WorldWideScience

Sample records for susan eagle

  1. Susan Smith

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    Soveel lesers soveel lokmiddele soveel re- sponse kan gelys word om toegang tot die lees van poësie te registreer. 'n Resep om ge- trou of in ontrou na te volg, bestaan nie. Ge- lukkig nie. Susan Smith se (debuut)bundel lok my helaas nie deur die voorblad as vertrek- punt te neem nie. Aan visuele prikkelkrag gaan.

  2. Dedication - Susan L Greenblatt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    2011-07-01

    Photo of Susan L Greenblatt Figure 1. Susan in May, 1994 This volume is dedicated to the memory of Susan L Greenblatt, the wife of Steven L Guberman. Susan attended 6 of the 8 dissociative recombination (DR) meetings. Her advice and wise counsel played a vital role in the organization of several of these meetings. The fifth meeting in Chicago in 2001 was her idea and it would not have occurred without her encouragement. Susan was always amused by the memory of the first group dinner at the second DR meeting at St Jacut in 1992. As we went around the dinner table identifying ourselves, it soon became her turn. Susan was a sociologist and after introducing herself she said: "I am not a chemist". A spontaneous chorus of attendees proclaimed "Neither are we!". Her husband and a few other chemists abstained. In 1983, Susan and I established the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The name was chosen so as to span sociology and chemical physics. Four years prior, an ophthalmologist had diagnosed a rare retinal condition of unknown origin and advised her to change her profession to one that did not involve reading. (She was able to read for the rest of her life.) Twenty years later we learned that the cause of the retinal and all her other health problems was a recently discovered rare mitochondrial mutation. Her experience with ophthalmologists and her life-long keen sense of injustice, led her to write a grant proposal to the US Department of Education to survey all ophthalmologists in the US to determine whether they were aware of and whether they told their patients about resources and aids that could help them to continue reading and participating in everyday activities. As part of the grant and based upon the survey results, she proposed to set up low-vision training programs for ophthalmology residents. We knew that the competition for funding was intense and included several well-known and more established organizations. Nevertheless, the proposal was funded

  3. Susan Flannery lahkub? / Harro Puusild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusild, Harro

    2008-01-01

    Ameerika teleseriaali "Vaprad ja ilusad" Stephanie Forresteri osatäitja Susan Flannery (1943) on seriaalis mänginud algusest peale s.o. 21 aastat. Lisatud intervjuu näitlejatariga. Sama ka Teleleht nr. 15, lk. 8-9 : ill

  4. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  5. In Conversation with Susan Holtz | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-26

    Nov 26, 2010 ... Susan Holtz is a private consultant and Adjunct Professor in the Environmental Planning Department of the Nova Scotia College for Art and Design. As a consultant, Ms. Holtz specializes in energy, environment, and sustainable development policy, and works on related issues as a mediator and facilitator.

  6. Roberts, Dennis C. & Komives, Susan R.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross-Border Higher Education, edited by. Dennis C. Roberts and Susan R. Komives, is a book that resulted from a short-term study-abroad experience between the Universities of Maryland and San Diego with the Qatar Foundation's Education City in Doha in 2010.

  7. Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Midwinter Bald Eagle survey is to monitor the status of Bald Eagle wintering populations in the contiguous United States by estimating national...

  8. Design package lazy susan for the fuel retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    1999-09-10

    This is a design package that contains the details for a Lazy Susan style small tool for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Lazy Susan tool is used to help rotate an MCO Fuel Basket when loading it. This document contains requirements, development design information, tests and test reports that pertain to the production of Lazy Susan small tool.

  9. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    OpenAIRE

    Zalbidea Paniagua, Maya

    2014-01-01

    [ES] La obra de ficción digital titulada Blueberries (2009) de Susan Gibb, publicada en la ELO (Organización de literatura electrónica) invita al lector/a a viajar dentro de la mente de la protagonista para descubrir sus experiencias reales e imaginarias en las que se examinan las nociones de género, sexo, cuerpo e identidad de una mujer traumatizada. En este artículo se exploran los modos verbales y visuales en esta ficción digital breve siguiendo patrones semióticos así como se interpretan ...

  10. 75 FR 38837 - Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, FY 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...: Notification of Funding Opportunity for Susan Harwood Training Grant Program, FY 2010. Funding Opportunity No... project performance period is $250,000. DATES: Targeted Topic training grant applications must be received... Links section, and then select ``Susan Harwood Training Grant Program''. Please note that on the Harwood...

  11. Susan Lindquist: Visionary scientist and peerless mentor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevis, Brooke J

    2017-01-02

    The science universe is dimmer after one of our brightest stars, Susan Lee Lindquist, was taken by cancer on October 27, 2016. Sue was an innovative, creative, out-of-the-box scientific thinker. She had unique biological intuition-an instinct for both the way things worked and the right questions to ask to uncover new research insights. Her wide-ranging career began with the study of protein folding and molecular chaperones, and she went on to show that protein folding can have profound and unexpected biological effects on such diverse processes as cancer, evolution, and neurodegenerative disease. As Sue's laboratory manager, I would like to offer a ground-floor perspective on what made her an exceptional scientist, mentor, and leader. She created a harmonious, collegial environment where collaborative synergy fueled meaningful progress that will impact science for decades to come. © 2017 Bevis.

  12. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  13. Psychoanalytic Interpretation of Blueberries by Susan Gibb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Zalbidea Paniagua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Blueberries (2009 by Susan Gibb, published in the ELO (Electronic Literature Organization, invites the reader to travel inside the protagonist’s mind to discover real and imaginary experiences examining notions of gender, sex, body and identity of a traumatised woman. This article explores the verbal and visual modes in this digital short fiction following semiotic patterns as well as interpreting the psychological states that are expressed through poetical and technological components. A comparative study of the consequences of trauma in the protagonist will be developed including psychoanalytic theories by Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan and the feminist psychoanalysts: Melanie Klein and Bracha Ettinger. The reactions of the protagonist will be studied: loss of reality, hallucinations and Electra Complex, as well as the rise of defence mechanisms and her use of the artistic creativity as a healing therapy. The interactivity of the hypermedia, multiple paths and endings will be analyzed as a literary strategy that increases the reader’s capacity of empathizing with the speaker.

  14. Susan Sontag — A Forgotten Mother?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kludia Ziewiec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses new and republished translations of Susan Sontag’s work, recently launched by the Karakter publishing house: Regarding the Pan of Others, On Photography, and Against Interpretation and Other Essays. The article focuses on the elements of Sontag’s thought that make her a forgotten mother of feminist and gender theoreticians, as well as such influential critics as Michel Foucault and Roland Barthes. The article points out to continuations of Sontag’s thought in contemporary theoretical and social projects, and to the pertinence of her critical observations on theories based on metaphysics of presence: psychoanalysis, Marxism, or hermeneutics. The article also touches upon history of war photography and related war journalism, and upon the ambivalent quality of imaging of the misery of war. It also present historical and cultural circumstances of the development of Sontag’s thought in the intellectual milieu of New York in the 1960s. The discussion recapitulates the main statements of Sontag’s essays, relating them to a wider theoretical context, which is aimed at a reappraisal of the forgotten intelectual in the history of literature.

  15. Meet EPA Scientist Susan Yee, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Yee, Ph.D., is an ecologist at EPA's Gulf Ecology Division. She is working on the Puerto Rico Sustainable Communities program, developing decision support tools to evaluate how alternative decisions impact coastal ecosystem goods and services

  16. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  17. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  18. eagle-barrett syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. II November 2003. EAGLE-BARRETT SYNDROME: OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOMES. M. H. Aliyu, MD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA and Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano. Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, H. M. ...

  19. Collaborative Internet Projects: An Interview with Susan Silverman about Her Passion and Hobby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an interview with Susan Silverman, an instructional technology integration teacher in the Comsewogue school district in Port Jefferson Station, New York. Describes Susan's transformation from technophobe to an innovator of collaborative Internet projects. (PM)

  20. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  1. Eagle syndrome : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badhey, Arvind; Jategaonkar, Ameya; Kovacs, Alexander Joseph Anglin; Kadakia, Sameep; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Ducic, Yadranko; Schantz, Stimson; Shin, Edward

    The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of

  2. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene... Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project: Rio Hydroelectric... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

  3. Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's | Heck | Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Susan Dicklitch. The Elusive Promise of NGO's. Simon Heck. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v46i1.23044 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  4. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This...

  5. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and...

  6. Eagle syndrome – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitaa Nedunchezhian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle syndrome represents symptoms brought about by compression of vital neurovascular and muscular elements adjoining the styloid process because of the elongation of styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. It is crucial for dentists, otolaryngologists and neurologists to be aware of the elongation of the styloid process and associated signs and symptoms. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, classification, investigative procedures and treatment modalities associated with Eagle syndrome.

  7. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid process and ligament stylohyoid calcification. The condition is accompanied by symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, glossitis, earache, tonsillitis, facial pain, headache, pain in the temporomandibular joint and inability to perform lateral movements of the neck. Diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome based on symptoms and radiographic examination of the patient will determine the need for surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Eagle syndrome is a complex disorder demanding a thorough knowledge of its signs and symptoms to make a correct diagnosis and provide an appropriate subsequent treatment. Disseminating information about this syndrome among medical-dental professionals is essential to provide adequate dental care to patients.

  8. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e. All... Eagle Crest Energy, via e-mail at: [email protected] ; or via telephone at: 503-697-1478. All...

  9. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e. All... Eagle Crest Energy, via e-mail at: [email protected] ; or via telephone at: 503-697-1478. All...

  10. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...

  11. Unwrapping the Thick Coat of Armor: A Conversation with Susan Albrecht

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim; Zabel, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Susan Albrecht's career has spanned more than 40 years. During those years she has served as an English teacher, school psychologist, behavior consultant, coordinator of services, and special education faculty member. Her contributions to the field include leadership positions with the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. Susan shared…

  12. Practitioner Profile: An Interview with Susan Bross, AFC®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bross

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Susan Bross is a nationally accredited financial counselor who established her private practice in 1992. She currently lives in San Rafael, California. She brings a multi-faceted background and a combination of skills to her work. As a financial counselor, she works with individuals, couples, and entrepreneurs throughout the nation to help clients develop a practical and emotionally healthy relationship with money. When asked, she will tell you that she is passionate about her work because it mirrors her own hard-won path with money. Readers of the Journal will find Ms. Bross’s approach to financial therapy inspiring. She teaches simple tools for effortless and sustainable cash flow and money management. She also guides her clients to balanced attitudes and beliefs about money and success.

  13. [The Durkheim Test. Remarks on Susan Leigh Star's Boundary Objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The article reconstructs Susan Leigh Star's conceptual work on the notion of 'boundary objects'. It traces the emergence of the concept, beginning with her PhD thesis and its publication as Regions of the Mind in 1989. 'Boundary objects' attempt to represent the distributed, multifold nature of scientific work and its mediations between different 'social worlds'. Being addressed to several 'communities of practice', the term responded to questions from Distributed Artificial Intelligence in Computer Science, Workplace Studies and Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), and microhistorical approaches inside the growing Science and Technology Studies. Yet the interdisciplinary character and interpretive flexibility of Star’s invention has rarely been noticed as a conceptual tool for media theory. I therefore propose to reconsider Star's 'Durkheim test' for sociotechnical media practices.

  14. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Nesting bald eagles attack researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1976-01-01

    Because of the large and relatively stable Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population on Kodiak Island, Alaska, studies on nesting, productivity, and other aspects of the species' life history have been a part of a continuing research program on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (Hensel and Troyer 1964, Condor 66: 282; Troyer and...

  16. Susan J. Quaal: the global and local impact of a transformational leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, L D

    1998-01-01

    To be a transformational leader in nursing, one must have forever changed the course of our practice. This article highlights the qualities of a great leader, Susan J. Quaal, PhD, APRN, CVS, CCRN. Described are examples of Susan's incredible clinical expertise and also the attributes that make her such a dynamic leader in all domains of the clinical nurse specialist role: Practitioner, educator/mentor, consultant, leader/administrator, and researcher. Interwoven in this article, you will also find the threads of humility and charity that make Susan such an extraordinary human being and a blessing to all the lives she touches.

  17. 78 FR 73704 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... work with our biologists to avoid and minimize and compensate for eagle impacts. Adaptive management... to eagles, avoid and minimize risks to eagles, compensate for unavoidable take, and apply an adaptive... 2009 final rule. Adaptive Management Process Management of some types of facilities, such as wind...

  18. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13 and 22 RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... 13, 2012, proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles...

  19. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project...

  20. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All...

  1. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies...

  2. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  3. Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Ersan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eagle syndrome, an uncommon sequela of elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, can manifest as pain in the face and the anterolateral neck, often with referred pain to the ear and the temporomandibular joint area. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female patient presented to the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department with complaints of unremitting unilateral facial and neck pain, limitation in the movement of the neck, sensation of foreign body in the throat, dysphagia, and otalgia for a year. Systemic anamnesis of the patient was unremarkable. In the clinical examination, digital palpation of the tonsillar fossa aggravated the pain. The patient was being treated for temporomandibular joint disorder. A panoramic radiograph taken after the clinical examination revealed bilateral styloid process elongation. Cone-beam computed tomography also revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament which was measured as 71.5 mm and 69.6 mm on the right and the left side, respectively; and the patient was diagnosed as having Eagle syndrome. The patient was referred to the otolaryngology clinic for surgical treatment. Surgical shortening of the structure provided definitive relief in the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSION: In cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it may change the treatment approach.

  4. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Huntington, Channing; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    For almost 20 years a team of astronomers, theorists and experimentalists have investigated the creation of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds, using a combination of astronomical observations, astrophysical simulations, and recently, scaled laboratory experiments. Eagle Nebula, one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science programs, has completed four NIF shots to study the dense `shadowing' model of pillar formation, and been awarded more shots to study the `cometary' model. These experiments require a long-duration drive, 30 ns or longer, to generate deeply nonlinear ablative hydrodynamics. A novel x-ray source featuring multiple UV-driven hohlraums driven is used. The source directionally illuminates a science package, mimicking a cluster of stars. The first four NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and suggested that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at millimeter observatories, and indicate cometary growth is key to matching observations. Supported in part by a Grant from the DOE OFES HEDLP program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  6. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cline. What we do not often appreciate is the extent of these losses, down to the very last eagle. What occurred on Eagle Hill is no different from what has occurred in some 50% to 90% of Kenya in the same time span. Given that less than 10% of Kenya is effec- tively protected within national parks, reserves and sanctuaries ...

