex solutions. Briefly, free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions is measured with a Ca electrode, bound Ca is calculated, and Scatchard and double-reciprocal plots are resolved for the total [EGTA] and the apparent Ca-EGTA association constant (K'Ca) in the solutions used. The free [Ca] is then recalculated using the determined parameters, giving a more accurate knowledge of the free [Ca] in these solutions and providing an accurate calibration curve for the Ca electrode. These solutions can then be used to calibrate other Ca electrodes (e.g., Ca microelectrodes) or the calibrated Ca electrode can be used to measure free [Ca] in solutions containing multiple metal ligands. This method allows determination of free [Ca], K'Ca, and total [EGTA] in the actual solutions used regardless of pH, temperature, or ionic strength. It does not require accurate knowledge of K'Ca or EGTA purity and circumvents many potential errors due to assumption of binding parameters. K'Ca was found to be 2.45 +/- 0.04 X 10(6) M-1 in 100 mM KCl, 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, and 1 mM EGTA at pH 7.00 and 23 degrees C. Total [EGTA] varied with supplier but was always less than quoted.

  12. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  13. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  14. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...... fusion at rest (clamping) and to promote fusion upon Ca(2+) activation. At least eight, often coexpressed, Ca(2+) sensors have been identified in mammals. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple Ca(2+) sensors interact, rather than work autonomously, to produce the complex secretory response...... observed in neurons and secretory cells. In this review, we present several working models to describe how different sensors might be arranged to mediate synchronous, asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. We discuss the scenario that different Ca(2+) sensors typically act on one shared...

  15. Direct mobilisation of lysosomal Ca2+ triggers complex Ca2+ signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Eden, Emily R; Schapira, Anthony H; Futter, Clare E; Patel, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates acidic organelles of the endolysosomal system as mobilisable stores of Ca(2+) but their relationship to the better-characterised endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store remains unclear. Here we show that rapid osmotic permeabilisation of lysosomes evokes prolonged, spatiotemporally complex Ca(2+) signals in primary cultured human fibroblasts. These Ca(2+) signals comprised an initial response that correlated with lysosomal disruption and secondary long-lasting spatially heterogeneous Ca(2+) oscillations that required ER-localised inositol trisphosphate receptors. Electron microscopy identified extensive membrane contact sites between lysosomes and the ER. Mobilisation of lysosomal Ca(2+) stores is thus sufficient to evoke ER-dependent Ca(2+) release probably through lysosome-ER membrane contact sites, and akin to the proposed mechanism of action of the Ca(2+) mobilising messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). Our data identify functional and physical association of discrete Ca(2+) stores important for the genesis of Ca(2+) signal complexity.

  16. A quantitative description of tubular system Ca(2+) handling in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Tanya R; Edwards, Joshua N; Murphy, Robyn M; Launikonis, Bradley S

    2016-06-01

    Current methods do not allow a quantitative description of Ca(2+) movements across the tubular (t-) system membrane without isolating the membranes from their native skeletal muscle fibre. Here we present a fluorescence-based method that allows determination of the t-system [Ca(2+) ] transients and derivation of t-system Ca(2+) fluxes in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. Differences in t-system Ca(2+) -handling properties between fast- and slow-twitch fibres from rat muscle are resolved for the first time using this new technique. The method can be used to study Ca(2+) handling of the t-system and allows direct comparisons of t-system Ca(2+) transients and Ca(2+) fluxes between groups of fibres and fibres from different strains of animals. The tubular (t-) system of skeletal muscle is an internalization of the plasma membrane that maintains a large Ca(2+) gradient and exchanges Ca(2+) between the extracellular and intracellular environments. Little is known of the Ca(2+) -handling properties of the t-system as the small Ca(2+) fluxes conducted are difficult to resolve with conventional methods. To advance knowledge in this area we calibrated t-system-trapped rhod-5N inside skinned fibres from rat and [Ca(2+) ]t-sys , allowing confocal measurements of Ca(2+) -dependent changes in rhod-5N fluorescence during rapid changes in the intracellular ionic environment to be converted to [Ca(2+) ] transients in the t-system ([Ca(2+) ]t-sys (t)). Furthermore, t-system Ca(2+) -buffering power was determined so that t-system Ca(2+) fluxes could be derived from [Ca(2+) ]t-sys (t). With this new approach, we show that rapid depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) induced a robust store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch fibres, reducing [Ca(2+) ]t-sys to twitch fibres were greater than that in slow-twitch fibres. In addition, simultaneous imaging of t-system and SR Ca(2+) signals indicated that both membrane compartments accumulated Ca(2+) at

  17. A quantitative description of tubular system Ca2+ handling in fast‐ and slow‐twitch muscle fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Tanya R.; Edwards, Joshua N.; Murphy, Robyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Current methods do not allow a quantitative description of Ca2+ movements across the tubular (t‐) system membrane without isolating the membranes from their native skeletal muscle fibre.Here we present a fluorescence‐based method that allows determination of the t‐system [Ca2+] transients and derivation of t‐system Ca2+ fluxes in mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres. Differences in t‐system Ca2+‐handling properties between fast‐ and slow‐twitch fibres from rat muscle are resolved for the first time using this new technique.The method can be used to study Ca2+ handling of the t‐system and allows direct comparisons of t‐system Ca2+ transients and Ca2+ fluxes between groups of fibres and fibres from different strains of animals. Abstract The tubular (t‐) system of skeletal muscle is an internalization of the plasma membrane that maintains a large Ca2+ gradient and exchanges Ca2+ between the extracellular and intracellular environments. Little is known of the Ca2+‐handling properties of the t‐system as the small Ca2+ fluxes conducted are difficult to resolve with conventional methods. To advance knowledge in this area we calibrated t‐system‐trapped rhod‐5N inside skinned fibres from rat and [Ca2+]t‐sys, allowing confocal measurements of Ca2+‐dependent changes in rhod‐5N fluorescence during rapid changes in the intracellular ionic environment to be converted to [Ca2+] transients in the t‐system ([Ca2+]t‐sys (t)). Furthermore, t‐system Ca2+‐buffering power was determined so that t‐system Ca2+ fluxes could be derived from [Ca2+]t‐sys (t). With this new approach, we show that rapid depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ induced a robust store‐operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in fast‐ and slow‐twitch fibres, reducing [Ca2+]t‐sys to twitch fibres were greater than that in slow‐twitch fibres. In addition, simultaneous imaging of t‐system and SR Ca2+ signals indicated that both membrane

  18. CA72-4 combined with CEA, CA125 and CAl9-9 improves the sensitivity for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ai-Ping; Liu, Jun; Lei, He-Yue; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Zhao, Long; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether the combination of tumor markers (CA72-4, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA) could increase the sensitivity and accuracy for in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). This study is a retrospective analysis. A total of 426 patients, including 106 patients with GC, 149 patients with benign gastric diseases and 171 healthy people, who visited Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital from January 2011 to December 2013, were measured by serum markers, including CA72-4, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA. Statistical analyses including area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and logistic regression analysis, were performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these markers on GC. Serum levels of CA72-4, CEA, CA125 and CA19-9 were higher in the GC group than those in the benign gastric disease group and the healthy control group (PCEA, CA125 and CA19-9 at the recommended cut-off level for all patients were 33.0%, 25.5%, 31.1% and 38.7%, respectively. However, when all four markers were used in combination the sensitivity increased to 66.0%. But by using an optimal cut-off value, the sensitivities of all four markers for the diagnosis of GC were improved. Especially the sensitivity of CEA increased to 73.6% and the sensitivity of the combination of the tumor markers increased to 75.5%. The age and gender had no effects on the diagnostic value of these markers. With the help of optimal cut-off values based on ROC curve and logistic regression analysis, the combination of these markers could improve the sensitivity for the diagnosis of GC based on common serum tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  20. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  1. The analysis of hippocampus neuronal density (CA1 and CA3 after Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract treatment on the young adulthood and middle age rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Liliek Kusindarta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the changes in neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus of young adulthood and middle age rat model after feeding by Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods: In this research, 30 male Wistar rats consist of young to middle-aged rats were divided into three groups (3, 6, and 9 months old and treated with a different dosage of O. sanctum ethanolic extract (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days. Furthermore, cresyl violet staining was performed to analyze hippocampus formation mainly in CA1 and CA3 area. The concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach in brain tissues were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: In our in vivo models using rat model, we found that the administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days induced the density of pyramidal cells significantly in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. These results were supported by an increase of Ach concentrations on the brain tissue. Conclusion: The administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract may promote the density of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 mediated by the up-regulated concentration of Ach.

  2. Weak transition of 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the nuclear core contribution to the excited nuclear states was done, along with its theoretical evaluation and interpretation, in the light nuclei region. The 727 KeV gamma ray transition between the 1885 KeV O + and 1157 KeV - 2 + states was detected, putting in evidence experimentally, the possibility of the 0 + state, characterized as core excitation, and found to be by + decay or electron capture from 44,44m Sc. The formation of the 2850 KeV state, due to 880 KeV transition from the 3667 KeV state, is re-discussed. The 564 KeV and 1684 KeV transitions from the 2850 KeV state to the 2285 KeV and 1157 KeV states, respectively, are also discussed. A new scheme is proposed for the 44 Ca excited states. (Author) [pt

  3. Role of Ca2+, membrane excitability, and Ca2+ stores in failing muscle contraction with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Anthony Michael; Jimenez-Moreno, Ramón; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2009-04-01

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in a population of skeletal muscle fibers of aged mice becomes dependent on the presence of external Ca(2+) ions (Payne, A.M., Zheng, Z., Gonzalez, E., Wang, Z.M., Messi, M.L., Delbono, O., 2004b. External Ca(2+)-dependent excitation - contraction coupling in a population of aging mouse skeletal muscle fibers. J. Physiol. 560, 137-155.). However, the mechanism(s) underlying this process remain unknown. In this work, we examined the role of (1) extracellular Ca(2+); (2) voltage-induced influx of external Ca(2+) ions; (3) sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) depletion during repeated contractions; (4) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE); (5) SR ultrastructure; (6) SR subdomain localization of the ryanodine receptor; and (7) sarcolemmal excitability in muscle force decline with aging. These experiments show that external Ca(2+), but not Ca(2+) influx, is needed to maintain force upon repetitive fiber electrical stimulation. Decline in fiber force is associated with depressed SR Ca(2+) release. SR Ca(2+) depletion, SOCE, and the putative segregated Ca(2+) release store do not play a significant role in external Ca(2+)-dependent contraction. More importantly, a significant number of action potentials fail in senescent mouse muscle fibers subjected to a stimulation frequency. These results indicate that failure to generate action potentials accounts for decreased intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and tetanic force in aging muscle exposed to a Ca(2+)-free medium.

  4. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  5. High surface area calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  6. Optochemokine Tandem for Light-Control of Intracellular Ca2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Feldbauer

    Full Text Available An optochemokine tandem was developed to control the release of calcium from endosomes into the cytosol by light and to analyze the internalization kinetics of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs by electrophysiology. A previously constructed rhodopsin tandem was re-engineered to combine the light-gated Ca2+-permeable cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2(L132C, CatCh, with the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a functional tandem protein tCXCR4/CatCh. The GPCR was used as a shuttle protein to displace CatCh from the plasma membrane into intracellular areas. As shown by patch-clamp measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy, heterologously expressed tCXCR4/CatCh was internalized via the endocytic SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway. The kinetics of internalization could be followed electrophysiologically via the amplitude of the CatCh signal. The light-induced release of Ca2+ by tandem endosomes into the cytosol via CatCh was visualized using the Ca2+-sensitive dyes rhod2 and rhod2-AM showing an increase of intracellular Ca2+ in response to light.

  7. Formation process of micro arc oxidation coatings obtained in a sodium phytate containing solution with and without CaCO{sub 3} on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.F. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, Y.Q. [Zhejiang DunAn Light Alloy Technology CO,.LTD, Zhuji 311835 (China); Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Zhang, S.F.; Qu, B. [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Guo, S.B. [Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Xiang, J.H., E-mail: xiangjunhuai@163.com [School of Material and Electromechanics, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compared to the Mg phase, the area of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase is much smaller. • The coatings are preferentially developed on the area adjacent to Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. • During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed. • Anodic coatings are developed from uneven to uniform. - Abstract: Micro arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys. In order to reveal the influence of alloying element Ca and CaCO{sub 3} electrolyte on the formation process and chemical compositions of MAO coatings on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy, anodic coatings after different anodizing times were prepared on binary Mg-1.0Ca alloy in a base solution containing 3 g/L sodium hydroxide and 15 g/L sodium phytate with and without addition of CaCO{sub 3}. The coating formation was studied by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that Mg-1.0Ca alloy is composed of two phases, the Mg phase and Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. After treating for 5 s, the coating began to develop and was preferentially formed on the area nearby Mg{sub 2}Ca phase, which may be resulted from the intrinsic electronegative potential of the Mg phase than that of Mg{sub 2}Ca phase. Anodic coatings unevenly covered the total surface after 20 s. After 80 s, the coatings were uniformly developed on Mg-1.0Ca alloy with micro pores. During MAO process, some sodium phytate molecules are hydrolyzed into inorganic phosphate. CaCO{sub 3} has minor influence on the calcium content of the obtained MAO coatings.

  8. Lattice Dynamics of fcc Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;

    1983-01-01

    A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion.......8, there is a relative decrease in the electronic screening of the vibrational motion of the nuclei, which may account for the positive dispersion exhibited by the T1 [ξξ0] branch in this range of ξ values. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat...

  9. Fabrication and characterisation of nanostructures on CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzill, M.M.

    1999-04-01

    Novel nanostructure fabrication techniques are described in this dissertation. Furthermore, an unusual two dimensional phase segregation on CaF 2 surfaces after glancing incidence ion beam irradiation is reported. Atomic force microscope (AFM)-tip assisted self-organisation of clusters on anisotropic surfaces is illustrated. This new technique for the fabrication of periodic structures has been demonstrated using silver clusters grown on vicinal CaF 2 (111) surfaces. The scanning action of the tip aligns silver clusters along crystal step edges on the vicinal surface. Nanowire arrays of silver with a uniform periodicity of 20-50 nm and wire widths of 5-7 nm have been achieved over the entire area scanned by the AFM. Calcium remaining on CaF 2 surfaces after electron irradiation induced depletion of the surface of fluorine is found to re-organise itself into island structures. These islands show a shape transition, upon reaching a critical size of ∼ 20 nm in diameter, from a compact to an elongated island shape. Crystal step edge erosion of fluorine allows the formation of long ranging nanowires. These wires have a uniform width of ∼ 15 nm. The observed island shape transition and the width of the wires has been explained by the presence of strain in the islands. This is the first experimental observation confirming a theoretical prediction of the reduction of island width with increasing length for strained islands. A novel technique of ion beam assisted fabrication of periodic nanowire arrays over macroscopic areas is reported. Potential sputtering of CaF 2 surfaces leads to a calcium enriched surface that organised itself in stress domains due to the lattice misfit between calcium and CaF 2 . These stress domains can be oriented by directed ion beam irradiation under glancing angles in parallel stripes with a periodicity of 8-12 nm. A phase segregation on the CaF 2 (111) surface has been observed upon glancing incidence ion beam irradiation under certain

  10. Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases in the nervous system during development and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Ana M; Sepulveda, M Rosario

    2010-01-01

    Calcium signaling is used by neurons to control a variety of functions, including cellular differentiation, synaptic maturation, neurotransmitter release, intracellular signaling and cell death. This review focuses on one of the most important Ca2+ regulators in the cell, the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), which has a high affinity for Ca2+ and is widely expressed in brain. The ontogeny of PMCA isoforms, linked to specific requirements of Ca2+ during development of different brain areas, is addressed, as well as their function in the adult tissue. This is based on the high diversity of variants in the PMCA family in brain, which show particular kinetic differences possibly related to specific localizations and functions of the cell. Conversely, alterations in the activity of PMCAs could lead to changes in Ca2+ homeostasis and, consequently, to neural dysfunction. The involvement of PMCA isoforms in certain neuropathologies and in brain ageing is also discussed. PMID:21537478

  11. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  12. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; Jing, Yan; Dong, Hui; Rao, Karun K; Chi, Xiaowei; Fang, Fang; Yao, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anode and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.

  13. Cuento: Sangre de caña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Benjamín Corredor

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available El viento se convertía en murmullo contra las hojas de los cañaverales y contra los techos semipelados del rancho. También menguaba el calor que maduraba los plantíos de caña y que hacía más efusiva la sangre de los moradores.

  14. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  15. By Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+-Uptake UCP2 Modulates Intracellular Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Jaroslaw Motloch

    Full Text Available The possible role of UCP2 in modulating mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake (mCa2+-uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU is highly controversial.Thus, we analyzed mCa2+-uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria, MCU single-channel activity in cardiac mitoplasts, dual Ca2+-transients from mitochondrial ((Ca2+m and intracellular compartment ((Ca2+c in the whole-cell configuration in cardiomyocytes of wild-type (WT and UCP2-/- mice.Isolated mitochondria showed a Ru360 sensitive mCa2+-uptake, which was significantly decreased in UCP2-/- (229.4±30.8 FU vs. 146.3±23.4 FU, P0.05 and transsarcolemmal Ca2+-influx was inhibited suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Additionally, we observed an inhibitory effect of ATP on mCa2+-uptake in WT mitoplasts and (Ca2+m of cardiomyocytes leading to an increase of (Ca2+c while no ATP dependent effect was observed in UCP2-/-.Our results indicate regulatory effects of UCP2 on mCa2+-uptake. Furthermore, we propose, that previously described inhibitory effects on MCU by ATP may be mediated via UCP2 resulting in changes of excitation contraction coupling.

  16. Impact of seawater [Ca2+] on the calcification and calcite Mg / Ca of Amphistegina lessonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G. J.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  17. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  18. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  19. ruberculous Peritonitis with Perforation - Ca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consultant Surgeon, St. Mary's. A),. Mission I -Iospital, PO. BOX 3409, Nairobi, KENYA. Int. 'luberculous peritonitis is a diagnostic ... In areas where parenteral nutrition is not affordable this becomes more of an impossible task. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the difficulties encountered in the management.

  20. Sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 sporadic layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between sporadic neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the sporadic ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few sporadic layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of sporadic Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while sporadic Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes sporadic Ca layers are more frequent than sporadic layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  1. Results of measuring internal Ca absorption and Ca kinetics with /sup 47/Ca in patients suffering from chronically recurrent urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L.; Esther, G.; Serfling, D.; Bast, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-07-01

    47 patients with chronically recurrent calcium lithiasis (with between 3 and over 100 stone episodes) and an average age of 43.2 years have been examined. The Ca absorption lay between 42.7% and 90.0% of the dose, the average was 59.3% with a standard deviation of +- 12.9. This is higher than in persons with healthy kidneys. The Ca absorption is significantly lower in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies on Ca kinetics revealed turnover rates and pool sizes within the normal range.

  2. Results of measuring enteral Ca absorption and Ca kinetics with 47Ca in patients suffering from chronically recurrent urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Esther, G.; Serfling, D.; Bast, R.

    1983-01-01

    47 patients with chronically recurrent calcium lithiasis (with between 3 and over 100 stone episodes) and an average age of 43.2 years have been examined. The Ca absorption lay between 42.7% and 90.0% of the dose, the average was 59.3% with a standard deviation of +- 12.9. This is higher than in persons with healthy kidneys. The Ca absorption is significantly lower in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies on Ca kinetics revealed turnover rates and pool sizes within the normal range. (author)

  3. Interaction between Na+/K+-pump and Na+/Ca2+-exchanger modulates intercellular communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Gustafsson, Helena; Rahman, Awahan; Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna M; Gorintin, Sarah; Hansen, Anne Kirstine; Bouzinova, Elena V; Praetorius, Helle A; Aalkjaer, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-04-13

    Ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump, has previously been shown to interfere with intercellular communication. Here we test the hypothesis that the communication between vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated through an interaction between the Na(+)/K(+)-pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger leading to an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in discrete areas near the plasma membrane. [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells was imaged in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cell pairs (A7r5) and in rat mesenteric small artery segments simultaneously with force. In A7r5 coupling between cells was estimated by measuring membrane capacitance. Smooth muscle cells were uncoupled when the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was inhibited either by a low concentration of ouabain, which also caused a localized increase of [Ca(2+)](i) near the membrane, or by ATP depletion. Reduction of Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity by removal of extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) also uncoupled cells, but only after inhibition of K(ATP) channels. Inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchange activity by SEA0400 or by a reduction of the equilibrium potential (making it more negative) also uncoupled the cells. Depletion of intracellular Na(+) and clamping of [Ca(2+)](i) at low concentrations prevented the uncoupling. The experiments suggest that the Na(+)/K(+)-pump may affect gap junction conductivity via localized changes in [Ca(2+)](i) through modulation of Na(+)/Ca(2+)-exchanger activity.

  4. Clinical significance of serum CA-125 in Korean females with ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, So Young; Lee, Jun Haeng; Park, Jun Young; Kim, Da-min; Min, Byung-Hoon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic in Korea. Because tuberculous peritonitis is characterized by ascites, abdominal pain, abdominal mass and elevation of serum CA-125, it can be confused with ovarian malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of serum CA-125 level in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis and ovarian malignancy in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis-endemic area. The medical records of patients diagnosed with tuberculous peritonitis (n=48) or epithelial ovarian malignancy (n=370) at Samsung Medical Center from January 2000 to October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Median serum CA-125 level in the epithelial ovarian cancer group was significantly higher than that in the tuberculous peritonitis group (p ≤ 0.01). Only one patient (2.1%) in the tuberculous peritonitis group had a serum CA-125 level over 2000 U/mL. However, 109 patients (29.5%) in the epithelial ovarian cancer group had a serum CA-125 level over 2000 U/mL. At the CA-125 ranges of 400 to 599 and 600 to 799, the proportions of those with tuberculous peritonitis were 24% and 21.9%, respectively. At a serum CA-125 level over 1000 U/mL, however, the proportion of tuberculous peritonitis was much lower (2.1%). Tuberculous peritonitis should be considered in the evaluation of female patients with ascites and high serum CA-125.

  5. Ca2+-dependent structural rearrangements within Na+–Ca2+ exchanger dimers

    OpenAIRE

    John, Scott A.; Ribalet, Bernard; Weiss, James N.; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Ottolia, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ is known to regulate Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity by binding to two adjacent Ca2+-binding domains (CBD1 and CBD2) located in the large intracellular loop between transmembrane segments 5 and 6. We investigated Ca2+-dependent movements as changes in FRET between exchanger proteins tagged with CFP or YFP at position 266 within the large cytoplasmic loop. Data indicate that the exchanger assembles as a dimer in the plasma membrane. Addition of Ca2+ decreases the distance be...

  6. Isospin effects in {sup 40,48}Ca+{sup 40,48}Ca collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, V., E-mail: henzl@mit.ed [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Verde, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania. 64 Via S. Sofia, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Brown, D. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Coupland, D. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Elson, J. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Famiano, M. [Western Michigan University, 2229 Everett Tower, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252 (United States); Herlitzius, C. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Hudan, S. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47405-4001 (United States); Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.; Rogers, A.; Sanetullaev, A. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Sobotka, L. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47405-4001 (United States); Sun, Z.Y.; Tsang, B. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The isospin dependence of two proton correlations is studied in {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca collisions at E/A=80MeV. Measurements were performed with the HiRA detector array complemented by the 4pi Ball at NSCL. We observe a strong isospin dependence of the pp-correlation functions; however the emitting source radius extracted using the imaging technique yields no sensitivity to the isospin of the reaction system. We interpret this result as a consequence of smaller fraction of fast proton emission in the neutron rich {sup 48}Ca system.

  7. Isospin effects in 40,48Ca+40,48Ca collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Verde, G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D.; Elson, J.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.; Rogers, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L.; Souza, R.T. de; Sun, Z.Y.; Tsang, B.

    2010-01-01

    The isospin dependence of two proton correlations is studied in 40 Ca+ 40 Ca and 48 Ca+ 48 Ca collisions at E/A=80MeV. Measurements were performed with the HiRA detector array complemented by the 4π Ball at NSCL. We observe a strong isospin dependence of the pp-correlation functions; however the emitting source radius extracted using the imaging technique yields no sensitivity to the isospin of the reaction system. We interpret this result as a consequence of smaller fraction of fast proton emission in the neutron rich 48 Ca system.

  8. Ozone distribution in remote ecologically vulnerable terrain of the southern Sierra Nevada, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Panek; David Saah; Annie Esperanza; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Witold Fraczek; Ricardo. Cisneros

    2013-01-01

    Ozone concentration spatial patterns remain largely uncharacterized across the extensive wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada, CA, despite being downwind of major pollution sources. These natural areas, including four national parks and four national forests, contain forest species that are susceptible to ozone injury. Forests stressed by ozone are also more...

  9. PGC-1α accelerates cytosolic Ca2+ clearance without disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-01-01

    Energy metabolism and Ca 2+ handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1α in cardiac Ca 2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1α via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1α improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca 2+ transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca 2+ increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca 2+ transients and Ca 2+ waves accelerated in PGC-1α-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca 2+ transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1α-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1α induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1α did not disturb cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, because SR Ca 2+ load and the propensity for Ca 2+ waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1α can ameliorate cardiac Ca 2+ cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1α-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1α in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  10. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  11. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  12. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  13. High CA-125 and CA19-9 levels in spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyue; Jin, Chu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaojian; Zhu, Fangfang; Lin, Feng

    2015-10-23

    To evaluate the clinical significance of serum CA-125 and CA19-9 in women with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. From January 2006 to April 2015, a total of 1653 women were diagnosed with ovarian endometriomas, and 43 women were diagnosed with the spontaneous rupture of their ovarian endometrioma. In addition, 70 women diagnosed with unruptured ovarian endometriomas were chosen to serve as control subjects. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 levels, together with the clinical materials, were collected. Serum CA-125, CA19-9, and the combined biomarkers were shown to be obviously elevated in the spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometrioma group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The AUC value for the combined biomarkers was 0.992 (95% CI, 0.981-1.000), with a high sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100% and 93.6%, respectively. Moreover, the maximum diameter of the mass was significantly (p=0.001) increased in the ruptured group. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 were significantly increased in patients with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. Moreover, the combined biomarkers were better than either CA-125 or CA19-9 alone in the diagnosis of a spontaneous rupture of the ovarian endometrioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  15. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  16. [Association of ovarian tumors with CA-125].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Acosta, Judith Elena; Olguín-Cruces, Víctor Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is the most widely used serum marker for ovarian cancer screening. The aim of this paper was to establish the association between histopathologic result of ovarian tumors with serologic CA-125 and utility for the diagnosis of ovarian tumors at a Ginecoobstetric hospital. An observational, retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study, from September 1st 2010 to February 28 2013. All patients with histopathologic report ovarian tumor and CA-125 was selected to analyze the association of ovarian tumors with their histological type, biological behavior, range positivity of CA-125 and its relationship to the pre and postmenopausal state. Of 1213 patients, 334 were included. Utility of CA-125 in postmenopausal reported positive predictive value of 67.5%, with sensitivity (72%), specificity (82.6%) and negative predictive value (86.1%), both with p = 0.001, mainly in the epithelial origin. In premenopausal a low positive predictive value was reported. The CA-125 is useful for screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women, mainly for epithelial origin.

  17. Ensemble place codes in hippocampus: CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus place cells have multiple place fields in large environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhye Park

    Full Text Available Previously we reported that the hippocampus place code must be an ensemble code because place cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus have multiple place fields in a more natural, larger-than-standard enclosure with stairs that permitted movements in 3-D. Here, we further investigated the nature of hippocampal place codes by characterizing the spatial firing properties of place cells in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG hippocampal subdivisions as rats foraged in a standard 76-cm cylinder as well as a larger-than-standard box (1.8 m×1.4 m that did not have stairs or any internal structure to permit movements in 3-D. The rats were trained to forage continuously for 1 hour using computer-controlled food delivery. We confirmed that most place cells have single place fields in the standard cylinder and that the positional firing pattern remapped between the cylinder and the large enclosure. Importantly, place cells in the CA1, CA3 and DG areas all characteristically had multiple place fields that were irregularly spaced, as we had reported previously for CA1. We conclude that multiple place fields are a fundamental characteristic of hippocampal place cells that simplifies to a single field in sufficiently small spaces. An ensemble place code is compatible with these observations, which contradict any dedicated coding scheme.

  18. The Sr/Ca-temperature relationship in coralline aragonite: Influence of variability in (Sr/Ca)[sub seawater] and skeletal growth parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Villiers, S.; Shen, G.T.; Nelson, B.K. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of two of the most likely pitfalls of Sr/Ca thermometry, i.e., the effect of biogenic cycling of Sr vs. Ca in the surface ocean and the effect of variable extension rate on Sr incorporation in coralline aragonite. The authors also report calibration of the Sr/Ca-temperature relationship for three coral species, Porites lobata, Pocillopora eydouxi, and Pavona clavus, collected for the Hawaiian and Galapagos islands. Analyses of seawater samples show significant spatial and depth variability in the Sr:Ca ratio. The uncertainty introduced by this effect is estimated to be <0.2[degrees]C for corals located in tropical oligotrophic waters, and potentially larger for corals located in upwelling areas. Sr/Ca along two different growth axes of a Galapagos Pavona clavus, with annual extension rates of [approximately]6 and 12 mm/y, respectively, indicate an offset of 1-2[degrees]C, with higher Sr/Ca values associated with slower extension rates. The offset observed between the two growth axes may be the result of variations in extension and/or calcification rate. These results are important in determining past sea surface temperatures for reconstruction of paleoclimates.

  19. Synthesis of Ca-doped spinel by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, M.T.T.; Jacques, Q.; Caliman, L.B.; Miagava, J.; Hotza, D.; Castro, R.H.R.; Gouvêa, D.

    2016-01-01

    MgAl2O4 is a stable catalyst support with potential for replacing gamma-alumina in several applications. However, synthesis of magnesium spinel requires elevated temperatures to avoid phase separation (in MgO and Al2O3) at low temperatures, leading to coarsening and reduction of active surface area. In this work, nano CaO-doped and undoped magnesium aluminate were successfully prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP), using a simple adapted experimental set-up operating at 1100 °C. During...

  20. Preparation and characterization of Eu 3 activated CaSiO3,(CaA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 have been prepared by sol–gel technique. Residual solvent and organic contents in the gel were removed by firing at 100°C for 3–4 h at 300 and 600°C for 2 h. Small exothermic shoulder around 850 to 875°C, as observed in DTA curve, corresponds to crystallization ...

  1. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Babich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  2. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  3. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  4. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  5. Electronic structures and magnetism of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangtao; Shi Xianbiao; Liu Haipeng; Liu Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the electronic structures, magnetism, and Fermi surface (FS) nesting of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF by first-principles calculations. In the nonmagnetic (NM) states, we found strong FS nesting, which induces magnetic instability and a spin density wave (SDW). Our calculations indicate that the ground state of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF is the stripe antiferromagnetic state. The calculated bare susceptibility χ 0 (q) peaked at the M-point and was clearly suppressed and became slightly incommensurate with both electron doping and hole doping for both materials. (author)

  6. Effect of Ca content on equilibrium Ca isotope fractionation between orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Zhou, Chen; Qin, Tian; Kang, Jin-Ting; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Zhongqing; Huang, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Concentration effect on equilibrium inter-mineral isotope fractionation is ubiquitous in solid solution systems, but it is not clear in which concentration range such effect is prominent. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the effect of Ca and Fe contents in orthopyroxene (opx) on its average Casbnd O bond length and the equilibrium Ca isotope fractionation factor (103lnα) between opx and clinopyroxene (cpx). Our results reveal that the average Casbnd O bond length in opx is much smaller than that in cpx and it does not change with variable Ca content x (x and y are mole ratios in CaxFeyMg1-x-ySiO3 thereafter here) when x ≤ 1/48. Incorporation of Fe (y ≥ 1/32) into opx with a fixed Ca content can only slightly increase the average Casbnd O bond length. 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca is linearly correlated with the average Casbnd O bond length in opx, suggesting that 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca is controlled by opx Casbnd O bond strength. Our calculations indicate that the Ca concentration effect on 103lnαopx-cpx is significant when x in opx ranges from 2/16 to 1/48, while Fe in natural opx only causes a slight decrease in 103lnαopx-cpx. Our results provide insights into Ca isotope fractionation in high-temperature geochemical processes. Given that Ca content x in opx from natural peridotites is usually lower than 1/32 and Fe content y is generally ∼10 mol%, Ca and Fe concentration effects on 103lnαopx-cpx in natural samples are negligible. Rather, 103lnαopx-cpx is mainly controlled by temperature. 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca decreases from 0.50‰ to 0.26‰ when temperature increases from 1000 K to 1400 K if the Fe effect is taken into account. Therefore, if Ca isotope fractionation between opx and cpx (Δ44/40Caopx-cpx) in natural peridotites is greater than 0.50‰ or lower than 0.26‰, it may indicate disequilibrium of Ca isotopes. Finally, the large 103lnαopx-cpx relative to our current analytical precision suggests that Δ44/40Caopx

  7. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P tumor size (P tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  8. Ca adsorption on dickite, Sericite and quartz. Dickite, sericite oyobi sekiei ni taisuru Ca no kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Isao; Nozawa, Miki (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-02-25

    Ca adsorbing characteristics of dickite were studied to clarify the possibility of clay minerals on selective Ca activation. Ca adsorption on hydrogenated dickite was compared with those of Na {sup +} and K {sup +} and further, the comparison was made for adsorption of Ca and these ikns on quartz and hydrogenated sericite. Ca adsorption on quartz which is thought to be caused by the negative charge of broken bond, depends strongly on pH and for pH of 7 or more, Ca acts strongly on any quartz surface. Moreover, when Na {sup +} or K {sup +} coexists, the effect of coexisting ion on Ca adsorption does not result any difference. On the contrary, Ca adsorption on sericite is mainly caused by the exchanging adsorption with H {sup +} and Ca saturated adsortion does not depend on pH in the range of 4-10pH. But Na {sup +} adsorption does not reach the saturation for lower pH unless Na {sup +} of sufficient concentration exists. 13 refs., 16 figs.

  9. Dielectron production in p+Be and Ca+Ca collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, G.; Krebs, G.F.; Lallier, E.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Yegneswaran, A.; Bystricky, J.; Carroll, J.; Gordon, J.; Igo, G.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R.; Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.F.; Miller, D.; Landaud, G.

    1988-06-01

    Dielectron production has been measured in p+Be collisions at 1.0, 2.1 and 4.9 GeV, and in Ca+Ca at 1.0 and 2.0 GeV/A. The observation of a structure in the mass cross section at about two times the pion mass suggests that pion annihilation is the dominant production mechanism in p+Be above 2 GeV. Comparison of preliminary results from p+Be and Ca+Ca at 1 GeV/A is presented. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A roadmap for caGrid, an enterprise Grid architecture for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Chue Hong, Neil

    2008-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities.

  11. Heterogeneous Cytoskeletal Force Distribution Delineates the Onset Ca2+ Influx Under Fluid Shear Stress in Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Maneshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations increase intracellular Ca2+ in cells, but the coupling of mechanical forces to the Ca2+ influx is not well understood. We used a microfluidic chamber driven with a high-speed pressure servo to generate defined fluid shear stress to cultured astrocytes, and simultaneously measured cytoskeletal forces using a force sensitive actinin optical sensor and intracellular Ca2+. Fluid shear generated non-uniform forces in actinin that critically depended on the stimulus rise time emphasizing the presence of viscoelasticity in the activating sequence. A short (ms shear pulse with fast rise time (2 ms produced an immediate increase in actinin tension at the upstream end of the cell with minimal changes at the downstream end. The onset of Ca2+ rise began at highly strained areas. In contrast to stimulus steps, slow ramp stimuli produced uniform forces throughout the cells and only a small Ca2+ response. The heterogeneity of force distribution is exaggerated in cells having fewer stress fibers and lower pre-tension in actinin. Disruption of cytoskeleton with cytochalasin-D (Cyt-D eliminated force gradients, and in those cells Ca2+ elevation started from the soma. Thus, Ca2+ influx with a mechanical stimulus depends on local stress within the cell and that is time dependent due to viscoelastic mechanics.

  12. A Roadmap for caGrid, an Enterprise Grid Architecture for Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Hong, Neil Chue

    2012-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG™) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities. PMID:18560123

  13. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  14. Absolute Ca Isotopic Measurement Using an Improved Double Spike Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jiun-San Shen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of the 42Ca-48Ca double spike. This is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and natural Ca data. Be cause the natural sample (two mixtures and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to con strain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. Once the isotopic composition of the Ca double spike is established, we are able to obtain the true Ca isotopic composition of the NIST Ca standard SRM915a, 40Ca/44Ca = 46.537 ± 2 (2sm, n = 55, 42Ca/44Ca = 0.31031 ± 1, 43Ca/44Ca = 0.06474 ± 1, and 48Ca/44Ca = 0.08956 ± 1. De spite an off set of 1.3% in 40Ca/44Ca between our result and the previously re ported value (Russell et al. 1978, our data indicate an off set of 1.89__in 40Ca/44Ca between SRM915a and seawater, entirely consistent with the published results.

  15. Aging-related impairments of hippocampal mossy fibers synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Castillo, Cindy; Tecuatl, Carolina; Herrera-López, Gabriel; Galván, Emilio J

    2017-01-01

    The network interaction between the dentate gyrus and area CA3 of the hippocampus is responsible for pattern separation, a process that underlies the formation of new memories, and which is naturally diminished in the aged brain. At the cellular level, aging is accompanied by a progression of biochemical modifications that ultimately affects its ability to generate and consolidate long-term potentiation. Although the synapse between dentate gyrus via the mossy fibers (MFs) onto CA3 neurons has been subject of extensive studies, the question of how aging affects the MF-CA3 synapse is still unsolved. Extracellular and whole-cell recordings from acute hippocampal slices of aged Wistar rats (34 ± 2 months old) show that aging is accompanied by a reduction in the interneuron-mediated inhibitory mechanisms of area CA3. Several MF-mediated forms of short-term plasticity, MF long-term potentiation and at least one of the critical signaling cascades necessary for potentiation are also compromised in the aged brain. An analysis of the spontaneous glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated currents on CA3 cells reveal a dramatic alteration in amplitude and frequency of the nonevoked events. CA3 cells also exhibited increased intrinsic excitability. Together, these results demonstrate that aging is accompanied by a decrease in the GABAergic inhibition, reduced expression of short- and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity, and increased intrinsic excitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lack of prognostic and predictive value of CA IX in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with known modifiable hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CA IX is suggested to be an endogenous marker of hypoxia in tumours like squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CA IX served as a prognostic factor for outcome in a large population of HNSCC and if CA IX......+/-the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. CA IX was measured using immunohistochemistry and results were divided into four groups of CA IX expression: 30% of the tumour area with positive membrane staining. Locoregional control and disease-specific survival were used as endpoints...

  17. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca in Glycymeris glycymeris (Bivalvia) shells from the Iberian upwelling system: Ontogeny and environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Pedro; Richardson, Christopher; Chenery, Simon; Monteiro, Carlos; Butler, Paul; Reynolds, David; Scourse, James; Gaspar, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Bivalve shells have a great potential as high-resolution geochemical proxy archives of marine environmental conditions. In addition, sclerochronology of long-lived bivalve species (e.g. Arctica islandica) provides a timeline of absolutely dated shell material for geochemical analysis that can extend into the past beyond the lifetime of single individuals through the use of replicated crossmatched centennial to millennial chronologies. However, the interpretation of such records remains extremely challenging and complex, with multiple environmental and biological processes affecting element incorporation in the shell (e.g. crystal fabrics, organic matrix, biomineralization mechanisms and physiological processes). As a result, the effective use of bivalve shell elemental/Ca ratios as palaeoenvironmental proxies has been limited, often to species-specific applications or applications restricted to particular environmental settings. The dog-cockle, Glycymeris glycymeris, is a relatively long-lived bivalve (up to 200 years) that occurs in coarse-grained subtidal sediments of coastal shelf seas of Europe and North West Africa. Glycymeris glycymeris shells provide a valuable, albeit not fully explored, archive to reconstruct past environmental variability in an area lacking sclerochronological studies due to the rarity of long-lived bivalves and lack of coral reefs. In this study, we evaluate the potential of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in G. glycymeris shells as geochemical proxies of upwelling conditions in the Iberian Upwelling System, the northern section of the Canary Current Eastern Boundary Upwelling System. Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca generally co-varied significantly and a clear ontogenetic, non-environmental related change in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca variability was observed. High Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in older shells (> 10 years old) were found to be associated with the occurrence of growth lines deposited during the winter reduction in shell growth. Nevertheless, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca

  18. Rearrangement of porous CaO aggregates during calcite decomposition in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beruto, D.; Barco, L.; Searcy, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    High-resolution SEM photographs, N 2 adsorption isotherms, Hg porosimetry, and micrometer measurements were used to characterize CaO particle shapes and pore-size distributions that result when calcite crystals are decomposed in vacuum at 686 0 C. The surface area of the CaO produced from large calcite crystals is constant at 116 + or - 4 m 2 /g independent of the extent of reaction. The volume occupied by a CaO aggregate is approx. = 98 + or - 2% that of the original calcite crystal. The approx. = 54% total porosity is comprised of 42% pores of approx. = 5 nm cross section and 12% pores of approx. = 10 μm cross section. The duplex pore structure is formed by a diffusionless repacking of CaO particles that initially form with a more uniform distribution of particles and pores

  19. The destiny of Ca(2+) released by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) is known to regulate diverse cellular functions, for example energy production and cell death, by modulating mitochondrial dehydrogenases, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, and opening mitochondrial permeability transition pores. In addition to the action of Ca(2+) within mitochondria, Ca(2+) released from mitochondria is also important in a variety of cellular functions. In the last 5 years, the molecules responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics have been identified: a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), a mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), and a candidate for a mitochondrial H(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (Letm1). In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system, and discuss its physiological and pathophysiological significance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system is not only crucial in maintaining mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis but also participates in the Ca(2+) crosstalk between mitochondria and the plasma membrane and between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  20. Differential Somatic Ca2+ Channel Profile in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippart, Fabian; Destreel, Geoffrey; Merino-Sepúlveda, Paulina; Henny, Pablo; Engel, Dominique; Seutin, Vincent

    2016-07-06

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons located in the ventral midbrain continuously generate a slow endogenous pacemaker activity, the mechanism of which is still debated. It has been suggested that, in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), the pacemaking relies more on Ca(2+) channels and that the density of L-type Ca(2+) channels is higher in these DA neurons than in those located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This might lead to a higher Ca(2+) load in SNc DA neurons and explain their higher susceptibility to degeneration. However, direct evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. We found that the L-type current and channel density are indeed higher in the somata of rat SNc DA neurons and that this current undergoes less inactivation in this region. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis measurements showed a much higher number of L-type channels in the soma of SNc DA neurons, as well as a smaller single-channel conductance, pointing to a possible different molecular identity of L-type channels in DA neurons from the two areas. A major consequence of this is that pacemaking and, even more so, bursting are associated with a larger Ca(2+) entry through L-type channels in SNc DA neurons than in their VTA counterparts. Our results establish a molecular and functional difference between two populations of midbrain DA neurons that may contribute to their differential sensitivity to neurodegeneration. Dopamine neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are involved in various brain functions, such as movement initiation and goal directed behavior, respectively. This work shows that, although both neurons fire in a similar regular and slow pacemaker mode, this firing activity is supported by different calcium channel landscapes. Indeed, the L-type calcium current is larger in the soma of dopamine neurons of the SNc, leading to a higher charge transfer through L-type channels during pacemaking and bursting. Therefore, these neurons may

  1. Changes in the expression of serum markers CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TNF-α and TSGF after cryosurgery in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Niu, Lizhi; Chiu, David; He, Lihua; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of serum tumor markers, carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor-supplied group of factors (TSGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is closely associated with invasion and metastasis of many malignancies. The expression of these markers were measured in serum taken from 37 pancreatic cancer patients prior to treatment. Levels of CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA and TNF-α expression correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph node and liver metastasis (P markers were significantly reduced compared with levels prior to cryosurgery (P 0.05). Thus, cryosurgery is more effective than chemotherapy for decreasing CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TSGF and TNF-α serum levels in these patients.