  7. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... more accurately translated as 'vulture'. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures) even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions. Like an eagle carries its young. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  8. Eagle's syndrome with facial palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed; Al-Jazan, Nasser; Abdulqader, Abdulrahman; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome (ES) is a rare disease in which the styloid process is elongated and compressing adjacent structures. We describe a rare presentation of ES in which the patient presented with facial palsy. Facial palsy as a presentation of ES is very rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one previously reported case. Our case is a 39-year-old male who presented with left facial palsy. He also reported a 9-year history of the classical symptoms of ES. A computed tomography sc...

  9. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include all...

  10. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  11. An Eagle of Cosmic Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Today ESO has released a new and stunning image of the sky around the Eagle Nebula, a stellar nursery where infant star clusters carve out monster columns of dust and gas. Located 7000 light-years away, towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake), the Eagle Nebula is a dazzling stellar nursery, a region of gas and dust where young stars are currently being formed and where a cluster of massive, hot stars, NGC 6611, has just been born. The powerful light and strong winds from these massive new arrivals are shaping light-year long pillars, seen in the image partly silhouetted against the bright background of the nebula. The nebula itself has a shape vaguely reminiscent of an eagle, with the central pillars being the "talons". The star cluster was discovered by the Swiss astronomer, Jean Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, in 1745-46. It was independently rediscovered about twenty years later by the French comet hunter, Charles Messier, who included it as number 16 in his famous catalogue, and remarked that the stars were surrounded by a faint glow. The Eagle Nebula achieved iconic status in 1995, when its central pillars were depicted in a famous image obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In 2001, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) captured another breathtaking image of the nebula in the near-infrared, giving astronomers a penetrating view through the obscuring dust, and clearly showing stars being formed in the pillars. The newly released image, obtained with the Wide-Field Imager camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, covers an area on the sky as large as the full Moon, and is about 15 times more extensive than the previous VLT image, and more than 200 times more extensive than the iconic Hubble visible-light image. The whole region around the pillars can now be seen in exquisite detail. The "Pillars of Creation" are in the middle of the image, with the cluster of young stars, NGC 6611, lying above and to the right. The

  12. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  13. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Breeding Survey 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In its second year, the Chesapeake Region Eagle Group (CREG) obtained the data for this report. CREG consists of representatives of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  14. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    1933; Chura et al., 1967). Sexual dimorphism in the bald eagle is limited to this difference in size. Brown and Amadon (1968) maintain that reversed...diet ws comprised of sea birds , which are locally abundant. His results were determined through examination of pellets; therefore, the importance of...of Lake Huron (Kalmbach et &1., 1964). Sherrod et al. (1976) never observed eagles to prey upon live adult sea otters, but believes that nesting birds

  15. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  16. Textual Rhetorics and Textual Carnivals: Susan Miller and the "Subjects" of Rhetoric and Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Nedra

    1991-01-01

    Reviews two books by Susan Miller: "Rescuing the Subject: A Critical Introduction to Rhetoric and the Writer" (1989) and "Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition" (1991). Notes how she rereads dominant histories of rhetoric and writing instruction, argues for a theory of textuality, and illustrates how attention to…

  17. Don't Take Touch for Granted: An Interview with Susan Lederman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verry, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Lederman that contains a fascinating and informative overview of the recent developments in neuropsychological research concerning the sense of touch. Discusses the physiological processes that support this sensory experience and reveals them to be much more flexible, intricate, and adaptive than previously…

  18. Re-Establishing Social Studies as a Core Subject: An Interview with Susan Griffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    NCSS Executive Director Susan Griffin was chair of the Task Force of Professional Organizations that worked with the Social Studies Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction Collaborative (SSACI) of the Council of Chief State School Officers to initiate and guide the development of the "College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social…

  19. Teaching Students About Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination: An Interview with Susan Fiske

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy

    2005-01-01

    Susan T. Fiske is professor of psychology, Princeton University (PhD, Harvard University; honorary doctorate, Universite Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). She wrote Social Cognition (with Taylor) on how people make sense of each other. Currently, she investigates emotional prejudices (pity, contempt, envy, and pride) at cultural,…

  20. Inside the Sex Ed Studio: An Interview with Susan N. Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, William J.

    2007-01-01

    "Inside the Sex Ed Studio" profiles leaders in the field of sexuality education. Susan N. Wilson, former Executive Coordinator of the Network for Family Life Education, long-time advocate for sexuality education, and the driving force behind New Jersey's K-12 mandate for comprehensive sexuality education was the first such leader to be…

  1. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  2. Eagle river flats bird dieoff: A summary of findings 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1982, periodic waterfowl die-offs have been documented at Ft. Richardson Army Base, Anchorage, Alaska in an area at the mouth of Eagle River known as Eagle...

  3. Evidence of Bald Eagles feeding on freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Michael A. Coffey

    1982-01-01

    A 1978 study of the winter habitat of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona, indicated repeated and potentially heavy use of a freshwater mussel (Anodonta corpulenta) in the eagles’ diet. As many as 10 eagles (five adults and five immatures) were observed at Upper Lake Mary near...

  4. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  5. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution, diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'

  6. Bald eagle, United States [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2010-01-01

    "One of you boys will continue radio-tracking bears, and the other will start climbing trees to band bald eagle nestlings ... " That's how it all began for me back in the summer of 1967, on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, my first summer job in the wildlife field. And as it turned out, that inauspicious beginning has led to a fascinating,...

  7. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-03-28

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  8. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is... management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  9. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  10. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  11. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  12. "A hint of it, with initials": adultery, textuality and publicity in Jane Austen's Lady Susan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    In spite of Jane Austen's professed “eye” for an adulteress, comparatively little attention has been paid to adultery and divorce as themes and contexts of her fiction. Her unpublished epistolary novel Lady Susan has a distinctive status in Austen's oeuvre, recognized as being exemplary of her “style” and yet atypical of her later achievement. A neglected context for the novel is the extensive reporting of adultery trials in contemporary print culture and the moral panic concerning adultery in the 1780s and 1790s, focusing initially on the adulteress as the brazen woman of fashion and later as a figure of sentimentalized abjection. A particularly notorious case, that involving Lady Henrietta Grosvenor and George III's brother, the Duke of Cumberland, is directly alluded to in Lady Susan. The textual strategies of adultery trial literature, particularly its emphasis on indirection through the use of detail or “hint”, had a long-term influence on the development of Austen's fiction and her positioning of herself as a professional writer after the 1790s.

  13. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    As will be elaborated upon shortly, not all the eagle species occurring in South Africa are resident birds. Some species are migratory and others are nomadic. Hence, the environmental law regime in force in South Africa has an influence on the conservation status of some eagle species breeding as far away as Europe and ...

  14. First record of Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus in Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus 31: 41-42, November 2011. Received May 2010. First record of Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus in Sudan. The Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus is a Palearctic, Indo-malayan, marginally. Afro-tropical species that is considered local and uncommon across its range, mostly scarce to rare, and generally declining ...

  15. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  16. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    species are known to breed in the territory,4 while the remaining three species visit. 3. They are the African Fish Eagle ... a breeding territory.6 Compared to many other nations, South Africa is exceptionally rich in eagle species.7 ..... their habitats within the framework of land-use planning and of sustainable development.

  17. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  19. Leaders Hit the Battlefield for Education's Future: 2009 Eagle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    More than 40 esteemed school business officials traveled to Washington, D.C., for the 2009 Eagle Institute which was held on July 14-17. They examined the past and the future to uncover leadership insights. Eagle Institute participants shared a powerful experience of camaraderie, reflection, and optimism for the future. This article describes the…

  20. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  1. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  2. In the postmodern mirror: intertextuality in Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buda Agata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyse the novel Angels and Insects by Antonia Susan Byatt in terms of intertextual references. The author’s assumptions are based on the categorisation by Ryszard Nycz, who distinguishes three major types of intertexts: text versus text, text versus literary genre and text versus mimesis. Byatt uses intertextuality mainly to comment on the role of nature in the world, as well as to enhance the importance of human relationship with nature. Moreover, the writer moves towards literary criticism, discussing poems by famous artists, such as Alfred Tennyson or John Milton. In this way, the novel by Byatt is also an example of metafiction. All the narration techniques used by the English writer make the novel a typically postmodern work of art.

  3. Intermittent large amplitude internal waves observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. C.; Decker, L.

    2017-07-01

    A previously unreported internal tidal bore, which evolves into solitary internal wave packets, was observed in Port Susan, Puget Sound, and the timing, speed, and amplitude of the waves were measured by CTD and visual observation. Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were attempted, but unsuccessful. The waves appear to be generated with the ebb flow along the tidal flats of the Stillaguamish River, and the speed and width of the resulting waves can be predicted from second-order KdV theory. Their eventual dissipation may contribute significantly to surface mixing locally, particularly in comparison with the local dissipation due to the tides. Visually the waves appear in fair weather as a strong foam front, which is less visible the farther they propagate.

  4. (REREADING INDEX CARDS: THE ARCHIVIST AS INTERPRETER IN SUSAN PUI SAN LOK'S 'NEWS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Camacho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Looking at susan pui san lok's projects News (2005 and RoCH (2013, this paper contemplates the notions put forward by Michel-Rolph Trouillot and Jacques Derrida on the power of archivists, not solely as guardians of documents but also as their interpreters. Taking into consideration that photographic and moving image archives present unique difficulties in their cataloguing processes, I examine silences that might be generated by a thematic classification that is not impervious to archivists' biases. Moreover, I consider if the silences created by manual processes of classification and retrieval might be surpassed through digital technologies, or if it is possible that new technologies simply create different types of silencing.

  5. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  6. 77 FR 22278 - Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations Governing Take Necessary To Protect Interests in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AY30 Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations... revisions to regulations under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act for permits to take eagles where the... protect eagles. DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked by the end of the day on July 12...

  7. 75 FR 3217 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental... filed: June 23, 2009. d. Applicant: Eagle Crest Energy Company. e. Name of Project: Eagle Mountain... Eagle Mountain Mine in Riverside County, California, near the Town of Desert Center, California, and...

  8. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D.; Davis, Timothy A.; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2017-02-01

    We use the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulation suite to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, with the aims of (i) investigating the physical causes behind the wide range of j at fixed mass and (ii) examining whether simple, theoretical models can explain the seemingly complex and non-linear nature of the evolution of j. We find that j of the stars, jstars, and baryons, jbar, are strongly correlated with stellar and baryon mass, respectively, with the scatter being highly correlated with morphological proxies such as gas fraction, stellar concentration, (u-r) intrinsic colour, stellar age and the ratio of circular velocity to velocity dispersion. We compare with available observations at z = 0 and find excellent agreement. We find that jbar follows the theoretical expectation of an isothermal collapsing halo under conservation of specific angular momentum to within ≈50 per cent, while the subsample of rotation-supported galaxies are equally well described by a simple model in which the disc angular momentum is just enough to maintain marginally stable discs. We extracted evolutionary tracks of the stellar spin parameter of EAGLE galaxies and found that the fate of their jstars at z = 0 depends sensitively on their star formation and merger histories. From these tracks, we identified two distinct physical channels behind low jstars galaxies at z = 0: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early star formation quenching. The latter can produce galaxies with low jstars and early-type morphologies even in the absence of mergers.

  9. "I Am Not a Fairy Tale": Contextualizing Sioux Spirituality and Story Traditions in Susan Power's "The Grass Dancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Vanessa Holford

    2009-01-01

    Standing Rock Sioux writer Susan Power's best-selling novel "The Grass Dancer" (1994) includes depictions of the supernatural and spiritual that do not conform to the Judeo-Christian or, in some cases, the atheist or rationalist worldviews of many readers. Power writes of ghost characters and haunted places, communication between the living and…

  10. 78 FR 75676 - Mark W. Dobronski and Susan K. Dobronski-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Adrian & Blissfield...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Mark W. Dobronski and Susan K. Dobronski--Acquisition of Control Exemption... Company, Lapeer Industrial Railroad Company and Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company Mark W. Dobronski and...

  11. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). Version 8.7, Revision 3 of the CPD for MQ-1C Gray Eagle defines an operational requirement for Improved Gray...extended range, multi-purpose unmanned aircraft system capable of executing reconnaissance, security , attack, and intelligence collection missions in...Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Critical Design Review Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Milestone C Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 IOT &E

  12. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  13. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle...

  14. The Eagle's EGGs: Fertile or sterile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughrean, M. J.; Andersen, M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 mu m) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M 16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  15. [1981 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 5-9, 1981 across North Dakota.

  16. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  17. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July 1982. The study was initiated to: (1)...

  18. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  19. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We designed this study to determine mercury concentrations in eagles using two sources of data. First, we collected blood and feather samples from nestling bald...

  20. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  1. Guidelines for the conservation of Bonelli’s eagle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Rollan, Àlex; Hernández Matías, Antonio, 1974-; Real, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive suite of protocols and methods summarized in the form of guidelines to solve Bonelli’s eagle conservation problems applicable at different spatial scales, from territories to populations. The Bonelli's eagle is an endangered raptor of Mediterranean environments in Europe playing a key role as top predator in these natural systems. Chapters are grouped into two general sections that relate to two different stages required to implement conservation actions...

  2. Clinical pathology and morphometrics of African fish eagles in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Simon; Afema-Azikuru, Josephine; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B; Stuht, John N; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bowerman, William W; Cameron, Kenneth; Gandolf, A Rae; Hui, Gretchen N; Dranzoa, Christine; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2004-07-01

    Packed cell volumes (PCVs) and plasma chemistry parameters were measured in 15 adult and 18 nestling African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) sampled from June 2002 through January 2003 in Uganda. Morphologic measurements were obtained from 15 adult eagles. All eagles were examined for blood parasites and sexed by examination of DNA from red blood cells. Ten adults and eight nestlings were sampled from Lake Mburo and five adults and 10 nestlings were sampled from Lake Victoria near Entebbe, Uganda. Analysis of variance was conducted to assess the association between site, age, sex, and plasma chemistry parameters and the association between sex and morphologic characteristics. Plasma chemistry values for nestling and adult African fish eagles were similar to those reported for other captive and free-ranging eagle species. Packed cell volumes for nestling African fish eagles were markedly lower than values reported for nestlings of other eagle species, although the mean estimated age of nestlings sampled also was lower. A significant association (P or =0.05). An unidentified Plasmodium sp. was present in erythrocytes of three nestlings from Lake Mburo. No other blood parasites were seen. There was significant variation (P< or =0.05) in PCV, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, cholesterol concentrations, and creatine kinase activity between adults and nestlings; all were lower in adults. Aspartate transaminase activity was higher in adults. Like other Haliaeetus sp., body weight, bill depth, culmen length, footpad length, and hallux length as well as bill depth measurements were significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater for females than males. The objective of the study was to provide baseline biologic and physiologic information that may prove useful in the management and study of captive and wild populations of African fish eagles.