  2. Treatment of Ruptured Ovarian Endometrioma with Extremely High CA 125, Moderately High CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Duran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, a ruptured ovarian endometrioma with a very high CA-125 level, moderately elevated CA 19-9, and CA 15-3 levels is presented. A 20 years old patient, complaining from pelvic pain, 5 cm adnexial mass was detected on left side. Biochemical examination was revealed very high CA-125 value (2556IU/ml, moderately elevated CA 19-9 (134IU/ml, and CA 15-3 (65IU/ml values. Laparoscopy was done and a ruptured ovarian endometrioma of 5 cm was seen during operation. After the total excision of the cyst, tumor markers fell rapidly. Very high CA-125 value, moderately elevated CA19-9, and CA 15-3 values can be seen in cases with ruptured endometrioma. In young patients, endometrioma must be considered firstly and laparoscopy should be applied instead of more invasive methods unless there was any finding or strong suspicion about malignancy.

  3. Control of ciliary motility by Ca sup 2+ : Integration of Ca sup 2+ -dependent functions and targets for Ca sup 2+ action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca{sup 2+}-induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca{sup 2+} current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca{sup 2+} current from Ca{sup 2+}-dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent Na{sup +} currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca{sup 2+} action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a {sup 125}I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed.

  4. Modeling the contributions of Ca2+ flows to spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and cortical spreading depression-triggered Ca2+ waves in astrocyte networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    Full Text Available Astrocytes participate in brain functions through Ca(2+ signals, including Ca(2+ waves and Ca(2+ oscillations. Currently the mechanisms of Ca(2+ signals in astrocytes are not fully clear. Here, we present a computational model to specify the relative contributions of different Ca(2+ flows between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum of astrocytes to the generation of spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillations (CASs and cortical spreading depression (CSD-triggered Ca(2+ waves (CSDCWs in a one-dimensional astrocyte network. This model shows that CASs depend primarily on Ca(2+ released from internal stores of astrocytes, and CSDCWs depend mainly on voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx. It predicts that voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx is able to generate Ca(2+ waves during the process of CSD even after depleting internal Ca(2+ stores. Furthermore, the model investigates the interactions between CASs and CSDCWs and shows that the pass of CSDCWs suppresses CASs, whereas CASs do not prevent the generation of CSDCWs. This work quantitatively analyzes the generation of astrocytic Ca(2+ signals and indicates different mechanisms underlying CSDCWs and non-CSDCWs. Research on the different types of Ca(2+ signals might help to understand the ways by which astrocytes participate in information processing in brain functions.

  5. The ternary system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Silber, C.C.

    1967-01-01

    Melting and subsolidus relations in the system K2SO4MgSO4CaSO4 were studied using heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, optics, X-ray diffraction at room and high temperatures and by quenching techniques. Previous investigators were unable to study the binary MgSO4CaSO4 system and the adjacent area in the ternary system because of the decomposition of MgSO4 and CaSO4 at high temperatures. This problem was partly overcome by a novel sealed-tube quenching method, by hydrothermal synthesis, and by long-time heating in the solidus. As a result of this study, we found: (1) a new compound, CaSO4??3MgSO4 (m.p. 1201??C) with a field extending into the ternary system; (2) a high temperature form of MgSO4 with a sluggishly reversible inversion. An X-ray diffraction pattern for this polymorphic form is given; (3) the inversion of ??-CaSO4 (anhydrite) to ??-CaSO4 at 1195??C, in agreement with grahmann; (1) (4) the melting point of MgSO4 is 1136??C and that of CaSO4 is 1462??C (using sealed tube methods to prevent decomposition of the sulphates); (5) calcium langbeinite (K2SO4??2CaSO4) is the only compound in the K2SO4CaSO4 binary system. This resolved discrepancies in the results of previous investigators; (6) a continuous solid solution series between congruently melting K2SOP4??2MgSO4 (langbeinite) and incongruently melting K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite); (7) the liquidus in the ternary system consists of primary phase fields of K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, langbeinite-calcium langbeinite solid solution, and CaSO4??3MgSO4. The CaSO4 field extends over a large portion of the system. Previously reported fields for the compounds (K2SO4??MgSO4??nCaSO4), K2SO4??3CaSO4 and K2SO4??CaSO4 were not found; (8) a minimum in the ternary system at: 740??C, 25% MgSO4, 6% CaSO4, 69% K2SO4; and ternary eutectics at 882??C, 49% MgSO4, 19% CaSO4, 32% K2SO4; and 880??, 67??5% MgSO4, 5% CaSO4, 27??5% K2SO4. ?? 1967.

  6. Adverse bioenergetic consequences of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger-mediated Ca2+ influx in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Maack, Christoph

    2010-11-30

    In heart failure, the Na+-Ca²+ exchanger (NCX) is upregulated and mediates Ca²+ influx (instead of efflux) during the cardiac action potential. Although this partly compensates for impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release and supports inotropy, the energetic consequences have never been considered. Because NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx is rather slow and mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake (which stimulates NADH production by the Krebs cycle) is thought to be facilitated by high Ca²+ gradients in a "mitochondrial Ca²+ microdomain," we speculated that NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx negatively affects the bioenergetic feedback response. Methods and Results- With the use of a patch-clamp-based approach in guinea-pig myocytes, cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca²+ ([Ca²+](c) and [Ca²+](m), respectively) was determined within the same cell after varying Ca²+ influx via L-type Ca²+ channels (I(Ca,L)) or the NCX. The efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake, indexed by the slope of plotting [Ca²+](m) against [Ca²+](c) during each Ca²+ transient, was maximal during I(Ca,L)-triggered sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release. Depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ load and increased contribution of the NCX to cytosolic Ca²+ influx independently reduced the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake. The upstroke velocity of cytosolic Ca²+ transients closely correlated with the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake. Despite comparable [Ca²+](c), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release, but not NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx, led to stimulation of Ca²+-sensitive dehydrogenases of the Krebs cycle. Conclusions- Increased contribution of the NCX to cytosolic Ca²+ transients, which occurs in cardiac myocytes from failing hearts, impairs mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake and the bioenergetic feedback response. This mechanism could contribute to energy starvation of failing hearts.

  7. Comparative study of structural, electronic and optical properties of Ca2Si, Ca2Ge, Ca2Sn, and Ca2Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, D. B.; Miglio, Leo; Shaposhnikov, V. L.; Borisenko, V. E.

    2003-05-01

    We report ab initio results for the ground-state properties, band diagrams, density of states, and dielectric functions of Ca2Z (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) both in the orthorhombic and cubic structures. The calculations are performed by means of total energy ultrasoft pseudopotential and full potential linearized augmented plane wave methods within local density and generalized gradient approximations. The estimated difference in the cohesion energy shows the orthorhombic structure to be the stable phase. We also demonstrate that these materials are semiconductors independently of the phase. A direct energy gap and sizable anisotropy in optical spectra characterize orthorhombic Ca2Z, whereas a competitive direct-indirect character of the gap and a high value of oscillator strength of the first direct transition are predicted for cubic Ca2Z.

  8. Synaptotagmin-7 is a principal Ca2+ sensor for Ca2+ -induced glucagon exocytosis in pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wei, Shun-Hui; Hoang, Dong Nhut

    2009-01-01

    Hormones such as glucagon are secreted by Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles, but the mechanisms involved have only been partially elucidated. Studies of pancreatic beta-cells secreting insulin revealed that synaptotagmin-7 alone is not sufficient to mediate Ca(2+)-dependent...... insulin granule exocytosis, and studies of chromaffin cells secreting neuropeptides and catecholamines showed that synaptotagmin-1 and -7 collaborate as Ca(2+) sensors for exocytosis, and that both are equally involved. As no other peptide secretion was analysed, it remains unclear whether synaptotagmins...... generally act as Ca(2+) sensors in large dense-core vesicle exocytosis in endocrine cells, and if so, whether synaptotagmin-7 always functions with a partner in that role. In particular, far less is known about the mechanisms underlying Ca(2+)-triggered glucagon release from alpha-cells than insulin...

  9. Study on Ca2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs using 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Qiu Mingfeng; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2002-01-01

    The Ca 2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs are studied by using 45 Ca. The results indicate that potential-dependent Ca 2+ channel (PDC) and receptor-operated Ca 2+ channel (ROC) in cell membranes of smooth muscle can be blocked by several Chinese herbal drugs, including as Crocus sativus L., Carthamus L., Di-ao-xin-xue-kang (DAXXG) and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Among them Crocus sativus L. has the strongest antagonistic effect on Ca 2+ channel, while Ginkgo biloba L. leaves has no obvious effect. The whole prescription and the other functional drugs have significant effect on ROC and PDC. The compositions extracted by hexane have the strongest antagonistic. The wrinkled giant hyssop have five active compositions and Pei-lan have two active compositions

  10. Applicative Value of Serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Lei; Lan, Chao; Pei, Hui; Yang, Shuang-Ning; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xiao, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the application value of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases treated with concurrent chemotherapy. 52 patients with pancreatic cancer, 40 with benign pancreatic diseases and 40 healthy people were selected. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method was used for detecting levels of CA19-9, CEA and CA125, and a CanAg CA242 enzyme linked immunoassay kit for assessing the level of CA242. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for analyzing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) for survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. The levels of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign pancreatic diseases and healthy people (PCEA. The specificity of CA242 is the highest, followed by CA125, CEA and CA19-9. The sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125and CA242 were 90.4% and 93.8%, obviously higher than single detection of those markers in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The median survival time of 52 patients with pancreatic cancer was 10 months (95% CI7.389~12.611).. Patients with the increasing level of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125, CA242 had shorter survival times (P=0.047. 0.043, 0.0041, 0.029). COX regression analysis showed that CA19-9 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer (P=0.001, 95%CI 2.591~38.243). The detection of serum tumor markers (CA19.9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and joint detection of tumor markers helps improve the diagnostic efficiency. Moreover, CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  11. Measurements of hyperfine constants in Ca+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goble, A.T.; Maleki, S.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured the hyperfine constants A( 2 S 1/2 ), A( 2 P 1/2 ), and A( 2 P 3/2 ) for Ca + . We compare our results with the calculations of Martensson-Pendrill and Salomonson [Phys. Rev. A 30, 712 (1984)], who used many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The agreement between our results and MBPT calculations for Ca + is about 3%, which is comparable to similar comparisons reported for Cs [S. Blundell, in 2 Relativistic, Quantum Electrodynamic, and Weak Interaction Effects in Atoms, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 189, edited by Walter Johnson, Peter Mohr, and Joseph Sucher (AIP, New York, 1988)

  12. Role of intramolecular interaction in connexin50: mediating the Ca2+-dependent binding of calmodulin to gap junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianrong; Qi, Yipeng

    2005-08-15

    Gap junction channels formed by connexin50 (Cx50) are critical for maintenance of eye lens transparency. Cleavage of the carboxyl terminus (CT) of Cx50 to produce truncated Cx50 (Cx50trunc) occurred naturally during maturation of lens fiber cells. The mechanism of its altered properties is under confirmation. It has been suggested that calmodulin (CaM) participates in gating some kinds of gap junction. Here, we performed confocal colocalization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments to study the relationships between Cx50 and CaM. Results exhibited that the CaM could colocalize Ca2+ dependently with CT in the linear area of cell-to-cell contact formed by Cx50trunc, while it could not localize in the linear area without expression of CT. Further study indicated that the CT could interact Ca2+ independently with the cytoplasmic loop (CL) of Cx50. These data put forward the importance of Ca2+-independent intramolecular interaction between CT and CL of Cx50, which mediate the Ca2+-dependent binding of CaM to Cx50. These intra- and intermolecular interactions may further improve our understanding of biological significance of the Cx50 in the eye lens.

  13. The hippocampal CA2 ensemble is sensitive to contextual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Marie E; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; McHugh, Thomas J

    2014-02-19

    Contextual learning involves associating cues with an environment and relating them to past experience. Previous data indicate functional specialization within the hippocampal circuit: the dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for discriminating similar contexts, whereas CA3 is required for associative encoding and recall. Here, we used Arc/H1a catFISH imaging to address the contribution of the largely overlooked CA2 region to contextual learning by comparing ensemble codes across CA3, CA2, and CA1 in mice exposed to familiar, altered, and novel contexts. Further, to manipulate the quality of information arriving in CA2 we used two hippocampal mutant mouse lines, CA3-NR1 KOs and DG-NR1 KOs, that result in hippocampal CA3 neuronal activity that is uncoupled from the animal's sensory environment. Our data reveal largely coherent responses across the CA axis in control mice in purely novel or familiar contexts; however, in the mutant mice subject to these protocols the CA2 response becomes uncoupled from CA1 and CA3. Moreover, we show in wild-type mice that the CA2 ensemble is more sensitive than CA1 and CA3 to small changes in overall context. Our data suggest that CA2 may be tuned to remap in response to any conflict between stored and current experience.

  14. Electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys by codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong De; Zhang, Mi Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Cao, Dian Xue; Jing, Xiao Yan; He, Li Yi; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-07

    This work presents electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys via codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca on a molybdenum electrode in KCl-LiCl-MgCl(2)-CaCl(2) melts at 943 K. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of calcium on pre-deposited magnesium leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Ca alloy, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Ca alloy leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Li-Ca solution. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg, Li and Ca occurs at current densities more negative than -0.31 A cm(-2) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl(2) (5 wt%) melts containing 1 wt% CaCl(2). Chronoamperograms demonstrated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is -2.200 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is formed when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.200 V. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg-Li-Ca alloys with different phases were formed via galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructures of typical alpha and beta phases of Mg-Li-Ca alloys were characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) showed that the element Ca mainly distributes along grain boundary in Mg-Li-Ca alloys. The results of inductively coupled plasma analysis determined that the chemical compositions of Mg-Li-Ca alloys correspond with the phase structures of XRD patterns, and the lithium and calcium contents of Mg-Li-Ca alloys depend on the concentrations of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2).

  15. PEG/CaFe2O4 nanocomposite: Structural, morphological, magnetic and thermal analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Lavanya; Verma, Narendra K.

    2013-01-01

    The coating of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) on calcium ferrite (CaFe 2 O 4 ) nanoparticles has been reported in the present study. The X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the formation of orthorhombic structure of bare CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, which was also retained after the PEG coating, along with additional characteristic peaks of PEG at 19° and 23°. The rings of CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were identified by the selected area electron diffraction pattern. The characteristic bands of PEG as observed in its Fourier transform infrared spectrum were also present in PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, hence confirming its presence. In the thermal gravimetric studies, the complete thermal decomposition of PEG occurred in a one step process, but in case of PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, the decomposition took place at a higher temperature owing to the formation of covalent bonds of PEG with CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles. The presence of PEG on CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, spherical formation of PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles and reduced agglomeration in the CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles were revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope studies, respectively. In vibrating sample magnetometer analysis, both bare as well as coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior. However, a drop in the magnetic saturation value was observed from 36.76 emu/g for CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles to 6.74 emu/g for PEG coated CaFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles, due to the formation of magnetically dead layer of PEG. In ZFC and FC analyses, superparamagnetic behavior with blocking temperature for bare and coated nanoparticles has been observed at ∼40 K and ∼60 K, respectively. The increase in the blocking temperature is attributed to the increase in the particle size after PEG coating

  16. Value of Combined Detection of Serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5 in the Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Chen, Qiuyuan; Zhao, Qiangyuan; Liu, Min; Guo, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether the combined detection of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5) improves the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). An automatic chemiluminescence immune analyzer with matched kits was used to determine the levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3, and CA12-5 in 87 patients with gastric cancer (GC group), 60 patients with gastric benign diseases (GBD group) who were hospitalized during the same period, and 40 healthy subjects undergoing a physical examination. The values of these 5 tumor markers in the diagnosis of gastric cancer were analyzed. The levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 were higher in the GC group than in the GBD group and healthy subjects, and these differences were significant ( P 0.05). The combined detection of CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 had a higher diagnostic value for gastric cancer than did single detection, and the positive detection rate of the combined detection of the four tumor markers was 60.9%. The diagnostic power when using the combined detection of CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9, and CA12-5 was the best. The combined detection of serum CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9 and CA12-5 increases the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of GC and can thus be considered an important tool for early diagnosis. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  17. Ca and Mg binding induce conformational stability of Calfumirin-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loops of CaBPs to accommodate the hexagonally coor- dinated metal ion.19–24 The different ionic radii of the two ions (Ca2+ = 1.14 Å and Mg2+ = 0.86 Å) enable specificity of CaBPs towards Ca2+ over Mg2+ binding, with distinguished affinity towards CaBPs.23 As there is a high concentration of Mg2+ in the cell, the bind-.

  18. Towards ultracold RbCa molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Michaela; Whitson, Hayley; Parsagian, Alexandria

    2012-06-01

    Ultracold heteronuclear molecules have seen increasing interest in the scientific community over the last few years. By controlling their ro-vibrational energy levels, ultracold molecules can be used for high precision spectroscopy, to study cold collisions with rich internal dynamics, as model systems for condensed matter physics, and as qubits in quantum information processing. We study the novel combination RbCa. In addition to a permanent electric dipole moment, it also possesses a permanent magnetic dipole moment. This makes it an ideal candidate to study strong long-range dipole-dipole interactions. We are currently in the process of adding a Ca MOT to our existing Rb MOT and will discuss our current and future efforts toward our goal of creating, for the first time, ultracold RbCa molecules. Molecules, once created, will be detected through resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI). We have also performed ab initio calculations to determine the electronic energy levels of RbCa, and calculated Franck-Condon factors between the ground and several excited states

  19. Ca teos report in register N 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, S; Arrighetti, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about a report about ca teos carried out in register N 13377 in the department of Canelones to know the depth of the field. The drilling done allowed to identify granite and clay. This granite outcrops are developed in the east of the middle course of the stream Pando

  20. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  1. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.044 GeV protons by 40Ca, 42Ca, 44Ca, 48Ca and 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, G.D.; Bauer, T.; Beurtey, R.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Couvert, P.; Cvijanovich, G.; Duhm, H.H.; Fontaine, J.M.; Garreta, D.; Kulikov, A.V.; Legrand, D.; Lugol, J.C.; Saudinos, J.; Thirion, J.; Vorobyov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.044 GeV protons have been studied on isotopically enriched even 40 42 48 48 Ca isotopes and 48 Ti. A spin independent Glauber theory analysis of the elastic scattering allowed the extraction of neutron and nuclear matter densities for these targets. (Auth.)

  2. Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Cullen, P J; Drøbak, B K

    1990-01-01

    + in sensitive cells by an acute and highly specific arrest of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, followed by a rapid Ca2+ leak from at least two pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ stores. The implications of this mechanism of action for the application of thapsigargin in the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis...

  3. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  4. An overview of Ca2+mobilization assays in GPCR drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiang; Ye, Lingyan; Liu, Hongxia; Shi, Ying; Zhou, Naiming

    2017-05-01

    Calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) serve as a second messenger or universal signal transducer implicated in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes. A change in the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ is an important step in intracellular signal transduction. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest and most versatile group of cell surface receptors, transduce extracellular signals into intracellular responses via their coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins. Since Ca 2+ plays a crucial role in GPCR-induced signaling, measurement of intracellular Ca 2+ has attracted more and more attention in GPCR-targeted drug discovery. Areas covered: This review focuses on the most popular functional assays measuring GPCRs-induced intracellular Ca 2+ signaling. These include photoprotein-based, synthetic fluorescent indicator-based and genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI)-based Ca 2+ mobilization assays. A brief discussion of the design strategy of fluorescent probes in GPCR studies is also presented. Expert opinion: GPCR-mediated intracellular signaling is multidimensional. There is an urgent need for the development of multiple-readout screening assays capable of simultaneous detection of biased signaling and screening of both agonists and antagonists in the same assay. It is also necessary to develop GECIs offering low cost and consistent assays suitable for investigating GPCR activation in vivo.

  5. Markov-CA model using analytical hierarchy process and multiregression technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N. Q.; Sanusi, S. A. M.; Hussin, W. M. W.; Samat, N.; Mohammed, K. S.

    2014-06-01

    The unprecedented increase in population and rapid rate of urbanisation has led to extensive land use changes. Cellular automata (CA) are increasingly used to simulate a variety of urban dynamics. This paper introduces a new CA based on an integration model built-in multi regression and multi-criteria evaluation to improve the representation of CA transition rule. This multi-criteria evaluation is implemented by utilising data relating to the environmental and socioeconomic factors in the study area in order to produce suitability maps (SMs) using an analytical hierarchical process, which is a well-known method. Before being integrated to generate suitability maps for the periods from 1984 to 2010 based on the different decision makings, which have become conditioned for the next step of CA generation. The suitability maps are compared in order to find the best maps based on the values of the root equation (R2). This comparison can help the stakeholders make better decisions. Thus, the resultant suitability map derives a predefined transition rule for the last step for CA model. The approach used in this study highlights a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating land-use and land-cover changes in Kirkuk city, Iraq owing changes in the structures of governments, wars, and an economic blockade over the past decades. The present study asserts the high applicability and flexibility of Markov-CA model. The results have shown that the model and its interrelated concepts are performing rather well.

  6. Influence of the soil Ca on the tolerance of Festuca rubra populations against toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglis, S.S.

    1981-02-15

    Festuca rubra populations from toxic or non-toxic areas were studied. Their tolerance against the soil content in toxic metals and in combination with the Ca content was also correlated. It was demonstrated that the Festuca rubra populations developed in an environment with high concentrations of toxic metals and with high concentrations of Ca at the same time, showed very little or almost no tolerance against these metals. On the contrary, populations from other mines with normal Ca concentrations in their soil indicated increased tolerance against the toxic metals found in it. This behaviour expressed by the Festuca rubra populations of the Ecton mine is probably due to the high Ca concentration found in the soil in the form of CaCO/sub 2/. CaCO/sub 3/ along with the heavy metals has the ability to form undissolved or not easily dissolved carbonate salts. As a result there are no free ions of toxic metals in the immediate environment of the root and consequently the plants cannot be selected against these metals.

  7. A Hierarchically Micro-Meso-Macroporous Zeolite CaA for Methanol Conversion to Dimethyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical zeolite CaA with microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structure was hydrothermally synthesized by a ”Bond-Blocking” method using organo-functionalized mesoporous silica (MS as a silica source. The characterization by XRD, SEM/TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques showed that the prepared material had well-crystalline zeolite Linde Type A (LTA topological structure, microspherical particle morphologies, and hierarchically intracrystalline micro-meso-macropores structure. With the Bond-Blocking principle, the external surface area and macro-mesoporosity of the hierarchical zeolite CaA can be adjusted by varying the organo-functionalized degree of the mesoporous silica surface. Similarly, the distribution of the micro-meso-macroporous structure in the zeolite CaA can be controlled purposely. Compared with the conventional microporous zeolite CaA, the hierarchical zeolite CaA as a catalyst in the conversion of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME, exhibited complete DME selectivity and stable catalytic activity with high methanol conversion. The catalytic performances of the hierarchical zeolite CaA results clearly from the micro-meso-macroporous structure, improving diffusion properties, favoring the access to the active surface and avoiding secondary reactions (no hydrocarbon products were detected after 3 h of reaction.

  8. Locomotion-Related Population Cortical Ca2+Transients in Freely Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanchao; Yao, Jiwei; Guang, Yu; Liang, Shanshan; Guan, Jiangheng; Qin, Han; Liao, Xiang; Jin, Wenjun; Zhang, Jianxiong; Pan, Junxia; Jia, Hongbo; Yan, Junan; Feng, Zhengzhi; Li, Weibing; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-01-01

    Locomotion involves complex neural activity throughout different cortical and subcortical networks. The primary motor cortex (M1) receives a variety of projections from different brain regions and is responsible for executing movements. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives external visual stimuli and plays an important role in guiding locomotion. Understanding how exactly the M1 and the V1 are involved in locomotion requires recording the neural activities in these areas in freely moving animals. Here, we used an optical fiber-based method for the real-time monitoring of neuronal population activities in freely moving mice. We combined the bulk loading of a synthetic Ca 2+ indicator and the optical fiber-based Ca 2+ recordings of neuronal activities. An optical fiber 200 μm in diameter can detect the coherent activity of a subpopulation of neurons. In layer 5 of the M1 and V1, we showed that population Ca 2+ transients reliably occurred preceding the impending locomotion. Interestingly, the M1 Ca 2+ transients started ~100 ms earlier than that in V1. Furthermore, the population Ca 2+ transients were robustly correlated with head movements. Thus, our work provides a simple but efficient approach for monitoring the cortical Ca 2+ activity of a local cluster of neurons during locomotion in freely moving animals.

  9. Recurrent synapses and circuits in the CA3 region of the hippocampus: an associative network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eMiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the CA3 region of the hippocampus, pyramidal cells excite other pyramidal cells and interneurons. The axons of CA3 pyramidal cells spread throughout most of the region to form an associative network. These connections were first drawn by Cajal and Lorente de No. Their physiological properties were explored to understand epileptiform discharges generated in the region. Synapses between pairs of pyramidal cells involve one or few release sites and are weaker than connections made by mossy fibres on CA3 pyramidal cells. Synapses with interneurons are rather effective, as needed to control unchecked excitation. We examine contributions of recurrent synapses to epileptiform synchrony, to the genesis of sharp waves in the CA3 region and to population oscillations at theta and gamma frequencies. Recurrent connections in CA3, as other associative cortices, have a lower connectivity spread over a larger area than in primary sensory cortices. This sparse, but wide-ranging connectivity serves the functions of an associative network, including acquisition of neuronal representations as activity in groups of CA3 cells and completion involving the recall from partial cues of these ensemble firing patterns.

  10. Effects of Ca on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Li, Nian Feng; Lei, Ting; Liu, Lin; Ouyang, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Zn and Ca were selected as alloying elements to develop an Mg-Zn-Ca alloy system for biomedical application due to their good biocompatibility. The effects of Ca on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties as well as the biocompatibility of the as-cast Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were studied. Results indicate that the microstructure of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys typically consists of primary α-Mg matrix and Ca₂Mg₆Zn₃/Mg₂Ca intermetallic phase mainly distributed along grain boundary. The yield strength of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy increased slightly with the increase of Ca content, whilst its tensile strength increased at first and then decreased. Corrosion tests in the simulated body fluid revealed that the addition of Ca is detrimental to corrosion resistance due to the micro-galvanic corrosion acceleration. In vitro hemolysis and cytotoxicity assessment disclose that Mg-5Zn-1.0Ca alloy has suitable biocompatibility.

  11. Mg and Ca isotope fractionation during CaCO3 biomineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Veronica T-C; Williams, R J P; Makishima, Akio; Belshawl, Nick S; O'Nions, R Keith

    2004-10-08

    The natural variation of Mg and Ca stable isotopes of carbonates has been determined in carbonate skeletons of perforate foraminifera and reef coral together with Mg/Ca ratios to assess the influence of biomineralisation processes. The results for coral aragonite suggest its formation, in terms of stable isotope behaviour, approximates to inorganic precipitation from a seawater reservoir. In contrast, results for foraminifera calcite suggest a marked biological control on Mg isotope ratios presumably related to its low Mg content compared with seawater. The bearing of these observations on the use of Mg and Ca isotopes as proxies in paleoceanography is considered. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  12. Reassigning the CaH+ 11Σ → 21Σ vibronic transition with CaD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoluci, J.; Janardan, S.; Calvin, A. T.; Rugango, R.; Shu, G.; Sherrill, C. D.; Brown, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    We observe vibronic transitions in CaD+ between the 11Σ and 21Σ electronic states by resonance enhanced multiphoton photodissociation spectroscopy in a Coulomb crystal. The vibronic transitions are compared with previous measurements on CaH+. The result is a revised assignment of the CaH+ vibronic levels and a disagreement with multi-state-complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory theoretical calculations by approximately 700 cm-1. Updated high-level coupled-cluster calculations that include core-valence correlations reduce the disagreement between theory and experiment to 300 cm-1.

  13. Interlaboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hathorne, Ed C.; Gagnon, Alex; Felis, Thomas; Adkins, Jess; Asami, Ryuji; Boer, Wim; Caillon, Nicolas; Case, David; Cobb, Kim M.; Douville, Eric; deMenocal, Peter; Eisenhauer, Anton; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Geibert, Walter; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twenty-one laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can be significant, and in the extreme case could result in a range in SST estimates of 7 degrees C. However, most of the data fall within a narrower range and the Porites coral reference material JCp-1 is now characterized well enough to have a certified Sr/Ca value of 8.838 m...

  14. Thermoluminescence of CaCO3:Dy and CaCO3:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.N.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1976-01-01

    CaCO 3 samples doped with Dy and Mn were prepared in the laboratory by co-precipitation techniques. Thermoluminescence and emission spectra of these phosphors were studied and were compared with those of the naturally occuring calcite and undoped CaCO 3 samples. Dy-doping seems to give a more efficient phosphor and indicates a possibility of getting a better phosphor by a judicious choice of a rare earth doping of CaCO 3 . Interesting result have been obtained on the TL glow curve variations of these phosphors with different temperature treatments prior to irradiation. (author)

  15. Extra-matrix Mg2+ limits Ca2+ uptake and modulates Ca2+ uptake-independent respiration and redox state in cardiac isolated mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Age D.; Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Blomeyer, Christoph A.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Stowe, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac mitochondrial matrix (m) free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]m) increases primarily by Ca(2+) uptake through the Ca(2+) uniporter (CU). Ca(2+) uptake via the CU is attenuated by extra-matrix (e) Mg(2+) ([Mg(2+)]e). How [Ca(2+)]m is dynamically modulated by interacting physiological levels of [Ca(2+)]e and

  16. Serum concentrations of the biomarkers CA125, CA15-3, CA72-4, tPSA and PAPP-A in natural and stimulated ovarian cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Stemp

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian stimulation reduced serum PAPP‐A levels, CA125 and CA15‐3 levels were generally unaffected by ovarian stimulation but displayed cyclical changes throughout both natural and stimulated cycles, whilst tPSA and CA72-4 were not affected by the stage of the cycle or ovarian stimulation.

  17. Offshore waste management monitoring system: drilling campaign BM-CAL-4 Block, Camanu-Almada Basin, Bahia, Brazil; Gestao de rejeitos offshore em areas sensiveis e ambientes isolados - estudo de caso: campanha exploratoria da El Paso no Bloco BM-CA-4, Bacia de Camamu-Almada, Bahia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranieri, Adriano [El Paso Oleo e Gas, Natal, RN (Brazil); Perez, Pedro; Andrade, Albert [EnvironPact, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper addresses the principal aspects related to the difficulties found to implement a pollution control project in sensitive areas and isolated environments. For that, it was utilized a case study on the El Paso's second exploratory campaign on BM-CAL-4 Block, located in Camamu Almada Basin, Bahia - Brazil. Two of the items of the pollution control project implemented on this campaign where herein detailed: drilling wastes management and waste management on the smaller vessels, which had to attend to the same requirements applied to the supply vessels and the drilling rig, due to the discharge restrictions established by the environmental agency. (author)

  18. 78 FR 39597 - Safety Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Zone; Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks, San Joaquin River, Venice Island, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area of responsibility...'' W (NAD83) for the Hilton Fourth of July Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, Item number 17. This...

  19. 75 FR 8735 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2493 Portola Road, Suite B, Ventura, CA 93003... the project area, and nonnative plant species removal. The HCP also considers effects from covered... trails, thus continuing and expanding impacts to coastal scrub and salt marsh habitats. The third...

  20. 77 FR 59661 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Stanford University Archaeology Center, Stanford, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Triangle area of Marin County, CA, by Lt. Commander Bryant and his son Clayton Bryant. The collection was... time of death or later as part of the death rite or ceremony. Pursuant to 25 U.S.C. 3001(2), there is a...

  1. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...] Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... four grant applications propose vegetation management work in 60 project areas located on land owned by... similar vegetation management work that would not be funded by the grant applications under consideration...

  2. 75 FR 32960 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...] Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... program. The Strawberry Canyon Vegetation Management Project involves the removal of eucalyptus and other... tree sprouts from the area. The Claremont Canyon Vegetation Management Project involves the removal of...

  3. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits Ca2+efflux through plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Choi, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Mi Na; Oh, Sang Hwan; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo

    2018-03-01

    Intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization is closely linked with the initiation of salivary secretion in parotid acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders and believed to be involved in salivary impairments. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on cytosolic Ca 2+ accumulation in mouse parotid acinar cells. Intracellular Ca 2+ levels were slowly elevated when 1 mM H 2 O 2 was perfused in the presence of normal extracellular Ca 2+ . In a Ca 2+ -free medium, 1 mM H 2 O 2 still enhanced the intracellular Ca 2+ level. Ca 2+ entry tested using manganese quenching technique was not affected by perfusion of 1 mM H 2 O 2 . On the other hand, 10 mM H 2 O 2 induced more rapid Ca 2+ accumulation and facilitated Ca 2+ entry from extracellular fluid. Ca 2+ refill into intracellular Ca 2+ store and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1 µM)-induced Ca 2+ release from Ca 2+ store was not affected by 1 mM H 2 O 2 in permeabilized cells. Ca 2+ efflux through plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) was markedly blocked by 1 mM H 2 O 2 in thapsigargin-treated intact acinar cells. Antioxidants, either catalase or dithiothreitol, completely protected H 2 O 2 -induced Ca 2+ accumulation through PMCA inactivation. From the above results, we suggest that excessive production of H 2 O 2 under pathological conditions may lead to cytosolic Ca 2+ accumulation and that the primary mechanism of H 2 O 2 -induced Ca 2+ accumulation is likely to inhibit Ca 2+ efflux through PMCA rather than mobilize Ca 2+ ions from extracellular medium or intracellular stores in mouse parotid acinar cells.

  4. Electron microscopic studies on odontoblasts using 45Ca as the tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eiji

    1980-01-01

    In order to study the relationship between odontoblasts and inorganic salts, odontoblasts of 10-day old rats' incisions and molars were used. The animals were sacrificed 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour or 2 hours after 45 Ca administration to obtain the specimen. The specimens were processed for electron microscopic autoradiography. 15 minutes after 45 Ca administration, silver grains indicated 45 Ca uptake was already noted within the cells. 45 Ca was localized in the mitochondria, Golgi area, rough surfaced endoplasmic reticulum and partially within the karyoplasm. After 30 minutes' administration, the number of silver grains were generally increased as compared with the findings obtained after 15 minutes' administration. The localization was similar with those after 15 minutes' administration but some were found in the ribosomes and smooth surfaced endoplasmic reticulum with numerous silver grains within small vesicles derived from the Golgi apparatus as well. A movement of 45 Ca from the protruding part to the stroma was also noted. 1 hour after the administration, the number of silver grains were generally decreased, with a more pronounced movement towards stroma from the protruding part. The marked movement of silver grains was obtained onto the collagen fibers in the stroma. In the mitochondria, however, considerable number of silver grains were still seen. In this section, on the other hand, numerous silver grains were seen in the intercellular space, in addition to the pathway of intracellular route, indicating the Ca shift from outside of the cells. After 2 hours' 45 Ca administration, the tendency towards the decrease of the silver grains became more remarkable, the movement of 45 Ca via the extracellular pathway described above was also frequently found. (author)

  5. Recording of the Neural Activity Induced by the Electrical Subthalamic Stimulation Using Ca2+ Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Yagi, Tetsuya; Osanai, Makoto

    The basal ganglia (BG) have important roles in some kind of motor control and learning. Parkinson's disease is one of the motor impairment disease. Recently, to recover a motor severity in patients of Parkinsonism, the stimulus electrode is implanted to the subthalamic nucleus, which is a part of the basal ganglia, and the deep brain stimulation (DBS) is often conducted. However, the effects of the DBS on the subthalamic neurons have not been elucidated. Thus, to analyze the effects of the electrical stimulation on the subthalamic neurons, we conducted the calcium imaging at the mouse subthalamic nucleus. When the single stimulus was applied to the subthalamic nucleus, the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) transients were observed. In the case of application of the single electrical stimulation, the [Ca2+]i arose near the stimulus position. When 100 Hz 10-100 times tetanic stimulations were applied, the responded area and the amplitudes of [Ca2+]i transients were increased. The [Ca2+]i transients were disappeared almost completely on the action potential blockade, but blockade of the excitatory and the inhibitory synaptic transmission had little effects on the responded area and the amplitudes of the [Ca2+]i transients. These results suggested that the electrical stimulation to the subthalamic neurons led to activate the subthalamic neurons directly but not via synaptic transmissions. Thus, DBS may change the activity of the subthalamic neurons, hence, may alter the input-output relationship of the subthalamic neurons

  6. Ca2+ alternans in a cardiac myocyte model that uses moment equations to represent heterogeneous junctional SR Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Smith, Gregory D; Györke, Sándor

    2010-07-21

    Multiscale whole-cell models that accurately represent local control of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac myocytes can reproduce high-gain Ca2+ release that is graded with changes in membrane potential. Using a recently introduced formalism that represents heterogeneous local Ca2+ using moment equations, we present a model of cardiac myocyte Ca2+ cycling that exhibits alternating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release when periodically stimulated by depolarizing voltage pulses. The model predicts that the distribution of junctional SR [Ca2+] across a large population of Ca2+ release units is distinct on alternating cycles. Load-release and release-uptake functions computed from this model give insight into how Ca2+ fluxes and stimulation frequency combine to determine the presence or absence of Ca2+ alternans. Our results show that the conditions for the onset of Ca2+ alternans cannot be explained solely by the steepness of the load-release function, but that changes in the release-uptake process also play an important role. We analyze the effect of the junctional SR refilling time constant on Ca2+ alternans and conclude that physiologically realistic models of defective Ca2+ cycling must represent the dynamics of heterogeneous junctional SR [Ca2+] without assuming rapid equilibration of junctional and network SR [Ca2+]. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thapsigargin-induced activation of Ca(2+)-CaMKII-ERK in brainstem contributes to substance P release and induction of emesis in the least shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weixia; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A

    2016-04-01

    Cytoplasmic calcium (Ca(2+)) mobilization has been proposed to be an important factor in the induction of emesis. The selective sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin, is known to deplete intracellular Ca(2+) stores, which consequently evokes extracellular Ca(2+) entry through cell membrane-associated channels, accompanied by a prominent rise in cytosolic Ca(2+). A pro-drug form of thapsigargin is currently under clinical trial as a targeted cancer chemotherapeutic. We envisioned that the intracellular effects of thapsigargin could cause emesis and planned to investigate its mechanisms of emetic action. Indeed, thapsigargin did induce vomiting in the least shrew in a dose-dependent and bell-shaped manner, with maximal efficacy (100%) at 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.). Thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg) also caused increases in c-Fos immunoreactivity in the brainstem emetic nuclei including the area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX), as well as enhancement of substance P (SP) immunoreactivity in DMNX. In addition, thapsigargin (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) led to vomit-associated and time-dependent increases in phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the brainstem. We then explored the suppressive potential of diverse chemicals against thapsigargin-evoked emesis including antagonists of: i) neurokinin-1 receptors (netupitant), ii) the type 3 serotonin receptors (palonosetron), iii) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (YM-58483), iv) L-type Ca(2+) channels (nifedipine), and v) SER Ca(2+)-release channels inositol trisphosphate (IP3Rs) (2-APB)-, and ryanodine (RyRs) (dantrolene)-receptors. In addition, the antiemetic potential of inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059) were investigated. All tested antagonists/blockers attenuated emetic parameters to varying degrees except palonosetron, however a combination of non

  8. Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onouchi, Takashi [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Ishida, Atsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Kameshita, Isamu [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMKP-N/PPM1E underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proteolysis was effectively inhibited by the proteasome inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ser-480 of zebrafish CaMKP-N was phosphorylated by cytosolic CaMKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of CaMKP-N showed enhanced activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results suggest that CaMKP-N is regulated by CaMKI. -- Abstract: Nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) is an enzyme that dephosphorylates and downregulates multifunctional Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) as well as AMP-dependent protein kinase. In our previous study, we found that zebrafish CaMKP-N (zCaMKP-N) underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol in a proteasome inhibitor-sensitive manner. In the present study, we found that zCaMKP-N is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser-480. When zCaMKP-N was incubated with the activated CaMKI, time-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme was observed. This phosphorylation was significantly reduced when Ser-480 was replaced by Ala, suggesting that CaMKI phosphorylates Ser-480 of zCaMKP-N. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants, S480D and S480E, showed higher phosphatase activities than those of wild type and S480A mutant in solution-based phosphatase assay using various substrates. Furthermore, autophosphorylation of CaMKII after ionomycin treatment was more severely attenuated in Neuro2a cells when CaMKII was cotransfected with the phosphorylation-mimic mutant of zCaMKP-N than with the wild-type or non-phosphorylatable zCaMKP-N. These results strongly suggest that phosphorylation of zCaMKP-N at Ser-480 by CaMKI activates CaMKP-N catalytic activity and thereby downregulates multifunctional CaMKs in the cytosol.

  9. Optimized Distribution of Beijing Population Based on CA-MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoguang Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years rapid expansion of populations, disruption of ecological environments, and power shortages to areas of high population density in undeveloped areas have appeared in major cities in China. Well-planned population distribution in a city has become one of the key development strategies of urbanization in the country. Taking Beijing as a case-study and using 2010 as the base period, this study simulates city population size and distribution during 2011–2030 using the CA-MAS model. The results showed that (1 the unplanned layout of Beijing’s population is inefficient and will result in the slow agglomeration of populations into surrounding small towns, (2 the suburbanization of the population (while employment opportunities remain centralized increases the stress of the city commuters, (3 the current policy guiding the distribution of residential and commercial areas is effective, accelerating the formation of small town clusters, which play a role in the city’s radiation and diffusion, contributing to reducing urban commuter stress, and (4 promoting the homogenization of public resources, planning the development of a multicenter urban area, and promoting mixed use (commercial and residential zoning are the main measures recommended to strengthen the sustainability of Beijing’s urban development and to optimize spatial layout.

  10. Materials compatibility during the chlorination of molten CaCl2 . CaO salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rense, C.E.C.; Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Ferran, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    As part of our effort to develop a semicontinuous PuO 2 reduction process, we are investigating promising materials for containing a 900 0 C molten CaCl 2 . CaO chlorination reaction. We want the material to contain this reaction and to be reusable. We tested candidate materials in a simulated salt (no plutonium) using anhydrous HCl as the chlorinating agent. Data are presented on the performance of 36 metals and alloys, 9 ceramics, and 3 coatings

  11. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... a site and near-sensory experience. In so doing, films can achieve an intimate reflection of both outer experience and affection of inner sensations, and the audio-visual and time-space based presentation of this dualism can mimic human experience. This paper discusses how this embedded transference...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  12. Effects of Ca Content on Formation and Photoluminescence Properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ Phosphor by Combustion Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyan-Lung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Ca content (in the reactant mixture on the formation and the photoluminescence properties of CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ phosphor (CASIN were investigated by a combustion synthesis method. Ca, Al, Si, Eu2O3, NaN3, NH4Cl and Si3N4 powders were used as the starting materials and they were mixed and pressed into a compact which was then wrapped up with an igniting agent (i.e., Mg + Fe3O4. The compact was ignited by electrical heating under a N2 pressure of ≤1.0 MPa. By keeping the molar ratios of Al and Si (including the Si powder and the Si in Si3N4 powder both at 1.00 and that of Eu2O3 at 0.02, XRD (X-ray diffraction coupled with TEM-EDS (transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope and SAED (selected area electron diffraction measurements show that AlN:Eu2+ and Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ are formed as the major phosphor products when the Ca molar ratio (denoted by Y is equal to 0.25 and AlN:Eu2+ and Ca-α-SiAlON:Eu2+ could not be detected at Y ≥ 0.75 and ≥1.00, respectively. CASIN (i.e., CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ becomes the only phosphor product as Y is increased to 1.00 and higher. The extent of formation of CASIN increases with increasing Y up to 1.50 and begins to decrease as Y is further increased to 1.68. While the excitation wavelength regions are similar at various Y, the emission wavelength regions vary significantly as Y is increased from 0.25 to 1.00 due to different combinations of phosphor phases formed at different Y. The emission intensity of CASIN was found to vary with Y in a similar trend to its extent of formation. The Ca and Eu contents (expressed as molar ratios in the synthesized products were found to increase roughly with increasing Y but were both lower than the respective Ca and Eu contents in the reactant mixtures.

  13. Anode process on platinum in CaCl2-CaO-based melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Tatarenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry obtained new data on the mechanism and kinetics of anodic processes on platinum in the molten CaCl2-KCl-CaO when 725–775 °C. Given thermodynamic values of potential difference probable total reactions in the range of the studied temperature. Using potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry obtained new data on the mechanism and kinetics of anodic process on platinum in the molten CaCl2-KCl-CaO when 725–775 °C thermodynamic assessment of the probability of occurrence total reactions during electrolysis melt on the basis of CaCl2-CaO using non-carbon anode. It is shown that at high current densities anodic process takes place mainly in the conditions of slow diffusion of electrically active particles to the anode, and at low densities (up to 10 mA/cm2 to their discharge to the atomic and lecular oxygen is preceded by a stage, which can be associated with adsorption of atoms of oxygen or with the formation of an oxide film on the surface of platinum. To detect the nature of this stage, further research is needed.

  14. Diagnostic significance of tumor markers CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression and diagnostic significance of three serum tumor markers (CEA, CA50, CA19-9) in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on their combined assay. Methods: Serum CEA, CA19-9 levels (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and CA50 levels (with immunoradiometric assay) were determined in 94 patients with colorectal cancer, 20 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 37 controls. Results: The expressions of the serum tumor markers were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer than those in patients with benign colorectal disorders and controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the levels in the latter two groups. CEA assay had the highest sensitivity (57.4%) and specificity (85.9%). Combined assay of the three could enhance both the sensitivity (62.7%) and specificity (96.5%). The serum levels of the markers were significantly higher in patients with colonic cancer than those in patients with rectal cancer (P<0.05). The levels were positively correlated with the size of the growth and stage of the disease. Serum tumor marker levels were also significantly higher in patients with metastasis (regional/distant) than those in patients without metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 levels had definite value for the diagnosis and assessment of the pathology as well as biologic behavior colorectal cancer. Combined assay of the three could enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  15. Serum CA125 concentration as a predictor of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Jung; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chang, Shih-Ching; Lin, Jen-Kou; Yang, Shung-Haur

    2016-11-01

    Peritoneal dissemination (PD) of cancer is difficult to diagnose. Previous reports have shown that carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a sensitive marker of PD of gastric cancer. However, CA125 has not been evaluated as a marker of colorectal cancer (CRC), and its accuracy in men is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of CA125 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to predict PD of CRC in men and women.Preoperative CA125 and CEA concentrations were measured in 853 people (510 men, 343 women) over 10 years. PD was confirmed intraoperatively in 57 patients. The predictive ability was compared between CA125 and CEA.Compared with CEA, CA125 concentration had a lower sensitivity, higher specificity, and diagnostic accuracy, and significantly greater area under the curve. Further analysis of CA125's sensitivity and specificity among CEA-negative group (n = 514) showed acceptable sensitivity (57.1%) and good specificity (92.0%). In men and women, CA125 concentration did not increase with stage from I to IV unless PD was present (P women with metastasis with PD (P men with metastasis without PD (P men and women, but CEA concentration correlated with grade only in women.When analyzed according to the primary tumor site, CA125 concentration in men did not differ between patients with the primary site in the right or left colon, or the rectum, regardless of PD status. By contrast, CA125 concentration differed between PD-positive and PD-negative patients with cancer in the right (P men did not differ according to the primary site or PD status. In women, CA125 and CEA concentrations differed significantly between the PD-positive and PD-negative groups in patients with the primary tumor in the right (P men and women.

  16. Acid precipitation and food quality: Effects of dietary Al, Ca and P on bone and liver characteristics in American black ducks and mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) were fed diets varying in concentrations of aluminum (Al). calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) for 10 weeks to identify toxic effects of Al under conditions representative of areas with acid precipitation. Femur and liver tissues were analyzed for Al. Ca, and P concentrations and structural characteristics. At two weeks of age, both species demonstrated pronounced differences in femur Al and P concentrations and femur mass from dietary Al and interaction between Ca:P regimen and Al:Low Ca:Low P enhanced Al storage and decreased P and mass in femurs. Femur Ca was lowest in the Low Ca:Low P regimen but was not affected by dietary Al. At 10 weeks, femur and liver Al continued to vary with dietary Al. Elevated Al and reduced Ca lowered modulus of elasticity. Femur P increased with elevated dietary P in black ducks. Elevated dietary P negated some of the effects of dietary A! on femur mass in black ducks. Reduced Ca concentrations weakened bones of both species and lowered both Ca and P. An array of clinical signs including lameness, discoloration of the upper mandible, complete and greenstick fractures, and death were responses to elevated Al and Ca:P regimen. Black ducks seemed to display these signs over a wider range of diets than mallards. Diets of 1,000 mg/kg Al had toxic effects on both species, particularly when combined with diets low in Ca and P.

  17. Neuronal Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Marta; Oliveros, Juan C; Naranjo, Jose R; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the N-terminal poly-glutamine tract of the huntingtin (Htt) protein is responsible for Huntington disease (HD). A large number of studies have explored the neuronal phenotype of HD, but the molecular aethiology of the disease is still very poorly understood. This has hampered the development of an appropriate therapeutical strategy to at least alleviate its symptoms. In this short review, we have focused our attention on the alteration of a specific cellular mechanism common to all HD models, either genetic or induced by treatment with 3-NPA, i.e. the cellular dyshomeostasis of Ca(2+). We have highlighted the direct and indirect (i.e. transcriptionally mediated) effects of mutated Htt on the maintenance of the intracellular Ca(2+) balance, the correct modulation of which is fundamental to cell survival and the disturbance of which plays a key role in the death of the cell.

  18. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of CA125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Gangming; Huang Biao; Zhu Liguo; Xiao Hualong; Tan Cheng; Tao Yonghui; Jin Jian

    2001-01-01

    A two-site time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) of CA 125 based on the direct sandwich technique has been developed, with the equilibrium method. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against CA 125 was labelled with europium by the help of europium-chelate of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The luminescent enhancement system was an enhancement solution that contained mainly of 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone. The intra- and inter- assay CV of the TRFIA were 4.5% and 4.0%, respectively, and the recovery rate was 96.7%, the sensitivity was 3.3 μg/mL. The cross-reacting rate with CEA was negligible, and that with AFP and β-HCG was 4.6% and 12.4%, respectively. Compared with the imported IRMA Kit, the correlation coefficient was 0.999

  19. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  20. Preparation of CaO/Fly ash as a catalyst inhibitor for transesterification process off palm oil in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwani, Z.; Fatra, W.; Saputra, E.; Maulana, R.

    2018-03-01

    A palm fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst was prepared and used in transesterification from off-grade palm oil for biodiesel production. The catalyst synthesized by loading CaO of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO3)2.4H2O) into fly ash through impregnation method. The optimum catalyst preparation conditions were determined by influence of calcination temperature and weight ratio of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and fly ash. Catalyst with highest catalytic activity was achieved when calcined at 800 °C and proportion of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O to fly ash is 80:20. Under the conditions of oil : methanol ratio of 1:6, catalyst dosage of 6 wt% and temperature of 70 °C for 2 h, the biodiesel yield reaches to 71.77%. CaO, SiO2, Ca(OH)2 and Ca2SiO4 were found in the catalyst through X-ray diffraction (XRD) while the basic strength of the catalyst H_ in the range 9.3 – 11. Surface area of the developed catalyst is 24.342 m2/g through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Characteristics of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, flash point has been matched with standard for biodiesel specification of Indonesia.

  1. Towards validation of the Canadian precipitation analysis (CaPA) for hydrologic modeling applications in the Canadian Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluwade, Alaba; Zhao, K.-Y.; Stadnyk, T. A.; Rasmussen, P.

    2018-01-01

    This study presents a three-step validation technique to compare the performance of the Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA) product relative to actual observation as a hydrologic forcing in regional watershed simulation. CaPA is an interpolated (6 h or 24 h accumulation) reanalysis precipitation product in near real time covering all of North America. The analysis procedure involves point-to-point (P2P) and map-to-map (M2M) comparisons, followed by proxy validation using an operational version of the WATFLOOD™ hydrologic model from 2002 to 2005 in the Lake Winnipeg Basin (LWB), Canada. The P2P technique using a Bayesian change point analysis shows that CaPA corresponds with actual observations (Canadian daily climate data, CDCD), on both an annual and seasonal basis. CaPA has the same spatial pattern, dependency and autocorrelation properties as CDCD pixel by pixel (M2M). When used as hydrologic forcing in WATFLOOD™, results indicate that CaPA is a reliable product for water resource modeling and predictions, but that the quality of CaPA data varies annually and seasonally, as does the quality of observations. CaPA proved most beneficial as a hydrologic forcing during winter seasons where observation quality is the lowest. Reanalysis products, such as CaPA, can be a reliable option in sparse network areas, and is beneficial for regional governments when the cost of new weather stations is prohibitive.

  2. [Effects of nitric oxide on peritoneal lymphatic stomata and lymph drainage via NO-cGMP-Ca2+ pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yuan; Li, Ji-Cheng

    2005-02-25

    To study the cell signal transduction mechanism of nitric oxide (NO) on the peritoneal lymphatic stomata and lymph drainage in the rat, cGMP content were measured by a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit, and the [Ca(2+)](i) were observed by a confocal laser scanning microscope in the cultured peritoneal mesothelial cell. Animal experiment was practiced to study the effect of NO-cGMP-Ca(2+) pathway on the lymphatic stomata and lymph absorption. The results showed that: (1) Sper/NO increased cGMP of the rat peritoneal mesothelial cell (RPMC) in a dose-dependent manner (P+)](i) in single RPMC decreased by adding Sper/NO (P+)](i). L-typed calcium channel blocker nifedipine induced an immediate and marked decrease in [Ca(2+)](i) (P+)](i) reached a balance again, adding Sper/NO could not change [Ca(2+)](i) (P>0.05). (2) Sper/NO increased the area of the stomata (Pabsorbed trypan blue of the diaphragm (P 0.05). The results indicate that NO can decrease [Ca(2+)](i) in the RPMC through the NO-cGMP pathway. This procession is related with the L- type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel. NO enlarges the opening area of the lymphatic stomata and enhances the lymph drainage of tracer by NO-cGMP-[Ca(2+)](i) pathway.

  3. Astrocyte Ca2+ signalling: an unexpected complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Volterra, Andrea; Liaudet, Nicolas; Savtchouk, Iaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte Ca(2+) signalling has been proposed to link neuronal information in different spatial-temporal dimensions to achieve a higher level of brain integration. However, some discrepancies in the results of recent studies challenge this view and highlight key insufficiencies in our current understanding. In parallel, new experimental approaches that enable the study of astrocyte physiology at higher spatial-temporal resolution in intact brain preparations are beginning to reveal an unexpec...

  4. Mg,Ca-ATPase activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladutin, V.V.; Orlova, V.V.; Lob, P.A.; Gerasiminko, I.V.; Mack, E.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The influence of different doses irradiation at the Mg,Ca-ATPase activity at the rat brain has been investigated. The analyses were made at the apparatus of LKB and Carl-Ceis-Jena firm with help of reagents of Sigma and Boehringer firm. Rats decapitated after 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h after action of irradiation. Dose 0.206 C/kg. Erythrocytes. 1 and 3h after irradiation influence- decrease of Mg,Ca-ATPase activity to 86-87% relatively control level, 24 and 48 h - increase of activity to the control level. Dose 0.312 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - decrease of ATPase activity to 90% relatively control, 3h - increase to control level, 24h - fall to 86%, after 48h small increase to 93% relatively control. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - sharp fall of Mg, Ca-ATPase activity to 67 % relatively control, increase of activity to 96% after 3h and sharp fall of activity to 64% 6h after action of irradiation. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Cerebellum. 1h - sharp decrease of ATPase activity to 80%. After 3h -sharp increase to 160% relatively control level and sharp fall of ATPase activity to 47% relatively control after 6h. The mechanism of radiation pathology of active ion transport has been discussed

  5. Glucagon releases Ca2+ from a FCCP-sensitive pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Friedmann, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of physiological levels of glucagon on Ca 2+ efflux were examined in the perfused rat liver. Two methods were used to estimate Ca 2+ efflux: (1) prior labeling of the Ca 2+ pools with 45 Ca 2+ , and (2) measurement of perfusate Ca 2+ with atomic absorption. According to both methods, glucagon administration at the physiological level evoked Ca 2+ release. In order to identify the hormone-sensitive Ca 2+ pool, a method employed by several laboratories was used. In this method, mitochondrial Ca 2+ is released by FCCP, (carbonyl-cyanide 4 (trifluoro/methoxy) phenylhydrazone), a mitochondrial uncoupler. The effect of hormones on Ca 2+ release after such uncoupler administration is measured. A decreased release is taken as an indication that the pool is entirely or partially mitochondrial. FCCP released 90 +/- 29 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver. Glucagon (5 x 10 -9 M) released 107 +/- 45 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver before and 26 +/- 9 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver after FCCP. These data indicate that glucagon releases Ca 2+ mostly from the mitochondria

  6. CaMKII: linking heart failure and arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Paari Dominic; Purohit, Anil; Hund, Thomas J; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding relationships between heart failure and arrhythmias, important causes of suffering and sudden death, remains an unmet goal for biomedical researchers and physicians. Evidence assembled over the last decade supports a view that activation of the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) favors myocardial dysfunction and cell membrane electrical instability. CaMKII activation follows increases in intracellular Ca2+ or oxidation, upstream signals with the capacity to transition CaMKII into a Ca2+ and calmodulin-independeant, constitutively active enzyme. Constitutively active CaMKII appears poised to participate in disease pathways by catalyzing the phosphorylation of classes of protein targets important for excitation-contraction coupling and cell survival, including ion channels and Ca2+ homeostatic proteins, and transcription factors that drive hypertrophic and inflammatory gene expression. This rich diversity of downstream targets helps to explain the potential for CaMKII to simultaneously affect mechanical and electrical properties of heart muscle cells. Proof of concept studies from a growing number of investigators show that CaMKII inhibition is beneficial for improving myocardial performance and reducing arrhythmias. Here we review the molecular physiology of CaMKII, discuss CaMKII actions at key cellular targets and results of animal models of myocardial hypertrophy, dysfunction and arrhythmias that suggest CaMKII inhibition may benefit myocardial function while reducing arrhythmias. PMID:22679140

  7. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  8. Determination of the calcium species in coal chars by Ca K-edge XANES analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Juan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Cui, Ming-Qi; Hu, Yong-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Xi, Shi-Bo; Yang, Dong-Liang; Guo, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jie

    2013-02-01

    Ca-based additives have been widely used as a sulfur adsorbent during coal pyrolysis and gasification. The Ca speciation and evolution during the pyrolysis of coal with Ca additives have attracted great attention. In this paper, Ca species in the coal chars prepared from the pyrolysis of Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3-added coals are studied by using Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structural spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that Ca(OH)2, CaSO4, CaS and CaO coexist in the Ca(OH)2-added chars, while Ca(OH)2 and CaSO4 are the main species in the Ca(OH)2-added chars. Besides, a carboxyl-bound Ca is also formed during both the pyrolysis for the Ca(OH)2-added and the CaCO3-added coals. A detailed discussion about the Ca speciation is given.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis YfkE (ChaA): a calcium-specific Ca2+/H+ antiporter of the CaCA family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Makoto; Wada, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Ito, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    YfkE, a protein from Bacillus subtilis, exhibits homology to the Ca(2+):Cation Antiporter (CaCA) Family. In a fluorescence-based assay of everted membrane vesicles prepared from Na(+)(Ca(2+))/H(+) antiporter-defective mutant Escherichia coli KNabc, YfkE exhibited robust Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity, with a K (m) for Ca(2+) estimated at 12.5 muM at pH 8.5 and 113 muM at pH 7.5. Neither Na(+) nor K(+) served as a substrate. Mg(2+) also did not serve as a substrate, but inhibited the Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter activity. The Ca(2+) transport capability of YfkE was also observed directly by transport assays in everted membrane vesicles using radiolabeled (45)Ca(2+). Transcriptional analysis from the putative yfkED operon using beta-garactosidase activity as a reporter revealed that both of the yfkE and yfkD genes are regulated by forespore-specific sigma factor, SigG, and the general stress response regulator, SigB. These results suggest that YfkE may be needed for Ca(2+) signaling in the sporulation or germination process in B. subtilis. ChaA is proposed as the designation for YfkE of B. subtilis.

  10. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  11. Store-operated Ca2+ entry is not required for fertilization-induced Ca2+ signaling in mouse eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Miranda L; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Stein, Paula; Zhang, Yingpei; Williams, Carmen J

    2017-07-01

    Repetitive oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ due to periodic Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) drive mammalian embryo development following fertilization. Influx of extracellular Ca 2+ to support the refilling of ER stores is required for sustained Ca 2+ oscillations, but the mechanisms underlying this Ca 2+ influx are controversial. Although store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) is an appealing candidate mechanism, several groups have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the importance of SOCE in oocytes and eggs. To definitively address this question, Ca 2+ influx was assessed in oocytes and eggs lacking the major components of SOCE, the ER Ca 2+ sensor STIM proteins, and the plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel ORAI1. We generated oocyte-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice for Stim1 and Stim2, and also generated Stim1/2 double cKO mice. Females lacking one or both STIM proteins were fertile and their ovulated eggs displayed normal patterns of Ca 2+ oscillations following fertilization. In addition, no impairment was observed in ER Ca 2+ stores or Ca 2+ influx following store depletion. Similar studies were performed on eggs from mice globally lacking ORAI1; no abnormalities were observed. Furthermore, spontaneous Ca 2+ influx was normal in oocytes from Stim1/2 cKO and ORAI1-null mice. Finally, we tested if TRPM7-like channels could support spontaneous Ca 2+ influx, and found that it was largely prevented by NS8593, a TRPM7-specific inhibitor. Fertilization-induced Ca 2+ oscillations were also impaired by NS8593. Combined, these data robustly show that SOCE is not required to support appropriate Ca 2+ signaling in mouse oocytes and eggs, and that TRPM7-like channels may contribute to Ca 2+ influx that was previously attributed to SOCE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  13. Caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in honeybee photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, B; Baumann, O; Zimmermann, B; Ciriacy-Wantrup, E V

    1995-04-01

    Light stimulation of invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors causes a large rapid elevation in Cai, shown previously to modulate the adaptational state of the cells. Cai rises, at least in part, as a result of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we provide evidence for Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in an insect photoreceptor. In situ microphotometric measurements of Ca2+ fluxes across the ER membrane in permeabilized slices of drone bee retina show that (a) caffeine induces Ca2+ release from the ER; (b) caffeine and Ins(1,4,5)P3 open distinct Ca2+ release pathways because only caffeine-induced Ca2+ release is ryanodine sensitive and heparin insensitive, and because caffeine and Ins(1,4,5)P3 have additive effects on the rate of Ca2+ release; (c) Ca2+ itself stimulates release of Ca2+ via a ryanodine-sensitive pathway; and (d) cADPR is ineffective in releasing Ca2+. Microfluorometric intracellular Ca2+ measurements with fluo-3 indicate that caffeine induces a persistent elevation in Cai. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that caffeine mimics all aspects of Ca(2+)-mediated facilitation and adaptation in drone photoreceptors. We conclude that the ER in drone photoreceptors contains, in addition to the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive release pathway, a CICR pathway that meets key pharmacological criteria for a ryanodine receptor. Coexpression of both release mechanisms could be required for the production of rapid light-induced Ca2+ elevations, because Ca2+ amplifies its own release through both pathways by a positive feedback. CICR may also mediate the spatial spread of Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar ER toward more remote ER subregions, thereby activating Ca(2+)-sensitive cell processes that are not directly involved in phototransduction.

  14. Modeling CaMKII-mediated regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Greenstein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-contraction coupling (ECC in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. Voltage- and Ca2+-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs allow for Ca2+ entry into the myocyte, which then binds to nearby ryanodine receptors (RyRs and triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a process known as Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. The highly coordinated Ca2+-mediated interaction between LCCs and RyRs is further regulated by the cardiac isoform of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII. Because CaMKII targets and modulates the function of many ECC proteins, elucidation of its role in ECC and integrative cellular function is challenging and much insight has been gained through the use of detailed computational models. Multiscale models that can both reconstruct the detailed nature of local signaling events within the cardiac dyad and predict their functional consequences at the level of the whole cell have played an important role in advancing our understanding of CaMKII function in ECC. Here, we review experimentally based models of CaMKII function with a focus on LCC and RyR regulation, and the mechanistic insights that have been gained through their application.

  15. New anticancer drug candidates sulfonamides as selective hCA IX or hCA XII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Halise Inci; Yamali, Cem; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Angeli, Andrea; Leitans, Janis; Kazaks, Andris; Tars, Kaspars; Ozgun, Dilan Ozmen; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-04-01

    In this study, new 4-[3-(aryl)-5-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamides (19-36) were synthesized and evaluated their cytotoxic/anticancer and CA inhibitory effects. According to results obtained, the compounds 34 (4-[5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl] benzensulfonamide, Potency-Selectivity Expression (PSE) = 141) and 36 (4-[5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamide, PSE = 54.5) were found the leader anticancer compounds with the highest PSE values. In CA inhibitory studies, the compounds 36 and 24 (4-[5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamide) were found the leader CA inhibitors depending on selectivity ratios. The compound 36 was a selective inhibitor of hCA XII isoenzyme (hCA I/hCA XII = 1250 and hCA II/hCA XII = 224) while the compound 24 was a selective inhibitor of hCA IX isoenzyme (hCA I/hCA IX = 161 and hCA II/hCA IX = 177). The compounds 24, 34, and 36 can be considered to develop new anticancer drug candidates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mn∕Ca intra- and inter-test variability in the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Petersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of some benthic foraminiferal species to low-oxygen conditions provides the prospect of using the chemical composition of their tests as proxies for bottom water oxygenation. Manganese may be particularly suitable as such a geochemical proxy because this redox element is soluble in reduced form (Mn2+ and hence can be incorporated into benthic foraminiferal tests under low-oxygen conditions. Therefore, intra- and inter-test differences in foraminiferal Mn∕Ca ratios may hold important information about short-term variability in pore water Mn2+ concentrations and sediment redox conditions. Here, we studied Mn∕Ca intra- and inter-test variability in living individuals of the shallow infaunal foraminifer Ammonia tepida sampled in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands in three different months of 2012. The deeper parts of this lake are characterized by seasonal hypoxia/anoxia with associated shifts in microbial activity and sediment geochemistry, leading to seasonal Mn2+ accumulation in the pore water. Earlier laboratory experiments with similar seawater Mn2+ concentrations as encountered in the pore waters of Lake Grevelingen suggest that intra-test variability due to ontogenetic trends (i.e. size-related effects and/or other vital effects occurring during calcification in A. tepida (11–25 % relative SD, RSD is responsible for part of the observed variability in Mn∕Ca. Our present results show that the seasonally highly dynamic environmental conditions in the study area lead to a strongly increased Mn∕Ca intra- and inter-test variability (average of 45 % RSD. Within single specimens, both increasing and decreasing trends in Mn∕Ca ratios with size are observed. Our results suggest that the variability in successive single-chamber Mn∕Ca ratios reflects the temporal variability in pore water Mn2+. Additionally, active or passive migration of the foraminifera in the surface sediment may explain part of the observed Mn∕Ca

  17. Mn/Ca intra- and inter-test variability in the benthic foraminifer Ammonia tepida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jassin; Barras, Christine; Bézos, Antoine; La, Carole; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Meysman, Filip J. R.; Mouret, Aurélia; Slomp, Caroline P.; Jorissen, Frans J.

    2018-01-01

    The adaptation of some benthic foraminiferal species to low-oxygen conditions provides the prospect of using the chemical composition of their tests as proxies for bottom water oxygenation. Manganese may be particularly suitable as such a geochemical proxy because this redox element is soluble in reduced form (Mn2+) and hence can be incorporated into benthic foraminiferal tests under low-oxygen conditions. Therefore, intra- and inter-test differences in foraminiferal Mn/Ca ratios may hold important information about short-term variability in pore water Mn2+ concentrations and sediment redox conditions. Here, we studied Mn/Ca intra- and inter-test variability in living individuals of the shallow infaunal foraminifer Ammonia tepida sampled in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands) in three different months of 2012. The deeper parts of this lake are characterized by seasonal hypoxia/anoxia with associated shifts in microbial activity and sediment geochemistry, leading to seasonal Mn2+ accumulation in the pore water. Earlier laboratory experiments with similar seawater Mn2+ concentrations as encountered in the pore waters of Lake Grevelingen suggest that intra-test variability due to ontogenetic trends (i.e. size-related effects) and/or other vital effects occurring during calcification in A. tepida (11-25 % relative SD, RSD) is responsible for part of the observed variability in Mn/Ca. Our present results show that the seasonally highly dynamic environmental conditions in the study area lead to a strongly increased Mn/Ca intra- and inter-test variability (average of 45 % RSD). Within single specimens, both increasing and decreasing trends in Mn/Ca ratios with size are observed. Our results suggest that the variability in successive single-chamber Mn/Ca ratios reflects the temporal variability in pore water Mn2+. Additionally, active or passive migration of the foraminifera in the surface sediment may explain part of the observed Mn/Ca variability.

  18. Sensing mechanisms involved in Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, S.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions are involved in many vital physiological functions. In the human body, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) homeostatic systems rely on three components: (i) tissues (re)absorbing or storing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), mainly kidney, intestine, and bone; (ii) hormones that modulate

  19. Electronic structure of Ca, Sr, and Ba under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animalu, A. O. E.; Heine, V.; Vasvari, B.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic band structure calculations phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure

  20. Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release following intermittent sprint training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Lunde, Per; Levin, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    -977) arbitrary units Ca(2+). g protein(-1). min(-1) (after). The relative SR density of functional ryanodine receptors (RyR) remained unchanged after training; there was, however, a 48% (P RyR. No significant differences in Ca(2+) uptake rate and Ca(2+)-ATPase capacity were...

  1. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  2. Integrated Mechanisms of CaMKII-dependent ventricular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Kreusser

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CaMKII has been shown to be activated during different cardiac pathological processes, and CaMKII-dependent mechanisms contribute to pathological cardiac remodeling, cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction during heart failure. Activation of CaMKII during cardiac stress results in a broad number of biological effects such as, on the one hand, acute effects due to phosphorylation of distinct cellular proteins as ion channels and calcium handling proteins and, on the other hand, integrative mechanisms by changing gene expression. This review focuses on transcriptional and epigenetic effects of CaMKII activation during chronic cardiac remodeling. Multiple mechanisms have been described how CaMKII mediates changes in cardiac gene expression. CaMKII has been shown to directly phosphorylate components of the cardiac gene regulation machinery. CaMKII phosphorylates several transcription factors such as CREB that induces the activation of specific gene programs. CaMKII activates transcriptional regulators also indirectly by phosphorylating histone deacetylases, especially HDAC4, which in turn inhibits transcription factors that drive cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrate that CaMKII also phosphorylate directly histones, which may contribute to changes in gene expression. These findings of CaMKII-dependent gene regulation during cardiac remodeling processes suggest novel strategies for CaMKII-dependent transcriptional or epigenetic therapies to control cardiac gene expression and function. Manipulation of CaMKII-dependent signaling pathways in the settings of pathological cardiac growth, remodeling, and heart failure represents an auspicious therapeutic approach.

  3. High-capacity Ca2+ binding of human skeletal calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emiliano J; Lewis, Kevin M; Danna, Benjamin R; Kang, Chulhee

    2012-03-30

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca(2+) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca(2+) complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca(2+) sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl(2) buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca(2+) sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca(2+) sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl(2) shows 15 Ca(2+) ions, including the six Ca(2+) ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca(2+) binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding activity of calsequestrin.

  4. High-capacity Ca2+ Binding of Human Skeletal Calsequestrin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Danna, Benjamin R.; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca2+ complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca2+ sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl2 buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca2+ sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca2+ sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl2 shows 15 Ca2+ ions, including the six Ca2+ ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca2+ binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca2+-binding activity of calsequestrin. PMID:22337878

  5. Significance of the tumor markers CA 125 and CA 15-3 in postoperative diagnosis of ovarian and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Bartel, U.; Elling, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 271 patients with ovarian carcinoma, benign ovarian tumors, breast cancer, and two control groups, serum levels of CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA and, partly, CA 19-9 were determined immunoradiometrically. According to the results of the determination of CA 125 in the follow-up of ovarian carcinoma, CA 125 represents a useful marker for early detection of recurrences, especially in cases of diffuse carcinoma dissemination. In incomplete tumor debulking, postoperative CA 125 serum levels did not prove to be helpful except that a positive level renders invasive diagnostic investigation no longer necessary. Postoperative follow-up in breast cancer early reveals distant metastases, with very high levels in patients with bone metastases. By simultaneous measurement of CA 15-3 and CEA the sensitivity could be increased from 86% (CA 15-3 only) to 93%. (author)

  6. Chemical purification of CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders used for CaWO{sub 4} crystal production for the CRESST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh Thi, H.H.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Hampf, R.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Langenkaemper, A.; Morgalyuk, V.; Muenster, A.; Mondragon, E.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Steiger, H.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) uses CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for the direct search for dark matter particles. Since several years these CaWO{sub 4} crystals are grown at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Thereby, commercially available CaCO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} powders are used for the synthesis of CaWO{sub 4} powder. For the experiment low intrinsic contaminations of the crystals play a crucial role. In order to improve the radiopurity of the crystals it is necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th. In this poster we will present our studies of the chemical purification of the CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders.

  7. Porous carbon material containing CaO for acidic gas capture: preparation and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przepiórski, Jacek; Czyżewski, Adam; Pietrzak, Robert; Toyoda, Masahiro; Morawski, Antoni W

    2013-12-15

    A one-step process for the preparation of CaO-containing porous carbons is described. Mixtures of poly(ethylene terephthalate) with natural limestone were pyrolyzed and thus hybrid sorbents could be easily obtained. The polymeric material and the mineral served as a carbon precursor and CaO delivering agent, respectively. We discuss effects of the preparation conditions and the relative amounts of the raw materials used for the preparations on the porosity of the hybrid products. The micropore areas and volumes of the obtained products tended to decrease with increasing CaO contents. Increase in the preparation temperature entailed a decrease in the micropore volume, whereas the mesopore volume increased. The pore creation mechanism is proposed on the basis of thermogravimetric and temperature-programmed desorption measurements. The prepared CaO-containing porous carbons efficiently captured SO2 and CO2 from air. Washing out of CaO from the hybrid materials was confirmed as a suitable method to obtain highly porous carbon materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. How to Use CA-125 More Effectively in the Diagnosis of Deep Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Pinho Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE is a severe form of the disease. The median time interval from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of endometriosis is around 8 years. In this prospective study patients were divided into two groups: cases (34 DIE patients and control (20 tubal ligation patients. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CA-125 measurement in the menstrual and midcycle phases of the cycle, as well as the difference in its levels between the two phases, for the early diagnosis of DIE. Area Under the Curve (AUC of CA-125 in menstrual phase and of the difference between menstrual and midcycle phases had the best performance (both with AUC = 0.96, followed by CA-125 in the midcycle (AUC = 0.89. The ratio between menstrual and midcycle phases had the worst performance. CA-125 may be useful for the diagnosis of deep endometriosis, especially when both are collected during menstruation and in midcycle. These may help to decrease the long interval until the definitive diagnosis of DIE. Multicentric studies with larger samples should be performed to better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of measuring CA-125 in two different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  9. How to Use CA-125 More Effectively in the Diagnosis of Deep Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Pinho; Raymundo, Thiers Soares; Soares, Leila Cristina; Pereira, Thiago Rodrigues Dantas; Demôro, Alessandra Viviane Evangelista

    2017-01-01

    Deep infiltrative endometriosis (DIE) is a severe form of the disease. The median time interval from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of endometriosis is around 8 years. In this prospective study patients were divided into two groups: cases (34 DIE patients) and control (20 tubal ligation patients). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CA-125 measurement in the menstrual and midcycle phases of the cycle, as well as the difference in its levels between the two phases, for the early diagnosis of DIE. Area Under the Curve (AUC) of CA-125 in menstrual phase and of the difference between menstrual and midcycle phases had the best performance (both with AUC = 0.96), followed by CA-125 in the midcycle (AUC = 0.89). The ratio between menstrual and midcycle phases had the worst performance. CA-125 may be useful for the diagnosis of deep endometriosis, especially when both are collected during menstruation and in midcycle. These may help to decrease the long interval until the definitive diagnosis of DIE. Multicentric studies with larger samples should be performed to better evaluate the cost-effectiveness of measuring CA-125 in two different phases of the menstrual cycle.

  10. Mechanics of Old Faithful Geyser, Calistoga, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M.L.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Karlstrom, L.; Wang, Chun-Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to probe the subsurface dynamics associated with geyser eruptions, we measured ground deformation at Old Faithful Geyser of Calistoga, CA. We present a physical model in which recharge during the period preceding an eruption is driven by pressure differences relative to the aquifer supplying the geyser. The model predicts that pressure and ground deformation are characterized by an exponential function of time, consistent with our observations. The geyser's conduit is connected to a reservoir at a depth of at least 42 m, and pressure changes in the reservoir can produce the observed ground deformations through either a poroelastic or elastic mechanical model.

  11. Tumor markers CA19-9, CA242 and CEA in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Jun; Li, Hongjuan; Wu, Yihua; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Wenhu

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis and early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of single test of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA, as well as combination test in pancreatic cancer detection. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Wanfang databases for studies that evaluated the diagnostic validity of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA between January 1990 and September 2014. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc and STATA software. A total of 21 studies including 3497 participants, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivities for CA19-9, CA242, and CEA were 75.4 (95% CI: 73.4-77.4), 67.8 (95% CI: 65.5-70), and 39.5 (95% CI: 37.3-41.7), respectively. The pooled specificities of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA were 77.6 (95% CI: 75.4-79.7), 83 (95% CI: 81-85), and 81.3 (95% CI: 79.3-83.2), respectively. Parallel combination of CA19-9+CA242 has a higher sensitivity (89, 95% CI: 80-95) without impairing the specificity (75, 95% CI: 67-82). Our meta-analysis showed that CA242 and CA19-9 have better performance in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer than CEA. Furthermore, parallel combination test of CA19-9+CA242 could be of better diagnostic value than individual CA242 or CA19-9 test.

  12. Caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in honeybee photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Light stimulation of invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors causes a large rapid elevation in Cai, shown previously to modulate the adaptational state of the cells. Cai rises, at least in part, as a result of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we provide evidence for Ca(2+)- induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in an insect photoreceptor. In situ microphotometric measurements of Ca2+ fluxes across the ER membrane in permeabilized slices of dron...

  13. The other side of cardiac Ca2+ signaling: transcriptional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eDomínguez-Rodríquez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ is probably the most versatile signal transduction element used by all cell types. In the heart, it is essential to activate cellular contraction in each heartbeat. Nevertheless Ca2+ is not only a key element in excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling, but it is also a pivotal second messenger in cardiac signal transduction, being able to control processes such as excitability, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. Regarding the latter, Ca2+ activates Ca2+-dependent transcription factors by a process called excitation-transcription coupling (ET coupling. ET coupling is an integrated process by which the common signaling pathways that regulate EC coupling activate transcription factors. Although ET coupling has been extensively studied in neurons and other cell types, less is known in cardiac muscle. Some hints have been found in studies on the development of cardiac hypertrophy, where two Ca2+-dependent enzymes are key actors: Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII and phosphatase calcineurin, both of which are activated by the complex Ca2+/ /Calmodulin. The question now is how ET coupling occurs in cardiomyocytes, where intracellular Ca2+ is continuously oscillating. In this focused review, we will draw attention to location of Ca2+ signaling: intranuclear ([Ca2+]n or cytoplasmic ([Ca2+]c, and the specific ionic channels involved in the activation of cardiac ET coupling. Specifically, we will highlight the role of the 1,4,5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs in the elevation of [Ca2+]n levels, which are important to locally activate CaMKII, and the role of transient receptor potential channels canonical (TRPCs in [Ca2+]c, needed to activate calcineurin.

  14. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca(2+) channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about 70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca(2+) action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at 20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca(2+) currents indicated that very few Ca(2+) channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca(2+) channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca(2+) channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres.

  15. Variability of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between and within the planktonic foraminifers Globigerina bulloides and Globorotalia truncatulinoides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand-Jha, P.; Elderfield, H.

    2005-01-01

    The variability in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca within individual tests and chambers of tests, and samples consisting of differing numbers of individuals, was determined for Globigerina bulloides and Globorotalia truncatulinoides in a North Atlantic core top sample (52.918°N 16.917°W'). The variability in Mg/Ca

  16. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... history of ovarian cancer were associated with higher CA125 levels while endometriosis was associated with lower CA125 levels. After adjusting for tumor-related characteristics (stage, histology, grade), body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2was associated with 10% (95% CI 2, 19%) higher CA125 levels...

  17. P and Ca requirements for Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, C B L; Silva, J H V; Filho, J J; Lima, M R; Costa, F G P

    2017-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to estimate the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain in Japanese quails during their growth phase from 16 to 36 days. Japanese quails aged 16 days were used for estimating the phosphorous and calcium requirements for weight maintenance or weight gain, with these quails composing each reference slaughter group and the others distributed in a completely randomized design, housed in cages of galvanized wire (33 × 33 × 16 cm) that were stored in acclimatized chambers with specific environmental temperatures. The light programme used during the 20-day experimental period was 24 h of artificial light. Analysis of the data showed that the prediction equations for estimating the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain of Japanese quails between 16 and 36 days of age were P (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(9.3695 + 7.7397*T) + 9.70*WG, in which P is the phosphorus requirement, and Ca (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(363.99 - 8.0262*T) + 28.15*WG, in which Ca is the calcium requirement, P is BW (kg), T is temperature (°C) and WG (g/quail/day). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Klotho regulates CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Vo, Hai T; Wang, Jing; Fox-Quick, Stephanie; Dobrunz, Lynn E; King, Gwendalyn D

    2017-04-07

    Global klotho overexpression extends lifespan while global klotho-deficiency shortens it. As well, klotho protein manipulations inversely regulate cognitive function. Mice without klotho develop rapid onset cognitive impairment before they are 2months old. Meanwhile, adult mice overexpressing klotho show enhanced cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent tasks. The cognitive enhancing effects of klotho extend to humans with a klotho polymorphism that increases circulating klotho and executive function. To affect cognitive function, klotho could act in or on the synapse to modulate synaptic transmission or plasticity. However, it is not yet known if klotho is located at synapses, and little is known about its effects on synaptic function. To test this, we fractionated hippocampi and detected klotho expression in both pre and post-synaptic compartments. We find that loss of klotho enhances both pre and post-synaptic measures of CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity at 5weeks of age. However, a rapid loss of synaptic enhancement occurs such that by 7weeks, when mice are cognitively impaired, there is no difference from wild-type controls. Klotho overexpressing mice show no early life effects on synaptic plasticity, but decreased CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation was measured at 6months of age. Together these data suggest that klotho affects cognition, at least in part, by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dendrosomal nanocurcumin prevents morphine self-administration behavior in rats despite CA1 damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Jalaleden; Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid; Alaei, Hojjat A

    2017-12-01

    Dendrosomal nanocurcumin (DNC) is fabricated from esterification of oleic acid and polyethylene glycol residues with curcumin. DNC has shown antioxidant, neuroprotective, and neurogenesis-enhancing effects. In addition, it can attenuate morphine tolerance. Morphine self-administration is associated with neurodegenerative changes of CA1 neurons in the adult hippocampus. The present study evaluated the effect of DNC pretreatment on morphine self-administration and hippocampal damage. Rats were pretreated with DNC (5 and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 30 min before a morphine self-administration paradigm performed in 2-h/sessions for 12 days under a FR-1 schedule. Pretreatment with both doses of DNC markedly suppressed morphine intake. Morphine self-administration resulted in a 71% reduction in the number of hippocampal CA1 neurons. DNC (5 mg/kg) pretreatment only marginally improved (by 22%) neuronal loss in this area. The data suggest that the effect of DNC on morphine self-administration is largely independent of the CA1 area. A functional restoration and regulation of reward circuit activity by DNC may reduce the motivation for morphine despite CA1 damage.

  20. The diagnostic value of serum HE4 and CA-125 and ROMA index in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, S U; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bei

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is a common malignancy of the female reproductive system. Tumor markers serve as tools in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of sera levels of carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as well as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) index in ovarian cancer. The sera were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on 158 individuals (64 patients with ovarian cancer, 64 with ovarian benign tumor and 30 healthy individuals) between September 2013 and May 2015. The results showed that levels of HE4 and CA-125 in the sera of the ovarian benign tumor group as well as their ROMA index were significantly higher (PCA-125 was significantly higher (PCA-125. In the ovarian cancer group, the areas under ROC curves of ROMA, HE4 and CA-125 were 0.994, 0.990 and 0.941, respectively. The specificity and positive predictive value of HE4 in the premenopausal ovarian cancer group reached 98.36 and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that the serum level of HE4 and the ROMA index are important indicators in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, in addition to HE4 and CA-125 detection, the ROMA index is extremely valuable in improving the diagnostic efficiency of ovarian cancer.