  3. Bald eagles of the Hanford National Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Watson, D.G.; Rickard, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Since 1961, near-yearly aerial surveys of bald eagles along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River have been conducted. Prey resources available to the eagles have also been monitored and we have thus been able to examine predator-prey relationships in a statistical fashion. We report on a unique set of data which provides insight into one of the factors (prey availability) controlling bald eagle wintering populations. The winter distribution of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) has been reported to closely follow the availability of prey (Servheen 1975, Southern 1963, Shea 1973, Spencer 1976). Fitzner and Hanson (1979) compared twelve years of eagle winter survey data on the Hanford DOE Site with waterfowl numbers and salmon redd densities over the same period and provided some statistical evidence that eagle wintering numbers varied somewhat dependently with changing salmon redd numbers but not with changing waterfowl numbers. This report re-examines Fitzner and Hanson's (1979) twelve year data set and supplies two additional years of data for the Hanford DOE Site in order to gain additional insight into predator-prey interactions.

  4. Correlates of immune defenses in golden eagle nestlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Vanesky, Kris; Buck, Jeremy A.; Dudek, Benjamin; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heath, Julie A.; Herring, Garth; Vennum, Chris; Downs, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses. However, eagles with lower H:L ratios had lower complement activity, corroborating other findings that animals in better condition sometimes invest less in constitutive immunity. In addition, eagles with Leucocytozoon infections had higher concentrations of circulating complement proteins but not elevated opsonizing proteins for all microbes, and eagles from Oregon had significantly higher constitutive immunity than those from California or Idaho. We posit that Oregon eagles might have elevated immune defenses because they are exposed to more endoparasites than eagles from California or Idaho, and our results confirmed that the OR region has the highest rate of Leucocytozoon infections. Our study examined immune function in a free-living, long-lived raptor species, whereas most avian ecoimmunological research focuses on passerines. Thus, our research informs a broad perspective regarding the evolutionary and environmental pressures on immune function in birds.

  5. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative...

  6. A Journey, the Pain of Others, and Historical Experience: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author interprets Susan Silas' Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, a unique series of forty-five photographs and supplementing visual and textual materials collected during the walk along the route of two hundred and twenty-five miles. The walk repeats the route which in 1945 had to undertake women prisoners from the concentration camp in Helmbrechts near Flossenbürg in their death march to Prachatice in Czech Republic. The pictures Silas takes, the people she meets, and finally the trees, the very materiality of the road become the factors of creating her own, individual memory of the event from the past. Silas selects an object from "the margins of the Holocaust" – a forgotten event that she re-presents by reacting to contemporary objects placed along the route of the event. Silas' work offers an opportunity to critically review the concept of memory landscapes (where is memory located in a landscape? and the phenomenon of dark tourism (is following in the footsteps of the prisoners a kind of pilgrimage, tourism, or therapy?. Silas problematises the question of memory, as well as examines different kinds of non-memory. Her camera is directed at locations that can be termed "the non-sites of memory."

  7. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  8. UNDERSTANDİNG SUSAN BORDO AND HER WORK; UNBEARABLE WEİGHT :FEMİNİSM, WESTERN CULTURE, BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÇAĞLAR DEMİR

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history of thought, there have been many views about the women, their status in society, their struggle with patriarchy, and inequality  applied to them in all areas. There are different ways of oppression on women, such as confinement to home, inequality in wages between both sexes.  However, few scholars have written and declared their own views about how the patriarchal world and companies form women as they wish. Susan Bordo is one of  the most outstanding and distinguished feminist writers in the world who focuses on  how patriarchal capitalist understanding works on women’s body in terms of weight and weakness. According to Susan Bordo, male dominated capital world decides on women about what to wear and what to eat and women try to lose weight to be in the form men wish. State of  starving all the time leads to an illness called anorexia. The writer bases her views on the thoughts of literary critic and thinker, Foucault. The  objective of this article is to help the readers understand Susan Bordo’s views and analyse her impressive work; Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture and  the Body  and make her known in academic world.

  9. Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro García-Reidy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Bárbara Mujica, ed., Shakespeare and the Spanish «Comedia». Translation, Interpretation, Performance. Essays in Honor of Susan L. Fischer, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg, 2013, 298 pp. ISBN 9781611485172.

  10. Podróż, cudze cierpienie i doświadczenie historyczne: Susan Silas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendyka, Roma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autorka interpretuje pracę Susan Silas Helmbrechts walk (1998-2003, szczególny cykl czterdziestu pięciu zdjęć i dołączonych do nich materiałów wizualnych oraz tekstowych zbudowany podczas przejścia trasy dwustu dwudziestu pięciu mil, które w 1945 roku musiały przebyć kobiety pędzone w marszu śmierci z Helmbrecht koło Flossenbürga do czeskich Prachatic. Wykonywane zdjęcia, napotykani ludzie, w końcu – drzewa, sama materialność drogi stają się czynnikami wytwarzania własnej, indywidualnej pamięci wydarzenia sprzed lat. Silas wybiera szczególny obiekt "z marginesów Zagłady" – zapomniane zdarzenie, które przedstawia obserwując współczesne obiekty położone wzdłuż trasy tego zdarzenia. Praca Silas pozwala przyjrzeć się krytycznie koncepcji memory landscapes (gdzie w krajobrazie umiejscawia się pamięć? i zjawisku dark tourism (czy podążanie śladami więźniarek to pielgrzymka, turystyka czy terapia?. Silas problematyzuje nie tylko kwestię pamięci, bada również rodzaje nie-pamiętania. Jej kamera zostaje zwrócona ku lokalizacjom, które można nazwać "nie-miejscami pamięci".

  11. Treasure Your Exceptions: An Interview with 2017 George Beadle Award Recipient Susan A. Gerbi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Susan A

    2017-12-01

    THE Genetics Society of America's (GSA) George W. Beadle Award honors individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the community of genetics researchers and who exemplify the qualities of its namesake. The 2017 recipient is Susan A. Gerbi, who has been a prominent leader and advocate for the scientific community. In the course of her research on DNA replication, Gerbi helped develop the method of Replication Initiation Point (RIP) mapping to map replication origins at the nucleotide level, improving resolution by two orders of magnitude. RIP mapping also provides the basis for the now popular use of λ-exonuclease to enrich nascent DNA to map replication origins genome-wide. Gerbi's second area of research on ribosomal RNA revealed a conserved core secondary structure, as well as conserved nucleotide elements (CNEs). Some CNEs are universally conserved, while other CNEs are conserved in all eukaryotes but not in archaea or bacteria, suggesting a eukaryotic function. Intriguingly, the majority of the eukaryotic-specific CNEs line the tunnel of the large ribosomal subunit through which the nascent polypeptide exits. Gerbi has promoted the fly Sciara coprophila as a model organism ever since she used its enormous polytene chromosomes to help develop the method of in situ hybridization during her Ph.D. research in Joe Gall's laboratory. The Gerbi laboratory maintains the Sciara International Stock Center and manages its future, actively spreading Sciara stocks to other laboratories. Gerbi has also served in many leadership roles, working on issues of science policy, women in science, scientific training, and career preparation. This is an abridged version of the interview. The full interview is available on the Genes to Genomes blog, at genestogenomes.org/gerbi. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Bald Eagle Movements, Distribution and Abundance on the Northern Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to monitor bald eagle movements and to locate bald eagle intensive use areas on the northern Chesapeake Bay. An important...

  13. Bald eagle ground census, Chilkat Valley, Alaska, 11-12 November 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1979, the National Audubon Society initiated studies of the bald eagles inhabiting the Chilkat River valley. Aerial surveys and ground counts of bald eagles were...

  14. Effects of contaminants of reproduction of bald eagles on Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting on Green Bay, Lake Michigan, have extremely low reproductive rates, in comparison to eagles nesting in inland...

  15. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  16. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  17. Evaluation of landscape level habitat characteristics of golden eagle habitat in Northwestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis Linnaeus 1758) are declining in some areas throughout their Nearctic range (Sauer et al. 2011). This reduction is linked to changes in their habitat caused by human activities. Golden eagles inhabit an extensive range of environments (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. 2002). In the American Continent, the golden eagleâ s range encompasses Alaska, Canada, the United States and the Northern and Central portions of Mexico. Northern golden eagle populations...

  18. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    No. DODIG-2016-080 A P R I L 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE...Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement Objective The objective of the audit was to determine whether the Department of the Army (Army...effectively managed MQ-1C Gray Eagle (Gray Eagle) spare parts . Specifically, we determined whether the Army effectively managed its spare - parts

  19. 77 FR 5505 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project In accordance with... of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage...

  20. 78 FR 924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Eagle River PM 10 Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY... Maintenance Plan (LMP) submitted by the State of Alaska on September 29, 2010, for the Eagle River nonattainment area (Eagle River NAA) and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for the...

  1. 76 FR 1149 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public... for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 13123), located on the site of...

  2. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  3. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  4. 76 FR 65507 - Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP Take notice that on October 11, 2011, (Eagle Ford) filed a petition for rate approval pursuant to section 284.123(b.... Eagle Ford states that it is an existing intrastate pipeline, within the meaning of sections 2(16) and...

  5. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  6. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined "stylalgia" as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  7. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle Rock...

  8. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State. (a...

  9. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  10. The Eagle of Womanhood: Dramatising the Strength of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in securing the survival of her family despite all odds that is considered the eagle of her womanhood, a womanist strength that also underscores an urgent need for change in the Igbo's gendered conceptualization of social roles in contemporary world. Keywords: gender, Nigerian drama, the Igbos, Patriarchy, Feminism,

  11. Bald Eagle Nesting in the Superior National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Mattson; Alfred H. Grewe

    1976-01-01

    Sixteen years (1959-1974) of bald eagle nesting data representing 102 nests were examined. Nest survey intensity increased in the late 1960''s and was most comprehensive during 1972, 1973, and 1974. Some nests were used for at least 15 years. Most nest trees were white pines, reflecting availability. IN 1974 the number of active and successful nests and...

  12. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  13. Evaluating Great Lakes bald eagle nesting habitat with Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; William W. Bowerman; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D. V. Chip Weseloh

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference facilitated structured interpretation of a nonreplicated, experience-based survey of potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the five Great Lakes shorelines. We developed a pattern recognition (PATREC) model of our aerial search image with six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and...

  14. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  15. Notes on African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus diet in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study reports on contrasts in prey items from African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus nesting in forest (n = 1) and savanna (n = 2) biomes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At least 12 taxa were identified at a forest nest, of which 92.1% were neonate/juvenile. Bovids and procaviids represented 73.7% and 19.6% ...

  16. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  17. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediately transported to foster/recipient nests or a rehabilitation facility permitted to care for eagles... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible... Region in which the disturbance would occur—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find the...

  18. The "Oklahoma Eagle": A Study of Black Press Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen F.

    Analyzing the history of the "Oklahoma Eagle" provides insight into the problems and the opportunities involved in operating a black newspaper and reveals the factors responsible for the paper's longevity. The paper has been owned and operated by members of the Edward Lawrence Goodwin family since 1938 and has been staffed by excellent…

  19. Book Review: Children of the Eagle | Nweke | Lagos Notes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. Akachi Ezeigbo. Children of the Eagle. Lagos: Vista Books. 2002. Price: N600. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  20. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan...; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop... Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Endangered Species Act. BGEPA prohibits all...

  1. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  2. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  3. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  4. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  5. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Susan Magoffin’s Santa Fe Days in 1846: The Value of Testimony Les journées de Santa Fé en 1846 de Susan Magoffin : la valeur du témoignage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Berthier-Foglar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Susan Magoffin, la jeune épouse d’un commerçant de la piste de Santa Fe, accompagna son mari en 1846 pour un voyage où la caravane suivait de près l’Armée de l’Ouest et pendant lequel elle tint un journal. Cet article traite des 37 jours que dura la pause de la caravane à Santa Fe et aborde plus spécifiquement la façon dont l’auteur appréhendait l’altérité dans un environnement inhabituel et parfois dangereux. Pour apprécier la valeur du témoignage, je combine une analyse du discours avec une évaluation statistique du contenu. La description, parfois naïve, de Santa Fe sous l’occupation américaine illustre les raisons de la guerre contre le Mexique. En tant qu’agent de la destinée manifeste, Susan Magoffin admirait le général Kearny en lui attribuant des qualités surhumaines et en participant à ses efforts de propagande. Alors qu’elle était enracinée dans sa classe et sa culture, elle voyait la population mexicaine et les Amérindiens avec un esprit ouvert bien que ses motifs pour apprendre l’espagnol, ainsi que le métier de commerçante, avaient une fonction plus prosaïque.

  7. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  8. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Russell, Robin E

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2% of bald eagles and 11.8% of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  9. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  10. Coming to terms about describing Golden Eagle reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Brown, Jessi L.

    2017-01-01

    Clearly defined terms are essential for reporting and understanding research findings, and inconsistent terminology can complicate efforts to compare findings from different studies. In this article, we reiterate and clarify recommended terms for describing Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproduction. Several authors have provided recommendations for reporting data on raptor reproduction, but our literature review showed that authors continue to use different, often ambiguous and undefined, terms. The inconsistent use of terminology by researchers has been continued and expanded by lawmakers, regulators, and managers, perpetuating confusion. We recommend that authors clearly define and reference all terminology that they use, and we caution against use of the term “active” to describe a nest or nesting territory, because it is tainted with a history of inconsistent use. We provide a glossary of recommended terms for Golden Eagles and other large, long-lived raptors.

  11. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pectinate artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one ...

  12. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [German] Bei klinischen Beschwerden wie Dysphagie, Fremdkoerpergefuehl und chronischen

  13. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... November 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: You may download copies of the DEA on the Internet at... Shiloh IV Wind Project will result in recurring eagle mortalities over the life of the project, so the... permitted take and additional factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of...