  1. New fluorescent reagents specific for Ca2+-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Lemelson, Daniela; Israelson, Adrian; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New reagents specifically inhibit the activity of Ca 2+ -dependent proteins. ► FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru allow for mechanism-independent probing of Ca 2+ -binding proteins. ► Changes in reagents fluorescence allow characterization of protein Ca 2+ -binding properties. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ carries information pivotal to cell life and death via its interactions with specific binding sites in a protein. We previously developed a novel photoreactive reagent, azido ruthenium (AzRu), which strongly inhibits Ca 2+ -dependent activities. Here, we synthesized new fluorescent ruthenium-based reagents containing FITC or EITC, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru. These reagents were purified, characterized and found to specifically interact with and markedly inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent activities but not the activity of Ca 2+ -independent reactions. In contrast to many reagents that serve as probes for Ca 2+ , FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru are the first fluorescent divalent cation analogs to be synthesized and characterized that specifically bind to Ca 2+ -binding proteins and inhibit their activity. Such reagents will assist in characterizing Ca 2+ -binding proteins, thereby facilitating better understanding of the function of Ca 2+ as a key bio-regulator.

  2. Chronic Loss of CA2 Transmission Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; Huang, Arthur J Y; Middleton, Steven J; Robert, Vincent; Wintzer, Marie E; Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Chevaleyre, Vivien; McHugh, Thomas J

    2017-05-03

    Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network. In behaving mice, this led to spatially triggered episodes of network-wide hyperexcitability during exploration accompanied by the emergence of high-frequency discharges during rest. These findings reveal CA2 as a regulator of network processing in hippocampus and suggest that CA2-mediated inhibition in CA3 plays a key role in establishing the dynamic excitatory and inhibitory balance required for proper network function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CA-125 in Disease Progression and Treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Connie G; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Steagall, Wendy K; Haughey, Mary E; Julien-Williams, Patricia A; Stylianou, Mario P; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Moss, Joel

    2018-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease of women caused by proliferation of neoplastic-like LAM cells, with mutations in the TSC1/2 tumor suppressor genes. Based on case reports, levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), an ovarian cancer biomarker, can be elevated in patients with LAM. We hypothesized that elevated serum CA-125 levels seen in some patients with LAM were due to LAM, not other malignancies, and might respond to sirolimus treatment. Serum CA-125 levels were measured for 241 patients at each visit. Medical records were reviewed for co-morbidities, disease progression, and response to sirolimus treatment. CA-125 expression in LAM cells was determined by using immunohistochemical analysis. Almost 25% of patients with LAM had at least one elevated serum CA-125 measurement. Higher serum CA-125 levels correlated with lower FEV 1 , premenopausal status, and pleural effusion in a multivariate model (each P CA-125 levels decreased following sirolimus treatment (P = .002). CA-125 and α-smooth muscle actin were co-expressed in LAM lung nodules. Higher serum CA-125 levels were associated with pleural effusions and reduced pulmonary function and were decreased with sirolimus therapy. LAM cells express CA-125. Some elevated serum CA-125 levels may reflect serosal membrane involvement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Spectral components of cytosolic [Ca2+] spiking in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardos, J; Szilágyi, N; Juhász, G

    1998-01-01

    We show here, by means of evolutionary spectral analysis and synthesis of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) spiking observed at the single cell level using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture, that [Ca2+]c spiking can be resolved into evolutio......We show here, by means of evolutionary spectral analysis and synthesis of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) spiking observed at the single cell level using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture, that [Ca2+]c spiking can be resolved...... into evolutionary spectra of a characteristic set of frequencies. Non-delayed small spikes on top of sustained [Ca2+]c were synthesized by a main component frequency, 0.132+/-0.012 Hz, showing its maximal amplitude in phase with the start of depolarization (25 mM KCI) combined with caffeine (10 mM) application...

  5. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  6. Spectroscopy of neutron-deficient nuclei around 36Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, Ch.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Dombradi, Zs.; Algora, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Sohler, D.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Engelhardt, C.; Huebel, H.; Bastin, B.; Benzoni, G.; Borcea, R.; Rotaru, F.; Sorlin, O.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed to extend the knowledge of excited states in neutron-deficient Ca isotopes. In particular, excited states in 36Ca were searched for to allow for a comparison with its stable mirror nucleus, 36S. Secondary beams of 37Ca and 36Ca were produced by fragmentation of a primary 40Ca beam with an energy of 95 · A MeV on the SISSI target at GANIL. A variety of nuclei around 36Ca has been produced in a secondary Be target by neutron and proton-removal at beam energies around 61 · A MeV. The produced nuclei were identified using the spectrometer SPEG, and prompt γ rays were measured with the Chateau de Cristal. A preliminary value for the energy of the first 2+ state of 36Ca has been determined

  7. Somal and dendritic development of human CA3 pyramidal neurons from midgestation to middle childhood: a quantitative Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dahua; He, Lixin; Xiang, Wei; Ai, Wei-Min; Cao, Ye; Wang, Xiao-Sheng; Pan, Aihua; Luo, Xue-Gang; Li, Zhiyuan; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The CA3 area serves a key relay on the tri-synaptic loop of the hippocampal formation which supports multiple forms of mnemonic processing, especially spatial learning and memory. To date, morphometric data about human CA3 pyramidal neurons are relatively rare, with little information available for their pre- and postnatal development. Herein, we report a set of developmental trajectory data, including somal growth, dendritic elongation and branching, and spine formation, of human CA3 pyramidal neurons from midgestation stage to middle childhood. Golgi-impregnated CA3 pyramidal neurons in fetuses at 19, 20, 26, 35, and 38 weeks of gestation (GW) and a child at 8 years of age (Y) were analyzed by Neurolucida morphometry. Somal size of the impregnated CA3 cells increased age-dependently among the cases. The length of the apical and basal dendrites of these neurons increased between 26 GW to 38 GW, and appeared to remain stable afterward until 8 Y. Dendritic branching points increased from 26 GW to 38 GW, with that on the apical dendrites slightly reduced at 8 Y. Spine density on the apical and basal dendrites increased progressively from 26 GW to 8 Y. These data suggest that somal growth and dendritic arborization of human CA3 pyramidal neurons occur largely during the second to third trimester. Spine development and likely synaptogenesis on CA3 pyramidal cells progress during the third prenatal trimester and may continue throughout childhood. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of CaCO3 treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, rheology and hydrolysis of gelatinized maize starch dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, S; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Escalona-Buendia, H B; Bello-Perez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2016-09-15

    Using calcium salts instead of lime allows for an ecological nixtamalization of maize grains, where the negative contamination impact of the traditional lime nixtamalization is reduced. This work assessed the effects of calcium carbonate (0.0-2.0%w/w CaCO3) on the morphology, crystallinity, rheology and hydrolysis of gelatinized maize starch dispersions (GMSD). Microscopy analysis showed that CaCO3 changed the morphology of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and decreased the degree of syneresis. Analysis of particle size distribution showed a slight shift to smaller sizes as the CaCO3 was increased. Also, X-ray patterns indicated that crystallinity achieved a minimum value at CaCO3 concentration in the range of 1%w/w. GMSD with higher CaCO3 concentrations exhibited higher thixotropy area and complex viscoelastic behavior that was frequency dependent. A possible mechanism involved in the starch chain modification by CaCO3 is that starch may act as a weak acid ion exchanger capable of exchanging alcoholic group protons for cations (Ca(+2)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of core-shell structured CaCO3 microspheres as rapid and recyclable adsorbent for anionic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengen; Chen, Zhenhua; Lv, Xinyan; Zhou, Kang; Zhang, Jie; Tian, Xiaohan; Ren, Xiuli; Mei, Xifan

    2017-09-01

    Core-shell structured CaCO3 microspheres (MSs) were prepared by a facile, one-pot method at room temperature. The adsorbent dosage and adsorption time of the obtained CaCO3 MSs were investigated. The results suggest that these CaCO3 MSs can rapidly and efficiently remove 99-100% of anionic dyes within the first 2 min. The obtained CaCO3 MSs have a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (211.77 m2 g-1). In addition, the maximum adsorption capacity of the obtained CaCO3 MSs towards Congo red was 99.6 mg g-1. We also found that the core-shell structured CaCO3 MSs have a high recycling capability for removing dyes from water. Our results demonstrate that the prepared core-shell structured CaCO3 MSs can be used as an ideal, rapid, efficient and recyclable adsorbent to remove dyes from aqueous solution.

  10. Impaired retention of spatial memory after transection of longitudinally oriented axons of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenach, Hill-Aina; Sloviter, Robert S.; Moser, Edvard I.; Moser, May-Britt

    2002-03-01

    Longitudinally oriented axon collaterals of CA3 pyramidal cells may be critical for integrating distributed information in the hippocampus. To investigate the possible role of this pathway in the retention of spatial memory, we made a single transversely oriented cut through the dorsal CA3 region of each hippocampus. Although the lesion involved water maze in preoperatively trained rats. New learning in a different water maze was attenuated. No significant impairment occurred in rats with longitudinally oriented cuts, or in animals with ibotenic acid-induced lesions of similar magnitude. To characterize the effect of a focal lesion on the integrity of longitudinally projecting axons, we stained degenerating cells and fibers in rats with unilateral CA3 transections by using FluoroJade-B. Degenerating terminals were seen across a wide region posterior to the cut, and were present in the strata of areas CA3 and CA1 that are innervated by CA3 pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the integrity of longitudinally oriented, translamellar axons of CA3 pyramidal cells may be necessary for efficient acquisition and retention of spatial memory.

  11. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rellos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP, a long-lasting enhancement in communication between neurons, is considered to be the major cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII. CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. Here we describe the crystal structure of the human CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, structures of all four human CaMKII catalytic domains in their autoinhibited states, as well as structures of human CaMKII oligomerization domains in their tetradecameric and physiological dodecameric states. All four autoinhibited human CaMKIIs were monomeric in the determined crystal structures but associated weakly in solution. In the CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, the inhibitory region adopted an extended conformation and interacted with an adjacent catalytic domain positioning T287 into the active site of the interacting protomer. Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the Web plugin are available in Text S1.

  12. Synaptic NMDA Receptor-Dependent Ca2+ Entry Drives Membrane Potential and Ca2+ Oscillations in Spinal Ventral Horn Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Michael H.; Alford, Simon

    2013-01-01

    During vertebrate locomotion, spinal neurons act as oscillators when initiated by glutamate release from descending systems. Activation of NMDA receptors initiates Ca2+-mediated intrinsic membrane potential oscillations in central pattern generator (CPG) neurons. NMDA receptor-dependent intrinsic oscillations require Ca2+-dependent K+ (KCa2) channels for burst termination. However, the location of Ca2+ entry mediating KCa2 channel activation, and type of Ca2+ channel – which includes NMDA receptors and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) – remains elusive. NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry necessitates presynaptic release of glutamate, implying a location at active synapses within dendrites, whereas VGCC-dependent Ca2+ entry is not similarly constrained. Where Ca2+ enters relative to KCa2 channels is crucial to information processing of synaptic inputs necessary to coordinate locomotion. We demonstrate that Ca2+ permeating NMDA receptors is the dominant source of Ca2+ during NMDA-dependent oscillations in lamprey spinal neurons. This Ca2+ entry is synaptically located, NMDA receptor-dependent, and sufficient to activate KCa2 channels at excitatory interneuron synapses onto other CPG neurons. Selective blockade of VGCCs reduces whole-cell Ca2+ entry but leaves membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations unaffected. Furthermore, repetitive oscillations are prevented by fast, but not slow, Ca2+ chelation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KCa2 channels are closely located to NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry. The close spatial relationship between NMDA receptors and KCa2 channels provides an intrinsic mechanism whereby synaptic excitation both excites and subsequently inhibits ventral horn neurons of the spinal motor system. This places the components necessary for oscillation generation, and hence locomotion, at glutamatergic synapses. PMID:23646190

  13. Mitochondria Maintain Distinct Ca2+Pools in Cone Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Sloat, Stephanie R; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2017-02-22

    Ca 2+ ions have distinct roles in the outer segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal of photoreceptors. We tested the hypothesis that distinct Ca 2+ domains are maintained by Ca 2+ uptake into mitochondria. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy of zebrafish cones revealed that nearly 100 mitochondria cluster at the apical side of the inner segment, directly below the outer segment. The endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the basal and lateral surfaces of this cluster, but does not reach the apical surface or penetrate into the cluster. Using genetically encoded Ca 2+ sensors, we found that mitochondria take up Ca 2+ when it accumulates either in the cone cell body or outer segment. Blocking mitochondrial Ca 2+ uniporter activity compromises the ability of mitochondria to maintain distinct Ca 2+ domains. Together, our findings indicate that mitochondria can modulate subcellular functional specialization in photoreceptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ca 2+ homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of retinal photoreceptors. Separate pools of Ca 2+ regulate phototransduction in the outer segment, metabolism in the cell body, and neurotransmitter release at the synaptic terminal. We investigated the role of mitochondria in compartmentalization of Ca 2+ We found that mitochondria form a dense cluster that acts as a diffusion barrier between the outer segment and cell body. The cluster is surprisingly only partially surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, a key mediator of mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake. Blocking the uptake of Ca 2+ by mitochondria causes redistribution of Ca 2+ throughout the cell. Our results show that mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in photoreceptors is complex and plays an essential role in normal function. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372061-12$15.00/0.

  14. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Atchley, Adam Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Elizabeth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-24

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the PA/CA are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2016 annual review for Area G.

  15. Comparison of circulating MMP-9, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 in the detection of pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Brunner, Nils; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B.

    2010-01-01

    , TIMP-1 and CA19-9 in detecting pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were 58.82%, 47.1% and 86%, respectively, with specificities of 34.6%, 69.2% and 73%. The AUCs of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and CA19-9 were 0.50, 0.64 and 0.84, respectively. Combining the three markers did not significantly improve detection......Background/Aim: The performance of the circulating tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were evaluated separately and in combination for their potential value in detecting pancreatic ductal...... adenocarcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patients had symptoms of pancreatic cancer. The discriminative strength of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were compared to that of CA19-9 using receiver operating characteristics curves, area under the curves (AUC), specificity and sensitivity. RESULTS: The sensitivities of MMP-9...

  16. Ca²+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII activity and sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cell energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available : Ca(2+-activated basal adenylate cyclase (AC in rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC guarantees, via basal cAMP/PKA-calmodulin/CaMKII-dependent protein phosphorylation, the occurrence of rhythmic, sarcoplasmic-reticulum generated, sub-membrane Ca(2+ releases that prompt rhythmic, spontaneous action potentials (APs. This high-throughput signaling consumes ATP.We have previously demonstrated that basal AC-cAMP/PKA signaling directly, and Ca(2+ indirectly, regulate mitochondrial ATP production. While, clearly, Ca(2+-calmodulin-CaMKII activity regulates ATP consumption, whether it has a role in the control of ATP production is unknown.We superfused single, isolated rabbit SANC at 37°C with physiological saline containing CaMKII inhibitors, (KN-93 or autocamtide-2 Related Inhibitory Peptide (AIP, or a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7 and measured cytosolic Ca(2+, flavoprotein fluorescence and spontaneous AP firing rate. We measured cAMP, ATP and O2 consumption in cell suspensions. Graded reductions in basal CaMKII activity by KN-93 (0.5-3 µmol/L or AIP (2-10 µmol/L markedly slow the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+ cycling, decrease the spontaneous AP firing rate, decrease cAMP, and reduce O2 consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. In this context of graded reductions in ATP demand, however, ATP also becomes depleted, indicating reduced ATP production.CaMKII signaling, a crucial element of normal automaticity in rabbit SANC, is also involved in SANC bioenergetics.

  17. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Molly E; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T; Konradi, Christine

    2004-11-24

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators of Ca2+ influx. In D1 receptor-stimulated neurons, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. This leads to the activation of a molecular signal transduction pathway and CREB phosphorylation. In the absence of dopamine receptor stimulation, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit CREB phosphorylation. The effect of dopamine on L-type Ca2+ channel blockers is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays a role in this phenomenon. Because of the adverse effect of activated dopamine receptors on L-type Ca2+ channel blocker action, the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in the dopamine D1 receptor signal transduction pathway cannot be assessed with pharmacological tools. However, with antisense technology, we demonstrate that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation. We conclude that the D1 receptor signal transduction pathway depends on L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate CREB phosphorylation.

  18. Synthesis of Al₂Ca Dispersoids by Powder Metallurgy Using a Mg-Al Alloy and CaO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junji; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-06-28

    The elemental mixture of Mg-6 wt %Al-1 wt %Zn-0.3 wt %Mn (AZ61B) alloy powder and CaO particles was consolidated by an equal-channel angular bulk mechanical alloying (ECABMA) process to form a composite precursor. Subsequently, the precursor was subjected to a heat treatment to synthesize fine Al₂Ca particles via a solid-state reaction between the Mg-Al matrix and CaO additives. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron probe micro-analysis on the precursor indicated that 4.7-at % Al atoms formed a supersaturated solid solution in the α-Mg matrix. Transmission electron microscopy-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses on the AZ61B composite precursor with 10-vol % CaO particles obtained by heat treatment confirmed that CaO additives were thermally decomposed in the Mg-Al alloy, and the solid-soluted Ca atoms diffused along the α-Mg grain boundaries. Al atoms also diffused to the grain boundaries because of attraction to the Ca atoms resulting from a strong reactivity between Al and Ca. As a result, needle-like (Mg,Al)₂Ca intermetallics were formed as intermediate precipitates in the initial reaction stage during the heat treatment. Finally, the precipitates were transformed into spherical Al₂Ca particles by the substitution of Al atoms for Mg atoms in (Mg,Al)₂Ca after a long heat treatment.

  19. Sleep deprivation causes memory deficits by negatively impacting neuronal connectivity in hippocampal area CA1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tudor, Jennifer C; Luczak, Vincent G; Hansen, Rolf T; Ferri, Sarah L; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Poplawski, Shane G; Day, Jonathan P; Aton, Sara J; Radwańska, Kasia; Meerlo, Peter; Houslay, Miles D; Baillie, George S; Abel, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Brief periods of sleep loss have long-lasting consequences such as impaired memory consolidation. Structural changes in synaptic connectivity have been proposed as a substrate of memory storage. Here, we examine the impact of brief periods of sleep deprivation on dendritic structure. In mice, we

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ALTERS SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION IN DENTATE GYRUS AND AREA CA1 OF HIPPOCAMPUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism during critical periods of brain developmental leads to learning deficits and alterations in hippocampal structure. Neurophysiological properties of the hippocampus, however, have not been well characterized. The present study examined field potentials evoked in...

  1. PGC-1{alpha} accelerates cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance without disturbing Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min, E-mail: chenminyx@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yunnan Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Kunming 650022 (China); Wang, Yanru [Institute of Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qu, Aijuan [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Energy metabolism and Ca{sup 2+} handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1{alpha} in cardiac Ca{sup 2+} signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1{alpha} via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca{sup 2+} transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca{sup 2+} transients and Ca{sup 2+} waves accelerated in PGC-1{alpha}-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca{sup 2+} transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1{alpha}-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1{alpha} induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} did not disturb cardiac Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, because SR Ca{sup 2+} load and the propensity for Ca{sup 2+} waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1{alpha} can ameliorate cardiac Ca{sup 2+} cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1{alpha}-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1{alpha} in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  2. Computer algorithms for automated detection and analysis of local Ca2+ releases in spontaneously beating cardiac pacemaker cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Maltsev

    Full Text Available Local Ca2+ Releases (LCRs are crucial events involved in cardiac pacemaker cell function. However, specific algorithms for automatic LCR detection and analysis have not been developed in live, spontaneously beating pacemaker cells. In the present study we measured LCRs using a high-speed 2D-camera in spontaneously contracting sinoatrial (SA node cells isolated from rabbit and guinea pig and developed a new algorithm capable of detecting and analyzing the LCRs spatially in two-dimensions, and in time. Our algorithm tracks points along the midline of the contracting cell. It uses these points as a coordinate system for affine transform, producing a transformed image series where the cell does not contract. Action potential-induced Ca2+ transients and LCRs were thereafter isolated from recording noise by applying a series of spatial filters. The LCR birth and death events were detected by a differential (frame-to-frame sensitivity algorithm applied to each pixel (cell location. An LCR was detected when its signal changes sufficiently quickly within a sufficiently large area. The LCR is considered to have died when its amplitude decays substantially, or when it merges into the rising whole cell Ca2+ transient. Ultimately, our algorithm provides major LCR parameters such as period, signal mass, duration, and propagation path area. As the LCRs propagate within live cells, the algorithm identifies splitting and merging behaviors, indicating the importance of locally propagating Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release for the fate of LCRs and for generating a powerful ensemble Ca2+ signal. Thus, our new computer algorithms eliminate motion artifacts and detect 2D local spatiotemporal events from recording noise and global signals. While the algorithms were developed to detect LCRs in sinoatrial nodal cells, they have the potential to be used in other applications in biophysics and cell physiology, for example, to detect Ca2+ wavelets (abortive waves, sparks and

  3. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  4. The relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, U K; Paydas, S; Guzel, A B; Vardar, M A; Urunsak, I F; Cetin, M T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels. Serum CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were compared among the cases with benign ovarian neoplasms, primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Also, the correlation between CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were evaluated in the presence of peritoneal fluid and/or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Although ovarian volume was not different among the groups, CA-125 levels were higher in the cases with EOC than with benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.001). Baseline CA-125 levels were not found to have increased while ovarian volume went up with controlled hyperstimulation in the infertile group (p = 0.555). However, uncontrolled hyperstimulation of the ovaries and the presence of peritoneal fluid caused an increase in the levels of CA-125 (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between ovarian volume and CA-125 levels in the cases with malignant ovarian tumors (r = 0.083). The results of this study have confirmed that CA-125 is a peritoneal marker and increased ovarian volume with benign ovarian neoplasms or controlled hyperstimulation does not increase CA-125 levels in the same way. The presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis and/or peritoneal fluid seems to be an important factor for high CA-125 levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

  5. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  6. Radiolise de Ca14Co3

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guadalupe Albarran Sanchez

    1986-01-01

    Resumo: A ação da radiação sobre carbonatos sólidos produz várias espécies. A dissolução do sólido resulta na formação de alguns compostos orgânicos que podem ser observados por diferentes métodos químicos. Dentro destes métodos, o da cromatografia líquida de partição/exclusão de íons tem sido utilizada para análise dos ácidos carboxílicos produzidos. Nosso estudo consistiu em reexaminar este método de análise, estendendo-o para possíveis compostos não ionizáveis obtidos na radiólise de CaCO3...

  7. Utility of Preoperative CA125 Assay in the Management Planning of Women Diagnosed with Uterine Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Povolotskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study assesses the role of preoperative serum CA125 levels in the planning treatment options for women diagnosed with uterine cancer. Material and Method. Ninety five consecutive patients diagnosed with uterine cancer during a four-year period were identified. Age ranged from 35 to 89 years with a mean age of 69 years. The preoperative CA125 levels were dichotomised at 28 U/mL (using ROC analysis to identify the best discriminating threshold for 5-year survival. This level was then correlated with preoperative prognostic indicators: patient age, tumour grade, and histopathological tumour cell type. Survival data was plotted using Kaplan-Meier curves and analysed using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the predictors of overall survival. Results. The mean age of patients was 69 years (range: 35–89. On univariate analysis, the use of preoperative CA125 levels of greater or less than 28 U/mL correlated significantly with age (P=0.01, the grade of disease (P=0.02 and unfavourable tissue type (P=0.03. This threshold CA125 level had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 76%, positive predictive value of 35% and negative predicative value of 96.25%, and a likelihood ratio of 3.12 for predicting nodal disease. Using a threshold of preoperative CA125 level of 28 U/mL (area under curve: 0.60 was also a significant predictor of 5-year survival (log-rank test, P=0.01. Using Cox multivariate survival analysis to identify predictive preoperative factors overall, unfavourable cell type was the strongest predictor of survival (Chi square = 36.5, df = 4, and P=0.001, followed by preoperative CA125 level (CA125 > 28 U/mL, P=0.011 and unfavourable preoperative grade (P=0.017. Amongst patients with a favourable histological tissue type (endometrioid, preoperative CA125 levels predicted overall survival (Chi square = 6.039, df = 2, P=0.02; however unfavourable preoperative

  8. Hydroxylated xestospongins block inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release and sensitize Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Tram Anh; Feng, Wei; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Pessah, Isaac N

    2006-02-01

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) often coexist within the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) membrane and coordinate precise spatial and temporal coding of Ca(2+) signals in most animal cells. Xestospongin C (XeC) was shown to selectively block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release and IP(3)R-mediated signaling (Gafni et al., 1997). We have further studied the specificity of xestospongin structures possessing ring hydroxyl (-OH) substituents toward IP(3)R, RyR, and ER/SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activities. XeC potently inhibits IP(3)R, weakly inhibits RyR1, and lacks activity toward SERCA1 and SERCA2. XeD (9-OH XeC), 7-OH-XeA, and araguspongin C isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species also inhibit IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and lack activity toward SERCA. However, these hydroxylated derivatives possess a unique activity in that they enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from SR vesicles by a mechanism involving the sensitization of RyR1 channels within the same concentration range needed to block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release. These results show that xestospongins and related structures lack direct SERCA inhibitory activity, as suggested by some previous studies. A new finding is that XeD and related structures possessing a hydroxylated oxaquinolizidine ring are IP(3)R blockers that also enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mediated by RyRs. In intact cells, the actions of XeD are blocked by ryanodine pretreatment and do not interfere with thapsigargin-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization stemming from SERCA block. Hydroxylated bis-oxaquinolizadine derivatives isolated from Xestospongia species are novel bifunctional reagents that may be useful in ascertaining how IP(3)Rs and RyRs contribute to cell signaling.

  9. Investigation on the Expansion of Urban Construction Land Use Based on the CART-CA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Yao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Change in urban construction land use is an important factor when studying urban expansion. Many scholars have combined cellular automata (CA with data mining algorithms to perform relevant simulation studies. However, the parameters for rule extraction are difficult to determine and the rules are simplex, and together, these factors tend to introduce excessive fitting problems and low modeling accuracy. In this paper, we propose a method to extract the transformation rules for a CA model based on the Classification and Regression Tree (CART. In this method, CART is used to extract the transformation rules for the CA. This method first adopts the CART decision tree using the bootstrap algorithm to mine the rules from the urban land use while considering the factors that impact the geographic spatial variables in the CART regression procedure. The weights of individual impact factors are calculated to generate a logistic regression function that reflects the change in urban construction land use. Finally, a CA model is constructed to simulate and predict urban construction land expansion. The urban area of Xinyang City in China is used as an example for this experimental research. After removing the spatial invariant region, the overall simulation accuracy is 81.38% and the kappa coefficient is 0.73. The results indicate that by using the CART decision tree to train the impact factor weights and extract the rules, it can effectively increase the simulation accuracy of the CA model. From convenience and accuracy perspectives for rule extraction, the structure of the CART decision tree is clear, and it is very suitable for obtaining the cellular rules. The CART-CA model has a relatively high simulation accuracy in modeling urban construction land use expansion, it provides reliable results, and is suitable for use as a scientific reference for urban construction land use expansion.

  10. Neural activity changes underlying the working memory deficit in alpha-CaMKII heterozygous knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Matsuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII is expressed abundantly in the forebrain and is considered to have an essential role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previously, we reported that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of α-CaMKII (α-CaMKII+/- have profoundly dysregulated behaviors including a severe working memory deficit, which is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In addition, we found that almost all the neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the mutant mice failed to mature at molecular, morphological and electrophysiological levels. In the present study, to identify the brain substrates of the working memory deficit in the mutant mice, we examined the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain after a working memory version of the eight-arm radial maze test. c-Fos expression was abolished almost completely in the DG and was reduced significantly in neurons in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, central amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. However, c-Fos expression was intact in the entorhinal and visual cortices. Immunohistochemical studies using arc promoter driven dVenus transgenic mice demonstrated that arc gene activation after the working memory task occurred in mature, but not immature neurons in the DG of wild-type mice. These results suggest crucial insights for the neural circuits underlying spatial mnemonic processing during a working memory task and suggest the involvement of α-CaMKII in the proper maturation and integration of DG neurons into these circuits.

  11. Political Boundaries (Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A joint venture involving the National Atlas programs in Canada (Natural Resources Canada), Mexico (Instituto Nacional de Estad�ica Geograf�e Inform�ca), and the...

  12. Teale Urban areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  13. The many phases of CaC{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Sumit; Nylén, Johanna; Svensson, Gunnar; Bernin, Diana; Edén, Mattias [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Ruschewitz, Uwe [Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstrasse 6, 50939 Cologne (Germany); Häussermann, Ulrich, E-mail: Ulrich.Haussermann@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    Polymorphic CaC{sub 2} was prepared by reacting mixtures of CaH{sub 2} and graphite with molar ratios between 1:1.8 and 1:2.2 at temperatures between 700 and 1400 °C under dynamic vacuum. These conditions provided a well controlled, homogeneous, chemical environment and afforded products with high purity. The products, which were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and Raman spectroscopy, represented mixtures of the three known polymorphs, tetragonal CaC{sub 2}-I and monoclinic CaC{sub 2}-II and -III. Their proportion is dependent on the nominal C/CaH{sub 2} ratio of the reaction mixture and temperature. Reactions with excess carbon produced a mixture virtually free from CaC{sub 2}-I, whereas high temperatures (above 1100 °C) and C-deficiency favored the formation of CaC{sub 2}-I. From first principles calculations it is shown that CaC{sub 2}-I is dynamically unstable within the harmonic approximation. This indicates that existing CaC{sub 2}-I is structurally/dynamically disordered and may possibly even occur as slightly carbon-deficient phase CaC{sub 2-δ}. It is proposed that monoclinic II is the ground state of CaC{sub 2} and polymorph III is stable at temperatures above 200 °C. Tetragonal I represents a metastable, heterogeneous, phase of CaC{sub 2}. It is argued that a complete understanding of the occurrence of three room temperature modifications of CaC{sub 2} will require a detailed characterization of compositional and structural heterogeneities within the high temperature form CaC{sub 2}-IV, which is stable above 450 °C. The effect of high pressure on the stability of the monoclinic forms of CaC{sub 2} was studied in a diamond anvil cell using Raman spectroscopy. CaC{sub 2}-II and -III transform into tetragonal CaC{sub 2}-I at about 4 and 1GPa, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The famous tetragonal form of CaC{sub 2}, CaC{sub 2}-I, is dynamically unstable. Why does it exist? Display Omitted - Highlights: • Critical review

  14. Enhanced Ca(2+)-activated Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange activity in canine pacing-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, I A; O'Rourke, B

    2000-10-13

    Defective excitation-contraction coupling in heart failure is generally associated with both a reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) uptake and a greater dependence on transsarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) for Ca(2+) removal. Although a relative increase in NCX is expected when SR function is impaired, few and contradictory studies have addressed whether there is an absolute increase in NCX activity. The present study examines in detail NCX density and function in left ventricular midmyocardial myocytes isolated from normal or tachycardic pacing-induced failing canine hearts. No change of NCX current density was evident in myocytes from failing hearts when intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was buffered to 200 nmol/L. However, when [Ca(2+)](i) was minimally buffered with 50 micromol/L indo-1, Ca(2+) extrusion via NCX during caffeine application was doubled in failing versus normal cells. In other voltage-clamp experiments in which SR uptake was blocked with thapsigargin, both reverse-mode and forward-mode NCX currents and Ca(2+) transport were increased >2-fold in failing cells. These results suggest that, in addition to a relative increase in NCX function as a consequence of defective SR Ca(2+) uptake, there is an absolute increase in NCX function that depends on [Ca(2+)](i) in the failing heart.

  15. Selenoprotein W redox-regulated Ca2+ channels correlate with selenium deficiency-induced muscles Ca2+ leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haidong; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Wenchao; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Sattar, Hamid; Zhao, Jinxin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-09-06

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces Ca2+ leak and calcification in mammal skeletal muscles; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, both Se-deficient chicken muscle models and selenoprotein W (SelW) gene knockdown myoblast and embryo models were used to study the mechanism. The results showed that Se deficiency-induced typical muscular injuries accompanied with Ca2+ leak and oxidative stress (P CACNA1S, ORAI1, STIM1, TRPC1, and TRPC3 (P CACNA1S, ORA1, TRPC1, and TRPC3; and caused abnormal activities of Ca2+ channels in response to inhibitors in myoblasts and chicken embryos. Thus, both Se deficiency and SelW knockdown induced Ca2+ leak, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ channel reduction. In addition, Ca2+ levels and the expression of the Ca2+ channels, RyR1, SERCA, CACNA1S, TRPC1, and TRPC3 were recovered to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment compared with SelW knockdown cells. Thus, with regard to the decreased Ca2+ channels, SelW knockdown closely correlated Se deficiency with Ca2+ leak in muscles. The redox regulation role of SelW is crucial in Se deficiency-induced Ca2+ leak in muscles.

  16. Serum tetranectin and CA125 in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, M S; Høgdall, C K; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CA125 and tetranectin (TN) are prognostic markers in ovarian cancer. This study examines the values of these markers in endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TN and CA125 were determined preoperatively in 99 patients with primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma and evaluated...... in relation to tumor grade, stage and cancer survival. RESULTS: The CA125 levels correlated significantly with tumor stage. Dichotomized according to a cut-off level of 35 U/ml, CA125 significantly correlated with cancer death. Multivariate regression analysis of cancer survival time showed that CA125 > 35 U....../ml was not an independent factor when stage was introduced. TN levels were within the normal range in all patients and did not show any association with tumor grade, stage or survival. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the role of CA125 as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer and may be of aid in pointing out patients...

  17. Residual sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ concentration after Ca2+ release in skeletal myofibers from young adult and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Tang, Shen; Messi, María Laura; Yang, Jenny J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting information suggests either almost complete depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) or significant residual Ca(2+) concentration after prolonged depolarization of the skeletal muscle fiber. The primary obstacle to resolving this controversy is the lack of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators targeted to the SR that exhibit low-Ca(2+) affinity, a fast biosensor: Ca(2+) off-rate reaction, and can be expressed in myofibers from adult and older adult mammalian species. This work used the recently designed low-affinity Ca(2+) sensor (Kd = 1.66 mM in the myofiber) CatchER (calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the ER) targeted to the SR, to investigate whether prolonged skeletal muscle fiber depolarization significantly alters residual SR Ca(2+) with aging. We found CatchER a proper tool to investigate SR Ca(2+) depletion in young adult and older adult mice, consistently tracking SR luminal Ca(2+) release in response to brief and repetitive stimulation. We evoked SR Ca(2+) release in whole-cell voltage-clamped flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from young and old FVB mice and tested the maximal SR Ca(2+) release by directly activating the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) with 4-chloro-m-cresol in the same myofibers. Here, we report for the first time that the Ca(2+) remaining in the SR after prolonged depolarization (2 s) in myofibers from aging (~220 μM) was larger than young (~132 μM) mice. These experiments indicate that SR Ca(2+) is far from fully depleted under physiological conditions throughout life, and support the concept of excitation-contraction uncoupling in functional senescent myofibers.

  18. Functional optical probing of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in vitro: network dynamics, filter properties, and polysynaptic induction of CA1 LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Jens; Dine, Julien; Eder, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Decades of brain research have identified various parallel loops linking the hippocampus with neocortical areas, enabling the acquisition of spatial and episodic memories. Especially the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit [entorhinal cortex layer II → dentate gyrus (DG) → cornu ammonis (CA)-3 → CA1] was studied in great detail because of its seemingly simple connectivity and characteristic structures that are experimentally well accessible. While numerous researchers focused on functional aspects, obtained from a limited number of cells in distinct hippocampal subregions, little is known about the neuronal network dynamics which drive information across multiple synapses for subsequent long-term storage. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging in vitro allows real-time recording of activity patterns in large/meso-scale neuronal networks with high spatial resolution. In this way, we recently found that entorhinal theta-frequency input to the DG most effectively passes filter mechanisms of the trisynaptic circuit network, generating activity waves which propagate across the entire DG-CA axis. These "trisynaptic circuit waves" involve high-frequency firing of CA3 pyramidal neurons, leading to a rapid induction of classical NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses (CA1 LTP). CA1 LTP has been substantially evidenced to be essential for some forms of explicit learning in mammals. Here, we review data with particular reference to whole network-level approaches, illustrating how activity propagation can take place within the trisynaptic circuit to drive formation of CA1 LTP.

  19. Improved custom statistics visualization for CA Performance Center data

    CERN Document Server

    Talevi, Iacopo

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of my project is to understand and experiment the possibilities that CA Performance Center (CA PC) offers for creating custom applications to display stored information through interesting visual means, such as maps. In particular, I have re-written some of the network statistics web pages in order to fetch data from new statistics modules in CA PC, which has its own API, and stop using the RRD data.

  20. Circularly permuted green fluorescent proteins engineered to sense Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T; Sawano, A; Park, E S; Miyawaki, A

    2001-03-13

    To visualize Ca(2+)-dependent protein-protein interactions in living cells by fluorescence readouts, we used a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP), in which the amino and carboxyl portions had been interchanged and reconnected by a short spacer between the original termini. The cpGFP was fused to calmodulin and its target peptide, M13. The chimeric protein, which we have named "pericam," was fluorescent and its spectral properties changed reversibly with the amount of Ca(2+), probably because of the interaction between calmodulin and M13 leading to an alteration of the environment surrounding the chromophore. Three types of pericam were obtained by mutating several amino acids adjacent to the chromophore. Of these, "flash-pericam" became brighter with Ca(2+), whereas "inverse-pericam" dimmed. On the other hand, "ratiometric-pericam" had an excitation wavelength changing in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. All of the pericams expressed in HeLa cells were able to monitor free Ca(2+) dynamics, such as Ca(2+) oscillations in the cytosol and the nucleus. Ca(2+) imaging using high-speed confocal line-scanning microscopy and a flash-pericam allowed to detect the free propagation of Ca(2+) ions across the nuclear envelope. Then, free Ca(2+) concentrations in the nucleus and mitochondria were simultaneously measured by using ratiometric-pericams having appropriate localization signals, revealing that extra-mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients caused rapid changes in the concentration of mitochondrial Ca(2+). Finally, a "split-pericam" was made by deleting the linker in the flash-pericam. The Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between calmodulin and M13 in HeLa cells was monitored by the association of the two halves of GFP, neither of which was fluorescent by itself.

  1. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2007-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004. Elements of the ISO standard overlap with those of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, thus SNL/CA's EMS program also meets the DOE requirements.

  2. Combined Evaluation of AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA Tumor Markers in Patients with Hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmar, Mehdi; Yeganeh, Sara; Mansourghanaei, Fariborz; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of tumor markers AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with hepatitis B and C. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. Serum samples of 129 patients with hepatitis B and C referred to Guilan Liver and Digestive Disease Research Center in Rasht, Iran were collected and checked for the existence of the listed tumor markers by ELISA. No increase in serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9, CEA and CA15-3 were seen in patients with hepatitis ( P >0.05). In patients with hepatitis B, increase in CA125 were observed ( P =0.03). In hepatitis C patients, there was an increase in AFP levels ( P =0.03). The levels of AFP and CA125 markers were high in hepatitis C and hepatitis B, respectively. However, the increased levels were not seen is malignancy. Due to the small sample size, further study is necessary to find the reasons of the increase.

  3. Influence of Ca substitution by Mg on the Ca3Co4O9 performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ca3-xMgxCo4O9 polycrystalline thermoelectric ceramics with small amounts of Mg have been synthesized by the classical solid state method. Microstructural characterizations have shown that all the Mg has been incorporated into the Ca3Co4O9 structure and no Mg-based secondary phases have been identified. Apparent density measurements have shown that samples do not modify their density until 0.05 Mg content, decreasing for higher contents. Electrical resistivity decreases and Seebeck coefficient slightly raises when Mg content increases until 0.05 Mg addition. The improvement in both parameters leads to higher power factor values than the usually obtained in samples prepared by the conventional solid state routes and close to those obtained in textured materials.Se han preparado cerámicas termoeléctricas policristalinas de Ca3-xMgxCo4O9, con pequeñas cantidades de Mg, utilizando el método clásico de estado sólido. La caracterización microestructural ha mostrado que el Mg se ha incorporado en la estructura del Ca3Co4O9 y que no se han formado fases secundarias con el Mg. Las medidas de densidad aparente han mostrado que las muestras prácticamente poseen la misma densidad hasta un contenido de 0.05 Mg, disminuyendo para contenidos mayores. La resistividad eléctrica disminuye y el coeficiente Seebeck aumenta cuando el contenido de Mg se incrementa hasta valores de 0.05. La mejora de ambos parámetros conduce a valores del factor de potencia mayores que los obtenidos en muestras preparadas por la vía convencional de estado sólido, alcanzando valores próximos a los que se encuentran en materiales texturados.

  4. A new tumor marker: CA125 for ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakajima, K.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate CA125 as a tumor marker for ovarian carcinomas, CA125 concentrations were measured by the simultaneous immunoradiometric assay. The binding of I-125 labeled monoclonal antibody to the bead-bound antigen was greatly influenced by many factors, such as the incubation time, pH, IgG concentrations of samples, the sequence of addition of the tracer and samples and so on. By applying the forward two-step assay, diminished binding was observed than in the simultaneous assay, probably due to the relatively low affinity of the antibody. This simultaneous immunoradiometric assay resulted in the ''prozone'' or ''hook'' effect at high CA125 samples and proper dilution was necessary to determine the accurate CA125 values. All 72 normal control subjects had low concentrations of under 35 U/ml. Elevated serum CA125 was observed in 43% (9/21) cases with malignant ovarian tumors, depending on the stage and the histopathological findings. All 4 serous cystadenocarcinomas and 2 of 3 endometrioid carcinomas were positive and the measurement of serum CA125 was useful in the sequential monitoring of these cases. In contrast, 51 benign gynecological diseases, none had elevated serum CA125 except one with follicular cyst. Among 75 cases with non-gynecological benign and malignant diseases, only 1 of 12 gastric carcinomas and 2 of 13 pancreatic carcinomas had elevated CA125 levels. In summary, CA125 is a promising and relatively specific marker for ovarian carcinomas

  5. TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ Reabsorption and Hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Bindels, René J. M.

    2007-04-01

    The concerted action of the intestine, kidney and bone results in the maintenance of a normal Ca2+ balance, a mechanism that is tightly controlled by the calciotropic hormones vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Disturbances in the Ca2+ balance have been linked to diverse pathophysiological disorders like urolithiasis, hypertension, electroencephalogram abnormalities and rickets. Importantly, the final amount of Ca2+ that is released from the body is determined in the distal part of the nephron, where active Ca2+ reabsorption occurs. Here, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5), a highly Ca2+-selective channel, has been recognized as the gatekeeper of active Ca2+ reabsorption. The in vivo relevance of TRPV5 has been further investigated by the characterization of TRPV5 knockout (TRPV5-/-) mice, which exhibit severe disturbances in renal Ca2+ handling, such as profound hypercalciuria, intestinal Ca2+ hyperabsorption and reduced bone thickness. Hypercalciuria increases the risk of kidney stone formation in these mice. This review highlights our current knowledge about TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ reabsorption and emphasizes the physiological relevance and the clinical implications related to the TRPV5-/- mice model.

  6. Hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Ohba, Nobuko; Noritake, Tatsuo; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    The hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. First-principles calculations suggested that CaSiH n is thermodynamically stable. Experimentally, the p -c isotherms clearly demonstrated plateau pressures in a temperature range of 473-573 K and the maximum hydrogen content was 1.9 weight % (wt.%) under a hydrogen pressure of 9 MPa at 473 K. The structure of CaSiH n is different from those of ZrNi hydrides, although CaSi has the CrB-type structure as well as ZrNi

  7. β decay of neutron-rich 53-56Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P. F.; Crawford, H. L.; Damaske, A.; Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Hecht, A. A.; Hoteling, N.; Hoffman, C.; Tabor, S. L.; Walters, W. B.; Horoi, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Zhu, S.; Pereira, J.; Sumikama, T.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    β-decay properties of neutron-rich Ca isotopes have been obtained. Half-life values were determined for the first time for 54 Ca (86±7 ms), 55 Ca (22±2 ms), and 56 Ca (11±2 ms). The half-life of 230±60 ms deduced for 53 Ca is significantly longer than reported previously, where the decay chain 53 K → 53 Ca → 53 Sc was considered. A delayed γ ray with an energy of 247 keV was identified following β decay of 54 Ca and is proposed to depopulate the 1 1 + level in 54 Sc. The β-decay properties compare favorably with the results of shell-model calculations completed in the full pf space with the GXPF1 interaction. The half-lives of the neutron-rich Ca isotopes are also compared with gross β-decay theory. The systematic trend of the neutron-rich Ca half-lives is consistent with the presence of a subshell gap at N=32

  8. Kinetic studies of calcium in human by 41Ca tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, E.; Paul, M.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Meirav, O.; Sossi, V.; Venczel, E.; Hollos, G.; Prior, J.

    1992-01-01

    41 Ca (T 1/2 = 1 x 10 5 years) is an ideal tracer for long-term studies of calcium kinetics in biological systems for several reasons: (a) it behaves as a stable nuclide for all practical purpose due to its very long radioactive half-life; (b) its natural abundance is extremely low; (c) 41 Ca isotopic concentrations can now be measured to very high sensitivity by accelerator mass spectrometry, requiring therefore injection doses with no collateral radiation effects. Such an experiment has been initiated in a human subject by intravenous injection of a 126 ng dose of 41 Ca on July 18, 1990. The 41 Ca concentration and the 41 Ca/Ca isotopic ratios in serum and urine have been measured at five times over a 270 days period, showing a decrease in agreement with known time constants of the different calcium pools. It is planned to follow up the steady-state 41 Ca level ( 41 Ca/Ca ∼9 x 10 -12 ) over time (e.g. menstrual cycle, age)

  9. Pathways for Energization of Ca in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possible pathways to produce the extreme energy observed in the calcium exosphere of Mercury. Any mechanism must explain the facts that Ca in Mercury's exosphere is extremely hot, that it is seen almost exclusively on the dawnside of the planet, and that its content varies seasonally, not sporadically. Simple diatomic molecules or their clusters are considered, focusing on calcium oxides while acknowledging that Ca sulfides may also be the precursor molecules. We first discuss impact vaporization to justify the assumption that CaO and Ca-oxide clusters are expected from impacts on Mercury. Then we discuss processes by which the atomic Ca is energized to a 70,000 K gas. The processes considered are (1) electron-impact dissociation of CaO molecules, (2) spontaneous dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules following impact vaporization, (3) shock-induced dissociative ionization, (4) photodissociation and (5) sputtering. We conclude that electron-impact dissociation cannot produce the required abundance of Ca, and sputtering cannot reproduce the observed spatial and temporal variation that is measured. Spontaneous dissociation is unlikely to result in the high energy that is seen. Of the two remaining processes, shock induced dissociative ionization produces the required energy and comes close to producing the required abundance, but rates are highly dependent on the incoming velocity distribution of the impactors. Photodissociation probably can produce the required abundance of Ca, but simulations show that photodissociation cannot reproduce the observed spatial distribution.

  10. FLOODPLAIN, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Ca Biodiversity Council Bioregions (INACC Regions)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  12. Ca Biodiversity Council Bioregions (INACC Regions)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  13. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, G. J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, D.; Funk, C.; Galu, G.

    2008-07-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  14. Vibrational spectroscopic study of poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the mineral poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)] which forms a series with its manganese analogue olmiite CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH) using a range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Chemical analysis shows the mineral is reasonably pure and contains only calcium and manganese with low amounts of Al and F. Thermogravimetric analysis proves the mineral decomposes at 485 °C with a mass loss of 7.6% compared with the theoretical mass loss of 7.7%. A strong Raman band at 852 cm-1 is assigned to the SiO stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. Two Raman bands at 914 and 953 cm-1 are attributed to the antisymmetric vibrations. Intense prominent peaks observed at 3487, 3502, 3509, 3521 and 3547 cm-1 are assigned to the OH stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. The observation of multiple OH bands supports the concept of the non-equivalence of the OH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables a detailed assessment of the molecular structure of poldervaartite.

  15. Nonspatial Sequence Coding in CA1 Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A; Salz, Daniel M; McKenzie, Sam; Fortin, Norbert J

    2016-02-03

    The hippocampus is critical to the memory for sequences of events, a defining feature of episodic memory. However, the fundamental neuronal mechanisms underlying this capacity remain elusive. While considerable research indicates hippocampal neurons can represent sequences of locations, direct evidence of coding for the memory of sequential relationships among nonspatial events remains lacking. To address this important issue, we recorded neural activity in CA1 as rats performed a hippocampus-dependent sequence-memory task. Briefly, the task involves the presentation of repeated sequences of odors at a single port and requires rats to identify each item as "in sequence" or "out of sequence". We report that, while the animals' location and behavior remained constant, hippocampal activity differed depending on the temporal context of items-in this case, whether they were presented in or out of sequence. Some neurons showed this effect across items or sequence positions (general sequence cells), while others exhibited selectivity for specific conjunctions of item and sequence position information (conjunctive sequence cells) or for specific probe types (probe-specific sequence cells). We also found that the temporal context of individual trials could be accurately decoded from the activity of neuronal ensembles, that sequence coding at the single-cell and ensemble level was linked to sequence memory performance, and that slow-gamma oscillations (20-40 Hz) were more strongly modulated by temporal context and performance than theta oscillations (4-12 Hz). These findings provide compelling evidence that sequence coding extends beyond the domain of spatial trajectories and is thus a fundamental function of the hippocampus. The ability to remember the order of life events depends on the hippocampus, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by recording neural activity in hippocampal region CA1 while rats performed a

  16. Determination of standard free energies of formation of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, D. J.; Sano, N.

    1988-06-01

    The standard free energies of formation of calcium phosphide and calcium stannide were determined by a chemical equilibration technique, yielding the following results: 3Ca(1) + P2(g) = Ca3P2(s) Δ G° = -653,460(±7110) + 144.01(±4.98) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C2Ca(1) + Sn(1) = Ca2Sn(s) Δ G° = -353,970(±1670) + 79.28(±1.26) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C 1120 °C The experimental data to express the thermodynamics for removal of phosphorus and tin from molten iron by calcium based slags by other investigators were discussed in terms of the activity co-efficients of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn in slag melts by using the present results described above.

  17. Tumour associated antigen CA-50, CA-242 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in genitourinary malignancy and gastrointestinal carcinoma early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhizhou.

    1992-04-01

    Tumour markers CA-50 and CA-242 were measured by immunometric assay (IRMA) to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas, biliary tract, liver, breast, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The cutoff points, derived from studies on normal subjects and those with proven benign disease, were 20 u/ml and 12 u/ml for CA-50 and CA-242 respectively. Both markers were found to be generally useful with significant differences between malignant and non malignant disease. The highest positive rates, were found in cancers of the pancreas and gall bladder. The overall rate of false positives was low. It is concluded that measurements of CA-50 and CA-242 are useful in the detection of malignancy, particularly of the pancreas and biliary tract. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Utility of Preoperative CA125 Assay in the Management Planning of Women Diagnosed with Uterine Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povolotskaya, N; Das, N; Dhar, K; Brinkmann, D; Gardner, F; Woolas, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study assesses the role of preoperative serum CA125 levels in the planning treatment options for women diagnosed with uterine cancer. Material and Method. Ninety five consecutive patients diagnosed with uterine cancer during a four-year period were identified. Age ranged from 35 to 89 years with a mean age of 69 years. The preoperative CA125 levels were dichotomised at 28 U/mL (using ROC analysis to identify the best discriminating threshold for 5-year survival). This level was then correlated with preoperative prognostic indicators: patient age, tumour grade, and histopathological tumour cell type. Survival data was plotted using Kaplan-Meier curves and analysed using the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify the predictors of overall survival. Results. The mean age of patients was 69 years (range: 35-89). On univariate analysis, the use of preoperative CA125 levels of greater or less than 28 U/mL correlated significantly with age (P = 0.01), the grade of disease (P = 0.02) and unfavourable tissue type (P = 0.03). This threshold CA125 level had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 76%, positive predictive value of 35% and negative predicative value of 96.25%, and a likelihood ratio of 3.12 for predicting nodal disease. Using a threshold of preoperative CA125 level of 28 U/mL (area under curve: 0.60) was also a significant predictor of 5-year survival (log-rank test, P = 0.01). Using Cox multivariate survival analysis to identify predictive preoperative factors overall, unfavourable cell type was the strongest predictor of survival (Chi square = 36.5, df = 4, and P = 0.001), followed by preoperative CA125 level (CA125 > 28 U/mL, P = 0.011) and unfavourable preoperative grade (P = 0.017). Amongst patients with a favourable histological tissue type (endometrioid), preoperative CA125 levels predicted overall survival (Chi square = 6.039, df = 2, P = 0.02); however unfavourable

  19. Sulphation of CaO-Based Sorbent Modified in CO2 Looping Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J.; Loncarevic, Davor

    CaO-based looping cycles for CO2 capture at high temperatures are based on cyclical carbonation of CaO and regeneration of CaCO3. The main limitation of natural sorbents is the loss of carrying capacity with increasing numbers of reaction cycles, resulting in spent sorbent ballast. Use of spent sorbent from CO2 looping cycles for SO2 capture is a possible solution investigated in this study. Three limestones were investigated: Kelly Rock (Canada), La Blanca (Spain) and Katowice (Poland). Carbonation/calcination cycles were performed in a tube furnace with original limestones and samples thermally pretreated for different times (i.e., sintered). The spent sorbent samples were sulphated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Changes in the resulting pore structure were then investigated using mercury porosimetry. Final conversions of both spent and pretreated sorbents after longer sulphation times were comparable or higher than those observed for the original sorbents. Maximum sulphation levels strongly depend on sorbent porosity and pore surface area. The shrinkage of sorbent particles during calcination/cycling resulted in a loss of sorbent porosity (≤48%), which corresponds to maximum sulphation levels ˜55% for spent Kelly Rock and Katowice. However, this is ˜10% higher than for the original samples. By contrast, La Blanca limestone had more pronounced particle shrinkage during pretreatment and cycling, leading to lower porosity, Katowice samples final conversions are determined by the total pore volume available for the bulky CaSO4 product.

  20. THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MELTS OF DOUBLE SYSTEM MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2, Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 – CaF2, SiO2 – CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Судавцова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of prognostication of thermodynamics properties of melts is presented from the coordinatesof liquidus of diagram of the state in area of equilibria a hard component is solution, on which energies ofmixing of Gibbs are expected in the double border systems of MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2,Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 - CaF2, SiO2 - CaF2. For the areas of equilibrium there is quasibinary connection(MgAl2O4, Mg2SiO4, Al6Si2O13 – a grout at calculations was used equalization of Hauffe-Wagner. Theobtained data comport with literary

  1. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca2+ channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about −70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca2+ action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at −20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca2+ currents indicated that very few Ca2+ channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca2+ channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca2+ channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres. PMID:19917569

  2. RESEM-CA: Validation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Vineeta; Carroll, William L.; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-09-01

    This report documents the results of an extended comparison of RESEM-CA energy and economic performance predictions with the recognized benchmark tool DOE2.1E to determine the validity and effectiveness of this tool for retrofit design and analysis. The analysis was a two part comparison of patterns of (1) monthly and annual energy consumption of a simple base-case building and controlled variations in it to explore the predictions of load components of each program, and (2) a simplified life-cycle cost analysis of the predicted effects of selected Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs). The study tries to analyze and/or explain the differences that were observed. On the whole, this validation study indicates that RESEM is a promising tool for retrofit analysis. As a result of this study some factors (incident solar radiation, outside air film coefficient, IR radiation) have been identified where there is a possibility of algorithmic improvements. These would have to be made in a way that does not sacrifice the speed of the tool, necessary for extensive parametric search of optimum ECM measures.

  3. 48Ca HETEROGENEITY IN DIFFERENTIATED METEORITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Shen, Jason Jiun-San; Chen, Jiang-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic heterogeneities of 48 Ca have been found in numerous bulk meteorites that are correlated with 50 Ti and 54 Cr anomalies among differentiated planetary bodies, and the results suggest that a rare subset of neutron-rich Type Ia supernova (nSN Ia) was responsible for contributing these neutron-rich iron-group isotopes into the solar system (SS). The heterogeneity of these isotopes found in differentiated meteorites indicates that the isotopic compositions of the bulk SS are not uniform, and there are significant amounts of nSNe Ia dust incompletely mixed with the rest of SS materials during planetary formation. Combined with the data of now-extinct short-lived nuclide 60 Fe, which can be produced more efficiently from an nSN Ia than a Type II supernova ejecta, the observed planetary-scale isotopic heterogeneity probably reflects a late input of stellar dust grains with neutron-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium nuclides into the early SS.

  4. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  5. Stochastic simulations of calcium contents in sugarcane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener T. Pereira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to quantify and to map the spatial distribution and uncertainty of soil calcium (Ca content in a sugarcane area by sequential Gaussian and simulated-annealing simulation methods. The study was conducted in the municipality of Guariba, northeast of the São Paulo state. A sampling grid with 206 points separated by a distance of 50 m was established, totaling approximately 42 ha. The calcium contents were evaluated in layer of 0-0.20 m. Techniques of geostatistical estimation, ordinary kriging and stochastic simulations were used. The technique of ordinary kriging does not reproduce satisfactorily the global statistics of the Ca contents. The use of simulation techniques allows reproducing the spatial variability pattern of Ca contents. The techniques of sequential Gaussian simulation and simulated annealing showed significant variations in the contents of Ca in the small scale.

  6. Formulation of calcium dialuminate (CaO·2Al2O3 refractory cement from local bauxite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Tchamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bauxites containing aluminum hydroxide of 58.1% gibbsite and 19.3% boehmite for BX3, 95.5% of gibbsite for BX55 and 84.5% of gibbsite for BX8 were used with lime at 95% of CaO through solid state sintering in one stage to prepare a refractory clinker at 1550 °C. The powder obtained after grinding the clinker showed in the XRD curves the presence of CaO·2Al2O3 and CaO·TiO2 phases in the cement samples. The density of cement powder varied between 2.95 and 3.17 g/cm3 and the specific area of powder obtained after grinding was between 0.72 and 0.85 m2/g. The properties of hydrated cement, W/C = 0.33, after stabilization of cement components for 48 h at 105 °C were showed by XRD, DTA, DTG and SEM (C3AH6, AH3, CA2 and CaO·TiO2. The Young's modulus of the cement made varied between 35.5 and 39.4 GPa, and these Young's moduli were compared to conventional CA14M cement.

  7. Ontogeny of ATP hydrolysis and isoform expression of the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mata Ana M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs are high affinity Ca2+ transporters actively involved in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Considering the critical role of Ca2+ signalling in neuronal development and plasticity, we have analyzed PMCA-mediated Ca2+-ATPase activity and PMCA-isoform content in membranes from mouse cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum during postnatal development. Results PMCA activity was detected from birth, with a faster evolution in cortex than in hippocampus and cerebellum. Western blots revealed the presence of the four isoforms in all regions, with similar increase in their expression patterns as those seen for the activity profile. Immunohistochemistry assays in cortex and hippocampus showed co-expression of all isoforms in the neuropil associated with synapses and in the plasma membrane of pyramidal cells soma, while cerebellum showed a more isoform-specific distribution pattern in Purkinje cells. Conclusion These results show an upregulation of PMCA activity and PMCA isoforms expression during brain development in mouse, with specific localizations mainly in cerebellum. Overall, our findings support a close relationship between the ontogeny of PMCA isoforms and specific requirements of Ca2+ during development of different brain areas.

  8. In vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics to community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germel, C; Haag, A; Söderquist, B

    2012-04-01

    Community-associated (CA) MRSA often display low MIC values against oxacillin. The in vitro activity of various beta-lactam antibiotics against heterogeneous CA-MRSA (n = 98) isolated in a low endemic area was determined by Etest, and Mueller-Hinton agar (MUHAP) was compared with Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% NaCl (MUHSP). In general, the CA-MRSA isolates showed higher MIC values for the various beta-lactam antibiotics on MUHSP compared with MUHAP. MIC values for oxacillin ranged from 1 to >256 mg/L on MUHSP. Cephalothin, representing the first generation of cephalosporins, showed MICs from 0.75 to 96 mg/L and the MIC(50) and MIC(90) for cefuroxime, cefotaxime and cefepime, representing the second, third and fourth generations, respectively, were rather high. However, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) for ceftobiprole (fifth generation) were 1.5 and 2 mg/L, respectively, on MUHSP. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) for imipenem were 0.75 and 2 mg/L, respectively, on MUHSP. Only 3/98 (3%) CA-MRSA isolates showed a MIC >4 mg/L. Consequently, low MIC values for imipenem, lower than those of the newly developed fifth generation cephalosporins, were found among CA-MRSA. These findings may be considered for further studies including clinical trials in order to evaluate carbapenems as a potential treatment option for infections caused by CA-MRSA.

  9. Validation studies of the Portuguese experimental version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Diana; Simões, Mário R; Ponciano, Emanuel; Santana, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a cognitive screening instrument created with the purpose of overcoming some of the insufficiencies of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The MoCA evaluates more cognitive areas and is comprised of more complex tasks as compared with the MMSE, which makes it a more sensitive instrument in the detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a state that often progresses to dementia. In this study we performed an analysis of the psychometric and diagnostic properties of the Portuguese experimental version of the MoCA in a clinical sample of 212 subjects with MCI and several dementia subtypes in a memory clinic setting. Additionally, we performed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to assess the MoCA's latent factorial structure. In a clinical population, the MoCA is a valid and reliable instrument with good psychometric properties, revealing high sensitivity in identifying MCI and dementia patients who generally score within the normal range on the MMSE. By using the parcels method, CFA results showed very good/excellent adjustment indexes. The practical implications of this CFA study allow us to propose a two factor model factorial structure for the MoCA: a first factor designated Memory, which includes memory, language and orientation subtests (the latter being closely correlated with the former), and a second factor designated Attention/Executive Functions, comprised of attention, executive functions and visuospacial abilities tasks.

  10. CSMA/CCA: A Modified CSMA/CA Protocol Mitigating the Fairness Problem for IEEE 802.11 DCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA has been adopted by the IEEE 802.11 standards for wireless local area networks (WLANs. Using a distributed coordination function (DCF, the CSMA/CA protocol reduces collisions and improves the overall throughput. To mitigate fairness issues arising with CSMA/CA, we develop a modified version that we term CSMA with copying collision avoidance (CSMA/CCA. A station in CSMA/CCA contends for the shared wireless medium by employing a binary exponential backoff similar to CSMA/CA. Different from CSMA/CA, CSMA/CCA copies the contention window (CW size piggybacked in the MAC header of an overheard data frame within its basic service set (BSS and updates its backoff counter according to the new CW size. Simulations carried out in several WLAN configurations illustrate that CSMA/CCA improves fairness relative to CSMA/CA and offers considerable advantages for deployment in the 802.11-standard-based WLANs.

  11. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABAA Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ- binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II. Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.

  12. FHFA Underserved Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) Underserved Areas establishes underserved area designations for census tracts in Metropolitan Areas (MSAs), nonmetropolitan...

  13. Ab-initio calculations of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases CaMnO{sub 3}, CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}) and CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, C [CFC, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Borges, R P [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Gasche, T [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisboa (Portugal); Godinho, M [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-23

    The present work reports ab-initio density functional theory calculations for the Ruddlesden-Popper phase CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}){sub n} compounds. In order to study the evolution of the properties with the number of perovskite layers, a detailed analysis of the densities of states calculated for each compound and for several magnetic configurations was performed. The effect of distortions of the crystal structure on the magnetic ground state is also analysed and the exchange constants and transition temperatures are calculated for the three compounds using a mean field model. The calculated magnetic ground state structures and magnetic moments are in good agreement with experimental results and previous calculations.

  14. Clinical analysis of the value of combined detection of serum CA199 and CA50 levels in patients with pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuo; Shi Jingbin; Zheng Yongsheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined test of serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Serum levels of CA 199 and CA 50 in 40 cases of pancreatic cancer, 20 cases of chronic pancreatitis and 30 normal controls were detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: Serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in pancreatic cancer patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls and chronic pancreatitis patients (P 199 and CA 50 were detected simultaneously, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer could be improved. Serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in cancer patients with lymph node metastasis were much higher than those without lymph node metastasis (P 199 and CA 50 detected simultaneously could improve the sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The changes of serum CA 199 and CA 50 level were helpful to predict whether metastasis or recurrence had occurred

  15. Preliminary evaluation of clinical utility of CYFRA 21-1, CA 72-4, NSE, CA19-9 and CEA in stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Hee Keun; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Park, Seok Gun

    2014-01-01

    Although various tumor markers have been utilized in management of stomach cancer (SC), only a few reports have described relevance of examples such as CYFRA 21-1 and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential diagnostic performance of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, CA72-4, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE in patients with SC. Ninety-six SC patients with pathologic confirmation between 2012 and 2013 were enrolled. Serum levels of five tumor markers were analyzed using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted for the five tumor markers to investigate their diagnostic powers and adjusted cutoff values derived from analysis of ROC curves were evaluated to calculate the sensitivity of each for SC with recommended cutoff values. Based on two different cutoff values (recommended and adjusted), CYFRA 21-1 (≥2.0 and 1.2 ng/ml) had a respective sensitivity of 50% and 78.1%, compared with 8.3% and 18.8% for CEA (≥7.0 and 3.9 ng/ml), 15.6% and 18.8% for CA 19-9 (≥37 and 26.7 ng/ml), 28.1% and 9.6% for CA 72-4 (≥4.0 and 13 ng/ml) and 7.3% and 7.3% for NSE (≥14.7 and 15.0 ng/ml) in the initial staging of primary SC. The area under the curve (AUC) for CYFRA 21-1, with a value of 0.978 (95% confidence interval, 0.964-0.991) was comparatively the highest. Univariate analysis revealed significant relationships between tumor marker level and lymph node involvement, metastasis and staging with CYFRA 21-1, CA 72-4 and NSE. CYFRA 21-1 was the most sensitive tumor marker and showed the most powerful diagnostic performance among the five SC tumor markers. NSE and CA 72-4 are significantly related to lymph node involvement, metastasis or stage. Further evaluations are warranted to clarify the clinical usefulness and prognostic prediction of these markers in SC.

  16. On the Danger of Exogenous Theory in CA-for-SLA: A Response to Hellermann and Cole (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Within the growing body of work that is sometimes labeled CA-for-SLA, there is a need for more research with longitudinal data. Hellermann and Cole (2009) provide a valuable contribution in this area. However, in doing so, they also make use of an exogenous theory of learning, situated learning theory (Lave and Wenger 1991), and its associated…

  17. Fishery livelihoods and (non)compliance with fishery regulations - A case study in Ca Mau Province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, T.T.P.; Dijk, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Fishery in Ca Mau, Viet Nam’s most southern province in the Mekong Delta, plays locally an important role for human nutrition and has great potentials for export earnings. The overexploitation of inshore fishing resources is a major problem in Viet Nam’s coastal areas along the Mekong Delta. As a

  18. 76 FR 46288 - Adequacy Determination for Colorado Springs, Cañon City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Springs, Ca[ntilde]on City, Greeley, Pagosa Springs, and Telluride; Carbon Monoxide and PM 10 Maintenance... transportation conformity purposes: ``Revised Carbon Monoxide Attainment/Maintenance Plan Colorado Springs... Springs Attainment/Maintenance Area,'' and ``Revised PM10 Attainment/Maintenance Plan Telluride [[Page...

  19. 75 FR 55975 - Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego... Shark Fest Swim, consisting of 600 swimmers swimming a predetermined course. The sponsor will provide 26...; San Diego Harbor Shark Fest Swim; San Diego Bay, San Diego, CA. (a) Location. The following area is a...

  20. Clinical evaluation of CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4 and CA125 in gastric cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhang, Nengwei

    2014-12-29

    In the clinical practice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, response markers are very important. We aimed o investigate whether tumor markers CEA(carcino-embryonic antigen), CA19-9(carbohydrate antigen 19-9), CA72-4(carbohydrate antigen 72-4), and CA125(carbohydrate antigen 125) can be used to evaluate the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to evaluate the diagnosis and prognosis value of four tumor markers in the patients of gastric cancer. A retrospective review was performed of 184 gastric cancer patients who underwent a 5-Fu, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, followed by surgical treatment. Blood samples for CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, and CA125 levels were taken from patients upon admission to the hospital and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the clinical value of these tumor markers in predicting the survival and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Median overall survival times of pretreatment CA19-9-positive and CA72-4-positive patients (14.0 +/-2.8 months and 14.8 +/-4.0 months, respectively) were significantly less than negative patients (32.5 +/-8.9 months and 34.0 +/-10.1 months, respectively) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively). Pretreatment status of CA19-9 and CA72-4 were independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients (P = 0.029 and P = 0.008, respectively). Pretreatment CEA >50 ng/ml had a positive prediction value for clinical disease progression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the ROC curve (AUC: 0.694, 95% CI: 0.517 to 0.871, P = 0.017). The decrease of tumor markers CEA, CA72-4, and CA125 was significant after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.030, P = 0.010, and P = 0.009, respectively), especially in patients with disease control (including complete, partial clinical response, and stable disease) (P = 0.012, P = 0.020, and P = 0.025, respectively). A decrease in CA72-4 by more than 70% had

  1. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (Ptumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, Ptumor markers have varying diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of 45Ca(HDEHP)n and (CaH1502)2 samples for liquid scintillation counting, compared to 45caCl2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J. M. los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting organic samples of the Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate calcium complex and the 2-ethylhexanoate calcium salt, labelled with 45Ca, is described. The chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of both compounds is studied in six scintillators,Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphtalene, Hi safe II, Ultimate-Gold and Instagel, and compared to results obtained from a commercial solution of 4 5CaCl2. (Author) 7 refs

  3. Studies of highly ionized atoms using internal conversion: 197Au, 57Fe; electric monopole transitions in 40Ca, 42Ca, and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    By using heavy-ion reactions, highly ionized electronic states of atoms may be produced. The interaction between excited nuclear levels and the surrounding atomic electrons via internal conversion allows the nucleus to be used as a probe of the electronic structure of the highly ionized atoms. Studies of such atoms were undertaken for strongly internally converted nuclear levels in 197 Au and 57 Fe. The nuclear levels were Coulomb excited by using 16 O and 32 S beams. Simultaneous measurement of the lifetime of the 77-keV state of 197 Au in both neutral gold atoms and gold atoms with mean charge +10 resulted in a measured change in the internal conversion coefficient of Δalpha/alpha equals - 1.7 +- 3.0)10 -3 . This result is consistent with calculations using a Hartree-Fock--Slater program. Measurements of the electric monopole strengths for 0 + → 0 + transitions were undertaken to determine the amount of core-deformation in calcium nuclei. The E0 strengths for the decays of the 0 + states at 5.21 MeV in 40 C, 1.84 MeV in 42 Ca, and 1.88 MeV in 44 Ca were observed. The branching ratios for the subsequent E0 pair decays were measured by observing the coincident annihilation radiation from the e + member of the pair in coincidence with protons feeding the state in the cases of 42 Ca and 44 Ca, and by observing the actual coincident e + --e - pair together with protons feeding the state in the case of 40 Ca. The resulting E0 strengths (rho less than or equal to 0.06, rho = 0.34 +- 0.03, rho = 0.30 +- 0.10 for 40 Ca, 42 Ca, and 44 Ca respectively) agree with theoretical descriptions

  4. {sup 41}Ca measurements at the Zurich AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, C.; Gartenmann, P.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gloris, M.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    Proton-induced production cross sections for {sup 41}Ca from Fe and Ni determined using 6 MV tandem accelerator are presented. The calibration of two secondary standard materials to a standard material of {sup 41}Ca concentration determined by PTB (Braunschweig, Germany) has been carried out. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@ C 92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... technique without recycling equipment. It is notable that higher metallofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also confirmed by LD-TOF mass spectrometry and characterrized by UV-Vis-NIR absorption measurements.

  6. Characterization of Binding Epitopes of CA125 Monoclonal Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Halim, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The most used cancer serum biomarker is the CA125 immunoassay for ovarian cancer that detects the mucin glycoprotein MUC16. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) including OC125 and M11 are used in CA125 assays. However, despite considerable efforts, our knowledge of the molecular characteristics ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    allofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also ... est cage size for lanthanide and alkaline earth higher metallofullerenes isolated and ... suming stage is to remove abundant hollow small cage fullerenes and enrich higher ...

  8. Facile combustion synthesis of novel CaZrO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A facile sol–gel combustion route was reported for the direct preparation of CaZrO3:Eu3+ and CaZrO3:Eu3+, Gd3+. The obtained deposits were characterized by XRD, TGA-DSC, SEM, EDS, PL measurements and microscope fluorescence. When the Gd3+ ions were introduced in this compound, the emissions of ...

  9. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2005-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program was developed in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1 and incorporates the elements of the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001.

  10. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    allofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 ... laser vapourization of a graphite–metal composite in a helium filled tube oven at high ... robenzene extraction, chlorobenzene and benzene mo- bile phase for isolation of fullerenes ...

  11. Unanimous Model for Describing the Fast Bioluminescence Kinetics of Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena V.; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Berkel, van Willem J.H.; Vysotski, Eugene S.

    2017-01-01

    Upon binding their metal ion cofactors, Ca2+-regulated photoproteins display a rapid increase of light signal, which reaches its peak within milliseconds. In the present study, we investigate bioluminescence kinetics of the entire photoprotein family. All five recombinant hydromedusan Ca2+-regulated

  12. 76 FR 45180 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-0403; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-3] Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA AGENCY: Federal... Alturas Municipal Airport, Alturas, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using... Alturas Municipal Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR...

  13. Characterization of the Ca2+ Channels Involved in the Progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence that intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays significant roles in sperm function such as motility and acrosome reaction. Many calcium channels have been identified in the plasma membrane of sperm. Progesterone (P4) stimulates Ca2+ influx and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. The effects of ...

  14. PIK3CA mutant tumors depend on oxoglutarate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Aguirre, Andrew J.; Kory, Nora; Pacold, Michael E.; Singh, Shambhavi; Moody, Susan E.; DeAngelo, Joseph D.; Spardy, Nicole A.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Weir, Barbara A.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Root, David E.; Asara, John M.; Vazquez, Francisca; Widlund, Hans R.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). To understand the relationship between oncogenic PIK3CA and OGDH function, we interrogated metabolic requirements and found an increased reliance on glucose metabolism to sustain PIK3CA mutant cell proliferation. Functional metabolic studies revealed that OGDH suppression increased levels of the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). We found that this increase in 2OG levels, either by OGDH suppression or exogenous 2OG treatment, resulted in aspartate depletion that was specifically manifested as auxotrophy within PIK3CA mutant cells. Reduced levels of aspartate deregulated the malate–aspartate shuttle, which is important for cytoplasmic NAD+ regeneration that sustains rapid glucose breakdown through glycolysis. Consequently, because PIK3CA mutant cells exhibit a profound reliance on glucose metabolism, malate–aspartate shuttle deregulation leads to a specific proliferative block due to the inability to maintain NAD+/NADH homeostasis. Together these observations define a precise metabolic vulnerability imposed by a recurrently mutated oncogene. PMID:28396387

  15. Purification and biochemical characterization of a Ca2+- ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, Ca+2 and EDTA (1 to 5 mM) did not significantly affect the enzyme activity. The main substrate for the enzyme was found to be starch but it could also hydrolyze raw starch, dextrin, γ-cyclodextrin and pullulan. Key words: Ca2+-independent, Bacillus sp, thermostable α-amylases, low pH profile, enzyme, ...

  16. Purification and characterization of a Ca -dependent/calmodulin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mitrella patens and Funaria hygrometrica, calcium acts as an intracellular messenger in cytokinin-induced vege- tative bud formation (Schumaker and Gizinski 1995). Calcium-free medium (buffered with EGTA), the extra- cellular Ca2+ antagonist lanthanum (La3+) and the Ca2+ channel inhibitors, D600 and verapamil, ...

  17. Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Ca substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Patch antenna; theoretical density; phase; ceramics. Abstract. Microwave dielectric ceramics in Sr1-CaLa4Ti4.93Zr0.07O17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.5) composition series were processed via a solid-state sintering rout. X-ray diffraction revealed single phase ceramics. Ca substitutions for Sr tuned f towards zero with ...

  18. Hierarchic stochastic modelling applied to intracellular Ca(2+ signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Moenke

    Full Text Available Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011 which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This reduces the number of system states by several orders of magnitude and avoids fitting of kinetic parameters. The method is applied to Ca(2+ signalling. Ca(2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger transmitting information by stochastic sequences of concentration spikes, which arise by coupling of subcellular Ca(2+ release events (puffs. We derive analytical expressions for a mechanistic Ca(2+ model, based on recent data from live cell imaging, and calculate Ca(2+ spike statistics in dependence on cellular parameters like stimulus strength or number of Ca(2+ channels. The new approach substantiates a generic Ca(2+ model, which is a very convenient way to simulate Ca(2+ spike sequences with correct spiking statistics.

  19. Maternal serum CA-125 level is elevated in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Erbil; Karaman, Yasemin; Alkış, İsmet; Han, Agahan; Yıldırım, Gökhan; Ark, Hasan Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum concentrations of cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) and pre-eclampsia severity. We evaluated 91 females with a singleton pregnancy. Serum CA-125 levels were measured in subjects with severe pre-eclampsia (n=34) and those with mild pre-eclampsia (n=24). Females with healthy pregnancies (n=31) served as the control group. The three study groups were statistically similar in terms of maternal age, gestational age, and body mass index. The CA-125 level was significantly higher in the severe pre-eclampsia group than that in the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups (pCA-125 levels between the mild pre-eclampsia and control groups was observed. CA-125 level was positively correlated with proteinuria (r=0.489, p=0.000), systolic blood pressure (r=0.503, p=0.018), and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.532, p=0.000). In contrast, CA-125 was negatively correlated with birth weight (r=0.266, p=0.012) and gestational age at birth (r=0.250, p=0.018). CA-125 level increased in severe pre-eclampsia, which reflected abnormal trophoblastic invasion and chronic inflammation. Elevated levels of CA-125 in pre-eclamptic patients may be a marker of the disease severity. Copyright © 2013 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  1. CA1 contributes to microcalcification and tumourigenesis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yabing; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Yan; Gu, He; Li, Chang; Wang, Yao; Chang, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Although mammary microcalcification is frequently observed and has been associated with poor survival in patients with breast cancer, the genesis of calcification remains unclear. Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) has been shown to promote calcification by catalysing the hydration of CO 2 . This study aimed to determine whether CA1 was correlated with microcalcification and with other processes that are involved in breast cancer tumourigenesis. CA1 expression in breast cancer tissues and blood samples was detected using western blotting, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Calcification was induced in the cultured 4T1 cell line originating from mouse breast tumours, using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. Acetazolamide, a chemical inhibitor of CA1, was also added to the culture to determine the role of CA1 in calcification. The MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with anti-CA1 siRNA and was assessed using a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay, an annexin V cell apoptosis assay, transwell migration assay and a human breast cancer PCR array. The tag SNP rs725605, which is located in the CA1 locus, was genotyped using TaqMan® genotyping. Increased CA1 expression was detected in samples of breast carcinoma tissues and blood obtained from patients with breast cancer. A total of 15.3 % of these blood samples exhibited a 2.1-fold or higher level of CA1 expression, compared to the average level of CA1 expression in samples from healthy controls. Following the induction of calcification of 4T1 cells, both the number of calcium-rich deposits and the expression of CA1 increased, whereas the calcification and CA1 expression were significantly supressed in the presence of acetazolamide. Increased migration and apoptosis were observed in MCF-7 cells that were treated with anti-CA1 siRNA. The PCR array detected up-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) and down-regulation of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the treated MCF-7 cells. Significant differences in

  2. CA1 contributes to microcalcification and tumourigenesis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yabing; Xu, Bing; Zhao, Yan; Gu, He; Li, Chang; Wang, Yao; Chang, Xiaotian

    2015-10-12

    Although mammary microcalcification is frequently observed and has been associated with poor survival in patients with breast cancer, the genesis of calcification remains unclear. Carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) has been shown to promote calcification by catalysing the hydration of CO2. This study aimed to determine whether CA1 was correlated with microcalcification and with other processes that are involved in breast cancer tumourigenesis. CA1 expression in breast cancer tissues and blood samples was detected using western blotting, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Calcification was induced in the cultured 4T1 cell line originating from mouse breast tumours, using ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate. Acetazolamide, a chemical inhibitor of CA1, was also added to the culture to determine the role of CA1 in calcification. The MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was treated with anti-CA1 siRNA and was assessed using a CCK-8 cell proliferation assay, an annexin V cell apoptosis assay, transwell migration assay and a human breast cancer PCR array. The tag SNP rs725605, which is located in the CA1 locus, was genotyped using TaqMan® genotyping. Increased CA1 expression was detected in samples of breast carcinoma tissues and blood obtained from patients with breast cancer. A total of 15.3 % of these blood samples exhibited a 2.1-fold or higher level of CA1 expression, compared to the average level of CA1 expression in samples from healthy controls. Following the induction of calcification of 4T1 cells, both the number of calcium-rich deposits and the expression of CA1 increased, whereas the calcification and CA1 expression were significantly supressed in the presence of acetazolamide. Increased migration and apoptosis were observed in MCF-7 cells that were treated with anti-CA1 siRNA. The PCR array detected up-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) and down-regulation of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the treated MCF-7 cells. Significant differences in

  3. Quantifying Ca2+ release and inactivation of Ca2+ release in fast- and slow-twitch muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, C J

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the Ca2+ release underlying twitch contractions of mammalian fast- and slow-twitch muscle and to comprehensively describe the transient inactivation of Ca2+ release following a stimulus. Experiments were performed using bundles of fibres from mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles. Ca2+ release was quantified from the amount of ATP used to remove Ca2+ from the myoplasm following stimulation. ATP turnover by crossbridges was blocked pharmacologically (N-benzyl-p-toluenesulphonamide for EDL, blebbistatin for soleus) and muscle heat production was used as an index of Ca2+ pump ATP turnover. At 20°C, Ca2+ release in response to a single stimulus was 34 and 84 μmol (kg muscle)−1 for soleus and EDL, respectively, and increased with temperature (30°C: soleus, 61 μmol kg−1; EDL, 168 μmol kg−1). Delivery of another stimulus within 100 ms of the first produced a smaller Ca2+ release. The maximum magnitude of the decrease in Ca2+ release was greater in EDL than soleus. Ca2+ release recovered with an exponential time course which was faster in EDL (mean time constant at 20°C, 32.1 ms) than soleus (65.6 ms) and faster at 30°C than at 20°C. The amounts of Ca2+ released and crossbridge cycles performed are consistent with a scheme in which Ca2+ binding to troponin-C allowed an average of ∼1.7 crossbridge cycles in the two muscles. PMID:23027818

  4. Spin decomposition of the responses of 44Ca and 48Ca to 300 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.T.; Bimbot, L.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Haeusser, O.; Hicks, K.; Jones, K.; Miller, C.A.; Vetterli, M.; Abegg, R.; Beatty, D.; Bonin, B.; Castel, B.; Chen, X.Y.; Cupps, V.; Djalali, C.; Henderson, R.; Jackson, K.P.; Jeppesen, R.; Nakayama, K.; Nanda, S.K.; Sawafta, R.; Yen, S.; Institut de Physique Nucleaire, F-91406 Orsay, France; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854; Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada V5A1S6; TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T2A3; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544; Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, CEDEX, France; Queen's University, Kingston, Canada K7L3N6; University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309; University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208; Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, Virginia 23606; University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G2J1)

    1991-01-01

    Angular distributions of the double-differential cross section d 2 σ/dΩ dE(σ) and the spin-flip probability S nn have been measured for inclusive proton inelastic scattering from 44 Ca at 290 MeV and from 48 Ca at 318 MeV. Excitation energies up to about 50 MeV for 44 Ca and 40 MeV for 48 Ca have been investigated over the laboratory angular ranges of 3 degree to 12 degree for 44 Ca and 3 degree to 9 degree for 48 Ca. Multipole decompositions of angular distributions of both the spin-flip cross section σS nn and the estimated cross section for ΔS=0 transitions have been performed. Distributions of strengths were deduced for ΔL=1, ΔS=0 (the giant dipole), ΔL=2, ΔS=0 (the giant quadrupole), ΔL=0, ΔS=1 (the magnetic dipole), ΔL=1, ΔS=1 (the spin dipole), and ΔL=2, ΔS=1 (the spin quadrupole). The ΔS=0 summed strengths for 44 Ca are lower than for 40 Ca and 48 Ca. The spin-dipole summed strengths are found to be approximately independent of A. For 48 Ca, essentially all M1 strength observed was in the 10.23 MeV 1 + state; for 44 Ca, M1 strength was observed to be fragmented over a range of 7 to 18 Mev

  5. Microstructure, In Vitro Corrosion Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Biodegradable Mg-Ca-Zn and Mg-Ca-Zn-Bi Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Hamzah, E.; Tok, H. Y.; Kasiri-Asgarani, M.; Jabbarzare, S.; Medraj, M.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of bismuth (Bi) addition on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of the Mg-Ca-Zn-Bi alloys were evaluated using electron microscopy, electrochemical test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Microstructural observations showed that Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn- xBi ( x = 0.5, 1.5, 3 wt.%) are composed of Mg2Ca, Ca2Mg6Zn3 and Mg3Bi2 phases while a new phase Mg2Bi2Ca appeared after the addition of 5 and 12 wt.% Bi to the Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn alloy. Furthermore, the additions of 0.5 wt.% Bi to the Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn alloy slightly improved the corrosion behavior of the alloy, while further increase in Bi amount from 1.5 to 12 wt.% has a deleterious effect on the corrosion behavior of the ternary Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn alloy which is driven by galvanic coupling effect. Cytotoxicity tests indicate that the Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn presents higher cell viability compared to Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn-0.5Bi alloy. In addition, the cell viability of both alloys increased with increasing incubation time while diluting the extracts to 50% and 10% improved the cell viabilities. The present results suggest that the Mg-1.2Ca-1Zn-0.5Bi can be interesting candidate for the development of degradable biomaterials and it is worthwhile for further investigation in an in vivo environment.

  6. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  7. Late Quaternary CaCO3 stratigraphy of the eastern equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Hilde; Rea, David K.