  14. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility.... Craig M. White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment... Safeguards Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle...

  15. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States... pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of the coin will be $60.45. FOR...

  16. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United... the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011...

  17. 77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for..., Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Limited Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20, 2011... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the PM 10 Limited Maintenance Plan for Eagle River, Alaska...

  18. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable. Keywords: environmental law; legal protection; biodiversity; species; misidentification; Bald Eagle; Golden Eagle; bird of prey; raptor; South Africa ...

  19. Known breeding distribution and abundance of golden eagles in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Morneau; Junior A. Tremblay; Charles Todd; Tony E. Chubbs; Charles Maisonneuve; Jerome Lemaitre; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) breeds in both eastern and western North America. However, the former population has received much less attention than the latter. The purpose of this paper is to document the known distribution and abundance of eastern Golden Eagles within their breeding range and to identify gaps in knowledge for future studies....

  20. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and methods to be used and the exact location of each artificial nest site must be included. (b... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon...

  1. The genome sequence of a widespread apex Predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Doyle; Todd E. Katzner; Peter H. Bloom; Yanzhu Ji; Bhagya K. Wijayawardena; J. Andrew DeWoody; Ludovic. Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male...

  2. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant to...

  3. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock... special nuclear material. This proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) and...

  4. The eagle concept-framework for a future land monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hazeu, Gerard; Sanz, Nuria Valcarcel

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to

  5. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a...

  6. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on December 4, 2009 by a company official on behalf of workers of Eagle...

  7. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to...

  8. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession, use... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  9. The endemic Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis baweanus: habitat use, abundance and conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis bawearius is endemic to the 190 km(2) island of Bawean in the Java Sea (Indonesia) where it is the only resident diurnal raptor. A 15 day study in 2002 revealed that the species is present in small numbers throughout the island. The eagle's abundance was assessed

  10. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $139.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marc Landry, Acting Associate Director for...

  11. Abundance and Distribution of African Fish Eagles along Major Rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Chiganze, S.; Chirombe, P.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.; Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) are important birds of prey and indicator of ecosystem integrity in aquatic environments. We assessed the population abundance and spatial distribution of African fish eagles along three major rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Data were collected

  12. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Pittman; W. W. Bowerman; L. H. Grim; Teryl Grubb; W. C. Bridges

    2011-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure...

  13. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline... January 21, 2011. On June 22, 2009, Eagle Crest Energy Company (Eagle Crest or applicant) filed an...

  14. 75 FR 66745 - Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of.... Applicants: Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus Inc., respectively. e. Name of Projects: Eagle and Phenix Mills and City Mills Hydroelectric Projects. f. Location: Lower Chattahoochee River...

  15. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III, L.P., provided debt and equity...

  16. 75 FR 31811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for Bald Eagle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... for Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that we implement a system... that have been recovered and no longer need ESA protection. In 2007, we removed the bald eagle in the...

  17. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., provided debt and equity...

  18. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed...

  19. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... livestock or domestic animals owned by applicant, if applicable; (6) Kind and amount of alleged damage, or... other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft; (2) The taking of eagles under permit may be...

  20. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the H I mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from z = 1 to 0 than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  1. EAGLE SYMBOL IN TURKISH ICONOGRAPHY AND IT'S REFLECTION TO THE CONTEMPORARY TURKISH PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim COBAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It's been thought that eagle has an important place as a cultural value, a symbol (nickname, soul, symbol in Anatolia and established in other regions of the world in the religious and social life of many civilization. This symbol has been accepted as the bird which brings news from the future also this symbol represent domination, power, authority, goodness, freedom, barvery, protective spirit, nobility, sun, fate, and scholarship. The eagle symbol which has been subsisted throughout centuries, has been transformed into stylized visuals. This visuals which have been symbolized in areas where they been also used as one or two headed eagle in patterns. It has been studied that eagle symbols's strong presence in the Turkish culture dealt with in terms of the sustainability of Turkish art. It has been examined that eagle symbol's handled with unique plastic language interpretation in the process of since 1923 to the present with tradition and rich history.

  2. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  3. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  4. Barred galaxy formation in the EAGLE cosmological simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Algorry, D. G.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about the formation and evolution of stellar bars in Milky-Way sized galaxies using the EAGLE ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. In agreement with observational results, this simulation shows that ˜ 40% of our simulated disk galaxies have a stellar bar with a wide variety of bar strengths. Typical bar lengths are ˜ 6.5 kpc also comparing favourably to observed ones. Our unbarred disks are more gas-rich and star-forming than those having a strong bar. In concordance with previous work, bars develop in galaxies where the disk is gravitationally dominant over the dark matter halo.

  5. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Politi

    2009-01-01

    The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  6. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  7. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  8. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  9. ‘Speaking Kleinian’: Susan Isaacs as Ursula Wise and the Inter-War Popularisation of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Michal

    2017-01-01

    How did the complex concepts of psychoanalysis become popular in early twentieth-century Britain? This article examines the contribution of educator and psychoanalyst Susan Isaacs (1885–1948) to this process, as well as her role as a female expert in the intellectual and medical history of this period. Isaacs was one of the most influential British psychologists of the inter-war era, yet historical research on her work is still limited. The article focuses on her writing as ‘Ursula Wise’, answering the questions of parents and nursery nurses in the popular journal Nursery World, from 1929 to 1936. Researched in depth for the first time, Isaacs’ important magazine columns reveal that her writing was instrumental in disseminating the work of psychoanalyst Melanie Klein in Britain. Moreover, Isaacs’ powerful rebuttals to behaviourist, disciplinarian parenting methods helped shift the focus of caregivers to the child’s perspective, encouraging them to acknowledge children as independent subjects and future democratic citizens. Like other early psychoanalysts, Isaacs was not an elitist; she was in fact committed to disseminating her ideas as broadly as possible. Isaacs taught British parents and child caregivers to ‘speak Kleinian’, translating Klein’s intellectual ideas into ordinary language and thus enabling their swift integration into popular discourse. PMID:28901872

  10. Efficiency evaluation of proposed EAGLE target acquisition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William D.; Evans, Chris J.; Schnetler, Hermine

    2008-07-01

    Efficient assignment of science targets to the individual channels of a multi-object astronomical instrument, such as EAGLE for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), is crucial for maximising the utility of the instrument. This paper presents the results obtained by modelling the efficiencies of various pick-off system concepts: free standing Pick-Off Mirrors (POMs), POMs at the tip of moving arms, or a tiled focal plane. Consideration is also taken of the way in which the freestanding POMs are placed: by a pick and place robot, or a swarm of micro autonomous robots. Allocation algorithms were developed for each concept and applied to target fields which are representative of EAGLE's likely science cases. It is shown how the results of the modelling were used to generate a new system comparison criterion called Allocation Flexibility and how this influences the choice of the baseline solution. The allocation flexibility suggests that the best system will use free standing POMs with as small a footprint as possible, which reflect light to a raised beam steering mirror.

  11. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  12. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  13. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  14. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  15. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G. [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  16. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  17. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  18. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  19. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  20. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  1. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  2. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  3. Diasporic Reconciliations of Politics, Love and Trauma: Susan Abulhawa’s Quest for Identity in Mornings in Jenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M Abu-Shomar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Negotiating human conditions is an emblematic critical impetus of diaspora informed by multiple cultural possibilities practiced through the creation of multiple spaces that cross the realm of the ‘self’ to that of the ‘other’. It offers a locale to cross from the oppressed ‘self’ to an understanding of an oppressor ‘other’. Yet, diasporic negotiation is politically involved in the most responsible manner; it engages the contextual social realities in order to enable creative possibilities for overcoming the logic of the politics altogether. It invites a kind of political involvement that assures the ‘situatedness of the ethical’ in a framework of moral humanistic realisations. The realisation of diasporic negotiations is dialogically engaged in manners that will give birth to new possibilities for human togetherness. In this essay, I trace the signs of diasporic negotiations of politics, love and trauma in Susan Abulhawa’s Mornings in Jenin by focusing on the Diasporic identity of Amal (the central character. I consider the intersections between diaspora, dislocation of identity and the creation of negotiating spaces that qualify an 'epistemology of Diaspora' against essentialised and ethnocentric construction of realities. I argue that Abulhawa creates diasporic spaces and immense moral scenes to transcend a particular stance of politics via transcending love in opposition to suffering and tribulation. I contend that Abulhawa’s conceptualisation of Diasporic negotiations enables her to depict and gauge two extreme human sentiments: love and trauma, yet, without yielding or compromising the right of just resistance and dissent. Keywords: Diaspora, humanism, Trauma, identity, negotiating difference, and 'Otherness'

  4. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia.

  5. CERN's eagle-eyed movement hunters in action

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...

  6. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillas, Enrique; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. Using a spherical underdensity finder, we analyse voids using the mass field and subhalo tracers in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes in a (100 cMpc)3 volume. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with DM-only simulations that use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When identifying voids in the mass field, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one due to the action of galaxy feedback polluting void regions with hot gas, specially for small voids with rvoid ≤ 10 Mpc. We find that the way in which galaxy tracers are selected has a strong impact on the inferred void properties. Voids identified using galaxies selected by their stellar mass are larger and have cuspier density profiles than those identified by galaxies selected by their total mass. Overall, baryons have minimal effects on void statistics, as void properties are well captured by DM-only simulations, but it is important to account for how galaxies populate DM haloes to estimate the observational effect of different cosmological models on the statistics of voids.

  7. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  8. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bunce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  9. Evaluation of the 100 meter protective zone for bald eagle nests in southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in southeast Alaska have been protected by a 100 m buffer zone since 1968. Nests near logging developments were surveyed...

  10. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  11. Investigating Bald Eagle Winter and Summer Concentrations on Cat Point Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project are: 1) document the seasonal distribution and abundance patterns of Bald Eagles along Cat Point Creek within 750 feet of the Route...

  12. Ecology of Nesting Bald Eagles on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were censused in a boreal forest region on and near the 688,000 ha Kenai National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 1979....

  13. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  14. Environmental Assessment for Hunt Plan; Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge, Eagle Point Unit, Derby Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment to support public hunting. evaluation of the hunting impacts to refuge resources at the Eagle Point Unit based on chosen alternatives

  15. Golden Eagle food habits in the Mojave Desert: Regional information for a changing landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Expansion of renewable energy development is rapidly transforming the Mojave Desert landscape and has the potential to impact Golden Eagles through loss of foraging...

  16. Census, nesting and productivity of bald eagles in southeast Alaska, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in southeast Alaska was conducted during the period March 15, 1966 to July 7, 1966. The first surveys were for...

  17. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  18. Contaminant exposure of bald eagles via prey at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Voyageurs National Park (VNP) represents a major concentration site for nesting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), which are currently listed in Minnesota as a...

  19. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  20. The potential effects of Rocky Mountain Arsenal cleanup and Denver metropolitan transportation development on bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Colorado's Barr Lake State Park provide habitats which support wintering and nesting bald eagles near metropolitan Denver,...

  1. Off‐refuge contaminant investigation : Liver contaminants in bald eagle carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presentation provides the results of a study done to analyze bald eagle carcasses found in Maine for mercury, lead, total polychlorinated biphenyl, and...

  2. Common Raven (Corvus corax) kleptoparasitism at a Golden Eagle (Aquila chyrsaetos) nest in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Johnson, Diego R.; Streit, Justin; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Raven (Corvus corax) is a ubiquitous species in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada and California. From 5 to 24 May 2014, using remote trail cameras, we observed ravens repeatedly kleptoparasitizing food resources from the nest of a pair of Golden Eagles (Aquila chyrsaetos) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada. The ravens fed on nine (30%) of the 30 prey items delivered to the nest during the chick rearing period. Kleptoparasitic behavior by the ravens decreased as the eagle nestling matured to seven weeks of age, suggesting a narrow temporal window in which ravens can successfully engage in kleptoparasitic behavior at eagle nests. The observation of kleptoparasitism by Common Ravens at the nest suggests potential risks to young Golden Eagles from Common Ravens.

  3. Recent distribution and status of nesting bald eagles in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Conant, B.; Anderson, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in Baja California, Mexico, and vicinity from 1983-1993. The range of nesting Bald Eagles in Baja California has been reduced from a scattering of pairs along both the Pacific and Gulf sides to a remnant population in Magdalena Bay where no more than three pairs were found annually. Low numbers and a restricted distribution make this disjunct population especially vulnerable to human disturbance. Additional protection of present nesting localities and a reintroduction program on remote islands in the Gulf of California where eagles historically nested, are proposed. Limited data on nesting success indicate that the Magdalena Bay population is reproducing successfully with young probably dispersing north following fledging. The Bald Eagles found wintering along the Colorado River Delta in January apparently nest farther north in the United States or Canada.

  4. Environmental contaminants in a crossed bill bald eagle recovered in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On September 4, 2011, a fledgling female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with a crossedbill was recovered along Pine Point Beach in the town of Scarborough,...

  5. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  6. Bald Eagle Tracking Project Report Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to learn, by use of tracking devices, the locations of bald eagle high use areas for foraging and roosting. Tracking will provide...

  7. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    .... We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers...

  8. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  9. Bald Eagle Nest Observation Plan and Survey Report 1989 Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To record the breeding chronology (nest initiation, egg laying, incubation, hatching, nestling period, fledging and family dispersal) of bald eagles found at Mason...

  10. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report, update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July of 1982. The study objectives are: to...

  11. Changes in productivity and environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the Lower Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numbers of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting along the lower Columbia River have doubled in the last six years, yet five-year running productivity...