    1994-04-01

    Four patterns of CaCO3 abundance occur in cores retrieved from the eastern equatorial Pacific during the Venture 01 expedition. Core locations lie along a north-south transect at 110°W underneath the different currents of the equatorial current system and along an east-west transect from 110° to 90°W, at approximately 3°S, underneath the South Equatorial Current. The "classic" or central equatorial Pacific pattern of CaCO3 abundance maxima associated with glacial stages as defined by the δ18O record characterizes only a small portion of the area studied. In the area where the Peru current turns west to join the South Equatorial Current, the carbonate record is characterized by a broad low, centered on interglacial carbonate stage B-3 (approximately stage 5 in δ18O stratigraphy) overlying a broad mid-Brunhes maximum. Low-amplitude variations in CaCO3 percentages are superimposed on this pattern. This pattern extends westward in a long-wavelength pattern in which the B-3 carbonate low becomes decreasingly pronounced away from the equator. The fourth pattern, observed north of 10°N, is erratic and may be only local in extent.

  8. Proton resonance spectroscopy in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warthen, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The differential cross sections for the 39 K(p,p o ) 39 K and 39 K-(p,α o ) 36 Ar reactions have been measured for E p = 1.90 to 4.02 MeV at laboratory angles θ = 90 degree, 108 degree, 150 degree and 165 degree. Data were taken with the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) KN Van de Graaff accelerator and the associated high resolution system. The targets consisted of 1-2 μg/cm 2 of potassium carbonate (K 2 CO 3 ), enriched to 99.97% 39 K, evaporated onto gold coated carbon backings. Excitation functions were measured in proton energy steps varying from 100 to 400 3V. The energy region studied corresponds to an excitation energy range in the 40 Ca nucleus of E x = 10.2 to 12.3 MeV. A multi-level multi-channel R-matrix based computer code was used to fit the experimental excitation functions. Resonance parameters obtained include resonance energy, spin, parity, partial widths, and channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixing ratios. Of the 248 resonances observed in the proton channel, 148 were also observed in the alpha channel. A fit to the observed level density yielded a nuclear temperature of 1.5 MeV. The data were compared with predictions of statistical theories of energy levels for both level spacing and reduced width distributions. The alpha reduced widths agree with the Porter-Thomas distribution and suggest that only 5-10% of the states with alpha widths were not observed. The summed strength in each of the alpha channels represents a significant fraction of the Wigner limit for these channels. The proton channels, on the other hand, generally have much smaller fractions. The two proton s-wave strength functions are equal and thus show no evidence for spin-exchange forces in the nucleon-nucleus interaction

  9. Modelling Ca2+ bound Troponin in Excitation Contraction Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry G. Zot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To explain disparate decay rates of cytosolic Ca2+ and structural changes in the thin filaments during a twitch, we model the time course of Ca2+ bound troponin (Tn resulting from the free Ca2+ transient of fast skeletal muscle. In fibers stretched beyond overlap, the decay of Ca2+ as measured by a change in fluo 3 fluorescence is significantly slower than the intensity decay of the meridional 1/38.5 nm-1 reflection of Tn; this is not simply explained by considering only the Ca2+ binding properties of Tn alone (Matsuo, T., Iwamoto, H., and Yagi, N. (2010. Biophys. J. 99, 193-200. We apply a comprehensive model that includes the known Ca2+ binding properties of Tn in the context of the thin filament with and without cycling crossbridges. Calculations based on the model predict that the transient of Ca2+ bound Tn correlates with either the fluo 3 time course in muscle with overlapping thin and thick filaments or the intensity of the meridional 1/38.5 nm-1 reflection in overstretched muscle. Hence, cycling crossbridges delay the dissociation of Ca2+ from Tn. Correlation with the fluo 3 fluorescence change is not causal given that the transient of Ca2+ bound Tn depends on sarcomere length, whereas the fluo-3 fluorescence change does not. Transient positions of tropomyosin calculated from the time course of Ca2+ bound Tn are in reasonable agreement with the transient of measured perturbations of the Tn repeat in overlap and non-overlap muscle preparations.

  10. Ca(2+)-dependence of conoid extrusion in Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon, R; Frixione, E

    1996-01-01

    The role of Ca2+ in conoid extrusion was investigated in isolated Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites by treatment with Ca(2+)-ionophores, Ca(2+)-chelating agents and an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase at the endoplasmic reticulum. The results were evaluated by light phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy. Ionomycin (0.5-1 microM) caused an immediate and sustained extrusion of the conoid in up to 80% of the tachyzoites, depending on the concentrations of ionophore and Ca2+ in the medium. However, over 50% of the tachyzoites extruded the conoid when treated with ionomycin in Ca(2+)-free saline complemented with EGTA. The effect of ionomycin was reversible and could be induced a second time in about half of the responsive population. Similar results were obtained with A23187. Conoid extrusion induced by ionomycin in Ca(2+)-free medium was almost completely abolished when the tachyzoites were previously loaded with a permeable compound known to chelate intracellular Ca2+ (BAPTA/AM; 25 microM). On the other hand, exposure of tachyzoites to the Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (0.5-1 microM) produced significant extrusion of the conoid. Tachyzoites loaded with BAPTA/AM as well as those treated with ionomycin, i.e. with conoids paralyzed in opposite positions, had a diminished capacity to invade cultured epithelial cells. A substantial reduction in the response to stimulation by ionomycin was found also in parasites treated with cytochalasin-D, a drug that depolymerizes actin-filaments. The results suggest that Ca(2+)-release from internal stores may act as a key signal to activate a mechanism of conoid extrusion probably mediated, at least in part, by actin-filaments.

  11. The microstructure of Mg–4Zn–2Al–0.5Ca aged alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaoping; Dong Yun; Ye Jie; Song Boyang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The microstructure of Mg–4Zn–2Al–0.5Ca aged alloy was investigated by TEM. ► Edge dislocations, ordered zones and moiré fringes are found in alloy. ► Ca can improve the thermal stability of precipitates. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the microstructure of a new Mg–4Zn–2Al–0.5Ca aged alloy with TEM and HRTEM. The age hardening process of Mg–4Zn–2Al–0.5Ca alloy aged at 120 °C or 160 °C follows a similar pattern: a period of fluctuation of hardness present before the alloy reaches its maximum hardness. The atomic arrangement is different in different areas of the microstructure possibly due to the difference of the segregated degree of the solute atoms in the alloy. The microstructure of alloy aged at 120 °C for 230 h consists of cellular textures, ordered zone, elongated precipitates and disc-like precipitates, while the microstructure of the alloy aged at 160 °C for 32 h consists of edge dislocations, ordered zones and moiré fringe. No MgZn precipitates are found in the peak aged microstructures of alloys aged at 120 °C and 160 °C. It is reasonable to believe that Ca is a particularly effective trace addition in improving the thermal stability of precipitation in Mg–4Zn–2Al alloy aged at 120 °C and 160 °C.

  12. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease: Improving the Diagnostic Utility of the MoCA through Subtest Weighting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fengler

    Full Text Available Given the high prevalence of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD, cognitive screening is important in clinical practice. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA is a frequently used screening test in PD to detect mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PD-D. However, the proportion in which the subtests are represented in the MoCA total score does not seem reasonable. We present the development and preliminary evaluation of an empirically based alternative scoring system of the MoCA which aims at increasing the overall diagnostic accuracy.In study 1, the MoCA was administered to 40 patients with PD without cognitive impairment (PD-N, PD-MCI, or PD-D, as defined by a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. The new MoCA scoring algorithm was developed by defining Areas under the Curve (AUC for MoCA subtests in a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC and by weighting the subtests according to their sensitivities and specificities. In study 2, an independent sample of 24 PD patients (PD-N, PD-MCI, or PD-D was tested with the MoCA. In both studies, diagnostic accuracy of the original and the new scoring procedure was calculated.Diagnostic accuracy increased with the new MoCA scoring algorithm. In study 1, the sensitivity to detect cognitive impairment increased from 62.5% to 92%, while specificity decreased only slightly from 77.7% to 73%; in study 2, sensitivity increased from 68.8% to 81.3%, while specificity stayed stable at 75%.This pilot study demonstrates that the sensitivity of the MoCA can be enhanced substantially by an empirically based weighting procedure and that the proposed scoring algorithm may serve the MoCA's actual purpose as a screening tool in the detection of cognitive dysfunction in PD patients better than the original scoring of the MoCA. Further research with larger sample sizes is necessary to establish efficacy of the alternate scoring system.

  13. Validity of Cancer Antigen-125 (CA-125 and Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI in the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Al-Musalhi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We sought to determine the validity of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125 and the risk of malignancy index (RMI in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer in women presenting with adnexal lesions of various histopathology types. Methods: This retrospective cross- sectional study included all women with adnexal lesions who were evaluated at the Royal Hospital, Oman, between January 2012 and December 2014. The inclusion criteria included women who underwent surgical intervention and who had preoperative CA-125 testing and pelvic ultrasound in the work-up plan of their management. The surgical intervention was usually followed by a histopathological diagnosis of the nature of the lesion, which was used as the gold standard for the evaluation of both CA-125 and RMI. Results: The cohort included 361 women who had serum CA-125 and pelvic ultrasound prior to the surgical intervention of the adnexal lesion. Of these women, 61 (17% had malignant ovarian lesions. Using the proposed cut-off 35 U/ml for CA-125 and 200 for RMI, the CA-125 test was more sensitive for detecting the majority of malignant ovarian tumors compared to the RMI (69% vs. 57%. Both tests were more sensitive in detecting epithelial ovarian cancer compared to other ovarian cancers. However, RMI was more specific in excluding benign ovarian lesions compared to CA-125 (81% vs. 68%. Additionally, RMI had a better area under the curve compared to CA-125 (0.771 vs. 0.745; p<0.005. Lowering the RMI cut-off to 150 resulted in a better sensitivity (62% vs. 57% and had an acceptable specificity (78% vs. 81% compared to a cut-off of 200. Conclusion: Both CA-125 and RMI have good validity in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors. CA-125 has higher sensitivity; however, RMI has higher specificity. In combination, CA-125 might be more valid for the diagnosis of malignant ovarian cancer while RMI is more valid for excluding the diagnosis of these tumors. Differential use of these two tools will improve the

  14. Validity of Cancer Antigen-125 (CA-125) and Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) in the Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musalhi, Khawla; Al-Kindi, Manal; Ramadhan, Fatma; Al-Rawahi, Thuraya; Al-Hatali, Khalsa; Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah

    2015-11-01

    We sought to determine the validity of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) and the risk of malignancy index (RMI) in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer in women presenting with adnexal lesions of various histopathology types. This retrospective cross- sectional study included all women with adnexal lesions who were evaluated at the Royal Hospital, Oman, between January 2012 and December 2014. The inclusion criteria included women who underwent surgical intervention and who had preoperative CA-125 testing and pelvic ultrasound in the work-up plan of their management. The surgical intervention was usually followed by a histopathological diagnosis of the nature of the lesion, which was used as the gold standard for the evaluation of both CA-125 and RMI. The cohort included 361 women who had serum CA-125 and pelvic ultrasound prior to the surgical intervention of the adnexal lesion. Of these women, 61 (17%) had malignant ovarian lesions. Using the proposed cut-off 35 U/ml for CA-125 and 200 for RMI, the CA-125 test was more sensitive for detecting the majority of malignant ovarian tumors compared to the RMI (69% vs. 57%). Both tests were more sensitive in detecting epithelial ovarian cancer compared to other ovarian cancers. However, RMI was more specific in excluding benign ovarian lesions compared to CA-125 (81% vs. 68%). Additionally, RMI had a better area under the curve compared to CA-125 (0.771 vs. 0.745; pCA-125 and RMI have good validity in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors. CA-125 has higher sensitivity; however, RMI has higher specificity. In combination, CA-125 might be more valid for the diagnosis of malignant ovarian cancer while RMI is more valid for excluding the diagnosis of these tumors. Differential use of these two tools will improve the triage of women with suspected ovarian tumors since both are measured in their work-up. We recommended the use of both tools in primary care to reduce referral to gynecology or oncology units.

  15. Up-regulation of Ca2+/CaMKII/CREB signaling in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuhan; Wang, Biao; Wang, Xiaohong; Shang, Xiuli

    2018-02-09

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the changes of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinases II (CaMKII)/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway in a rat tinnitus model. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), normal saline (NS), and tinnitus model (TM) groups. Tinnitus model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The concentration of intracellular calcium level in auditory cortex cells was determined using Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester (Fura-2 AM) method with fluorospectrophotometer. Expressions of calmodulin (CaM), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B subunit (NR2B), calcium-calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were detected with Western blot. Tinnitus model was successfully established by the intraperitoneal administration of salicylate in rats. Compared with rats in NC and NS groups, salicylate administration significantly elevated CaM, NR2B, phospho-CaMKII and phospho-CREB expression in auditory cortex from tinnitus model group (p salicylate administration causes tinnitus symptoms and elevates Ca 2+ /CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway in auditory cortex cells. Our study likely provides a new understanding of the development of tinnitus.

  16. 45Ca2+movements induced by Ca2+chloride in isolated rat aorta under K+-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Nebel, U.; Wirth, A.; Wilffert, B.

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtained further insight into the mechanisms of this contraction45Ca2+uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing the

  17. CA-45(2+) MOVEMENTS INDUCED BY CA2+ CHLORIDE IN ISOLATED RAT AORTA UNDER K+-FREE CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WERMELSKIRCHEN, D; NEBEL, U; WIRTH, A; WILFFERT, B

    1991-01-01

    Increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration induced a dihydropyridine-insensitive contraction in the isolated rat aorta bathed in K+-free solution. To obtain further insight into the mechanism of this contraction Ca-45(2+) uptake measurements were carried out with isolated rat aorta. Increasing

  18. Acrosome Reaction and Ca2+ Imaging in Single Human Spermatozoa: New Regulatory Roles of [Ca2+]i1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Servín-Vences, Martha Rocio; José, Omar; Treviño, Claudia Lydia; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spermatozoa acrosome reaction (AR) is essential for mammalian fertilization. Few methods allow visualization of AR in real time together with Ca2+ imaging. Here, we show that FM4-64, a fluorescent dye used to follow exocytosis, reliably reports AR progression induced by ionomycin and progesterone in human spermatozoa. FM4-64 clearly delimits the spermatozoa contour and reports morphological cell changes before, during, and after AR. This strategy unveiled the formation of moving tubular appendages, emerging from acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Alternate wavelength illumination allowed concomitant imaging of FM4-64 and Fluo-4, a Ca2+ indicator. These AR and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) recordings revealed that the presence of [Ca2+]i oscillations, both spontaneous and progesterone induced, prevents AR in human spermatozoa. Notably, the progesterone-induced AR is preceded by a second [Ca2+]i peak and ∼40% of reacting spermatozoa also manifest a slow [Ca2+]i rise ∼2 min before AR. Our findings uncover new AR features related to [Ca2+]i. PMID:25100708

  19. Characterization of Ca2+ Signalling in Postnatal Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells: Involvement of OPA1 in Ca2+ Clearance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dayanithi, Govindan; Chen-Kuo-Chang, M.; Viero, C.; Hamel, C.; Muller, A.; Lenaers, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2010), s. 53-65 ISSN 1381-6810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : retinal ganglion cells * Ca2+ homeostasis * Ca2+ clearance Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2010

  20. Serum CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA 19-9 as tumor markers in borderline ovarian tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, MJA; de Bruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; ten Koor, KA; Willemse, PHB; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ

    Objectives. The goals of this study were to analyze preoperative serum levels of CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA 19-9 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and to investigate if routine assessment of these markers in follow-up may lead to earlier detection of recurrence. Methods.

  1. Thermoelectric properties of antiperovskite calcium oxides Ca3PbO and Ca3SnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Y.; Sakamaki, A.; Takenaka, K.

    2016-05-01

    We report the thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline samples of Ca3Pb1-xBixO (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2) and Ca3SnO, both crystallizing in a cubic antiperovskite-type structure. The Ca3SnO sample shows metallic resistivity and its thermoelectric power approaches 100 μV K-1 at room temperature, resulting in the thermoelectric power factor of Ca3SnO being larger than that of Ca3Pb1-xBixO. On the basis of Hall and Sommerfeld coefficients, the Ca3SnO sample is found to be a p-type metal with a carrier density of ˜1019 cm-3, a mobility of ˜80 cm2 V-1 s-1, both comparable to those in degenerated semiconductors, and a moderately large hole carrier effective mass. The coexistence of moderately high mobility and large effective mass observed in Ca3SnO, as well as possible emergence of a multivalley electronic structure with a small band gap at low-symmetry points in k-space, suggests that the antiperovskite Ca oxides have strong potential as a thermoelectric material.

  2. Solidification and Immobilization of Heavy metals in Soil using with nano-metallic Ca/CaO Dispersion Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallampati S. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the use of nano-metallic calcium (Ca and calcium oxide (CaO dispersion mixture for the immobilization of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr and Pb in soil was investigated. With simple grinding, 85-90% of heavy metals immobilization could be achieved, while it could be enhanced to 98-100% by grinding with the addition of nano-metallic Ca/CaO dispersion mixture. By SEM-EDS elemental maps as well as semi-quantitative analysis observed that the amount of As, Cd, Cr and Pb measurable on soil particle surface decreases after nano-metallic Ca/CaO treatment. The leachable heavy metals concentrations were reduced, to the concentration lower than the Japan soil elution standard regulatory threshold, i. e., < 0.01 mg/l for As, Cd and Pb and 0.05mg/l for Cr. Whereas, the effect of soil moisture and pH on heavy metals immobilization was not much influenced. The results suggest that nano-metallic Ca/CaO mixture is suitable to be used for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals contaminated soil at normal moisture conditions.

  3. Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Low Solar Chromosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rutten, R. J.; Szydlarski, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrowband Ca ii H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  4. Nano-magnetic catalyst KF/CaO-Fe3O4 for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Shengyang; Guan, Yanping; Wang, Yun; Han, Heyou

    2011-01-01

    A nano-magnetic catalyst KF/CaO-Fe 3 O 4 was prepared by a facile impregnation method. The magnetic property of the catalyst was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that the catalyst was ferromagnetic, and it could be recovered by magnetic separation. The nano-magnetic catalyst was also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET surface area analyzer. It was found that the catalyst possessed a unique porous structure with an average particle diameter of ca. 50 nm. Besides, the factors affecting biodiesel yield were investigated, and a desired fatty acid methyl esters yield over 95% was obtained under the optimal conditions.

  5. A knowledge management tool for public health: health-evidence.ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The ultimate goal of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) activities is to facilitate incorporation of research knowledge into program and policy development decision making. Evidence-informed decision making involves translation of the best available evidence from a systematically collected, appraised, and analyzed body of knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) is emerging as a key factor contributing to the realization of evidence-informed public health decision making. The goal of health-evidence.ca is to promote evidence-informed public health decision making through facilitation of decision maker access to, retrieval, and use of the best available synthesized research evidence evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Methods The systematic reviews that populate health evidence.ca are identified through an extensive search (1985-present) of 7 electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, BIOSIS, and SportDiscus; handsearching of over 20 journals; and reference list searches of all relevant reviews. Reviews are assessed for relevance and quality by two independent reviewers. Commonly-used public health terms are used to assign key words to each review, and project staff members compose short summaries highlighting results and implications for policy and practice. Results As of June 2010, there are 1913 reviews in the health-evidence.ca registry in 21 public health and health promotion topic areas. Of these, 78% have been assessed as being of strong or moderate methodological quality. Health-evidence.ca receives approximately 35,000 visits per year, 20,596 of which are unique visitors, representing approximately 100 visits per day. Just under half of all visitors return to the site, with the average user spending six minutes and visiting seven pages per visit. Public health nurses, program managers, health promotion workers, researchers, and program coordinators are among the largest groups of

  6. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    variables which are not available at a global scale and thus not incorporated in this study as well as its coarse resolution. An application of the models using climate hindcasts and projections ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of burned area of ca. 20–25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, their occurrence is an indicator of areas favourable for food production. In absence of other compensating land use changes, their projected decrease can hence be interpreted as a indicator for future loss of such areas.

  7. The effects of CaCl2 and CaBr2 on the reproduction of Daphnia magna Straus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mažuran, Neda; Hršak, Vladimir; Kovačević, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Concentrated CaCl2 and CaBr2 salt solutions of densities up to 2.3 kg L-1 are regularly used to control hydrostatic pressure in oil wells during special operations in the exploration and production of natural gas and crude oil. Various concentrations of high density salts are frequently left in mud pits near the drilling site as waste, polluting fresh and ground waters by spillage and drainage. The toxic effects of these salts have already been observed. This study investigated the effects of CaCl2 and CaBr2 on water flea Daphnia magna Straus in a 21-day reproduction test. The three tested concentrations of CaCl2 (240, 481, and 1925 mg L-1) caused a significant dose-response decrease of reproduction (psubstance. The results suggest that high concentrations of the tested chemicals are harmful to Daphnia's reproduction and could reduce its abundance.

  8. Expression of PIK3CA, PTEN mRNA and PIK3CA mutations in primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palimaru, Irina; Brügmann, Anja; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim

    2013-01-01

    suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), in breast carcinoma tissue and normal breast tissue. Furthermore, we examine whether expression of PIK3CA and PTEN mRNA and occurrence of PIK3CA mutations are associated with lymph node metastases in patients with primary breast cancer. METHODS: Paired...... tissue samples of breast carcinoma and normal breast tissue were obtained from 175 breast cancer patients at the time of primary surgery, of these 105 patients were lymph node positive. Expression of PIK3CA and PTEN mRNA was quantified with Quantitative Real Time PCR. Somatic mutations in exon 9 and exon...... 20 of the PIK3CA gene were identified by genotyping. RESULTS: Both PIK3CA and PTEN mRNA expression was significantly increased in breast carcinoma tissue compared to normal breast tissue (p = 2 × 10(-11)) and (p 

  9. Neutron-scattering studies of the doubly magic Ca nuclei, 40Ca and 48Ca, in the low-energy resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic scattering differential cross sections from 48 Ca at 2.35, 2.43, 2.71, 3.15, 3.55, 4.70, 6.00, and 7.97 MeV are presented. These data are combined with n + 48 Ca total cross sections taken at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to form a rather extensive set of scattering data for 48 Ca between 80 keV and 20 MeV incident neutron energy. Coupled-channels analyses of these data with a first-order vibrational model described both the neuron inelastic cross sections at 7.97 MeV and intermediate structure resonances observed in the total cross sections below 3 MeV. Particle-core coupled resonance configurations were determined for four intermediate structure resonances from the coupled-channels calculations. Also measured at each of the energies listed above were neutron elastic and inelastic cross sections from 40 Ca. In addition to the above coupled-channels analysis of 48 Ca, the mean field potential used to describe the bound-state and scattering data of 48 Ca was determined using a dispersion relation to connect the real and imaginary components of the optical model potential. Finally, differential scattering cross sections measured between 2 and 3.5 MeV from 48 Ca are compared to calculations using phase shifts from an evaluation of the total cross sections. The agreement between the measured and calculated differential scattering cross sections was excellent at some energies

  10. An assessment of the Sr/Ca ratio in shallow water hermatypic corals as a proxy for sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John F.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2002-09-01

    The high precision measurement of the Sr/Ca ratio in corals has the potential for measuring past sea surface temperatures at very high accuracy. However, the veracity of the technique has been questioned on the basis that there is both a spatial and temporal variation in the Sr/Ca ratio of seawater, and that kinetic effects, such as the calcification rate, can affect the Sr/Ca ratio of corals, and produce inaccuracies of the order of 2-4 °C. In the present study, a number of cores of the massive hermatypic scleractinian coral Porites, from the central Great Barrier Reef, have been analyzed for Sr/Ca at weekly to monthly resolution. Results from a 24 year record from Myrmidon Reef show an overall variation from 22.7 °C to 30.4 °C. The record shows a warming/cooling trend with maximum warming centred on the 1986-1987 summer. While some bleaching was reported to have occurred at Myrmidon Reef in 1982, the Sr/Ca record indicates that subsequent summer temperatures were much higher. The 4.5 year record from Stanley Reef shows a maximum SST of 30 °C during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. The calibrations from Myrmidon and Stanley Reefs are in excellent agreement with previously published calibrations from nearby reefs. While corals do not calcify in equilibrium with seawater due to physiological control on the uptake of Sr and Ca into the lattice of coralline aragonite, it can be argued that, provided only a single genus such as Porites sp. is used, and that the coral is sampled along a major vertical growth axis, then the Sr/Ca ratio should vary uniformly with temperature. Similarly, objections based on the spatial and temporal variability of the Sr/Ca activity ratio of seawater can be countered on the basis that in most areas where coral reefs grow there is a uniformity in the Sr/Ca activity ratio, and there does not appear to be a change in this ratio over the growth period of the coral. Evidence from several corals in this study suggest that stress can be a major

  11. Mechanical and thermal-expansion characteristics of Ca10(PO46(OH2-Ca3(PO42 composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruseska G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of composites consisting of Ca10(PO46(OH2 and Ca3(PO42 with composition: 75% (wt Ca10(PO46(OH2: 25%(wt Ca3(PO42; 50%(wt Ca10(PO46(OH2: 50%(wtCa3(PO42 and 25 %(wt Ca10(PO46(OH2: 75%(wt Ca3(PO42 were the subject of our investigation. Sintered compacts were in thermal equilibrium, which was proved by the absence of hysteresis effect of the dependence ΔL/L=f(T during heating /cooling in the temperature interval 20-1000-200C. Sintered compacts with the previously mentioned composition possess 26-50% higher values of the E-modulus, G-modulus and K-modulus indicating the presence of a synergism effect. Several proposed model equations for predicting the thermal expansion coefficient in dependence of the thermal and elastic properties of the constitutive phases and their volume fractions, given by: Turner, Kerner, Tummala and Friedberg, Thomas and Taya, were used for making correlations between mechanical and thermal-expansion characteristics of the Ca10(PO46(OH2 - Ca3(PO42 composites. Application of the previously mentioned model equations to all kinds of composites leads to the conclusion that the experimentally obtained results for the thermal expansion coefficient are in an excellent agreement with the theoretical calculated values on account of the volume fraction of each constitutive phase and with all applied model equations, with a coefficient of correlation from 98.16-99.86 %.

  12. Clinical value of preoperative serum CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels in predicting the resectability of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Jie; Mao, Hui; Tan, Yong-Qiong; Shrestha, Anuj; Ma, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qin; Wang, Jun-Ke; Cheng, Nan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of tumor markers for evaluating tumor resectability in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma and to explore the prognostic effect of various preoperative factors on resectability in patients with potentially resectable tumors. Patients with potentially resectable tumors judged by radiologic examination were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate serum carbohydrate antigenic determinant 19-9 (CA 19-9), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA 125) and carcino embryonie antigen levels on tumor resectability. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were also conducted to analysis the correlation of preoperative factors with resectability. In patients with normal bilirubin levels, ROC curve analysis calculated the ideal CA 19-9 cut-off value of 203.96 U/ml in prediction of resectability, with a sensitivity of 83.7 %, specificity of 80 %, positive predictive value of 91.1 % and negative predictive value of 66.7 %. Meanwhile, the optimal cut-off value for CA 125 to predict resectability was 25.905 U/ml (sensitivity, 78.6 %; specificity, 67.5 %). In a multivariate logistic regression model, tumor size ≤3 cm (OR 4.149, 95 % CI 1.326-12.981, P = 0.015), preoperative CA 19-9 level ≤200 U/ml (OR 20.324, 95 % CI 6.509-63.467, P CA 125 levels ≤26 U/ml (OR 8.209, 95 % CI 2.624-25.677, P CA 19-9 and CA 125 levels predict resectability in patients with radiological resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Increased preoperative CA 19-9 levels and CA 125 levels are associated with poor resectability rate.

  13. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  14. Ca intercalated bilayer graphene as a thinnest limit of superconducting C6Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetani, Kohei; Sugawara, Katsuaki; Sato, Takafumi; Shimizu, Ryota; Iwaya, Katsuya; Hitosugi, Taro; Takahashi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Success in isolating a 2D graphene sheet from bulky graphite has triggered intensive studies of its physical properties as well as its application in devices. Graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) have provided a platform of exotic quantum phenomena such as superconductivity, but it is unclear whether such intercalation is feasible in the thinnest 2D limit (i.e., bilayer graphene). Here we report a unique experimental realization of 2D GIC, by fabricating calcium-intercalated bilayer graphene C6CaC6 on silicon carbide. We have investigated the structure and electronic states by scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We observed a free-electron–like interlayer band at the Brillouin-zone center, which is thought to be responsible for the superconductivity in 3D GICs, in addition to a large π* Fermi surface at the zone boundary. The present success in fabricating Ca-intercalated bilayer graphene would open a promising route to search for other 2D superconductors as well as to explore its application in devices. PMID:23139407

  15. Changes to a CA Programme - Practitioners' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheeler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the perceptions of practitioners of the new directions taken by NZICA with respect to its academic and professional programme requirements to obtain CA Institute membership. The “future viability of any professional body is dependent on continuously attracting new members, ideally the best and the brightest new tertiary graduates”, and this is “undoubtedly the case for New Zealand’s professional accounting body, the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants (NZICA” (Malthus & Fowler 2009, p. 26. In this study, the concurrent triangulation approach to mixed methods described by Creswell (2009 was used to collect data. This approach enabled the results of the two quantitative and qualitative databases to be integrated and compared. It was found that accounting practitioners felt the changes made by NZICA may devalue the brand, while the reduction in liberal papers would result in a narrower degree. Overall, accounting practitioners agreed that three to four years of tertiary accounting education was adequate, a broader four-year course would result in a better-rounded graduates. The reduction in the length of the tertiary programme caused concern that future graduates would be less mature. Accounting practitioners also felt that the changes would harm the credibility of NZICA internationally. However, some accounting practitioners did welcome the fact that the NZICA membership requirements will be more aligned with Institute of Chartered Accountants Australia. Accounting practitioners felt that the new technical modules would offer more flexibility. They believed that the four technical modules should repeat the material taught at university, as long as a balance was maintained between technical and practical skills. They also believed that the changes would result in an increased onus on the employer. Additionally, accounting practitioners agreed that on-the-job training should not replace a tertiary

  16. Shock Compression Response of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The fluorite crystal structure is a textbook lattice that is observed for many systems, such as CaF2, Mg2 Si, and CeO2. Specifically, CaF2 is a useful material for studying the fluorite system because it is readily available as a single crystal. Under static compression, CaF2 is known to have at least three solid phases: fluorite, cotunnite, and a Ni2 In phase. Along the Hugoniot CaF2 undergoes a fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, however, at higher shock pressures it is unknown whether CaF2 undergoes another solid phase transition or melts directly from the cotunnite phase. In this work, we conducted planar shock compression experiments on CaF2 using Sandia's Z-machine and a two-stage light gun up to 900 GPa. In addition, we use density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations to provide insight into the CaF2 state along the Hugoniot. In collaboration with: Michael Desjarlais, Ray Lemke, Patricia Kalita, Scott Alexander, Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL850.

  17. Study of 51Ca via three-neutron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catford, W.N.; Fifield, L.K.; Ophel, T.R.; Orr, N.A.; Weisser, D.C.; Woods, C.L.

    1988-09-01

    Low-lying levels in 51 Ca have been studied via the reaction 48 Ca( 18 O, 15 O) 51 Ca at a beam energy of 108 MeV. Recoiling 51 Ca nuclei were detected in coincidence with 15 O ejectiles, largely removing the substantial background from target contaminants that was encountered in previous work. The lowest 51C a level identified is 1.01 ± 0.11 MeV less bound than the ground state, according to a recent measurement of the ground state mass using the 48 Ca( 14 C, 11 C) 51 Ca reaction. Considerations of the difficulty in identifying the ground state peak suggest that published values of the mass excess should be viewed with caution, and that a definitive mass measurement is still required in order to resolve questions on the structure of the neutron rich calcium isotopes. A total of six energy levels in 51 Ca have been identified and their mass excesses measured. Only two of these levels have been observed previously, via the ( 14 C, 11 C) reaction. Striking differences in selectivity between the ( 18 O, 15 O) and ( 14 C, 11 C) transfer reactions are discussed

  18. Ca2+ signalling early in evolution--all but primitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Helmut; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2013-05-15

    Early in evolution, Ca(2+) emerged as the most important second messenger for regulating widely different cellular functions. In eukaryotic cells Ca(2+) signals originate from several sources, i.e. influx from the outside medium, release from internal stores or from both. In mammalian cells, Ca(2+)-release channels represented by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors (InsP3R and RyR, respectively) are the most important. In unicellular organisms and plants, these channels are characterised with much less precision. In the ciliated protozoan, Paramecium tetraurelia, 34 molecularly distinct Ca(2+)-release channels that can be grouped in six subfamilies, based on criteria such as domain structure, pore, selectivity filter and activation mechanism have been identified. Some of these channels are genuine InsP3Rs and some are related to RyRs. Others show some--but not all--features that are characteristic for one or the other type of release channel. Localisation and gene silencing experiments revealed widely different--yet distinct--localisation, activation and functional engagement of the different Ca(2+)-release channels. Here, we shall discuss early evolutionary routes of Ca(2+)-release machinery in protozoa and demonstrate that detailed domain analyses and scrutinised functional analyses are instrumental for in-depth evolutionary mapping of Ca(2+)-release channels in unicellular organisms.

  19. Aerobic Hydrogen Production via Nitrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii CA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Jesse; Loveless, Telisa; Navarro-Herrero, José Luis; Olson, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    The diazotroph Azotobacter vinelandii possesses three distinct nitrogenase isoenzymes, all of which produce molecular hydrogen as a by-product. In batch cultures, A. vinelandii strain CA6, a mutant of strain CA, displays multiple phenotypes distinct from its parent: tolerance to tungstate, impaired growth and molybdate transport, and increased hydrogen evolution. Determining and comparing the genomic sequences of strains CA and CA6 revealed a large deletion in CA6's genome, encompassing genes related to molybdate and iron transport and hydrogen reoxidation. A series of iron uptake analyses and chemostat culture experiments confirmed iron transport impairment and showed that the addition of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) resulted in cessation of hydrogen production. Additional chemostat experiments compared the hydrogen-producing parameters of different strains: in iron-sufficient, tungstate-free conditions, strain CA6's yields were identical to those of a strain lacking only a single hydrogenase gene. However, in the presence of tungstate, CA6 produced several times more hydrogen. A. vinelandii may hold promise for developing a novel strategy for production of hydrogen as an energy compound. PMID:25911479

  20. Abnormal CA-125 levels in menopausal women without ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Keith Y; Elia, Jennifer; Kim, Robert; Carney, Michael; Ahn, Hyeong Jun

    2014-10-01

    To determine if an abnormal CA-125 level in a menopausal female without ovarian cancer is associated with an increase in mortality. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Randomized Controlled (PLCO) Trial is a large multicenter prospective trial conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Over 78,000 healthy women aged 55-74 were randomized to a screening arm versus a usual medical care arm to evaluate the efficacy of screening in reducing mortality due to ovarian cancer. Women in the screening arm underwent annual screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound and CA-125 levels. There were 38,818 patients without ovarian cancer that had at least one CA-125 level drawn; 1201 (3.09%) had at least one abnormal level. The current study compares mortality in patients that had one or more abnormal CA-125 levels without ovarian cancer versus those with all normal levels. Patients with one or more abnormal CA-125 levels, without ovarian cancer, had a significantly higher mortality than patients with all normal CA-125 levels in the PLCO screening trial (pCA-125 and without ovarian cancer are exposed to an increased risk of premature mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Binnur Erbağci

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean ± SEM; 26.33 ± 1.56 U/ml higher than the midfollicular (mean ± SEM; 19.27 ± 1.49 U/ml concentrations (p < 0.001. But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively.

  2. Human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 15-3 producing adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueckaya, G.; Oezet, A.; Arpaci, A.; Koemuercue, S.

    1998-01-01

    50 years old man suffering from primary lung adenocarcinoma presented with high levels of both beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (βHCG) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the absence of elevated carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). Although βHCG or CA 15-3 high levels were reported in adenocarcinoma of lung, this is the first report of a patient with high levels of both markers. (orig.) [de

  3. Ca4As3 – a new binary calcium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Hlukhyy, Viktor; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structure of the binary compound tetra­calcium triarsenide, Ca4As3, was investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Ca4As3 crystallizes in the Ba4P3 structure type and is thus a homologue of isotypic Sr4As3. The unit cell contains 32 Ca2+ cations, 16 As3− isolated anions and four centrosymmetric [As2]4– dumbbells. The As atoms in each of the dumbbells are connected by a single bond, thus this calcium arsenide is a Zintl phase. PMID:26870427

  4. Ca4As3 – a new binary calcium arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the binary compound tetracalcium triarsenide, Ca4As3, was investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Ca4As3 crystallizes in the Ba4P3 structure type and is thus a homologue of isotypic Sr4As3. The unit cell contains 32 Ca2+ cations, 16 As3− isolated anions and four centrosymmetric [As2]4– dumbbells. The As atoms in each of the dumbbells are connected by a single bond, thus this calcium arsenide is a Zintl phase.

  5. Volcanic geomorphosites and geotourism in Las Cañadas del Teide National Park, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóniz-Paéz, Javier; Becerra-Ramírez, Rafael; González-Cárdenas, Elena; Rodriguez, Fátima

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphosites and geoturism studies are increasing for the high scientific, societal, cultural, and aesthetic values of the relief. Volcanic areas are exciting targets for such studies for their geodiversity. The aim of these study is an inventory of volcanic geomorphosites and its relationship to geotourism. Las Cañadas del Teide National Park (LCTNP) is a volcanic complex area located in the central part of Tenerife island (Canary Islands, Spain). This area is a volcanic paradise rich in spectacular landforms: stratovolcanoes, calderas, cinder cones, craters, pahoehoe, aa, block and balls lavas, gullies, etc. The national park is registered in the world heritage list (UNESCO) in 2007 as a natural site. The LCTNP receives more than 2,5 million tourists per year and it has 21 main pahts and 14 secondary ones. For the selection of the geomophosites the LCTNP was divided into four geomorphological units (Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes, Las Cañadas Caldera wall, the bottom of Las Cañadas and the basaltic volcanic field) and each one of them is selected the most representative geomorphosites by its geodiversity, because of its geomorphological heritage, its landscapes and its tourist potential with the paths. All selected geomorphosites are within areas where public use is allowed in the park. The inventory classifies the 23 geomorphosites in two main categories: (a) direct volcanic with 17 geomorphosites (stratovolcanoes, domes, cinder cones, pahoehoe, aa and bloc lava flows, etc.) and (b) eroded volcanic landforms with 6 (wall of Las Cañadas caldera, talusees, foodplains, etc.). The Teide-Pico Viejo unit is which has more geomorphosites with 8 and the Las Cañadas wall unit possessing less with 5. The assessment evaluates the scientific, cultural/historical, and use values and helps to define priorities in site management. These geomorphosites demonstrate the volcanic history and processes of the LCTNP.

  6. βCaMKII plays a nonenzymatic role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning by targeting αCaMKII to synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgesius, Nils Z; van Woerden, Geeske M; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H S; Keijzer, Nanda; Jaarsma, Dick; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Elgersma, Ype

    2011-07-13

    The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CaMKII) holoenzyme of the forebrain predominantly consists of heteromeric complexes of the αCaMKII and βCaMKII isoforms. Yet, in contrast to αCaMKII, the role of βCaMKII in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning has not been investigated. Here, we compare two targeted Camk2b mouse mutants to study the role of βCaMKII in hippocampal function. Using a Camk2b(-/-) mutant, in which βCaMKII is absent, we show that both hippocampal-dependent learning and Schaffer collateral-CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) are highly dependent upon the presence of βCaMKII. We further show that βCaMKII is required for proper targeting of αCaMKII to the synapse, indicating that βCaMKII regulates the distribution of αCaMKII between the synaptic pool and the adjacent dendritic shaft. In contrast, localization of αCaMKII, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning were unaffected in the Camk2b(A303R) mutant, in which the calcium/calmodulin-dependent activation of βCaMKII is prevented, while the F-actin binding and bundling property is preserved. This indicates that the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase activity of βCaMKII is fully dispensable for hippocampal learning, LTP, and targeting of αCaMKII, but implies a critical role for the F-actin binding and bundling properties of βCaMKII in synaptic function. Together, our data provide compelling support for a model of CaMKII function in which αCaMKII and βCaMKII act in concert, but with distinct functions, to regulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning.

  7. Controls over δ44/40Ca and Sr/Ca variations in coccoliths: New perspectives from laboratory cultures and cellular models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Luz María; Paytan, Adina; Eisenhauer, Anton; Böhm, Florian; Kolevica, Ana; Bolton, Clara; Méndez-Vicente, Ana; Abrevaya, Lorena; Isensee, Kirsten; Stoll, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Coccoliths comprise a major fraction of the global carbonate sink. Therefore, changes in coccolithophores' Ca isotopic fractionation could affect seawater Ca isotopic composition, affecting interpretations of the global Ca cycle and related changes in seawater chemistry and climate. Despite this, a quantitative interpretation of coccolith Ca isotopic fractionation and a clear understanding of the mechanisms driving it are not yet available. Here, we address this gap in knowledge by developing a simple model (CaSri-Co) to track coccolith Ca isotopic fractionation during cellular Ca uptake and allocation to calcification. We then apply it to published and new δ 44 / 40 Ca and Sr/Ca data of cultured coccolithophores of the species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. We identify changes in calcification rates, Ca retention efficiency and solvation-desolvation rates as major drivers of the Ca isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca variations observed in cultures. Higher calcification rates, higher Ca retention efficiencies and lower solvation-desolvation rates increase both coccolith Ca isotopic fractionation and Sr/Ca. Coccolith Ca isotopic fractionation is most sensitive to changes in solvation-desolvation rates. Changes in Ca retention efficiency may be a major driver of coccolith Sr/Ca variations in cultures. We suggest that substantial changes in the water structure strength caused by past changes in temperature could have induced significant changes in coccolithophores' Ca isotopic fractionation, potentially having some influence on seawater Ca isotopic composition. We also suggest a potential effect on Ca isotopic fractionation via modification of the solvation environment through cellular exudates, a hypothesis that remains to be tested.

  8. 75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Conservation Area Forum in Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa, Yolo, and Sutter Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and... application for an Enhancement of Survival Permit from the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant... Conservation Area Forum under the Act (16 U.S.C 1531 et seq.). The permit application includes a proposed Safe...

  9. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol activates [Ca2+], increases partly sensitive to capacitative store refilling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipeanu, CM; deZeeuw, D; Nelemans, SA

    1997-01-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol induces [Ca2+](i) increases in DDT1MF-2 smooth muscle cells. Both Ca2+ entry and release from intracellular Ca2+ stores were concentration dependently activated. The Ca2+ entry component contributed most to the increases in [Ca2+](i). Stimulation with

  10. Acid mist and soil Ca and Al alter the mineral nutrition and physiology of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; D.H. DeHayes; G.J. Hawley; G.R. Strimbeck; J.R. Cumming; P.F. Murakami; C.H. Borer

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects and potential interactions of acid mist and soil solution Ca and Al treatments on foliar cation concentrations, membrane-associated Ca (mCa), ion leaching, growth, carbon exchange, and cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) saplings. Soil solution Ca additions increased foliar Ca and Zn concentrations, and increased...

  11. Control efficacy of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers on bitter pit in bagged 'Fuji' apple and effects on the Ca and N contents of apple fruits and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xian-Mei; Wang, Jin-Zheng; Nie, Pei-Xian; Xue, Xaio-Min; Wang, Gui-Ping; An, Miao

    2018-04-20

    The preharvest application of Ca-containing foliar fertilizers can reduce bitter pit (BP) incidence in apples and improve fruit quality by increasing the Ca content and decreasing both the N content and the N/Ca ratio in fruits. In this study, we aimed to investigate the control efficacy of Ca-containing fertilizers on BP incidence and the effects on the Ca and N contents in bagged 'Fuji' apple by spraying the foliar fertilizer containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), calcium nitrate [Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ] or calcium formate [Ca(HCOO) 2 ] at early stage [5 days after full bloom (DAFB) + 40 DAFB] and at late stage (80 DAFB + 125 DAFB). The BP incidences were reduced significantly with the reduce percentage of 43.2~73.0%, and the efficacy of spraying at early stage was significantly higher than that of spraying at late stage. The Ca content of bagged apple fruits was increased while the N content and N/Ca ratio were decreased after spraying Ca-containing foliar fertilizers, however, the Ca content, N content and N/Ca ratio of apple leaves were differentially influenced. The foliar fertilizer containing CaCl 2, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or Ca(HCOO) 2 could be used at early stage to control BP in apple and improve the quality of bagged apple fruits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Substitution site and effects on magnetism in Sr-for-Ca substituted CaBaCo4O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio, G.; Curiale, J.; Bardelli, F.; Junqueira Prado, R.; Hennet, L.; Cuello, G.; Campo, J.; Thiaudière, D.

    2015-10-01

    Cationic substitutions in the novel magnetoelectric compound CaBaCo4O7 lead to profound changes in its magnetic and electric behaviors. In this work, we present a structural study of the isovalent substitution Sr-for-Ca in CaBaCo4O7. X-ray diffraction, as well as neutron powder diffraction experiments, are reported for a series of samples Ca1-xSrxBaCo4O7 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 . Special emphasis is given to the identification of the substitution site, as Sr has also been reported to substitute for Ba in this crystal structure. The solubility limit for Sr at the Ca site is shown to be at x ≃ 0.08 . The variation of lattice constants with Sr-doping firmly supports the Sr-for-Ca substitution. Rietveld refinements of the Sr-substituted samples are presented, and used as starting point to analyse the local structure around Sr by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Sr K-edge. Both the near-edge absorption and the extended absorption fine-structure confirm the substitution of Sr for Ca, giving definite support to the proposed nominal formula. In addition, macroscopic magnetization measurements are presented which reveal the striking effects of Sr-substitution over the magnetic landscape of this puzzling compound.

  13. Towards reconstructing ancient seawater Mg/Ca by combining porcelaneous and hyaline foraminiferal Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, J. C.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Haig, J.; Jorissen, F. J.; Thomas, E.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2017-08-01

    The temperature of the deep ocean plays a vital role in the Earth's climate system. Paleo-reconstructions of deep-sea temperatures have traditionally been based on the oxygen isotope composition of deep-sea benthic foraminiferal calcite shells, although this parameter depends upon polar ice volume as well as temperature. More recent reconstructions use Mg/Ca in these shells, with temperature calibrations based on empirical relationships observed in present-day oceans. Incorporation of Mg (DMg) into foraminiferal calcite is, however, not solely dependent on temperature, but also on seawater Mg/Ca. Due to its long oceanic residence time, Mg concentrations remained relatively constant over time scales of a few hundred thousand years, but varied significantly over longer geological time scales. Accurate reconstruction of past temperatures using foraminiferal Mg/Ca, therefore, hinges on our understanding of Mg/Ca seawater changes on geological timescales. We explore a novel, independent approach to reconstructing past seawater Mg/Ca using the temperature-dependent offset in DMg between porcelaneous (secreting intermediate- or high-Mg calcite, abbreviated as IMC or HMC, respectively) and hyaline (producing low-Mg calcite, abbreviated as LMC) benthic foraminifera. We calibrated the Mg/Ca-temperature dependence for Pyrgo spp. (one of the few common, large-sized porcelaneous taxa present in the deep-sea since the middle Miocene), and combined this with an existing calibration of hyaline Cibicidoides spp. to mathematically solve for changes in Mg/Ca seawater through time. We show that changes in Mg/Ca seawater can be reconstructed using the offset between porcelaneous and hyaline foraminifera, but absolute values are highly dependent on the species-specific offset between Mg/Ca seawater and Mg-partition coefficients.

  14. Comparison of HE4, CA125 and ROMA algorithm in women with a pelvic mass: correlation with pathological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, M T; Bottari, F; Franchi, D; Boveri, S; Candiani, M; Ronzoni, S; Peiretti, M; Radice, D; Passerini, R; Sideri, M

    2013-02-01

    The quality of first surgery is one of the most important prognostic factors in ovarian cancer patients. Pre-surgical distinction of benign and malignant pelvic mass plays a critical role in ovarian cancer management and survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of ROMA algorithm and of CA125 and HE4 in the triage of patients with a pelvic mass undergoing surgery, in order to discriminate benign from malignant disease. Three hundred and forty-nine pre- and post-menopausal women, aged 18 years or older undergoing surgery because of a pelvic mass were enrolled: serum concentrations of CA125 and HE4 were determined and ROMA was calculated for each sample. Median serum CA125 and HE4 levels were higher in patients with EOC compared to subjects with benign disease (p<0.0001). The resultant accuracy (using Receiver Operating Characteristics, ROC Area) values for HE4, CA125 and ROMA showed a good performance ranging from 89.8% for CA125 in pre-menopausal patients to 93.3% for ROMA in post-menopausal patients: AUC for ROMA resulted significantly higher in comparison to CA125 alone (93.3% vs 90.3%, p=0.0018) in post menopausal patients. A sub-analysis considering the 40 patients with endometrioid disease showed the highest accuracy of HE4 in these patients. Data presented confirm the accuracy of HE4 and of the ROMA algorithm in the distinction of ovarian carcinoma from benign disease, with a trend towards better performance for ROMA than for CA125 alone, statistically significant in postmenopausal patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of Ca substitution on LaFeO3 nanoparticles in terms of structural and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Xu, Jianmei; Yang, Fang; Yang, Xingxing; He, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The nanocrystalline structure of La 1 -x Ca x FeO 3 was prepared by a sol-gel method involving an auto-combustion process. The incorporation of rare-earths in LaFeO 3 induces strain in magnetic properties, especially in terms of the following parameters: replacement amount, oxygen partial pressure, and calcination temperature. To determine the effects of the amount of Ca 2+ ion doping agent and the calcination temperature on the microstructure, particle morphology, and magnetic properties of LaFeO 3 crystal, we performed the following respective analytical methods: X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer tests. The orthorhombic structure of LaFeO 3 perovskite did not change even when it was doped with Ca 2+ ions, and its space group continued to be Pnma (No.62). FT-IR spectra confirmed that the main band appearing at 568 cm -1 is due to the antisymmetric stretching vibration of Fe-O-Fe bonds in FeO 6 . The introduction of Ca inhibits the growth of grains but the morphology of particles is improved. With an increasing concentration of Ca 2+ ions, magnetic behavior of the samples also witnessed an increasing trend in a proportionate manner. With an increase in calcination temperature, the enclosed area of the magnetic hysteresis curve of the sample reduced remarkably. The growth of nanoparticles can be restrained with an increase of Ca content that is used as doping agent. The magnetic behavior of La 1 -x Ca x FeO 3 tilts towards G-type antiferromagnetism; the magnetic orientation is achieved from the super exchange interaction of Fe 3+ ions with oxygen ions.

  16. Anandamide reduces intracellular Ca2+ concentration through suppression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current in rat cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Li

    Full Text Available Anandamide, one of the endocannabinoids, has been reported to exhibit cardioprotective properties, particularly in its ability to limit the damage produced by ischemia reperfusion injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect are not well known. This study is to investigate whether anandamide alter Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger and the intracellular free Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+]i.Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger current (I(NCX was recorded and analysed by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique and [Ca(2+]i was measured by loading myocytes with the fluorescent Ca(2+ indicator Fura-2/AM.We found that I(NCX was enhanced significantly after perfusion with simulated ischemic external solution; [Ca(2+]i was also significantly increased by simulated ischemic solution. The reversal potential of I(NCX was shifted to negative potentials in simulated ischemic external solution. Anandamide (1-100 nM failed to affect I(NCX and [Ca(2+]i in normal solution. However, anandamide (1-100 nM suppressed the increase in INCX in simulated ischemic external solution concentration-dependently and normalized INCX reversal potential. Furthermore, anandamide (100 nM significantly attenuated the increase in [Ca(2+]i in simulated ischemic solution. Blocking CB1 receptors with the specific antagonist AM251 (500 nM failed to affect the effects of anandamide on I(NCX and [Ca(2+]i in simulated ischemic solution. CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 (100 nM eliminated the effects of anandamide on I(NCX and [Ca(2+]i in simulated ischemic solution, and CB2 receptor agonist JWH133 (100 nM simulated the effects of anandamide that suppressed the increase in I(NCX and [Ca(2+]i in simulated ischemic solution. In addition, pretreatment with the Gi/o-specific inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX, 500 ng/ml eliminated the effects of anandamide and JWH133 on I(NCX in simulated ischemic solution.Collectively, these findings suggest that anandamide suppresses calcium overload through inhibition of I(NCX during

  17. Structural and compositional characterization of synthetic (Ca,Sr)-tremolite and (Ca,Sr)-diopside solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, M.; Najorka, J.; Andrut, M.

    Tremolite (CaxSr1-x)2Mg5[Si8O22/(OH)2] and diopside (CaxSr1-x)Mg[Si2O6] solid solutions have been synthesized hydrothermally in equilibrium with a 1 molar (Ca,Sr)Cl2 aqueous solution at 750°C and 200 MPa. The solid run products have been investigated by optical, electron scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray-powder diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The synthesized (Ca,Sr)-tremolites are up to 2000 µm long and 30 µm wide, the (Ca,Sr)-diopsides are up to 150 µm long and 20 µm wide. In most runs the tremolites and diopsides are well ordered and chain multiplicity faults are rare. Nearly pure Sr-tremolite (tr0.02Sr-tr0.98) and Sr-diopside (di0.01Sr-di0.99) have been synthesized. A continuous solid solution series, i.e. complete substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ on M4-sites exists for (Ca,Sr)-tremolite. Total substitution of Sr2+ for Ca2+ on M2-sites can be assumed for (Ca,Sr)-diopsides. For (Ca,Sr)-tremolites the lattice parameters a, b and β are linear functions of composition and increase with Sr-content whereas c is constant. For the diopside series all 4 lattice parameters are a linear function of composition; a, b, c increase and β decreases with rising Sr-content. The unit cell volume for tremolite increases 3.47% from 906.68 Å3 for tremolite to 938.21 Å3 for Sr-tremolite. For diopside the unit cell volume increases 4.87 % from 439.91 Å3 for diopside to 461.30 Å3 for Sr-diopside. The observed splitting of the OH stretching band in tremolite is caused by different configurations of the next nearest neighbors (multi mode behavior). Resolved single bands can be attributed to the following configurations on the M4-sites: SrSr, SrCa, CaCa and CaMg. The peak positions of these 4 absorption bands are a linear function of composition. They are shifted to lower wavenumbers with increasing Sr-content. No absorption band due to the SrMg configuration on the M4-site is observed. This indicates

  18. Calcification in a marginal sea - influence of seawater [Ca2+] and carbonate chemistry on bivalve shell formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jörn; Ramesh, Kirti; Sanders, Trystan; Bleich, Markus; Melzner, Frank

    2018-03-01

    In estuarine coastal systems such as the Baltic Sea, mussels suffer from low salinity which limits their distribution. Anthropogenic climate change is expected to cause further desalination which will lead to local extinctions of mussels in the low saline areas. It is commonly accepted that mussel distribution is limited by osmotic stress. However, along the salinity gradient, environmental conditions for biomineralization are successively becoming more adverse as a result of reduced [Ca2+] and dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) availability. In larvae, calcification is an essential process starting during early development with formation of the prodissoconch I (PD I) shell, which is completed under optimal conditions within 2 days. Experimental manipulations of seawater [Ca2+] start to impair PD I formation in Mytilus larvae at concentrations below 3 mM, which corresponds to conditions present in the Baltic at salinities below 8 g kg-1. In addition, lowering dissolved inorganic carbon to critical concentrations (< 1 mM) similarly affected PD I size, which was well correlated with calculated ΩAragonite and [Ca2+][HCO3-] / [H+] in all treatments. Comparing results for larvae from the western Baltic with a population from the central Baltic revealed a significantly higher tolerance of PD I formation to lowered [Ca2+] and [Ca2+][HCO3-] / [H+] in the low saline adapted population. This may result from genetic adaptation to the more adverse environmental conditions prevailing in the low saline areas of the Baltic. The combined effects of lowered [Ca2+] and adverse carbonate chemistry represent major limiting factors for bivalve calcification and can thereby contribute to distribution limits of mussels in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Calcification in a marginal sea – influence of seawater [Ca2+] and carbonate chemistry on bivalve shell formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thomsen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In estuarine coastal systems such as the Baltic Sea, mussels suffer from low salinity which limits their distribution. Anthropogenic climate change is expected to cause further desalination which will lead to local extinctions of mussels in the low saline areas. It is commonly accepted that mussel distribution is limited by osmotic stress. However, along the salinity gradient, environmental conditions for biomineralization are successively becoming more adverse as a result of reduced [Ca2+] and dissolved inorganic carbon (CT availability. In larvae, calcification is an essential process starting during early development with formation of the prodissoconch I (PD I shell, which is completed under optimal conditions within 2 days. Experimental manipulations of seawater [Ca2+] start to impair PD I formation in Mytilus larvae at concentrations below 3 mM, which corresponds to conditions present in the Baltic at salinities below 8 g kg−1. In addition, lowering dissolved inorganic carbon to critical concentrations (< 1 mM similarly affected PD I size, which was well correlated with calculated ΩAragonite and [Ca2+][HCO3−] ∕ [H+] in all treatments. Comparing results for larvae from the western Baltic with a population from the central Baltic revealed a significantly higher tolerance of PD I formation to lowered [Ca2+] and [Ca2+][HCO3−] ∕ [H+] in the low saline adapted population. This may result from genetic adaptation to the more adverse environmental conditions prevailing in the low saline areas of the Baltic. The combined effects of lowered [Ca2+] and adverse carbonate chemistry represent major limiting factors for bivalve calcification and can thereby contribute to distribution limits of mussels in the Baltic Sea.

  20. Thermal unfolding of a Ca- and Lanthanide-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Goettfert, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Knoeppel, J.

    2017-06-01

    The MIIA (metal ion-induced autocleavage)-domain of the protein Vic001052 from the pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus, comprises 173 amino acids and exhibits Ca-dependent autoproteolytic activity. It shows homology to nodulation proteins which are secreted by Rhizobiacea into plant host cells where they exert Ca-dependent functions. We have studied the structural and energetic aspects of metal protein interactions of the MIIA domain which appear attractive for engineering metal-binding synthetic peptides. Using a non-cleavable MIIA domain construct, we detected very similar structural changes upon binding to Ca{sup 2+} and Eu{sup 3+}. The thermal denaturation of the Ca-bound state was studied by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The metal-bound folded state unfolds reversibly into an unstructured metal-free state similar to the metal-free state at room temperature.

  1. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eBelvindrah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  2. A vaccination strategy to SEIR-CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzakki, Muhammad Zaki; Nuraini, Nuning

    2016-04-01

    A combination between Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) model and Cellular Automaton (CA) called SEIR-CA model has been proposed to simulate spreading diseases through populations. We make an improvement to the parameter which describe the impact of neighborhood in CA system. We also propose a vaccination strategy to the model. Three examples are given to illustrate the model. The first one shows that the previously established SEIR-CA model does not work properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals. After an improvement to the neighborhood impact parameter has been made, the model works properly in a population with randomly distributed individuals and it is shown in the second example. The last example shows the spreading mechanisms with a chosen vaccination strategy. We also show that the vaccination strategy can reduce the number of infected individuals and can suppress the spread of the diseases.

  3. Global Database of Borehole Temperatures and Climate Reconstructions - CA-0003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected from borehole site CA-0003. For an accurate assessment of the relative roles of natural variability and anthropogenic influence in the Earth's...

  4. Cell surface topology creates high Ca2+ signalling microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Olsen, Lars Folke; Hallett, Maurice B

    2010-01-01

    20 microM Ca2+ to be activated. In this paper, we have resolved this apparent paradox by showing that the surface topology of cells represents an important and hitherto unrecognized feature for generating microdomains of high Ca2+ in cells. We show that whereas the standard modeling assumption...... of a smooth cell surface predicts only moderate localized effects, the more realistic "wrinkled" surface topology predicts that Ca2+ concentrations up to 80 microM can persist within the folds of membranes for significant times. This intra-wrinkle location may account for 5% of the total cell volume. Using......-wrinkle location is also a strategic location at which Ca2+ acts as a regulator of the cortical cytoskeleton and plasma membrane expansion....

  5. Mixing Corrosion of CaCO3 in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Hui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods of aqueous speciation calculation, pH calculation and the solubility (precipitability calculation of CaCO3 were used to study the mixing corrosion of CaCO3 in natural waters. Mixing processes were done between two unsaturated (with CaCO3 solutions, two oversaturated solutions and between an unsaturated solution and an oversaturated solution, respectively. Results show that the mixing corrosion can be divided into two different levels: mixing corrosion in strict sense and mixing corrosion in broad sense. When mixing corrosion occurs, the HCO3- concentration in one end member solution is usually higher than that in the other solution, and the Ca2+ concentration in the former solution is also usually higher than that in the latter one.

  6. Targeting Cardiomyocyte Ca2+ Homeostasis in Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Frisk, Michael; Louch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Improved treatments for heart failure patients will require the development of novel therapeutic strategies that target basal disease mechanisms. Disrupted cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis is recognized as a major contributor to the heart failure phenotype, as it plays a key role in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and hypertrophy and apoptosis signaling. In this review, we outline existing knowledge of the involvement of Ca2+ homeostasis in these deficits, and identify four promising targets for therapeutic intervention: the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, the ryanodine receptor, and t-tubule structure. We discuss experimental data indicating the applicability of these targets that has led to recent and ongoing clinical trials, and suggest future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25483944

  7. BCL-2, Ca, and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machen, Terry

    1998-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this project is that bcl-2 controls PCD and oncogenesis by altering Ca permeability by the ER/nuclear membranes, mitochondria and/or plasma membrane of mammary epithelial cells...

  8. Deciphering the molecular nature of ovarian cancer biomarker CA125.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Florian; Martin, Karina; Oehler, Martin K; Hoffmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification method to confirm the identity of this molecule. The need for independent identification of CA125 is exemplified by several reports where mutually exclusive data concerning the existence of isoforms and the glycan moieties is presented. Mass spectrometry can overcome the pitfalls of a single detection/identification method such as antibody probing. Independent verification of CA125 identity in characterization studies will help establish a refined model of its molecular structure that will promote the development of new approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of ovarian cancer.

  9. Deciphering the Molecular Nature of Ovarian Cancer Biomarker CA125

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hoffmann

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ovarian cancer biomarker CA125 has been extensively investigated over the last 30 years. The knowledge about the exact molecular nature of this protein, however, remains fragmented. This review provides an overview of the structural research regarding CA125, and presents an orthogonal verification method to confirm the identity of this molecule. The need for independent identification of CA125 is exemplified by several reports where mutually exclusive data concerning the existence of isoforms and the glycan moieties is presented. Mass spectrometry can overcome the pitfalls of a single detection/identification method such as antibody probing. Independent verification of CA125 identity in characterization studies will help establish a refined model of its molecular structure that will promote the development of new approaches for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of ovarian cancer.

  10. Serum level of tumor marker CA-125 in ovarian pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagni, B.; Feggi, L.M.; Prandini, N.; Pasini, S.; Mollica, G.

    1987-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is an embrional glycoprotein detectable in tissues derived from celomatic epitelium. Serum Ca-125 was determined by RIA in 66 patients with various ovarian pathologies (16 malignant at stage III-IV and 50 benign). Six patients with ovarian carcinoma were monitored during the first week after surgery and chemiotherapy for a total of 150 days of treatment. It has been observed that CA-125 serum level is consistently above the normal range (>35 U/ml) in all malignant diseases. In benign pathology, levels above the normal were found to be represented almost exclusively by ovarian endometriosis. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that chemiotherapy alone is capable of lowering CA-125 serum levels. This tumor marker may be of great advantage in diagnosis and follow-up of ovarian malignancy

  11. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay.

  12. Effects of Inclusions in HSLA Carbon Steel on Pitting Corrosion in CaCl2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ziomek-Moroz; S. Bullard; K. Rozman; J.J. Kruzic

    2011-12-05

    Susceptibility of high strength low alloy steel to localized corrosion was studied in 6.7 M CaCl{sub 2} for oil and natural gas drilling applications. Results of the immersion and electrochemical experiments showed that the steel is susceptible to pitting corrosion. Optical microscopy investigations of the polished samples revealed that 10% of the surface area was occupied by defects in the form of pits. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) chemical analyses revealed higher concentrations of Mn and S compared to the metal matrix in defected areas. These areas served as the sites for development of corrosion pits during both immersion and electrochemical experiments. The fatigue results of the corroded samples indicate that if the pit was the most significant defect, the fatigue crack initiated and propagated at this site.

  13. Soc.ca: Specific Correspondence Analysis for the Social Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Specific and class specific multiple correspondence analysis on survey-like data. Soc.ca is optimized to the needs of the social scientist and presents easily interpretable results in near publication ready quality.......Specific and class specific multiple correspondence analysis on survey-like data. Soc.ca is optimized to the needs of the social scientist and presents easily interpretable results in near publication ready quality....

  14. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  15. Envejecimiento Neuronal y Transporte de Ca2+ Intracelular

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Pérez, Mª Elena

    2017-01-01

    El envejecimiento promueve pérdida cognitiva y susceptibilidad a enfermedades neurodegenerativas, lo que se ha relacionado con la dishomeostasis del Ca2+ intracelular. Para investigar esta hipótesis se utiliza el cultivo a largo plazo de neuronas de hipocampo de rata, modelo de envejecimiento neuronal in vitro. Mediante imagen de fluorescencia se han estudiado cambios en transporte de Ca2+ en neuronas a lo largo del envejecimiento in vitro. Las neuronas se han identificado mediante inmunofluo...

  16. PIK3CA alterations in Middle Eastern ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Shahab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PI3K/AKTsignaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and tumorgenesis of various malignancies. This signaling pathway has been shown to be frequently altered in several human cancers including ovarian cancers. However the role of this oncogenic signaling pathway has not been explored in the Middle Eastern epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Therefore, we investigated PI3K/AKT genetic alterations such as PIK3CA amplification, PIK3CA mutation, PTEN protein loss and their relationships with various clinicopathological characteristics in 156 EOCs. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique and DNA sequencing were used to analyze PIK3CA amplification and mutation respectively. Expression of PIK3CA protein expression (p110 α, PTEN, p-AKT and Ki-67 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. PIK3CA amplification was seen in 54 of 152 (35.5% EOC cases analyzed; PIK3CA gene mutations in 6/153 EOC (3.9%; KRAS mutations in 3/154 EOC (1.9%, BRAF mutations in 3/156 EOC (1.9%, p53 mutation in 50/154 EOC (32.5%, and loss of PTEN protein expression in 33/144 EOC (22.9%. p110 α overexpression was associated with increased phosphorylation of AKT-Ser 473 and with the proliferation marker Ki-67. Conclusion Our data showed mutual exclusivity between the molecular event of PIK3CA amplification and mutations in PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF genes, which suggests that each of these alterations may individually be sufficient to drive ovarian tumor pathogenesis independently. High prevalence of genetic alterations in PI3K/AKT pathway in a Middle Eastern ovarian carcinoma provides genetic evidence supporting the notion that dysregulated PI3K/AKT pathways play an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancers.

  17. Investigation of the RbCa molecule: Experiment and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Krois, G?nter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough theoretical and experimental study of the electronic structure of RbCa. The mixed alkali?alkaline earth molecule RbCa was formed on superfluid helium nanodroplets. Excited states of the molecule in the range of 13?000?23?000?cm?1 were recorded by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The experiment is accompanied by high level ab initio calculations of ground and excited state properties, utilizing a multireference configuration interact...

  18. Negative chemical pressure effects induced by Y substitution for Ca ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic behavior of a solid solution, Ca3-YCo2O6, based on the `exotic' spin-chain compound, Ca3Co2O6, crystallizing in K4CdCl6-derived rhombohedral structure is investigated. Among the compositions investigated ( = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0), single-phase formation persists up to = 0.75, with the ...

  19. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  20. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Koho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific. The local bottom water oxygen (BWO gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS, allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  1. Influence of pairing in double beta decay of 48Ca

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is the natural calculation scheme for this nucleus without truncation. Recently proposed GXPF1A two-body effective interaction has been successfully tested for the fp shell [31–33] to perform 2νββ decay calculations for 48Ca. Recently, Horoi. [30] gave the 2νββ decay matrix elements and half-lives of 48Ca using full fp shell.

  2. Atrial natriuretic peptide regulates Ca channel in early developmental cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Miao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiomyocytes derived from murine embryonic stem (ES cells possess various membrane currents and signaling cascades link to that of embryonic hearts. The role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP in regulation of membrane potentials and Ca(2+ currents has not been investigated in developmental cardiomyocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the role of ANP in regulating L-type Ca(2+ channel current (I(CaL in different developmental stages of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells. ANP decreased the frequency of action potentials (APs in early developmental stage (EDS cardiomyocytes, embryonic bodies (EB as well as whole embryo hearts. ANP exerted an inhibitory effect on basal I(CaL in about 70% EDS cardiomyocytes tested but only in about 30% late developmental stage (LDS cells. However, after stimulation of I(CaL by isoproterenol (ISO in LDS cells, ANP inhibited the response in about 70% cells. The depression of I(CaL induced by ANP was not affected by either Nomega, Nitro-L-Arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthetase (NOS inhibitor, or KT5823, a cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG selective inhibitor, in either EDS and LDS cells; whereas depression of I(CaL by ANP was entirely abolished by erythro-9-(2-Hydroxy-3-nonyl adenine (EHNA, a selective inhibitor of type 2 phosphodiesterase(PDE2 in most cells tested. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCES: Taken together, these results indicate that ANP induced depression of action potentials and I(CaL is due to activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase (GC, cGMP production and cGMP-activation of PDE2 mediated depression of adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophophate (cAMP-cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA in early cardiomyogenesis.

  3. Dynamic polarizabilities for the low lying states of Ca+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yong-Bo; Shi, Ting-Yun; Qiao, Hao-Xue; Mitroy, J

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic polarizabilities of the 4s, 3d and 4p states of Ca + are calculated using a relativistic structure model. The wavelengths at which the Stark shifts between different pairs of transitions are zero are calculated. Experimental determination of the magic wavelengths could prove useful in developing better atomic structure models and in particular lead to improved values of the polarizabilities for the Ca + (3d) states

  4. Negative chemical pressure effects induced by Y substitution for Ca ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the magnetic chain may be useful to the overall understanding of the novel magnetism of the parent compound. Keywords. Spin-chains; Ca3Co2O6; chemical pressure; magnetic order; quantum tun- neling. PACS Nos 75.50.-y; 75.30.Cr; 75.40.Cx. 1. Introduction. Among spin-chain systems, the compound, Ca3Co2O6 [1,2], ...

  5. Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells form functionally distinct sublayers

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuseki, Kenji; Diba, Kamran; Pastalkova, Eva; Buzsáki, György

    2011-01-01

    Summary Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons have frequently been regarded as a homogeneous cell population in biophysical, pharmacological and modeling studies. Here we report robust differences between pyramidal neurons residing in the deep and superficial CA1 sublayers in the rat. Compared to their superficial peers, deep pyramidal cells fired at higher rates, burst more frequently, were more likely to have place fields and were more strongly modulated by slow oscillations of sleep. Both deep...

  6. Negative chemical pressure effects induced by Y substitution for Ca ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Negative chemical pressure effects on Ca3Co2O6. Figure 3. Inverse of magnetic susceptibility (χ) as a function of tempera- ture (30–300 K) for Ca3−xYxCo2O6, obtained in a field of 5 kOe. A straight line is drawn through the high-temperature linear region to highlight the x-dependence of θp. The low-temperature data ...

  7. Oxidized CaMKII (Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II) Is Essential for Ventricular Arrhythmia in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongling; Quick, Ann P; Cao, Shuyi; Reynolds, Julia; Chiang, David Y; Beavers, David; Li, Na; Wang, Guoliang; Rodney, George G; Anderson, Mark E; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2018-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients are prone to ventricular arrhythmias, which may be caused by abnormal calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis and elevated reactive oxygen species. CaMKII (Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is vital for normal Ca 2+ homeostasis, but excessive CaMKII activity contributes to abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis and arrhythmias in cardiomyocytes. Reactive oxygen species induce CaMKII to become autonomously active. We hypothesized that genetic inhibition of CaMKII oxidation (ox-CaMKII) in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy can alleviate abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis, thus, preventing ventricular arrhythmia. The objective of this study was to test if selective loss of ox-CaMKII affects ventricular arrhythmias in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 5-(6)-Chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining revealed increased reactive oxygen species production in ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx mice, which coincides with elevated ventricular ox-CaMKII demonstrated by Western blotting. Genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII by knockin replacement of the regulatory domain methionines with valines (MM-VV [CaMKII M281/282V]) prevented ventricular tachycardia in mdx mice. Confocal calcium imaging of ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx :MM-VV mice revealed normalization of intracellular Ca 2+ release events compared with cardiomyocytes from mdx mice. Abnormal action potentials assessed by optical mapping in mdx mice were also alleviated by genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII. Knockout of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit p47 phox normalized elevated ox-CaMKII, repaired intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, and rescued inducible ventricular arrhythmias in mdx mice. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species or ox-CaMKII protects against proarrhythmic intracellular Ca 2+ handling and prevents ventricular arrhythmia in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  9. The investigation of minoxidil-induced [Ca2+]irises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Shu; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Chen, Fu-An; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-01

    Minoxidil is clinically used to prevent hair loss. However, its effect on Ca 2+ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unclear. This study explored the effect of minoxidil on cytosolic-free Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and cell viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. Minoxidil at concentrations between 200 and 800 μM evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. This Ca 2+ signal was inhibited by 60% by removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ influx was confirmed by Mn 2+ -induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Pre-treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), nifedipine and SKF96365 inhibited minoxidil-induced Ca 2+ signal in Ca 2+ containing medium by 60%. Treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ pump inhibitor 2,5-ditert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ) in Ca 2+ -free medium abolished minoxidil-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Conversely, treatment with minoxidil abolished BHQ-induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) with U73122 abolished minoxidil-evoked [Ca 2+ ] i rises. Overnight treatment with minoxidil killed cells at concentrations of 200-600 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca 2+ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent minoxidil's cytotoxicity. Together, in PC3 cells, minoxidil induced [Ca 2+ ] i rises that involved Ca 2+ entry through PKC-regulated store-operated Ca 2+ channels and PLC-dependent Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Minoxidil-induced cytotoxicity in a Ca 2+ -independent manner.

  10. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Serum Levels of Five Tumor Markers (Carcinoembryonic Antigen, CA19-9, Alpha-fetoprotein, CA72-4, and CA125) in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Jun, Kyong-Hwa; Jung, Hun; Park, In-Soo; Chin, Hyung-Min

    2014-05-01

    There is no known specific tumor marker for gastric cancer, although several tumor markers have been used. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), CA 72-4, and CA 125 levels in patients with gastric cancer. Medical records of 1,253 patients who were diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The clinicopathologic characteristics and disease-free survival rate of the patients were compared between positive and negative CEA, CA 19-9, AFP, CA 72-4, and CA 125 groups of patients. Additionally, the prognostic significance of each tumor marker was assessed by multivariate analysis. CEA, CA19-9, and CA72-4 were more frequently positive in patients with lymphatic and venous invasion, serosal involvement, and lymph node metastasis. The 5-year overall survival and disease free survival rates were significantly associated with elevated serum levels of CEA, CA 19-9, and CA 72-4. The depth of invasion and CA 19-9 were independent prognostic factors. Patients with elevated serum levels of CA 19-9 showed a 3.35-fold higher risk of death than patients with low levels of the marker. CA 19-9 has prognostic significance in gastric cancer, and a high preoperative serum level of CA 19-9 can be useful for estimating worse prognosis and a higher recurrence of gastric cancer.

  11. Preliminary results on the use of Ca 15-3 in malignant ovarian pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romagnoli, S.; Ferdeghini, M.; Bianchi, R.; Ferdeghini, M.; Bianchi, R.; Scatena, P.; Gaducci, A.; Bartolini, T.; Facchini, V.; Fioretti, P.

    1987-01-01

    Ca 15-3 was evaluated as a tumoral marker for ovarian carcinoma and compared to Ca 125, Ca 19-9 and TPA. Fourteen women with untreated malignant epitelial ovarian neoplasm and 52 women with various gynecological pathologies (16 benign ovarian tumors, 9 endometriosis, 16 malignant uterine tumors, 8 malignant uterine tumors and 3 vulvar carcinomas) were studied. All patients were sampled once before surgery. Patients with ovarian carcinoma were also sampled monthly for 18 months during and after chemiotherapy. Serum concentrations were assayed with an immunoradiometric assay using monoclonal antibodies (Ca 15-3, Ca 125 and Ca 19-9) or with a radioimmunoassay using polyclonal antibodies (TPA). Sensitivity and specificity were 42.9% and 92.3% for Ca 15-3, 71.4% and 94.2% for Ca 125, 28.6% and 92.3% for Ca 19-9, 71.4% and 80.8% for TPA, respectively. When Ca 15-3 was evaluated in association with Ca 125 and Ca 19-9 sensitivity and specificity were 71.4% and 88.5% for Ca 15-3 + Ca 125, and 64.3% and 88.5% for Ca 15-3 + Ca 19-9 respectively. Ca 125 gave the best accuracy and specificity. Ca 15-3 was positively correlated to Ca 125 (P<0.01) but because of its lower sensitivity cannot be used alone for monitoring ovarian malignant epithelial neoplasms

  12. Correlation of CA-125 with different stages of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Laila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the association of serum cancer antigen (CA-125 level with the severity of pelvic endometriosis. Seventy diagnosed cases of pelvic endometriosis were included in this study. The CA-125 level was estimated in all these patients, cutoff value of the serum CA-125 level was considered 35.0 U/mL. The correlations between serum CA-125 and different stages of endometriosis were evaluated by linear regression analysis. In Stage I of endometriosis, the mean serum CA-125 level was 21.8 ± 15.1 U/mL, in Stage II 26.0 ± 17.3 U/mL, in Stage III 83.2 ± 48.9 U/mL and in Stage IV 117.0 ± 41.6 U/mL. A significant positive correlation (r=0.729; p=0.001 was found between the serum CA-125 and different stages of endometriosis.

  13. Ca isotopic geochemistry of an Antarctic aquatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Bullen, Thomas D.; Welch, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, are a polar desert ecosystem. The hydrologic system of the dry valleys is linked to climate with ephemeral streams that flow from glacial melt during the austral summer. Past climate variations have strongly influenced the closed-basin, chemically stratified lakes on the valley floor. Results of previous work point to important roles for both in-stream processes (e.g., mineral weathering, precipitation and dissolution of salts) and in-lake processes (e.g., mixing with paleo-seawater and calcite precipitation) in determining the geochemistry of these lakes. These processes have a significant influence on calcium (Ca) biogeochemistry in this aquatic ecosystem, and thus variations in Ca stable isotope compositions of the waters can aid in validating the importance of these processes. We have analyzed the Ca stable isotope compositions of streams and lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The results validate the important roles of weathering of aluminosilicate minerals and/or CaCO3 in the hyporheic zone of the streams, and mixing of lake surface water with paleo-seawater and precipitation of Ca-salts during cryo-concentration events to form the deep lake waters. The lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys evolved following different geochemical pathways, evidenced by their unique, nonsystematic Ca isotope signatures.

  14. Coping with Asymmetric Channel Losses in CSMA/CA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the discrepancy between past theoretical analysis and real measurements for high-load scenarios for intersession network coding, we pinpoint and analyze the source of this discrepancy in wireless networks implementing a CSMA/CA medium access scheme. Our analysis shows that CSMA/CA is ......) confirm the sensitivity of the CSMA/CA scheme in real implementations, and (ii) shows that our adaptive protocol provides a simple, yet potent mechanism to cope with asymmetric channel losses and ultimately to enhance end-to-end throughput in high-load scenarios.......Inspired by the discrepancy between past theoretical analysis and real measurements for high-load scenarios for intersession network coding, we pinpoint and analyze the source of this discrepancy in wireless networks implementing a CSMA/CA medium access scheme. Our analysis shows that CSMA....../CA is very sensitive to asymmetric channel losses caused by channel conditions. Leveraging this analysis, we present an adaptive channel priority protocol that copes with asymmetric channel losses while being compatible with CSMA/CA. We implement this protocol and perform real-life measurements that (i...

  15. Early postischemic 45Ca accumulation in rat dentate hilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benveniste, H.; Diemer, N.H.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have found postischemic regional accumulation of calcium to be time-dependent and coincident with the progression of ischemic cell change. In the most vulnerable cells in the hippocampus one would therefore expect to find a primary and specific early uptake of calcium after ischemia. Autoradiograms of 45 Ca and 3 H-inulin distribution were investigated before and 1 h after 20 min ischemia in the rat hippocampus. Two different methodological approaches were used for administration of 45 Ca: (a) administration via microdialysis probes, (b) intraventricular injection. During control conditions the 45 Ca autoradiograms showed variations in distribution volume in accordance with 3 H-inulin determination of extracellular space size. One hour after ischemia a massive accumulation of 45 Ca was found in the dentate hilus. No change in the distribution pattern of 3 H-inulin could be demonstrated 1 h after ischemia. We suggest that 45 Ca accumulation in dentate hilus 1 h after ischemia is a result of increased Ca 2+ uptake before irreversible cell damage occurs and is not due to passive influx of calcium across a leaky plasma membrane

  16. Ca-Lignosulphonate and sclerotial viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTEO MONTANARI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignosulphonates, low cost by-products of the pulping process, have shown suppressive effects against some diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of 1.5% v/v calcium lignosulphonate (Ca-Ls amendment to two commercial potting mixes (peat + coconut fibres; PC; and municipal compost + peat + pumice; MCPP on the viability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia was investigated. Sclerotia were buried in the Ca-Ls amended substrates for 30 days. Non-amended PC and MCPP, sterile sand and sterile PC with and without Ca-Ls were used as controls. The viability of sclerotia recovered from PC and MCPP amended with Ca-Ls was reduced by 50 and 42% respectively compared to control treatments. Ca-Ls amendment decreased sclerotial viability by enhancing the activity of the indigenous mycoparasitic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor spp. and Trichoderma spp. The biocontrol ability of Ca-Ls against sclerotia was due to the stimulation of microbial activity and is, therefore, strictly dependent on the microbial composition of the substrate.

  17. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} bioactive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Lucas F.B.; Maniglia, Bianca C.; Pereira, Lourivaldo S.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Ramos, Ana P., E-mail: anapr@ffclrp.usp.br

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO{sub 3} particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO{sub 3} incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO{sub 3} deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO{sub 3} particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. - Highlights: • Hybrid kappa and iota carrageenan-CaCO{sub 3} membranes were formed. • The hybrid membrane's origin hydroxyapatite after exposure to simulated body fluid • The carrageenan's specificity to bind Ca{sup 2+} ions tailors the surface properties.

  18. Nuclear structure of 41Ca from inelastic proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, P.B.; Cline, D.; Voigt, M.J.A. de

    1977-01-01

    Angular distributions have been measured for inelastic and elastic scattering of 19 MeV protons on 40 41 Ca. A total of 89 levels were identified below 6.4 MeV in 41 Ca with an energy resolution of 12 keV. Inelastic transition strengths have been extracted using DWBA theory with a vibrational model form factor. These transition strengths correlate well with inelastic α-scattering and electromagnetic values. The quadrupole strengths are interpreted in terms of the coexistence model and imply that the excited-core admixture in the ground states of both 40 Ca and 41 Ca are approximately 5%. The octupole strengths in 41 Ca exhibits features characteristic of the weak coupling of an fsub(7/2) neutron to the lowest 3 - state in 40 Ca. The l = 5 strength exhibits a similar weak-coupling behavior. In both cases the microscopic structure appreciably reduces the transition strength for the highest spin member of the weak-coupling multiplets. (Auth.)

  19. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  20. Crystal growth and optical properties of Sm:CaNb2O6 single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Juqing; Xu Xiaodong; Xia Changtai; Zeng Huidan; Cheng Yan; Li Dongzhen; Zhou Dahua; Wu Feng; Cheng Jimeng; Xu Jun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. ► Thermal expansion coefficients and J–O parameters were calculated. ► We found that this crystal had high quantum efficiency of 97%. - Abstract: Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 single crystal has been grown by the Czochralski method. Its high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction, optical absorption, emission spectroscopic as well as lifetime have been studied. Thermal expansion coefficients (α), J–O parameters (Ω i ), radiative lifetime (τ rad ), branching ratios (β) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ e ) were calculated. The quantum efficiency (η) was calculated to be 97%. The intense peak emission cross section at 610, 658 nm were calculated to be 2.40 × 10 −21 , 2.42 × 10 −21 cm 2 . These results indicate that Sm:CaNb 2 O 6 crystal has potential use in visible laser and photonic devices area.

  1. CO2-laser ablation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide by millisecond pulse lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskoob, M.; Honda, T.; Safari, A.; Wachtman, J. B.; Danforth, S.; Wilkens, B. J.

    1990-03-01

    We have achieved ablation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide from single targets of superconducting pellets by CO2-laser pulses of l ms length to grow superconducting thin films. Upon annealing, the 6000-Å thin films have a Tc (onset) of 90 K and zero resistance at 78 K. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the growth of single-phase thin films. This technique allows growth of uniform single-phase superconducting thin films of lateral area greater than 1 cm2.

  2. Imaging a memory trace over half a life-time in the medial temporal lobe reveals a time-limited role of CA3 neurons in retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Vanessa; Atucha, Erika; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2016-01-01

    Whether retrieval still depends on the hippocampus as memories age or relies then on cortical areas remains a major controversy. Despite evidence for a functional segregation between CA1, CA3 and parahippocampal areas, their specific role within this frame is unclear. Especially, the contribution of CA3 is questionable as very remote memories might be too degraded to be used for pattern completion. To identify the specific role of these areas, we imaged brain activity in mice during retrieval of recent, early remote and very remote fear memories by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc. Investigating correlates of the memory trace over an extended period allowed us to report that, in contrast to CA1, CA3 is no longer recruited in very remote retrieval. Conversely, we showed that parahippocampal areas are then maximally engaged. These results suggest a shift from a greater contribution of the trisynaptic loop to the temporoammonic pathway for retrieval. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11862.001 PMID:26880561

  3. CA-Markov Analysis of Constrained Coastal Urban Growth Modeling: Hua Hin Seaside City, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Shrestha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand, a developing country in Southeast Asia, is experiencing rapid development, particularly urban growth as a response to the expansion of the tourism industry. Hua Hin city provides an excellent example of an area where urbanization has flourished due to tourism. This study focuses on how the dynamic urban horizontal expansion of the seaside city of Hua Hin is constrained by the coast, thus making sustainability for this popular tourist destination—managing and planning for its local inhabitants, its visitors, and its sites—an issue. The study examines the association of land use type and land use change by integrating Geo-Information technology, a statistic model, and CA-Markov analysis for sustainable land use planning. The study identifies that the land use types and land use changes from the year 1999 to 2008 have changed as a result of increased mobility; this trend, in turn, has everything to do with urban horizontal expansion. The changing sequences of land use type have developed from forest area to agriculture, from agriculture to grassland, then to bare land and built-up areas. Coastal urban growth has, for a decade, been expanding horizontally from a downtown center along the beach to the western area around the golf course, the southern area along the beach, the southwest grassland area, and then the northern area near the airport.