  12. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  13. Vozvrashtshenije "Ekzorsista" / Susan Howard

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Howard, Susan

    2001-01-01

    William Friedkini 1973.a. valminud õudusfilm "Exorcist", selle järjed ja selle hiljuti restaureeritud ja taas ekraanile paisatud versioon ning nende mõju näitlejanna Linda Blair'i elukäigule, kes filmis mängis saatanast vaevatud teistmelist

  14. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  16. Pleistocene to historic shifts in bald eagle diets on the Channel Islands, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D; Collins, Paul W; Rick, Torben C; Guthrie, Daniel A; Erlandson, Jon M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2010-05-18

    Studies of current interactions among species, their prey, and environmental factors are essential for mitigating immediate threats to population viability, but the true range of behavioral and ecological flexibility can be determined only through research on deeper timescales. Ecological data spanning centuries to millennia provide important contextual information for long-term management strategies, especially for species that now are living in relict populations. Here we use a variety of methods to reconstruct bald eagle diets and local abundance of their potential prey on the Channel Islands from the late Pleistocene to the time when the last breeding pairs disappeared from the islands in the mid-20th century. Faunal and isotopic analysis of bald eagles shows that seabirds were important prey for immature/adult eagles for millennia before the eagles' local extirpation. In historic times (A.D. 1850-1950), however, isotopic and faunal data show that breeding bald eagles provisioned their chicks with introduced ungulates (e.g., sheep), which were locally present in high densities. Today, bald eagles are the focus of an extensive conservation program designed to restore a stable breeding population to the Channel Islands, but native and nonnative prey sources that were important for bald eagles in the past are either diminished (e.g., seabirds) or have been eradicated (e.g., introduced ungulates). In the absence of sufficient resources, a growing bald eagle population on the Channel Islands could expand its prey base to include carrion from local pinniped colonies, exert predation pressure on a recovering seabird population, and possibly prey on endangered island foxes.

  17. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Tingay, Ruth E; Culver, Melanie; Hailer, Frank; Clarke, Michèle L; Mindell, David P

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape.

  18. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  19. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  1. Quest for safer skies: Modeling golden eagles and wind energy to reduce turbine risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Katzner; Tricia Miller; Scott. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    In a patch of sky above Pennsylvania, a golden eagle moves languidly, never flapping but passing quickly as it cruises southward on a cushion of air. It is migrating to its wintering grounds after a season of breeding in Quebec. As part of a team studying eagles on a daily basis—a project supported by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), West Virginia University,...

  2. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  3. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  4. Síndrome de Eagle: avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico Eagle Syndrome: surgical treatment evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Suzano Louzeiro Tiago

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A apófise estilóide é uma projeção óssea que se origina na porção timpânica do osso temporal. O aumento desta ou a ossificação do ligamento estilohióideo pode originar uma série de sintomas como disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. Este conjunto de sintomas associado à presença da apófise estilóide alongada é conhecido como Síndrome de Eagle. Objetivo: Relatar um grupo de quatro pacientes com Síndrome de Eagle, bem como discutir a apresentação clínica e o tratamento mais adequado desta doença. Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Realizado estudo clínico retrospectivo de quatro pacientes, operados no HSPE-FMO e HSPM de São Paulo, no período de junho de 1998 a junho de 2001. O tratamento cirúrgico foi a opção terapêutica escolhida, com a retirada da apófise estilóide alongada. Foi avaliada a evolução clínica no pós-operatório. Resultados: Dos quatro pacientes, três eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade variando de 38 a 68 anos e com média etária de 57,25 anos. A apófise estilóide alongada foi encontrada e operada em ambos os lados em 50% dos casos. Houve remissão completa dos sintomas em três pacientes, com melhora parcial no outro paciente. Conclusão: Esta doença deve ser considerada em pacientes com sintomas de disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. O tratamento cirúrgico para pacientes que apresentam a apófise estilóide alongada com sintomas compatíveis com a Síndrome de Eagle é a melhor forma de conduzir estes casos, sendo a via de abordagem externa a que oferece mais segurança e que possibilita uma ressecção mais completa.Introduction: The styloid apophysis is an osseous outgrowth originating in the tympanum portion of the temporal bone. Its growth, or the ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, may cause a series of symptoms, such as dysphagia, odynophagia

  5. Race, Feminine Power, and the Vietnam War in Philip Red Eagle's "Red Earth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Scott

    2004-01-01

    In her book "The Remasculinization of America," Susan Jeffords discusses the dynamics of how differences such as race and class are erased in filmic and literary representations of the Vietnam War. She asserts that one difference is not overcome by the battlefield: gender, a barrier that is depicted in the literature as natural and…

  6. Dennis C. Roberts & Susan R. Komives (Eds. (2016. Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross-Border Higher Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munita Dunn-Coetzee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing Student Learning and Development in Cross-Border Higher Education, edited by Dennis C. Roberts and Susan R. Komives, is a book that resulted from a short-term study-abroad experience between the Universities of Maryland and San Diego with the Qatar Foundation’s Education City in Doha in 2010. This partnership challenged the way in which higher education internalisation was viewed – in such a way that the visit was replicated in 2012 and this book was authored.

  7. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  8. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  9. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  11. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett John

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3.

  12. Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends in the Conterminous United States, 1986-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakle, Wade L.; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R.; Fischer, Richard A.; Steenhof, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed counts from the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey to examine state, regional, and national trends in counts of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetusleucocephalus) within the conterminous 48 United States from 1986 to 2010. Using hierarchical mixed model methods, we report trends in counts from 11,729 surveys along 844 routes in 44 states. Nationwide Bald Eagle counts increased 0.6% per yr over the 25-yr period, compared to an estimate of 1.9% per yr from 1986 to 2000. Trend estimates for Bald Eagles were significant (P≤0.05) and positive in the northeastern and northwestern U.S. (3.9% and 1.1%, respectively), while trend estimates for Bald Eagles were negative (P≤0.05) in the southwestern U.S. (-2.2%). After accounting for potential biases resulting from temporal and regional differences in surveys, we believe trends reflect post-DDT recovery and subsequent early effects of density-dependent population regulation. PMID:26392679

  13. Data on the Trophic Spectrum of Young Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 in South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin V. Zhelev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current publication presents the results of a research on the food spectrum of young Imperial eagles (juvennes, immaturus (Aquilaheliaca, SAVIGNY, 1809 in South Bulgaria. Dispersal sites and temporary settlement areas were identified tracking two young eagles marked with radio-transmitters. The birds were tagged in 2007 by the team of Green Balkans Federation. The feeding and behaviour of over 20 young Imperial eagles was observed in a total of 6 regions, including vulture feeding sites. A total of 32 pellets were collected from the trees used by those birds for roosting. Thus the feeding spectrum of young imperial eagles in their roaming period just after fledgling was identified. A total of 13 feeding components, comprising 101 specimens were identified. These were mainly small mammals, dominated by *- (Microtus arvalis, P. - complex (n= 56 specimens, 55,45% and significant presence of House mouse (Mus musculus, L. – 18 specimens or 17,82 %. The observations prove the presence of carcass among the food items taken by the wintering eagles and the particular use of the existing artificial feeding sites for vultures. The study proves the food opportunism of the species.

  14. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock... hearing'' portion of this proceeding regarding the December 2008 application by AREVA Enrichment Services... Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  15. 75 FR 35018 - Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL...

  16. 75 FR 62808 - Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Power Authority, Inc.'s application for market...

  17. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for market...

  18. 75 FR 74038 - Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC's ] application...

  19. 77 FR 74545 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III- A...

  20. 77 FR 74544 - Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III, L.P...

  1. Care, food consumption, and behavior of bald eagles used in DDT tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-seven Bald Eagles captured in southeastern Alaska were used in feeding tests to determine the effects of DDT in the diet.....Trapping and housing of eagles are discussed. Various aspects of eagle behavior and handling techniques are also presented. Recommendations are made for preventing injuries and increasing the comfort of captive birds.....The 1962 test birds consumed an average of 274 grams per bird day with a range of 109 to 401 grams per day between birds. Average food intake was 254 grams per bird day for the 1963 test birds with a range of 194 to 324 grams per day between birds.....Weight losses varied from 23 to 49 per cent of normal body weight for the 7 birds which died in the 1962 tests. Tremors and death occurred first for birds on the highest dosage and progressively later for birds on the lower dosages.

  2. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  3. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log M*/M⊙ < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs (≈60 per cent) to weak bars (≈20 per cent) and to strongly barred systems (≈20 per cent). Bars in these systems develop after redshift ≈1.3, on time-scales that depend sensitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, or roughly ∼10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitationally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the haloes they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90 per cent of the stars. Bars slow down remarkably quickly as they grow, causing the inner regions of the surrounding dark halo to expand. At z = 0 strong bars in simulated galaxies have corotation radii roughly 10 times the bar length. Such slow bars are inconsistent with the few cases where pattern speeds have been measured or inferred observationally, a discrepancy that, if confirmed, might prove a challenge for disc galaxy formation in ΛCDM.

  4. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  5. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  6. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  7. Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single adult Cassin's hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus was sighted on five occasions over three years in a highland forest in the Udzungwa Mountains, the first ever record of this species in Tanzania. This discovery has potentially significant biogeographical implications, strengthening ancient links between the forests of ...

  8. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  9. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and... Board (Board) in the above-captioned Areva Enrichment Services proceeding is hereby reconstituted by...

  10. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of...

  11. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the...

  12. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is...

  13. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of...

  14. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the...

  15. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the...

  16. A survey of potential bald eagle nesting habitat along the Great Lakes shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Bowerman; Teryl G. Grubb; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D.V. Chip Weseloh

    2005-01-01

    We used fixed-wing aircraft to survey the entire shoreline and connecting channels of the five Great Lakes to determine potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during 1992. Habitat was classified as either good, marginal, or unsuitable, based on six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and (c) type/amount...

  17. Night roosts of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabin K. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were delisted from threatened or endangered status in 2007 in the conterminous states because of their encouraging comeback throughout most of North America. However the recent court decision on 1 May 2008 forced USFWS to issue a rule to amend the regulations for the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife by...

  18. Black Eagles and hyraxes — the two flagship species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Black Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) in the Matobo National Park is heavily dependent on two hyrax species, which form 98% of the diet. This raptor has been the subject of study in the Matobo Hills for the past 45 years. Its two main prey species, the Yellow-spotted Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) and the Rock Hyrax (Procavia ...

  19. Multi-object spectroscopy with the European ELT: scientific synergies between EAGLE and EVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Chemla, F.; Cuby, J.G.; Dalton, G.B.; Davies, B.; Disseau, K.; Dohlen, K.; Flores, H.; Gendron, E.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Hastings, P.; Horville, D.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Laporte, P.; Lee, D.; Morris, S.L.; Morris, T.; Myers, R.; Navarro, R.; Parr-Burman, P.; Petitjean, P.; Puech, M.; Rollinde, E.; Rousset, G.; Schnetler, H.; Welikala, N.; Wells, M.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The EAGLE and EVE Phase A studies for instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) originated from related top-level scientific questions, but employed different (yet complementary) methods to deliver the required observations. We re-examine the motivations for a multi-object

  20. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate Election pursuant to section 284.123(b...

  1. The legal status of the Spanish imperial eagle in Spain and thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti), with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of ...

  2. Assessment of butterfly diversity in eagle owl gully of Amurum Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly diversity at the Eagle Owl Gully, Amurum Forest Reserve, Jos East, Plateau State was investigated by the use of sweep nets along transects in two types of habitats namely protected and unprotected. A total of three hundred and ninety-four butterflies belonging to thirty-three genera and seven families were ...

  3. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-dependent ecosystems. North Fork of Eagle Creek is located in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New... and drought conditions have placed increasing demands on surface water and groundwater resources of... percent of its water supply from the North Fork well field. During drought conditions prior to 2006, over...

  4. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  5. Satellite tracking of a young Steppe Eagle from the United Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is part of a larger study on understanding migration of important birds of prey species from the UAE. The satellite-tagged Steppe Eagle was released near the town of Al Ain, UAE on 5 January 2009 and was tracked until 6 November 2010. Two complete spring and autumn migrations were tracked in addition to its ...

  6. Golden eagle indifference to heli-skiing and military helicopters in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman; Michael R. Wierda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2007, during Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) permit renewal for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area (TCA) of the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near >30 individual golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in 22 nesting territories, through passive observation and active experimentation...

  7. Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  8. Influences of Eagle Ford Shale Development on Superintendent Leadership Experiences: A Phenomenological Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczygemba, Jeanette Winn

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study examined the effects of the Eagle Ford Shale development upon public school superintendent leadership experiences during the boom phase of the energy industry expansion. The four research questions investigated the shale development's influence on experiences in the areas of instruction, finance and…

  9. Bald eagle habitat suitability on Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, D.A. [Univ., of Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The area around Melton Hill Reservoir and sections of the Clinch River along the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide suitable habitat for bald eagles for both breeding and wintering activities. Primary limitations on habitat suitability appear to be human activity in aquatic habitats and along shoreline areas, and human development along shoreline areas. ORR provides the majority of the suitable habitat because shoreline development is very limited. Four eagle management strategies discussed for ORR include planning development away from high-quality habitats, allowing forest stands near water to mature, conducting timber stand improvement to foster growth and development in pines and hardwoods, and using introductions to foster the development of a breeding population. The primary objective of this project was to make a qualitative assessment of bald eagle habitat suitability along Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River and in adjacent areas on the ORR, including the proposed Advanced Neutron Source site. This survey`s aim was to provide ORR managers with an indication of whether suitable habitat exists and, if so, where it occurs on ORR. This information should provide the basis for incorporating eagle management into the overall ORR land management plan.

  10. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Notes on the breeding biology of Javan Hawk-eagle in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Balen, van S.; Sözer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is one of the rarest and least known birds of prey, regarded as globally endangered and confined to the last remnants of forests left on the densely populated island of Java, Indonesia. Its biology is little-known and only a few cases of breeding have been

  13. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  14. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  15. The implementation of the graphics of program EAGLE: A numerical grid generation code on NASA Langley SNS computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Johnny L.

    1989-01-01

    Program EAGLE (Eglin Arbitrary Geometry Implicit Euler) Numerical Grid Generation System is a composite (multi-block) algebraic or elliptic grid generation system designed to discretize the domain in and/or around any arbitrarily shaped three dimensional regions. This system combines a boundary conforming surface generation scheme and includes plotting routines designed to take full advantage of the DISSPLA Graphics Package (Version 9.0). Program EAGLE is written to compile and execute efficiently on any Cray machine with or without solid state disk (SSD) devices. Also, the code uses namelist inputs which are supported by all Cray machines using the FORTRAN compiler CFT77. The namelist inputs makes it easier for the user to understand the inputs and operation of Program EAGLE. EAGLE's numerical grid generator is constructed in the following form: main program, EGG (executive routine); subroutine SURFAC (surface generation routine); subroutine GRID (grid generation routine); and subroutine GRDPLOT (grid plotting routines). The EAGLE code was modified to use on the NASA-LaRC SNS computer (Cray 2S) system. During the modification a conversion program was developed for the output data of EAGLE's subroutine GRID to permit the data to be graphically displayed by IRIS workstations, using Plot3D. The code of program EAGLE was modified to make operational subroutine GRDPLOT (using DI-3000 Graphics Software Packages) on the NASA-LaRC SNS Computer System. How to implement graphically, the output data of subroutine GRID was determined on any NASA-LaRC graphics terminal that has access to the SNS Computer System DI-300 Graphics Software Packages. A Quick Reference User Guide was developed for the use of program EAGLE on the NASA-LaRC SNS Computer System. One or more application program(s) was illustrated using program EAGLE on the NASA LaRC SNS Computer System, with emphasis on graphics illustrations.

  16. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  17. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  18. Solving man-induced large-scale conservation problems: the Spanish imperial eagle and power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-03-02

    Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974-2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electricuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered species.

  19. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  20. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Brandt, Adam R.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.; Vafi, Kourosh; Reedy, Robert C.

    2017-01-30

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gas (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.

  1. The Utility of AISA Eagle Hyperspectral Data and Random Forest Classifier for Flower Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the floral cycle and the spatial distribution and abundance of flowering plants is important for bee health studies to understand the relationship between landscape and bee hive productivity and honey flow. The key objective of this study was to show how AISA Eagle hyperspectral data and random forest (RF can be optimally utilized to produce flowering and spatially explicit land use/land cover (LULC maps for a study site in Kenya. AISA Eagle imagery was captured at the early flowering period (January 2014 and at the peak flowering season (February 2013. Data on white and yellow flowering trees as well as LULC classes in the study area were collected and used as ground-truth points. We utilized all 64 AISA Eagle bands and also used variable importance in RF to identify the most important bands in both AISA Eagle data sets. The results showed that flowering was most accurately mapped using the AISA Eagle data from the peak flowering period (85.71%–88.15% overall accuracy for the peak flowering season imagery versus 80.82%–83.67% for the early flowering season. The variable optimization (i.e., variable selection analysis showed that less than half of the AISA bands (n = 26 for the February 2013 data and n = 21 for the January 2014 data were important to attain relatively reliable classification accuracies. Our study is an important first step towards the development of operational flower mapping routines and for understanding the relationship between flowering and bees’ foraging behavior.

  2. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  3. Methane and benzene in drinking-water wells overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Groundwater samples were collected from domestic and public-supply wells in the Eagle Ford study area in 2015–16, in the Fayetteville study area in 2015, and in the...

  4. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  5. Occurrence and Habitat Use of Wintering Bald Eagles on Eastern Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (1955-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Occurrence and habitat use data for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), was compiled for use in planning a study to assess the potential effects of environmental...

  6. The potential for contaminant exposure to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of the James River, Virginia: Prey contaminant studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the east coast of the United States. Fish constitute up...

  7. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  8. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  9. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale: Results from the USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Boehlke, Adam; Paxton, Stanley T.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2017-01-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is a major continuous oil and gas resource play in southcentral Texas and a source for other oil accumulations in the East Texas Basin. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) petroleum system assessment and research efforts, a coring program to obtain several immature, shallow cores from near the outcrop belt in central Texas has been undertaken. The first of these cores, USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway, was collected near Waco, Texas, in September 2015 and has undergone extensive geochemical and mineralogical characterization using routine methods to ascertain variations in the lithologies and chemofacies present in the Eagle Ford at this locale. Approximately 270 ft of core was examined for this study, focusing on the Eagle Ford Group interval between the overlying Austin Chalk and underlying Buda Limestone (~20 ft of each). Based on previous work to identify the stratigraphy of the Eagle Ford Group in the Waco area and elsewhere (Liro et al., 1994; Robison, 1997; Ratcliffe et al., 2012; Boling and Dworkin, 2015; Fairbanks et al., 2016, and references therein), several lithological units were expected to be present, including the Pepper Shale (or Woodbine), the Lake Waco Formation (or Lower Eagle Ford, including the Bluebonnet, Cloice, and Bouldin or Flaggy Cloice members), and the South Bosque Member (Upper Eagle Ford). The results presented here indicate that there are three major chemofacies present in the cored interval, which are generally consistent with previous descriptions of the Eagle Ford Group in this area. The relatively high-resolution sampling (every two ft above the Buda, 432.8 ft depth, and below the Austin Chalk, 163.5 ft depth) provides great detail in terms of geochemical and mineralogical properties supplementing previous work on immature Eagle Ford Shale near the outcrop belt.

  10. Inter-relationships between the spawning migration of Eagle Lake rainbow trout, streamflow, snowpack, and air temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    Pine Creek has historically provided critical spawning and rearing habitat for Eagle Lake rainbow trout (ELRT, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum). Over the past 100+ years modifications of Pine Creek watershed (e.g., overgrazing, timber harvest, passage barriers, culverts) decoupled the ELRT from its stream habitat. Introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) now dominate historic rearing areas in the upper watershed. Passage barriers were constructed on Eagle Lake tributaries to prevent ELRT ...

  11. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Wright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus, after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  12. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  13. A three-dimensional application with the numerical grid generation code: EAGLE (utilizing an externally generated surface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Program EAGLE (Eglin Arbitrary Geometry Implicit Euler) is a multiblock grid generation and steady-state flow solver system. This system combines a boundary conforming surface generation, a composite block structure grid generation scheme, and a multiblock implicit Euler flow solver algorithm. The three codes are intended to be used sequentially from the definition of the configuration under study to the flow solution about the configuration. EAGLE was specifically designed to aid in the analysis of both freestream and interference flow field configurations. These configurations can be comprised of single or multiple bodies ranging from simple axisymmetric airframes to complex aircraft shapes with external weapons. Each body can be arbitrarily shaped with or without multiple lifting surfaces. Program EAGLE is written to compile and execute efficiently on any CRAY machine with or without Solid State Disk (SSD) devices. Also, the code uses namelist inputs which are supported by all CRAY machines using the FORTRAN Compiler CF177. The use of namelist inputs makes it easier for the user to understand the inputs and to operate Program EAGLE. Recently, the Code was modified to operate on other computers, especially the Sun Spare4 Workstation. Several two-dimensional grid configurations were completely and successfully developed using EAGLE. Currently, EAGLE is being used for three-dimension grid applications.

  14. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release.

  15. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  16. Eagle's syndrome: report of two cases using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sul Mi; Kwon, Hyuk Rok; Choi, Hang Moon; Park, In Woo [College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Two cases of Eagle's syndrome are reported. The first case involved a 31-year-old man who complained of pain in his throat and pain at preauricular area on turning his head. Panoramic and computed tomography (CT) views showed bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. The symptoms were relieved after surgical removal. The second case involved a 56-year-old female whose chief complaints were a continuous dull pain and occasional 'shooting' pain on lower left molar area. During the physical examination, an ossified stylohyoid ligament was palpated at the left submandibular area. Panoramic and CT images showed prominent bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. CT scans also showed hypertrophy of left medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. The symptoms were relieved after medication. CT is a useful tool for the examination of ossified stylohyoid ligaments and studying the relationship between Eagle's syndrome and adjacent soft tissue.

  17. Avian pox infection in a free-living crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Pei, K J C; Lee, F R; Tzeng, M P; Chang, T C

    2011-03-01

    Avian pox viruses (APVs) have been reported to cause infection in diverse avian species worldwide. Herein we report the first case of APV infection in a free-living bird, a subadult crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela), in Taiwan. In addition to the typical wart-like lesions distributed on the cere, eyelid, and face, there were also yellowish nodules below the tongue and on the hard palate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4b core protein gene showed that the APV is very close to that found in white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan recently. Because both cases are located on the same major flyway for migratory birds, the impact of this virus with regard to the wild and migratory raptor species along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and West Pacific Flyway requires immediate investigation.

  18. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei de Moraes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation.

  19. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  20. The relation between galaxy morphology and colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Schaye, Joop; Clauwens, Bart; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Thob, Adrien C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relation between kinematic morphology, intrinsic colour and stellar mass of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We calculate the intrinsic u-r colours and measure the fraction of kinetic energy invested in ordered corotation of 3562 galaxies at z=0 with stellar masses larger than $10^{10}M_{\\odot}$. We perform a visual inspection of gri-composite images and find that our kinematic morphology correlates strongly with visual morphology. EAGLE produces a galaxy population for which morphology is tightly correlated with the location in the colour- mass diagram, with the red sequence mostly populated by elliptical galaxies and the blue cloud by disc galaxies. Satellite galaxies are more likely to be on the red sequence than centrals, and for satellites the red sequence is morphologically more diverse. These results show that the connection between mass, intrinsic colour and morphology arises from galaxy formation models that reproduce the observed galaxy mass function and sizes.

  1. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    are typically dominated by adult birds gathered in large communal roosts on deep waters, which is in contrast to the coastal habitats that are dominated by younger birds with a more even spatial distribution on more shallow waters (... and at night, whereas coastal birds were primarily diurnal feeders. Occasionally juvenile birds initiated feeding during daytime in the fjord, but were discontinued due to interactions with white-tailed eagles. Even in April when day length had increased by 5.9 hours (compared to February) the eiders appeared...... to rely on nocturnal feeding. The more extensive shallow waters in the coastal areas allow eiders to forage and feed at daytime at larger distances from land - presumably out of reach of eagle predation. We suggest that the nocturnal feeding strategy observed in the fjord is an effective anti...

  2. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  3. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  4. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of a Sharp Eagle wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-qun; Sheng, Song-wei; You, Ya-ge; Huang, Zhen-xin; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2017-06-01

    According to Newton's Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.

  5. Assessing ground-based counts of nestling bald eagles in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Hatfield, J.S.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence that the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) productivity survey in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northeastern Minnesota may have underestimated the number of nestlings during 1986-1988. Recommendations are provided to achieve more accurate ground-based counts. By conducting ground-based observations for up to 1 hour/nest, an accurate count of the number of bald eagle nestlings can be obtained. If nests are only observed for up to 30 minutes/nest, an accurate determination of nest success can be made. The effort that managers put into counts should be based on the intended use of the productivity data. If small changes in mean productivity would trigger management action, the less acurate ground-based counts should be conducted with caution. Prior to implementing ground-based counts, a study like ours should estimate bias associated with different survey procedures and the observation time needed to achieve accurate results.

  6. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  7. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene, short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina, two species with comparatively long generation times. Results Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga. Conclusions The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  8. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.

  9. Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Nam, Dong-Ha; Cooley, Thomas; Neumann, Kay; Padilla, Irene Bueno; Route, William; Strom, Sean; Basu, Niladri

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we assessed mercury (Hg) exposure in several tissues (brain, liver, and breast and primary feathers) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from across five Great Lakes states (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2002-2010, and assessed relationships between brain Hg and neurochemical receptors (NMDA and GABA(A)) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)). Brain total Hg (THg) levels (dry weight basis) averaged 2.80 μg/g (range: 0.2-34.01), and levels were highest in Michigan birds. THg levels in liver (r(p) = 0.805) and breast feathers (r(p) = 0.611) significantly correlated with those in brain. Brain Hg was not associated with binding to the GABA(A) receptor. Brain THg and inorganic Hg (IHg) were significantly positively correlated with GS activity (THg r(p) = 0.190; IHg r(p) = 0.188) and negatively correlated with NMDA receptor levels (THg r(p) = -0245; IHg r(p) = -0.282), and IHg was negatively correlated with GAD activity (r(s) = -0.196). We also report upon Hg demethylation and relationships between Hg and Se in brain and liver. These results suggest that bald eagles in the Great Lakes region are exposed to Hg at levels capable of causing subclinical neurological damage, and that when tissue burdens are related to proposed avian thresholds approximately 14-27% of eagles studied here may be at risk.

  10. A ring recovery of a lesser spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina Brehm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Mendelsohn

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available During ringing operations in the Punda Milia area of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, a Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, Roberts Nr. 136, was caught by means of a bal-chatri trap at Magoane. The bird, an adult, had a mass of 1,26 kg, which appears light for its size; it was probably a male. It was fitted with a flanged ring of 16 mm diameter, No. 526-0727 at the time of capture - 29.11.1972, 08h00. A number ofconspecifics were observed in the area at the time. The eagle was recovered on 30.10.1973 and, as the ring was returned, it is presumed to be dead. The place of recovery was Azerbaijan SSR, near Kusary, U.S.S.R., co-ordinates 41 24'N, 48 27'E, which places it just north of the Caucasus Mountains and west of the Caspian Sea. It would appear that the eagle met its end shortly before or during migration, as the date of recovery given is only thirty days prior to the date on which the bird was ringed in the proceeding year.

  11. Molecular identification of traces from the White-tailed Sea Eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Stein, Christina; Pichler, Christian; Probst, Remo

    2013-06-01

    Over the preceeding decades, after periods of dramatic decline and extinction in many parts of Europe, the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) has re-colonized traditional breeding areas. However, this large apex predator remains threatened, not only by the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants, but also by targeted poisoning and poaching. In connection with a forensic case, a novel PCR assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of sea eagle DNA traces in questioned samples of unknown origin. The assay amplifies a fragment of the popular phylogenetic marker gene cytochrome b. Primers were designed to bind sites with relatively high variability between homologous sequences from H. albicilla and other related European birds of prey. Assay sensitivity was sufficient for single cell analysis. Specificity was tested in vitro and the primers did not cross-detect DNA from humans, chicken and the following raptors: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Red Kite (Milvus milvus) and Black Kite (Milvus migrans). Applicability for the analysis of poor quality samples was demonstrated with extracts from field-collected small molted down feathers that did not contain detectable amounts of sea eagle nuclear DNA. Amplicons of the expected size were generated, purified and sequenced. Sequence data were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis and affiliated with cytochrome b from H. albicilla. The novel PCR primers allowed for the correct assignment of traces from H. albicilla, even in mixed samples and in cases with limited and degraded biological material.

  12. The Cluster-EAGLE project: global properties of simulated clusters with resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Jenkins, Adrian; Thomas, Peter A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce the Cluster-EAGLE (c-eagle) simulation project, a set of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom simulations of the formation of 30 galaxy clusters in the mass range of 1014 simulations adopt the state-of-the-art eagle galaxy formation model, with a gas particle mass of 1.8 × 106 M⊙ and physical softening length of 0.7 kpc. In this paper, we introduce the sample and present the low-redshift global properties of the clusters. We calculate the X-ray properties in a manner consistent with observational techniques, demonstrating the bias and scatter introduced by using estimated masses. We find the total stellar content and black hole masses of the clusters to be in good agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters are too gas rich, suggesting that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback model is not efficient enough at expelling gas from the high-redshift progenitors of the clusters. The X-ray properties, such as the spectroscopic temperature and the soft-band luminosity, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich properties are in reasonable agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters have too high central temperatures and larger-than-observed entropy cores, which is likely driven by the AGN feedback after the cluster core has formed. The total metal content and its distribution throughout the intracluster medium are a good match to the observations.