  4. Astragaloside IV Inhibits Membrane Ca[Formula: see text] Current but Enhances Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca[Formula: see text] Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Mi; Lian, Wen-Wen; Li, Zhuo; Shao, Dong-Xue; Chen, Si-Chong; Sun, Xue-Fei; Hu, Hui-Yuan; Feng, Rui; Guo, Feng; Hao, Li-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is one of the active ingredients in Astragalus membrananceus (Huangqi), a traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the effects of AS-IV on Ca[Formula: see text] handling in cardiac myocytes to elucidate its possible mechanism in the treatment of cardiac disease. The results showed that AS-IV at 1 and 10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M reduced KCl-induced [Ca[Formula: see text

  5. Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase IIα (αCaMKII) Controls the Activity of the Dopamine Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Thomas; Yang, Jae-Won; Montgomery, Therese R.; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Winkler, Marie-Therese; Sucic, Sonja; Lubec, Gert; Freissmuth, Michael; Elgersma, Ype; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a crucial regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission, controlling the length and brevity of dopaminergic signaling. DAT is also the primary target of psychostimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines. Conversely, methylphenidate and amphetamine are both used clinically in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. The action of amphetamines, which induce transport reversal, relies primarily on the ionic composition of the intra- and extracellular milieus. Recent findings suggest that DAT interacting proteins may also play a significant role in the modulation of reverse dopamine transport. The pharmacological inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase αCaMKII attenuates amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) efflux. More importantly, αCaMKII has also been shown to bind DAT in vitro and is therefore believed to be an important player within the DAT interactome. Herein, we show that αCaMKII co-immunoprecipitates with DAT in mouse striatal synaptosomes. Mice, which lack αCaMKII or which express a permanently self-inhibited αCaMKII (αCaMKIIT305D), exhibit significantly reduced amphetamine-triggered DAT-mediated MPP+ efflux. Additionally, we investigated mice that mimic a neurogenetic disease known as Angelman syndrome. These mice possess reduced αCaMKII activity. Angelman syndrome mice demonstrated an impaired DAT efflux function, which was comparable with that of the αCaMKII mutant mice, indicating that DAT-mediated dopaminergic signaling is affected in Angelman syndrome. PMID:22778257

  6. TRPM5 is a transient Ca2+-activated cation channel responding to rapid changes in [Ca2+]i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawitt, Dirk; Monteilh-Zoller, Mahealani K; Brixel, Lili; Spangenberg, Christian; Zabel, Bernhard; Fleig, Andrea; Penner, Reinhold

    2003-12-09

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are a diverse family of proteins with structural features typical of ion channels. TRPM5, a member of the TRPM subfamily, plays an important role in taste receptors, although its activation mechanism remains controversial and its function in signal transduction is unknown. Here we characterize the functional properties of heterologously expressed human TRPM5 in HEK-293 cells. TRPM5 displays characteristics of a calcium-activated, nonselective cation channel with a unitary conductance of 25 pS. TRPM5 is a monovalent-specific, nonselective cation channel that carries Na+, K+, and Cs+ ions equally well, but not Ca2+ ions. It is directly activated by [Ca2+]i at concentrations of 0.3-1 microM, whereas higher concentrations are inhibitory, resulting in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. It activates and deactivates rapidly even during sustained elevations in [Ca2+]i, thereby inducing a transient membrane depolarization. TRPM5 does not simply mirror levels of [Ca2+]i, but instead responds to the rate of change in [Ca2+]i in that it requires rapid changes in [Ca2+]i to generate significant whole-cell currents, whereas slow elevations in [Ca2+]i to equivalent levels are ineffective. Moreover, we demonstrate that TRPM5 is not limited to taste signal transduction, because we detect the presence of TRPM5 in a variety of tissues and we identify endogenous TRPM5-like currents in a pancreatic beta cell line. TRPM5 can be activated physiologically by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-producing receptor agonists, and it may therefore couple intracellular Ca2+ release to electrical activity and subsequent cellular responses.

  7. Acute systemic MK-801 induced functional uncoupling between hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 with distant effect in the retrosplenial cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Helena; Fajnerová, Iveta; Stuchlík, Aleš; Kubík, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2017), s. 134-144 ISSN 1050-9631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Arc * Homer1a * ensemble coding * cognitive control * hypersynchrony * hyperassociation * psychosis * NMDA antagonist * schizophrenia * animal model Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.945, year: 2016

  8. Ca2+signaling and emesis: Recent progress and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weixia; Picca, Andrew J; Lee, Albert S; Darmani, Nissar A

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin-like chemotherapeutics cause vomiting via calcium (Ca 2+ )-dependent release of multiple neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, substance P, etc.) from the gastrointestinal enterochromaffin cells and/or the brainstem. Intracellular Ca 2+ signaling is triggered by activation of diverse emetic receptors (including tachykininergic NK 1 , serotonergic 5-HT 3 , dopaminergic D 2 , cholinergic M 1 , or histaminergic H 1 ) , whose activation in vomit-competent species can evoke emesis. Other emetogens such as cisplatin, rotavirus NSP4 protein and bacterial toxins can also induce intracellular Ca 2+ elevation. Netupitant is a highly selective neurokinin NK 1 receptor (NK 1 R) antagonist and palonosetron is a selective second-generation serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 R) antagonist with a distinct pharmacological profile. An oral fixed combination of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA; Akynzeo(®)) with >85% antiemetic efficacy is available for use in the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Cannabinoid CB 1 receptor agonists possess broad-spectrum antiemetic activity since they prevent vomiting caused by a variety of emetic stimuli including the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, 5-HT 3 R agonists, and D 2 R agonists. Our findings demonstrate that application of the L-type Ca 2+ channel (LTCC) agonist FPL 64176 and the intracellular Ca 2+ mobilizing agent thapsigargin (a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase inhibitor) cause vomiting in the least shrew. On the other hand, blockade of LTCCs by corresponding antagonists (nifedipine or amlodipine) not only provide broad-spectrum antiemetic efficacy against diverse agents that specifically activate emetogenic receptors such as 5-HT 3 , NK 1 , D 2 , and M 1 receptors, but can also potentiate the antiemetic efficacy of palonosetron against the non-specific emetogen, cisplatin. In this review, we will provide an overview of Ca 2+ involvement in the emetic process; discuss the

  9. [Effect of electromagnetic radiation on discharge activity of neurons in the hippocampus CA1 in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jun; Chen, Su; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Hao, Dong-Mei

    2013-09-01

    In order to explore effect of electromagnetic radiation on learning and memory ability of hippocampus neuron in rats, the changes in discharge patterns and overall electrical activity of hippocampus neuron after electromagnetic radiation were observed. Rat neurons discharge was recorded with glass electrode extracellular recording technology and a polygraph respectively. Radiation frequency of electromagnetic wave was 900 MHZ and the power was 10 W/m2. In glass electrode extracellular recording, the rats were separately irradiated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min, every points repeated 10 times and updated interval of 1h, observing the changes in neuron discharge and spontaneous discharge patterns after electromagnetic radiation. In polygraph recording experiments, irradiation group rats for five days a week, 6 hours per day, repeatedly for 10 weeks, memory electrical changes in control group and irradiation group rats when they were feeding were repeatedly monitored by the implanted electrodes, observing the changes in peak electric digits and the largest amplitude in hippocampal CA1 area, and taking some electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence for correlation analysis. (1) Electromagnetic radiation had an inhibitory role on discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons. After electromagnetic radiation, discharge frequency of the hippocampus CA1 region neurons was reduced, but the changes in scale was not obvious. (2) Electromagnetic radiation might change the spontaneous discharge patterns of hippocampus CA1 region neurons, which made the explosive discharge pattern increased obviously. (3) Peak potential total number within 5 min in irradiation group was significantly reduced, the largest amplitude was less than that of control group. (4) Using mathematical method to make the correlation analysis of the electromagnetic radiation sampling sequence, that of irradiation group was less than that of control group, indicating that there was a tending

  10. Proteic sol-gel synthesis of copper doped misfit Ca-cobaltites with potential SOFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Chrystian G.M. [Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Silva, Rinaldo M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Aquino, Flávia de M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Center, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Raveau, Bernard; Caignaert, Vincent [Laboratoire CRISMAT ENSICAEN UMR CNRS 6508, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen Cedex 04 (France); Cesário, Moisés R., E-mail: moises.cesario@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT ENSICAEN UMR CNRS 6508, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen Cedex 04 (France); Macedo, Daniel A., E-mail: damaced@gmail.com [Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The present work reports the synthesis, structure and electrochemical assessment of Cu-doped calcium cobaltites as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Powders of composition Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were obtained by a proteic sol-gel method which uses gelatin as polymerizing agent. As-prepared materials were calcined at 900 °C for 1 h and characterized by X-ray diffraction, with Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data, and scanning electron microscopy. Screen-printed porous electrodes fired (at 950 °C for 2 h) on both faces of ceria based electrolytes were electrochemically characterized by impedance spectroscopy between 600 and 800 °C in air atmosphere. The results indicated the attainment of Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} solid solutions with monoclinic misfit layered structure and around 2 vol% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a secondary phase. Micro-plates like powders had irregular shape and average diameter near 2 μm. The area specific resistance (ASR) is in line with literature data for cathodes of similar compositions prepared by other synthetic routes. ASR was optimized for the composition Ca{sub 2.99}Cu{sub 0.01}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ}, achieving 0.84 Ω cm{sup 2} at 800 °C in air. - Highlights: • Proteic sol-gel synthesis of Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2). • Cu{sup 2+} doping enhances electrode densification. • Area specific resistance (ASR = 0.84 Ω cm{sup 2} at 800 °C) optimized for Ca{sub 2.99}Cu{sub 0.01}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ}.

  11. Patch-clamp recording of charge movement, Ca(2+) current, and Ca(2+) transients in adult skeletal muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZM; Messi, ML; Delbono, O

    1999-01-01

    Intramembrane charge movement (Q), Ca(2+) conductance (G(m)) through the dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channel (DHPR) and intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence (F) have been recorded simultaneously in flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers of adult mice, using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. The voltage distribution of Q was fitted to a Boltzmann equation; the Q(max), V(1/2Q), and effective valence (z(Q)) values were 41 +/- 3.1 nC/&mgr;F, -17.6 +/- 0.7 mV, and 2.0 +/- 0.12, respectively. V(1/2G) and z(G) values were -0.3 +/- 0.06 mV and 5.6 +/- 0.34, respectively. Peak Ca(2+) transients did not change significantly after 30 min of recording. F was fit to a Boltzmann equation, and the values for V(F1/2) and z(F) were 6.2 +/- 0.04 mV and 2.4, respectively. F was adequately fit to the fourth power of Q. These results demonstrate that the patch-clamp technique is appropriate for recording Q, G(m), and intracellular [Ca(2+)] simultaneously in mature skeletal muscle fibers and that the voltage distribution of the changes in intracellular Ca(2+) can be predicted by a Hodgkin-Huxley model. PMID:10545370

  12. Effects of vitamin D metabolites on cellular Ca2+ and on Ca transport in primary cultures of bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, Y; Szydel, N; Harell, A

    1980-09-01

    Both 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (24,25(OH)2D3) exerted direct effects on Ca2+ transport and accumulation in primary cultures of bone cells. The following changes were recorded. (1) A significant decrease in the amount of intracellular exchangeable Ca2+. (2) A marked increase in the rate constants of efflux from the 'slow'-turnover intracellular Ca pool. (3) A marked increase in the 'initial rate' of Ca influx into the cells. Thus, vitamin D metabolites caused an increase in the turnover of Ca2+ in bone cells and altered the steady-stae level of intracellular exchangeable Ca2+. Whereas the changes in the rate of efflux were abolished in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, the increase in the rate of influx was not sensitive to these inhibitors. It is suggested that the changes in the two fluxes were mediated by different mechanisms and that the changes in influx were due to a direct effect of vitamin D metabolites on the cellular membranes.

  13. CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Isaksson

    Full Text Available Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease.Blood samples were collected prior to lung cancer surgery from 107 patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated at Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden, between 2005 and 2011. The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, Neuron-specific enolase (NSE, Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125, Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4 and Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9 were analyzed retrospectively and clinical follow-up data were collected from patient charts. Forty (37% patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease.Sixty-eight (64% patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. In analysis of disease-free survival (DFS, CA 125 and/or CA 19-9 were significantly associated with recurrent disease adjusted to stage and adjuvant treatment (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.7, p = 0.006.High pre-operative serum CA 19-9 and/or CA 125 might indicate an increased incidence of recurrent disease in resectable lung adenocarcinomas.

  14. Astragalus Granule Prevents Ca2+ Current Remodeling in Heart Failure by the Downregulation of CaMKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Astragalus was broadly used for treating heart failure (HF and arrhythmias in East Asia for thousands of years. Astragalus granule (AG, extracted from Astragalus, shows beneficial effect on the treatment of HF in clinical research. We hypothesized that administration of AG prevents the remodeling of L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L in HF mice by the downregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII. Methods. HF mice were induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC. After 4 weeks of AG treatment, cardiac function and QT interval were evaluated. Single cardiac ventricular myocyte was then isolated and whole-cell patch clamp was used to record action potential (AP and ICa-L. The expressions of L-type calcium channel alpha 1C subunit (Cav1.2, CaMKII, and phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA were examined by western blot. Results. The failing heart manifested distinct electrical remodeling including prolonged repolarization time and altered ICa-L kinetics. AG treatment attenuated this electrical remodeling, supported by AG-related shortened repolarization time, decreased peak ICa-L, accelerated ICa-L inactivation, and positive frequency-dependent ICa-L facilitation. In addition, AG treatment suppressed the overexpression of CaMKII, but not p-PKA, in the failing heart. Conclusion. AG treatment protected the failing heart against electrical remodeling and ICa-L remodeling by downregulating CaMKII.

  15. CA 19-9 and CA 125 as potential predictors of disease recurrence in resectable lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Sofi; Jönsson, Per; Monsef, Nastaran; Brunnström, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Jönsson, Mats; Staaf, Johan; Planck, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Among patients who underwent primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), recurrent disease is frequent and cannot be accurately predicted solely from TNM stage and histopathological features. The aim of this study was to examine the association of tumor markers in pre-operative serum with recurrent disease. Blood samples were collected prior to lung cancer surgery from 107 patients with stage I-III lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated at Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden, between 2005 and 2011. The serum tumor markers Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and Carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) were analyzed retrospectively and clinical follow-up data were collected from patient charts. Forty (37%) patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease. Sixty-eight (64%) patients had at least one elevated tumor marker prior to surgery. In analysis of disease-free survival (DFS), CA 125 and/or CA 19-9 were significantly associated with recurrent disease adjusted to stage and adjuvant treatment (hazard ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.7, p = 0.006). High pre-operative serum CA 19-9 and/or CA 125 might indicate an increased incidence of recurrent disease in resectable lung adenocarcinomas.

  16. Effects of induced Na+/Ca2+exchanger overexpression on the spatial distribution of L-type Ca2+channels and junctophilin-2 in pressure-overloaded hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Satoshi; Katanosaka, Yuki

    2016-11-25

    The Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) is an essential Ca 2+ efflux system in cardiomyocytes. Although NCX1 is distributed throughout the sarcolemma, a subpopulation of NCX1 is localized to transverse (T)-tubules. There is growing evidence that T-tubule disorganization is a causal event that shifts the transition from hypertrophy to heart failure (HF). However, the detailed molecular mechanisms have not been clarified. Previously, we showed that induced NCX1 expression in pressure-overloaded hearts attenuates defective excitation-contraction coupling and HF progression. Here, we examined the effects of induced NCX1 overexpression on the spatial distribution of L-type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs) and junctophilin-2 (JP2), a structural protein that connects the T-tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, in pressure-overloaded hearts. Quantitative analysis showed that the regularity of NCX1 localization was significantly decreased at 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-surgery; however, T-tubule organization and the regularities of LTCC and JP2 immunofluorescent signals were maintained at this time point. These observations demonstrated that release of NCX1 from the T-tubule area occurred before the onset of T-tubule disorganization and LTCC and JP2 mislocalization. Moreover, induced NCX1 overexpression at 8 weeks post-TAC not only recovered NCX1 regularity but also prevented the decrease in LTCC and JP2 regularities at 16 weeks post-TAC. These results suggested that NCX1 may play an important role in the proper spatial distribution of LTCC and JP2 in T-tubules in the context of pressure-overloading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improving the capability of an integrated CA-Markov model to simulate spatio-temporal urban growth trends using an Analytical Hierarchy Process and Frequency Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Maher Milad; Ho, Yuek Ming; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ash'aari, Zulfa Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The creation of an accurate simulation of future urban growth is considered one of the most important challenges in urban studies that involve spatial modeling. The purpose of this study is to improve the simulation capability of an integrated CA-Markov Chain (CA-MC) model using CA-MC based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and CA-MC based on Frequency Ratio (FR), both applied in Seremban, Malaysia, as well as to compare the performance and accuracy between the traditional and hybrid models. Various physical, socio-economic, utilities, and environmental criteria were used as predictors, including elevation, slope, soil texture, population density, distance to commercial area, distance to educational area, distance to residential area, distance to industrial area, distance to roads, distance to highway, distance to railway, distance to power line, distance to stream, and land cover. For calibration, three models were applied to simulate urban growth trends in 2010; the actual data of 2010 were used for model validation utilizing the Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Kappa coefficient methods Consequently, future urban growth maps of 2020 and 2030 were created. The validation findings confirm that the integration of the CA-MC model with the FR model and employing the significant driving force of urban growth in the simulation process have resulted in the improved simulation capability of the CA-MC model. This study has provided a novel approach for improving the CA-MC model based on FR, which will provide powerful support to planners and decision-makers in the development of future sustainable urban planning.

  18. Tumor marker CA-125 in adnexal inflammatory tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The glycoprotein of a high molecular weight CA-125, which is not a specific tumor marker of ovarian cancer, is secreted by the endothelial cells of most pelvic organs. Endometriosis, inflammatory processes in the pelvic cavity, as well as some nongynecoligical malignant diseases, could be followed by the increased values of CA-125. Serial assessment of the values of CA- 125 makes it possible to avoid surgical treatment, and, by means of the used conservative treatment, to avoid malignant diseases not to be noticed. Methods. The study included 57 female patients hospitalized due to inflammable adnexal tumors. Besides following the values of serum CA-125 during and after the therapy, also performed were the transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography and the determination of the values of resistance index (RI. Results. In 27 patients (55.1% the CA-125 values ranged from 38.8 U/ml to 794 U/ml, while in 30 of the patients they were within the range of normal. In this group of the patients, besides the increased values of CA- 125, also increased were the values of leucocytes (119/l − 209/l, as well as the sedimentation rates (65−120 within the first hour. In all the 57 patients, transvaginal Doppler ultrasonography revealed the presence of adnexal tumor of inflammatory kind. The measured values of RI were within the range of 0.539−0.681. Eight of the patients were treated by the conservative - triple antibiotic therapy, while in 49 patients explorative laparotomy was performed. Hystorectomy was done in 12 of the patients, and one-side adnexectomy in 37 of them. Conclusion. The method for the assessment of CA-125 is simple and available which facilitates the monitoring of surgical, conservative or the combined therapy that is particularly significant in younger patients with inflammable adnexal tumor developed on the basis of endometrosis.

  19. In-situ thermal analysis and macroscopical characterization of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5Ca-xZn alloy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahany, Saeed [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza, E-mail: Rezabakhsheshi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Idris, Mohd Hasbullah [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implants Technology Group, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Biomechanics and Biomedical Materials, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Lotfabadi, Amir Fereidouni [Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Ourdjini, Ali [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Ca and Zn addition on Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca and Zn addition decreased solid fraction at coherency point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T{sub N}-T{sub DCP} increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three reactions were detected when Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.25 in Mg-Ca-Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new peak Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20} was identified in Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn in addition of other peaks. - Abstract: This research described the identification phases by thermal analysis and microscopy inspection of Mg-xCa and Mg-0.5%Ca-xZn alloys that were solidified at slow cooling rate. Analysis of cooling curve after Ca addition shows the evolution of the Mg{sub 2}Ca intermetallic phase at around 520 Degree-Sign C in addition to {alpha}-Mg phase. First derivative curves of alloys after the addition of Zn to Mg-0.5Ca alloy reveals three peaks related to {alpha}-Mg, Mg{sub 2}Ca and Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 6}Zn{sub 3} for alloys that have Zn/Ca atomic ratio less than 1.23. The peak of Mg{sub 2}Ca reaction on the first derivative curves disappeared for alloys containing Zn/Ca ratio more than 1.23. A new peak was also observed at 330 Degree-Sign C for Mg-0.5Ca-9Zn which was identified as Mg{sub 51}Zn{sub 20}. Solid fraction at coherency point decreased with increasing Ca and Zn elements. However, coherency time and difference between the nucleation and coherency temperatures (T{sub N}-T{sub DCP}) increased by adding Ca and Zn in Mg-Ca and Mg-Ca-Zn systems.

  20. Study on the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingxiu; Shi Shaohong; Wang Yuping; Xie Xueqin; Qin Jibao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic values of combined determination of serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum CA125, CA199 were measured with RIA and SIL-2R levels with ELISA in 54 patients with endometriosis and 35 controls. Results: The serum levels of CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R in patients with endometriosis were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The sensitivity and speciality of CA125 for endometriosis was 70.2% and 80.4% respectively, the sensitivity and speciality of CA199 for endometriosis was 62.4% and 71.8% respectively, the sensitivity and speciality of SIL-2R was 89.5% and 60.2% respectively. The sensitivity of the combined determination of CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R for endometriosis was 86.8% being significantly higher than that of CA125 and CA199 respectively. Conclusion: Combined determination of the serum CA125, CA199 and SIL-2R levels in serum can increase the diagnostic sensitivity for endometriosis. (authors)

  1. Short communication: genetic ablation of L-type Ca2+ channels abolishes depolarization-induced Ca2+ release in arterial smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tenorio, Miguel; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Porras, Cristina; Castellano, Antonio; Moosmang, Sven; Hofmann, Franz; Ureña, Juan; López-Barneo, José

    2010-04-16

    In arterial myocytes, membrane depolarization-induced Ca(2+) release (DICR) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) occurs through a metabotropic pathway that leads to inositol trisphosphate synthesis independently of extracellular Ca(2+) influx. Despite the fundamental functional relevance of DICR, its molecular bases are not well known. Biophysical and pharmacological data have suggested that L-type Ca(2+) channels could be the sensors coupling membrane depolarization to SR Ca(2+) release. This hypothesis was tested using smooth muscle-selective conditional Ca(v)1.2 knockout mice. In aortic myocytes, the decrease of Ca(2+) channel density was paralleled by the disappearance of SR Ca(2+) release induced by either depolarization or Ca(2+) channel agonists. Ca(v)1.2 channel deficiency resulted in almost abolition of arterial ring contraction evoked by DICR. Ca(2+) channel-null cells showed unaltered caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release and contraction. These data suggest that Ca(v)1.2 channels are indeed voltage sensors coupled to the metabolic cascade, leading to SR Ca(2+) release. These findings support a novel, ion-independent, functional role of L-type Ca(2+) channels linked to intracellular signaling pathways in vascular myocytes.

  2. Skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity increases during either hypertrophy or running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, M.; Waxham, M. N.; Hamilton, M. T.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Spikes in free Ca(2+) initiate contractions in skeletal muscle cells, but whether and how they might signal to transcription factors in skeletal muscles of living animals is unknown. Since previous studies in non-muscle cells have shown that serum response factor (SRF) protein, a transcription factor, is phosphorylated rapidly by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase after rises in intracellular Ca(2+), we measured enzymatic activity that phosphorylates SRF (designated SRF kinase activity). Homogenates from 7-day-hypertrophied anterior latissimus dorsi muscles of roosters had more Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase activity than their respective control muscles. However, no differences were noted in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity between control and trained muscles. To determine whether the Ca(2+)-independent and Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent forms of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) might contribute to some of the SRF kinase activity, autocamtide-3, a synthetic substrate that is specific for CaMKII, was employed. While the Ca(2+)-independent form of CaMKII was increased, like the Ca(2+)-independent form of SRF kinase, no alteration in CaMKII occurred at 7 days of stretch overload. These observations suggest that some of SRF phosphorylation by skeletal muscle extracts could be due to CaMKII. To determine whether this adaptation was specific to the exercise type (i.e., hypertrophy), similar measurements were made in the white vastus lateralis muscle of rats that had completed 2 wk of voluntary running. Although Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase was increased, no alteration occurred in Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent SRF kinase activity. Thus any role of Ca(2+)-independent SRF kinase signaling has downstream modulators specific to the exercise phenotype.

  3. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of CA72-4 Compared with CEA and CA19-9 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ychou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 are both widely used in the follow up of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. More recently another tumor marker, named CA 72-4 has been identified and characterized using two different monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and CC49. Several reports evaluated CA 72-4 as a serum tumor marker for gastric cancer and compared its clinical utility with that of CEA or CA 19-9; few reports concerned its prognostic value. In the present study, CA 72-4 is evaluated and compared with CEA and CA 19-9 in various populations of patients with gastric cancer and benign disease; for 52 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 57 patients without neoplastic disease CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 were evaluated before treatment. Sensitivity of the tumor markers CA 72-4, CA 19-9 and CEA at the recommended cut-off level in all 52 patients were 58%, 50% the sensitivity increased to 75%. of these markers, for non metastatic patients, multivariate analyses indicated that none of the markers were significant, when adjusted for gender and age (which were indicators of poor prognosis; patients with abnormal values of CA72-4 tended to have shorter survival than patients with normal values (p < 0.07. In the metastatic population, only high values of CA19-9 (p < 0.02 and gender (women (p < 0.03 were indicators of poor prognosis in univariate analysis; multivariate analysis revealed that both CA72-4 (p = 0.034 and CA19-9 p = 0.009, adjusted for gender were independent prognostic factors. However, CA72-4 lost significance (p = 0.41 when adjusted for CA19-9 and gender, indicating that CA19-9 provides more prognostic information than CA72-4.

  4. A model of cardiac ryanodine receptor gating predicts experimental Ca2+-dynamics and Ca2+-triggered arrhythmia in the long QT syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dan; Ermentrout, Bard; Němec, Jan; Salama, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal Ca2+ handling is well-established as the trigger of cardiac arrhythmia in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and digoxin toxicity, but its role remains controversial in Torsade de Pointes (TdP), the arrhythmia associated with the long QT syndrome (LQTS). Recent experimental results show that early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate TdP are caused by spontaneous (non-voltage-triggered) Ca2+ release from Ca2+-overloaded sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) rather than the activation of the L-type Ca2+-channel window current. In bradycardia and long QT type 2 (LQT2), a second, non-voltage triggered cytosolic Ca2+ elevation increases gradually in amplitude, occurs before overt voltage instability, and then precedes the rise of EADs. Here, we used a modified Shannon-Puglisi-Bers model of rabbit ventricular myocytes to reproduce experimental Ca2+ dynamics in bradycardia and LQT2. Abnormal systolic Ca2+-oscillations and EADs caused by SR Ca2+-release are reproduced in a modified 0-dimensional model, where 3 gates in series control the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) conductance. Two gates control RyR2 activation and inactivation and sense cytosolic Ca2+ while a third gate senses luminal junctional SR Ca2+. The model predicts EADs in bradycardia and low extracellular [K+] and cessation of SR Ca2+-release terminate salvos of EADs. Ca2+-waves, systolic cell-synchronous Ca2+-release, and multifocal diastolic Ca2+ release seen in subcellular Ca2+-mapping experiments are observed in the 2-dimensional version of the model. These results support the role of SR Ca2+-overload, abnormal SR Ca2+-release, and the subsequent activation of the electrogenic Na+/Ca2+-exchanger as the mechanism of TdP. The model offers new insights into the genesis of cardiac arrhythmia and new therapeutic strategies.

  5. [Clinical value of combined detection of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 and CA(125) in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ai-min; Zhang, Peng

    2012-02-01

    To explore the clinical value of combined detection of serum human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) and CA(125) in the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. From Jan 2010 to Apr 2011, the serum specimens were collected from 124 cases of endometrial carcinoma, 97 cases of benign disease of uterus and 109 cases of healthy women. HE4 levels in the serum were detected by ELISA, and CA(125) levels in the serum were detected by the electro-chemiluminescent immunoassay. Those results were shown with median level. Accuracy of the diagnosis was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC). The median levels of HE4 and CA(125) were 78.09 pmol/L and 33.43 kU/L in serum of endometrial carcinoma group. The median levels of HE4 and CA(125) were 46.37 pmol/L and 18.26 kU/L in serum of benign disease of uterus group. The median levels of HE4 and CA(125) were 31.75 pmol/L and 12.64 kU/L in serum of healthy women group. The HE4 and CA(125) levels in serum of endometrial carcinoma group were significantly higher than those of benign disease of uterus group or healthy women group (all P CA(125) in endometrial carcinoma group were 0.913 and 0.801, respectively. When the specificity was 95.0%, the sensitivities of HE4, CA(125), and combined detection of HE4 and CA(125) in endometrial carcinoma group were 41.1%, 22.6% and 46.0%, respectively. The positive rates of HE4 and CA(125) were 31% (27/86) and 12% (10/86) in stage I-II of endometrial carcinoma, while the positive rates were 63% (24/38) and 47% (18/38) in stage III-IV of endometrial carcinoma, in which there were significant difference between patients in stage III-IV and stage I-II (P CA(125) is helpful to the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. The sensitivity, specificity and early diagnosis of HE4 are better than that of CA(125). The positive rates of HE4 and CA(125) in endometrial carcinoma are related to the clinical staging.

  6. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  7. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for 100-N area waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalik, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The 100 Area of the Hanford Site was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL) in November 1989 under the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980.' The 100 Area NPL site includes the 100-N Area, which is in the early stages of the cleanup process. To facilitate the disposal of wastes generated in preparation for cleanup, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared this Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). The scope of this EE/CA includes wastes from cleanout of the EDB and deactivation facilities. Volumes and costs for disposal of investigation-derived waste are also included

  8. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  9. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2007-09-01

    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  10. Human chorionic gonadotropin and CA 15-3 producing adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueckaya, G. [Guelhane Military Medical Academia, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Diseases; Oezet, A.; Arpaci, A.; Koemuercue, S. [Guelhane Military Medical Academia, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Medical Oncology

    1998-12-31

    50 years old man suffering from primary lung adenocarcinoma presented with high levels of both beta subunit human chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}HCG) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the absence of elevated carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), alfa fetoprotein (AFP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9). Although {beta}HCG or CA 15-3 high levels were reported in adenocarcinoma of lung, this is the first report of a patient with high levels of both markers. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Blut eines 50jaehrigen Mannes, der an einem primaeren Adenokarzinom der Lunge litt, wurden hohe Werte fuer die Spiegel der beiden Subunit-Formen von Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ({beta}HCG) und Krebsantigen 15-3 gefunden, waehrend die Spiegel von CEA, AFP und CA 19-9 normal waren. Obwohl hohe Anteile an {beta}HCG und an Ca 15-3 vorher bekannt waren, handelt es sich um den ersten Bericht mit hohen Blutspiegeln fuer beide Krebsmarker. (orig.)

  11. The CaO orange system in meteor spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoy, A. A.; Borovička, J.; Santos, J.; Rivas-Silva, J. F.; Sandoval, L.; Stolyarov, A. V.; Palma, A.

    2018-02-01

    The CaO orange band system was simulated in the region 5900-6300 Å and compared with the experimentally observed spectra of Benešov bolide wake. The required vibronic Einstein emission coefficients were estimated by means of the experimental radiative lifetimes under the simplest Franck-Condon approximation. A moderate agreement was achieved, and the largest uncertainties come from modeling shape of FeO orange bands. Using a simple model the CaO column density in the wake of the Benešov bolide at the height of 29 km was estimated as (5 ± 2) × 1014 cm-2 by a comparison of the present CaO spectra with the AlO bands nicely observed at 4600-5200 Å in the same spectrum. The obtained CaO content is in a good agreement with the quenching model developed for the impact-produced cloud, although future theoretical and experimental studies of both CaO and FeO orange systems contribution would be needed to confirm these results.

  12. Identifying vital effects in Halimeda algae with Ca isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blättler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical records of biogenic carbonates provide some of the most valuable records of the geological past, but are often difficult to interpret without a mechanistic understanding of growth processes. In this experimental study, Halimeda algae are used as a test organism to untangle some of the specific factors that influence their skeletal composition, in particular their Ca-isotope composition. Algae were stimulated to precipitate both calcite and aragonite by growth in artificial Cretaceous seawater, resulting in experimental samples with somewhat malformed skeletons. The Ca-isotope fractionation of the algal calcite (−0.6‰ appears to be much smaller than that for the algal aragonite (−1.4‰, similar to the behaviour observed in inorganic precipitates. However, the carbonate from Halimeda has higher Ca-isotope ratios than inorganic forms by approximately 0.25‰, likely because of Rayleigh distillation within the algal intercellular space. In identifying specific vital effects and the magnitude of their influence on Ca-isotope ratios, this study suggests that mineralogy has a first-order control on the marine Ca-isotope cycle.

  13. A role for CA3 in social recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ming-Ching; Huang, Arthur J Y; Wintzer, Marie E; Ohshima, Toshio; McHugh, Thomas J

    2018-02-02

    Social recognition memory is crucial for survival across species, underlying the need to correctly identify conspecifics, mates and potential enemies. In humans the hippocampus is engaged in social and episodic memory, however the circuit mechanisms of social memory in rodent models has only recently come under scrutiny. Work in mice has established that the dorsal CA2 and ventral CA1 regions play critical roles, however a more comprehensive comparative analyses of the circuits and mechanisms required has not been reported. Here we employ conditional genetics to examine the differential contributions of the hippocampal subfields to social memory. We find that the deletion of NMDA receptor subunit 1 gene (NR1), which abolishes NMDA receptor synaptic plasticity, in CA3 pyramidal cells led to deficits in social memory; however, mice lacking the same gene in DG granule cells performed indistinguishable from controls. Further, we use conditional pharmacogenetic inhibition to demonstrate that activity in ventral, but not dorsal, CA3 is necessary for the encoding of a social memory. These findings demonstrated CA3 pyramidal cell plasticity and transmission contribute to the encoding of social stimuli and help further identify the distinct circuits underlying the role of the hippocampus in social memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel method of generation of Ca(HCO32 and CaCO3 aerosols and first determination of hygroscopic and cloud condensation nuclei activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Trimborn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mineral aerosols contain CaCO3 as a reactive component. A novel method to produce CaCO3 aerosol was developed by spraying Ca(HCO32 solution, which was generated from a CaCO3 suspension and CO2. By aerosol mass spectrometry the freshly sprayed and dried aerosol was characterized to consist of pure Ca(HCO32 which under annealing in a tube furnace transformed into CaCO3. Transmission Electron Microscopy demonstrated that the particles produced were spherical. The method was able to generate aerosol of sufficient concentration and proper size for the study of physiochemical properties and investigations of heterogeneous reactions of mineral aerosol. The dried Ca(HCO32 particles were somewhat more hygroscopic than CaCO3 particles. However, during humidification a restructuring took place and ∼2/3 of the Ca(HCO32 was transformed to CaCO3. The mixed Ca(HCO32/CaCO3(s particles were insoluble with a growth factor of 1.03 at 95% (hygroscopicity parameter κ=0.011±0.007 relative humidity. This compares to a corresponding growth factor of 1.01 for CaCO3(s (κ=0.0016±0.0004. Mass spectrometric composition analysis, restructuring, and insolubility of the mixed particles suggested that solid Ca(HCO32(s was observed. This would be in contrast to the current belief that Ca(HCO32(s is thermodynamically instable. The CCN activity of Ca(HCO32(s aerosol (κ≈0.15 is remarkably higher than that of CaCO3 aerosol (κ=0.0019±0.0007 and less than that of Ca(NO32. The noticeable but limited solubility of Ca(HCO32 of ≈0.01 mol/l explains limited hygroscopic growth and good CCN activity. Experiments in the Large Jülich Aerosol Chamber indicated that Ca(HCO32(s could exist for several hours under dry atmospheric conditions. However, it was likely buried in a protective layer of CaCO3(s. We conclude that Ca(HCO32 may be formed in the atmosphere in cloud droplets of activated mineral dust by reaction of CaCO3 with CO2 and H2O. The presence of Ca(HCO32 and

  15. Effects of Ca2+, Mg2+ and calmodulin on the formation and decomposition of the phosphorylated intermediate of the erythrocyte Ca2+-stimulated ATPase.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, B G; Katz, S; Roufogalis, B D

    1987-01-01

    Formation of the phosphorylated intermediate (ECaP) of the human erythrocyte Ca2+-stimulated ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) was more rapid and reached steady state sooner at 400 microM-Ca2+ than at 1 microM-Ca2+. Calmodulin increased the apparent rate of ECaP formation at 1 microM-Ca2+, whereas at 400 microM-Ca2+, calmodulin decreased the steady-state level of the ECaP without affecting its apparent rate of formation. Removal of endogenous Mg2+ with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid...

  16. The Correlation between Serum and Peritoneal Fluid CA125 The Correlation between Serum and Peritoneal Fluid CA125

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghar Salehpour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high prevalence of endometriosis, there still exist many challenges indiagnosing the disease. This study aims to evaluate non-invasive and practical diagnostic methodsby measuring serum and peritoneal fluid CA 125 levels in patients with endometriosis. A secondaryaim is to determine the correlation between these markers with the stage of disease as well as therelationship of the two markers with each other.Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 60 women who underwent laparoscopyfor benign conditions. Based on laparoscopic findings and biopsy results, patients were divided to twogroups; one group included patients with pelvic endometriosis (35 patients and the second enrolledpatients free from endometriosis (25 patients. Serum and peritoneal fluid specimens were provided at thetime of laparoscopy and CA125 levels were then assessed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.Results: Mean serum and peritoneal fluid CA125 levels were significantly higher in women withendometriosis as compared to the control group (26.42 ± 24.34 IU/ml versus 12.64 ± 6.87 IU/mlin serum and 2203.54 + 993.19 IU/ml versus 1583.42 ± 912.51 IU/ml in peritoneal fluid, p<0.05.CA 125 levels also varied proportionally with the stage of endometriosis; but showed a significantdifference only in higher stages of the disease, both in serum and peritoneal fluid. We calculatedthe cut-off value suggesting a diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis as 14.70 IU/ml for serum and1286.5 IU/ml for peritoneal fluid CA125. A linear correlation between CA 125 levels in serum andperitoneal fluid in patients with pelvic endometriosis has also been observed.Conclusion: Serum and peritoneal fluid CA 125 levels are simple and non-surgical tools fordiagnosing and staging pelvic endometriosis. These markers are of greater diagnostic value inhigher stages of the disease.

  17. The effect of theophylline on the labelling of nitracellular myocardial calcium with 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausen, F.H.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of theophylline of varying concentration on the labelling of intracellular myocardial calcium was investigated by isotope tests with radioactively labelled Ca ( 45 Ca) in isolated, electrically stimulated left auricles of guinea pigs. The preparates were incubated in a 45 Ca solution for 60 minutes, and activity uptake and intracellular Ca concentration were determined. In contrast to earlier investigations, the extracellular Ca was removed after charge by rinsing the resting auricles with inactive, Ca ++ - and Na + -free choline chloride solution. Under controlled conditions, the intercellular Ca was found to be 45 Ca-labelled by about 36% theophylline in 'therapeutical' concentration (5 x 10 -4 g/ml) induced a significant increase of the labelled Ca fraction of 16.9% as compared to the controls. 'Toxic' theophylline concentrations, too, lead to a significantly higher absorption of 45 Ca. The interchangeable intracellular Ca fraction increased by 11.7% and 10.3% as compared to the untreated preparates. The findings are discussed with regard to earlier investigations on the influence of methylxanthines on the Ca metabolism of the heart. The author assumes that the positively inotropic effect of theophylline and the theophylline-induced contracture may be ascribed to a shift in the intracellular Ca distribution towards ionized Ca. This shift could be explained by a suppression of Ca rebinding in intracellular Ca storage places or by Ca release from these structures. (orig./AK) [de

  18. Should Broca's area include Brodmann area 47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Bernal, Byron; Rosselli, Monica

    2017-02-01

    Understanding brain organization of speech production has been a principal goal of neuroscience. Historically, brain speech production has been associated with so-called Broca’s area (Brodmann area –BA- 44 and 45), however, modern neuroimaging developments suggest speech production is associated with networks rather than with areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of BA47 ( pars orbitalis) in relation to language . A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the language network in which BA47 is involved. The Brainmap database was used. Twenty papers corresponding to 29 experimental conditions with a total of 373 subjects were included. Our results suggest that BA47 participates in a “frontal language production system” (or extended Broca’s system). The BA47  connectivity found is also concordant with a minor role in language semantics. BA47 plays a central role in the language production system.

  19. Assessment of Pb, Cd and Hg soil contamination and its potential to cause cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human cell lines (CaCo-2 and HaCaT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljivic Husejnovic, Maida; Bergant, Martina; Jankovic, Sasa; Zizek, Suzana; Smajlovic, Aida; Softic, Adaleta; Music, Omer; Antonijevic, Biljana

    2018-01-23

    Soil contamination by heavy metals is a serious global environmental problem, especially for developing countries. A large number of industrial plants, which continually pollute the environment, characterize Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The aim of this study was to assess the level of soil pollution by heavy metals and to estimate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soil leachates from this area. Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) were analyzed by ICP-AES and AAS. Soil contamination was assessed using contamination factor, degree of contamination, geoaccumulation index and pollution load index. To determine the connection of variables and understanding their origin in soils, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used. The results indicate that Cd and Hg originated from natural and anthropogenic activities, while Pb is of anthropogenic origin. For toxicity evaluation, CaCo-2 and HaCaT cells were used. PrestoBlue assay was used for cytotoxicity testing, and γH2A.X for genotoxicity evaluation. Concerning cytotoxicity, Cd and Hg had a positive correlation with cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells, but only Hg induced cytotoxicity in CaCo-2 cells. We also demonstrate that soil leachates contaminated by heavy metals can induce genotoxicity in both used cell lines. According to these results, combining bioassays with standard physicochemical analysis can be useful for evaluating environmental and health risks more accurately. These results are important for developing proper management strategies to decrease pollution. This is one of the first studies from this area and an important indication of soil quality in Southeast Europe.