  13. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Radovčić

    Full Text Available We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  14. The White-Bellied Sea Eagle at Kepulauan Seribu National Park, Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the remaining habitats of The White-Bellied Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster in Java is The National Marine Park of Kepulauan Seribu (TNKpS. Administratively, the park includes Regency of Seribu Islands (Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta Province. The area is 107,489 hectares, and geographically lies on 05º23’ – 05º40’ S and 106º25’ – 106º37’ E. The area is among 78 islands of 110 islands spreading from the north to the south which forms a group of island with similar morphology and oceanography. For field survey we use direct observation method, semi structured interview with local people. Finding of nests on 7 islands and data compilation of entering eagle to the rehabilitation center in Kepulauan Seribu in Kotok Besar island. Based on our survey result, the population of White-Bellied Sea Eagle in Kepulauan Seribu National park was estimated on 28–32 individual. Study on home range was conducted intensively by using polygon method on breeding pair of this species at Yu Island. Based on current results, the home range of this species was estimated on 13.9 km2.

  15. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  16. Evidence for Neandertal jewelry: modified white-tailed eagle claws at Krapina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovčić, Davorka; Sršen, Ankica Oros; Radovčić, Jakov; Frayer, David W

    2015-01-01

    We describe eight, mostly complete white-tailed eagle (Haliaëtus [Haliaeetus] albicilla) talons from the Krapina Neandertal site in present-day Croatia, dating to approximately 130 kyrs ago. Four talons bear multiple, edge-smoothed cut marks; eight show polishing facets and/or abrasion. Three of the largest talons have small notches at roughly the same place along the plantar surface, interrupting the proximal margin of the talon blade. These features suggest they were part of a jewelry assemblage, --- the manipulations a consequence of mounting the talons in a necklace or bracelet. An associated phalanx articulates with one of the talons and has numerous cut marks, some of which are smoothed. These white-tailed eagle bones, discovered more than 100 years ago, all derive from a single level at Krapina and represent more talons than found in the entire European Mousterian period. Presence of eight talons indicates that the Krapina Neandertals acquired and curated eagle talons for some kind of symbolic purpose. Some have argued that Neandertals lacked symbolic ability or copied this behavior from modern humans. These remains clearly show that the Krapina Neandertals made jewelry well before the appearance of modern humans in Europe, extending ornament production and symbolic activity early into the European Mousterian.

  17. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM. Sanaiotti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  18. Laying the foundations for a human-predator conflict solution: assessing the impact of Bonelli's eagle on rabbits and partridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Moleón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators and predators (indirectly via human persecution. Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable--in conservation terms--Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered predator-two prey (small game system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the predation impact ('kill rate' and 'predation rate', i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3-2.5% for both prey and seasons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the 'partridge-eating eagle' in Spanish have a null theoretical basis in most of this area.

  19. "If you thought this story sour, sweeten it with your own telling" - a feminist poetics of rewriting in Susan Price's Ghost dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Lehtonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts to challenge conventional gendered discourses in children's fantasy have often resulted in feminist rewritings of earlier stories. Ghost dance (1994 by the English author Susan Price is a novel that reflects a specific feminist poetics of rewriting: metafictional passages highlight the constructedness of the narrative and at the end readers are invited to tell their own versions of the story. Moreover, the rewriting freely combines and recontextualises elements from different source texts and reformulates them to create a narrative that challenges conventional discourses of gender. While this poetics has an appeal from a feminist perspective, the play with cross-cultural intertexts and gender becomes more complex when the novel is examined in a postcolonialist framework in relation to ethnicity and the issue of cultural appropriation. Ghost dance is situated in a setting that has a real-world equivalent (Russia, involves characters that are identified with names of real-world ethnic groups (Lapps (Sámi, Russian, and mixes elements from Russian wonder tales, Nordic mythology and an Ojibwe legend. The novel does not aim at historical accuracy in its representations nor is it a direct retelling of any of the pre-texts but combines motifs, themes, names, characters and settings freely from each source. In this textual melting pot, the protagonist Shingebiss is, on one level, a revision of the witch Baba Yaga, but also described as a Lappish shaman with an Ojibwe name. To rewrite gendered discourses, certain elements from the pretexts are chosen and others left out – the question is, then, what effects does this recontextualisation have on the representation of ethnicity? Or, are the feminist rewriting strategies actually a form of cultural appropriation?

  20. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  1. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  2. Alongamento do processo estilóide (síndrome de Eagle: relato de dois casos Elongated styloid process (Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Domingues de Sá

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O alongamento do processo estilóide, ou síndrome de Eagle, representa uma afecção multifatorial com características inespecíficas na análise do quadro clínico e no estudo por imagem. A utilização dos métodos de imagem, em associação aos sinais e sintomas, é de grande utilidade na confirmação diagnóstica, mostrando a extensão do complexo estilóide, os músculos e ligamentos que o compõem e as estruturas adjacentes. O diagnóstico é firmado quando se tem a associação das informações clínicas com os exames de imagem. Os autores descrevem dois casos de alongamento do processo estilóide e seus aspectos de imagem, principalmente por meio da tomografia computadorizada.Elongated styloid process or Eagle's syndrome is a multifactorial disease with unspecific characteristics on clinical and imaging examinations. The use of imaging methods in combination with the signs and symptoms are valuable in the confirmation of the diagnosis since they show the extension of the styloid complex, the muscles and ligaments, and adjacent structures. The diagnosis can be established when there is an association of clinical information and imaging findings. The authors report two cases of elongated styloid process including the imaging findings, mainly obtained using computed tomography.

  3. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  5. Idufirma Silicon Valleyta / Susan Adams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Adams, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Tarkvarafirma Apprenda toodab teenindusplatvormi tarkvara, mis võimaldab klientidel luua ja hoida käigus uusi mobiilseid ja pilvetehnoloogiapõhiseid rakendusi. Oma töötajatele pakub odavaid elamispindu ja madalaid makse

  6. Influence of boat noises on escape behaviour of white-spotted eagle ray Aetobatus ocellatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Cecile; Lecchini, David

    2016-02-01

    The present study tested different sounds that could disturb eagle rays (Aetobatus ocellatus) during their foraging activities at Moorea, French Polynesia. Results showed that artificial white sound and single-frequency tones (40 Hz, 600 Hz or 1 kHz) did not have an effect on rays (at least 90% of rays continued to forage over sand), while playbacks of boat motor sound significantly disturbed rays during foraging activity (60% exhibited an escape behaviour). Overall, our study highlighted the negative effect of boat noises on the foraging activity of eagle rays. These noises produced by boat traffic could, however, have some positive effects for marine aquaculture if they could be used as a deterrent to repel the eagle rays, main predators of the pearl oysters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. BUY NOW! BUY HERE!: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE PATRIOTIC BLUE EAGLE EMBLEM, 1933—1 935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Blue Eagle emblem was created by the Roosevelt Administration in July of 1933 to give firms an incentive to comply with the provisions of the National Industrial Recovery Act. Members of the Administration, including Roosevelt himself encouraged consumers to go on a nationwide shopping spree at Blue Eagle firms and to essentially boycott non-complying firms who were not allowed to display the emblem. While the Blue Eagle has received little attention from economists, most historical accounts of the New Deal, at minimum, make reference to the emblem’s attempt to modify economic behavior. This paper outlines the rise and fall of the emblem as an economic tool. It concludes that the emblem initially had economic meaning, but this began to fade in the late fall of 1933 and the emblem became largely meaningless by the spring of 1934. This conclusion is supported by an analysis of the emblem's presence in newspaper advertisements between 1933 and 1935.

  8. Size matters: abundance matching, galaxy sizes, and the Tully-Fisher relation in EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Ismael; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) links the stellar mass of a disc galaxy, Mstr, to its rotation speed: it is well approximated by a power law, shows little scatter, and evolves weakly with redshift. The relation has been interpreted as reflecting the mass-velocity scaling (M ∝ V3) of dark matter haloes, but this interpretation has been called into question by abundance-matching (AM) models, which predict the galaxy-halo mass relation to deviate substantially from a single power law and to evolve rapidly with redshift. We study the TFR of luminous spirals and its relation to AM using the EAGLE set of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations. Matching both relations requires disc sizes to satisfy constraints given by the concentration of haloes and their response to galaxy assembly. EAGLE galaxies approximately match these constraints and show a tight mass-velocity scaling that compares favourably with the observed TFR. The TFR is degenerate to changes in galaxy formation efficiency and the mass-size relation; simulations that fail to match the galaxy stellar mass function may fit the observed TFR if galaxies follow a different mass-size relation. The small scatter in the simulated TFR results because, at fixed halo mass, galaxy mass and rotation speed correlate strongly, scattering galaxies along the main relation. EAGLE galaxies evolve with lookback time following approximately the prescriptions of AM models and the observed mass-size relation of bright spirals, leading to a weak TFR evolution consistent with observation out to z = 1. ΛCDM models that match both the abundance and size of galaxies as a function of stellar mass have no difficulty reproducing the observed TFR and its evolution.

  9. Music from the heavens - gravitational waves from supermassive black hole mergers in the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilizing the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a Lambda cold dark matter cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger time-scale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.

  10. Laying the Foundations for a Human-Predator Conflict Solution: Assessing the Impact of Bonelli's Eagle on Rabbits and Partridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.; Gil-Sánchez, José M.; Barea-Azcón, José M.; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Virgós, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Background Predation may potentially lead to negative effects on both prey (directly via predators) and predators (indirectly via human persecution). Predation pressure studies are, therefore, of major interest in the fields of theoretical knowledge and conservation of prey or predator species, with wide ramifications and profound implications in human-wildlife conflicts. However, detailed works on this issue in highly valuable –in conservation terms– Mediterranean ecosystems are virtually absent. This paper explores the predator-hunting conflict by examining a paradigmatic, Mediterranean-wide (endangered) predator-two prey (small game) system. Methodology/Principal Findings We estimated the predation impact (‘kill rate’ and ‘predation rate’, i.e., number of prey and proportion of the prey population eaten, respectively) of Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata on rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa populations in two seasons (the eagle's breeding and non-breeding periods, 100 days each) in SE Spain. The mean estimated kill rate by the seven eagle reproductive units in the study area was c. 304 rabbits and c. 262 partridges in the breeding season, and c. 237 rabbits and c. 121 partridges in the non-breeding period. This resulted in very low predation rates (range: 0.3–2.5%) for both prey and seasons. Conclusions/Significance The potential role of Bonelli's eagles as a limiting factor for rabbits and partridges at the population scale was very poor. The conflict between game profitability and conservation interest of either prey or predators is apparently very localised, and eagles, quarry species and game interests seem compatible in most of the study area. Currently, both the persecution and negative perception of Bonelli's eagle (the ‘partridge-eating eagle’ in Spanish) have a null theoretical basis in most of this area. PMID:21818399

  11. Summer and winter space use and home range characteristics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tricia A.; Brooks, Robert P.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Brandes, David; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Movement behavior and its relationship to habitat provide critical information toward understanding the effects of changing environments on birds. The eastern North American population of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is a genetically distinct and small population of conservation concern. To evaluate the potential responses of this population to changing landscapes, we calculated the home range and core area sizes of 52 eagles of 6 age–sex classes during the summer and winter seasons. Variability in range size was related to variation in topography and open cover, and to age and sex. In summer, eagle ranges that were smaller had higher proportions of ridge tops and open cover and had greater topographic roughness than did larger ranges. In winter, smaller ranges had higher proportions of ridge tops, hillsides and cliffs, and open cover than did larger ranges. All age and sex classes responded similarly to topography and open cover in both seasons. Not surprisingly, adult eagles occupied the smallest ranges in both seasons. Young birds used larger ranges than adults, and subadults in summer used the largest ranges (>9,000 km2). Eastern adult home ranges in summer were 2–10 times larger than those reported for other populations in any season. Golden Eagles in eastern North America may need to compensate for generally lower-quality habitat in the region by using larger ranges that support access to adequate quantities of resources (prey, updrafts, and nesting, perching, and roosting sites) associated with open cover and diverse topography. Our results suggest that climate change–induced afforestation on the breeding grounds and ongoing land cover change from timber harvest and energy development on the wintering grounds may affect the amount of suitable habitat for Golden Eagles in eastern North America.

  12. Ranging behaviour and habitat preferences of the Martial Eagle: Implications for the conservation of a declining apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Rowen; Whitfield, D Philip; Botha, Andre; Amar, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the ranging behaviours of species can be helpful in effective conservation planning. However, for many species that are rare, occur at low densities, or occupy challenging environments, this information is often lacking. The Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus) is a low density apex predator declining in both non-protected and protected areas in southern Africa, and little is known about its ranging behaviour. We use GPS tags fitted to Martial Eagles (n = 8) in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa to describe their ranging behaviour and habitat preference. This represents the first time that such movements have been quantified in adult Martial Eagles. Territorial eagles (n = 6) held home ranges averaging ca. 108 km2. Home range estimates were similar to expectations based on inter-nest distances, and these large home range sizes could constrain the carrying capacity of even the largest conservation areas. Two tagged individuals classed as adults on plumage apparently did not hold a territory, and accordingly ranged more widely (ca. 44,000 km2), and beyond KNP boundaries as floaters. Another two territorial individuals abandoned their territories and joined the 'floater' population, and so ranged widely after leaving their territories. These unexpected movements after territory abandonment could indicate underlying environmental degradation. Relatively high mortality of these wide-ranging 'floaters' due to anthropogenic causes (three of four) raises further concerns for the species' persistence. Habitat preference models suggested Martial Eagles used areas preferentially that were closer to rivers, had higher tree cover, and were classed as dense bush rather than open bush or grassland. These results can be used by conservation managers to help guide actions to preserve breeding Martial Eagles at an appropriate spatial scale.

  13. Seasonality of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring migration of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla within the Omsk region proceeds in a wide zone along the Irtysh river, in a North-North-Westerly direction.  In spring and early summer, established breeding pairs are distributed across the nesting sites in all climatic zones of the region from the steppes to the taiga; immature and single individuals inhabit mainly the Northern forest-steppe, the floodplain of the Irtysh river, and the shores of large freshwater lakes. In September-October, migrating individuals stay for long periods in feeding areas, concentrating in the southeastern part of the territory.

  14. Genomic resources for the conservation and management of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja, Falconiformes, Accipitridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization and optimization of 45 heterologous microsatellite loci, and the development of a new set of molecular sex markers for the conservation and management of the Neotropical harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja L. 1758. Of the 45 microsatellites tested, 24 were polymorphic, six monomorphic, 10 uncharacterizable due to multiple bands and five did not amplify. The observed gene diversity of the analyzed sample of H. harpyja was low and similar to that of other threatened Falconiformes. While a high proportion of the microsatellite markers were highly variable, individuals of H. harpyja could be differentiated by a joint analysis of just three (p = 2.79 x 10-4 or four markers (p = 2.89 x 10-5. Paternity could be rejected with 95.23% and 97.83% probabilities using the same three and four markers, respectively. The sex determination markers easily and consistently differentiated males from females even with highly degraded DNA extracted from naturally shed feathers. The markers reported in this study potentially provide an excellent set of molecular tools for the conservation and management of wild and captive H. harpyja and they may also prove useful for the enigmatic Neotropical crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis Daudin 1800.

  15. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  16. The editing of Louis Adamic's book The Eagle and the Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Žitnik Serafin

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eagle and the Roots is Louis Adamic's last book and, in his own opinion, his most important one. The printed version of that work is an expurgated version of the author's typescript which is preserved in several incomplete copies, kept in various public and private archives in Yugoslavia and in the United States. The work was written on the basis of the author's personal impressions during his second visit to his native land in 1949. The published version of The Eagle and the Roots discusses the political and economic conditions in Yugoslavia in 1949, the moods of the Yugoslav people, their top politicians and intellectuals at the time of the first five-year plan (Book One, including a biography of Josip Broz Tito until 1945 with an outline of the most important events in the country before and during World War II (Book Two. In various passages scattered in both books, it describes the selfsacrifice and the resistance of the Yugoslav people during the Liberation War. An important subject is the dissention between Tito and Stalin which had its germs in the prewar period. The author follows its development through the war and during the first years after the liberation until the Cominform resolution in June 1948.

  17. Modeling with uncertain science: estimating mitigation credits from abating lead poisoning in Golden Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts Cochrane, Jean; Lonsdorf, Eric; Allison, Taber D; Sanders-Reed, Carol A

    2015-09-01

    Challenges arise when renewable energy development triggers "no net loss" policies for protected species, such as where wind energy facilities affect Golden Eagles in the western United States. When established mitigation approaches are insufficient to fully avoid or offset losses, conservation goals may still be achievable through experimental implementation of unproven mitigation methods provided they are analyzed within a framework that deals transparently and rigorously with uncertainty. We developed an approach to quantify and analyze compensatory mitigation that (1) relies on expert opinion elicited in a thoughtful and structured process to design the analysis (models) and supplement available data, (2) builds computational models as hypotheses about cause-effect relationships, (3) represents scientific uncertainty in stochastic model simulations, (4) provides probabilistic predictions of "relative" mortality with and without mitigation, (5) presents results in clear formats useful to applying risk management preferences (regulatory standards) and selecting strategies and levels of mitigation for immediate action, and (6) defines predictive parameters in units that could be monitored effectively, to support experimental adaptive management and reduction in uncertainty. We illustrate the approach with a case study characterized by high uncertainty about underlying biological processes and high conservation interest: estimating the quantitative effects of voluntary strategies to abate lead poisoning in Golden Eagles in Wyoming due to ingestion of spent game hunting ammunition.

  18. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised.

  19. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  20. Choroidal Vasculopathy and Retinal Detachment in a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) With Lead Toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ramzi; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Keller, Krista A; Wiggans, K Tomo; Murphy, Christopher J; LaDouceur, Elise E B; Keel, M Kevin; Reilly, Christopher M

    2016-12-01

    A subadult male bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented for severe depression and weakness. Physical examination findings included depressed mentation, dehydration, sternal recumbency, poor body condition, and bilateral, whole-head, horizontal nystagmus. A heavy-metal panel was performed, and blood lead levels were 6.1 ppm. Treatment for lead poisoning was initiated, including subcutaneous fluids and parenteral calcium-disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, ceftiofur, and meloxicam. Ophthalmic examination findings included absent menace response, absent dazzle reflex, slow and incomplete direct pupillary light reflex, mild anterior uveitis, incipient cataracts, multifocal retinal tears, and retinal separation in both eyes. Because of poor prognosis for vision and release to the wild, the eagle was euthanatized. No lesions were observed on gross postmortem examination. Histologically, extensive myocardial necrosis and multisystemic arteriolar vasculopathy were identified. The eyes were examined after tissue processing, and the vasculopathy extended into the choriocapillaris and was associated with a secondary, bilateral, exudative, retinal detachment. This is the first report in avian species characterizing the histopathologic ocular lesions of lead poisoning.

  1. Baseflow recession analysis across the Eagle Ford shale play (Texas, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Saul; Brena-Naranjo, Agustin; Hernandez-Espriu, Jose Antonio; Pedrozo-Acuña, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Baseflow is an important process of the hydrological cycle as it can be related to aquatic ecosystem health and groundwater recharge. The temporal and spatial dynamics of baseflow are typically governed by fluctuations in the water table of shallow aquifers hence groundwater pumping and return flow can greatly modify baseflow patterns. More recently, in some regions of the world the exploitation of gas trapped in shale formations by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has raised major concerns on the quantitative and qualitative groundwater impacts. Although fracking implies massive amounts of groundwater withdrawals, its contribution on baseflow decline has not yet been fully investigated. Furthermore, its impact with respect to other human activities or climate extremes such as irrigation or extreme droughts, respectively, remain largely unknown. This work analyzes baseflow recession time-space patterns for a set of watersheds located across the largest shale producer in the world, the Eagle Ford shale play in Texas (USA). The period of study (1985-2014) includes a pre-development and post-development period. The dataset includes 56 hydrometric time series located inside and outside the shale play. Results show that during the development and expansion of the Eagle Ford play, around 70 % of the time series displayed a significant decline wheras no decline was observed during the pre-development)

  2. Declaration of the Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi as Indonesia's National Rare Animal impedes conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Shepherd, C.R.; van Balen, S.

    2009-01-01

    The endangered Javan hawk eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is threatened in part by the illegal pet trade. In 1993 the species was declared Indonesia's National Rare/Precious Animal, by former President Soeharto. Trade in the species and keeping it as a pet are illegal. We consolidated data about the

  3. 75 FR 10525 - In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of: AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility) and All Other... Immediately) I AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (AES), has applied to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  4. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in Bald Eagle Nestlings in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) are of concern due to their widespread use, persistence in the environment, tendency to accumulate in animal tissues, and growing evidence of toxicity. Between 2006 and 2011 we collected blood plasma from 261 bald eagle nestlings in six study areas...

  5. 78 FR 25758 - Migratory Birds; Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-- Land-Based Wind Energy, Version 2 AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Guidance: Module 1--Land-based Wind Energy, Version 2 is available. The guidance provides recommendations... issued a draft of The Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance: Module 1-- Land-based Wind Energy for public...

  6. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters® Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Products and American Eagle Silver Dollars AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States...

  7. Diet of the White-Tailed Eagle During the Breeding Season in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri V. Yurko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data on the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla collected during breeding seasons of 2006–2015 in the Polesski State Radiation-Ecological Reserve. The data included 127 records of prey remains belonging to 27 species of vertebrates collected in and under the nests. We discovered that the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle mainly consists of vertebrates of three classes: fishes (Pisces 48.1 %, birds (Aves 41.7 % and mammals (Mammalia 10.2 %. At the present, the main prey species in the diet of the White-Tailed Eagle in the breeding season are: Bream (Abramis brama – 22.0 %, Black Stork (Ciconia nigra – 12.6 %, Northern Pike (Esox lucius – 10.2 %, Wild Boar (Sus scrofa – 7.1 %, White Stork (Ciconia ciconia – 6.3 %, Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos – 5.5 % and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra – 5.5 %. Together these species makes up 69.2 % or 2/3 of the diet of this raptor. We also established that cannibalism is a character feature of the local population of White-Tailed Eagle, and its proportion is 2.4 %.

  8. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  9. Spatial patterns in occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles during drought: Prospects for conservation in changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, David; Kolar, Patrick; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa; Fuller, Mark R.; Bell, Douglas A.

    2018-01-01

    We used a broad-scale sampling design to investigate spatial patterns in occupancy and breeding success of territorial pairs of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, USA, during a period of exceptional drought (2014–2016). We surveyed 138 randomly selected sample sites over 4 occasions each year and identified 199 pairs of eagles, 100 of which were detected in focal sample sites. We then used dynamic multistate modeling to identify relationships between site occupancy and reproduction of Golden Eagles relative to spatial variability in landscape composition and drought conditions. We observed little variability among years in site occupancy (3-yr mean = 0.74), but the estimated annual probability of successful reproduction was relatively low during the study period and declined from 0.39 (± 0.08 SE) to 0.18 (± 0.07 SE). Probabilities of site occupancy and reproduction were substantially greater at sample sites that were occupied by successful breeders in the previous year, indicating the presence of sites that were consistently used by successfully reproducing eagles. We found strong evidence for nonrandom spatial distribution in both occupancy and reproduction: Sites with the greatest potential for occupancy were characterized by rugged terrain conditions with intermediate amounts of grassland interspersed with patches of oak woodland and coniferous forest, whereas successful reproduction was most strongly associated with the amount of precipitation that a site received during the nesting period. Our findings highlight the contribution of consistently occupied and productive breeding sites to overall productivity of the local breeding population, and show that both occupancy and reproduction at these sites were maintained even during a period of exceptional drought. Our approach to quantifying and mapping site quality should be especially useful for the spatial prioritization of compensation measures intended to help offset the

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, U.S. Gulf Coast region, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pearson, Krystal; Kinney, Scott A.; Lewan, Michael D.; Burke, Lauri; Biewick, Laura; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed means of (1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 16 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the conventional Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (AU); (2) 853 MMBO, 1,707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU; and (3) 50,219 BCFG and 2,009 MMBNGL in the continuous Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU in onshore lands and State waters of the Gulf Coast.

  11. Eagles Strike

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-01-01

    The campaigns of the South African Air Force in Egypt. Cyrenaica, Libya, Tunisia, Tripolitania and Madagascar 1941-1943Ons militêre geskiedskrywing met betrekking tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945) en in die besonder waar dit ons daadwerklike aandeel in die stryd betref, is dank verskuldig aan die toenmalige Eerste Minister, genl J. C. Smuts.

  12. Calcinosis Circumscripta in the Digital Extensor Tendon of a Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Mikel; Carrasco, Daniel Calvo; Huynh, Minh; Homer-Forbes, Neil A; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2016-12-01

    A 9-month-old, captive-bred, female tawny eagle (Aquila rapax) presented with a nonpainful, firm, nodular structure attached to the digital extensor tendon. The mass was surgically resected without complications and was submitted for histopathologic examination. Grossly, cut surfaces of the lesion had chalky-white deposits. Histologically, the resected tissue was identified as calcinosis circumscripta. No recurrence was observed in follow-up after 6 and 12 months. To our knowledge, this is the first case of calcinosis circumscripta in a bird involving a limb extremity, similar to the presentation recognized more commonly in domestic animals. Calcinosis circumscripta should be included in the differential diagnosis list for nodular masses attached to the tendons in birds.

  13. 3 m off-plane Eagle monochromator at the helical undulator beamline of HiSOR

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T; Shimada, K; Arita, M; Senba, S; Yoshida, H; Shirasawa, K; Morita, M; Hiraya, A; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M

    2001-01-01

    The helical/linear undulator based beamline (BL9) with 3 m off-plane Eagle monochromator for the VUV region (4-40 eV) has been installed on a compact storage ring, HiSOR. The Rydberg series of Ar 3s3p sup 6 np sup 1 P sub 1 up to n=25 has been measured. The resolving power was estimated to be >12,000 at 40 nm with the photon flux approx 9x10 sup 9 photons/s. The ultimate resolving power was obtained from the measurements of the O sub 2 Schumann-Runge bands. The resolution derived from the deconvolution for the Voigt profile was 0.0061 nm (lambda/DELTA lambda approx 30,000) in the 180 nm wavelength range.

  14. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  15. Time Budget and Diet of the Booted Eagles in the Breeding Season in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoning Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons of 2010-2016, we have found seven nests of the Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus in Xinjiang, the west of China. We used a method of focal sampling and infrared cameras to continually observe behaviors and nestlings’ growth. Nestling behaviors were different between nestling period and post-nestling period. Attendance at the nests by both adults decreased as the nestling aged. The female brooded significantly more than the male did during daylight hours (P=0.016, F= 8.38, df =1. The daily mean number of food items delivered to the nests by adults was 3.2 times/day in nestling period, and 0.96/day in post-nestling period. Seven orders of wild birds, three orders of mammals and domestic poultry were documented as prey.

  16. Quantifying alkane emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using boundary layer enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roest

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas is home to a booming unconventional oil and gas industry, the climate and air quality impacts of which remain poorly quantified due to uncertain emission estimates. We used the atmospheric enhancement of alkanes from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality volatile organic compound monitors across the shale, in combination with back trajectory and dispersion modeling, to quantify C2–C4 alkane emissions for a region in southern Texas, including the core of the Eagle Ford, for a set of 68 days from July 2013 to December 2015. Emissions were partitioned into raw natural gas and liquid storage tank sources using gas and headspace composition data, respectively, and observed enhancement ratios. We also estimate methane emissions based on typical ethane-to-methane ratios in gaseous emissions. The median emission rate from raw natural gas sources in the shale, calculated as a percentage of the total produced natural gas in the upwind region, was 0.7 % with an interquartile range (IQR of 0.5–1.3 %, below the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA current estimates. However, storage tanks contributed 17 % of methane emissions, 55 % of ethane, 82 % percent of propane, 90 % of n-butane, and 83 % of isobutane emissions. The inclusion of liquid storage tank emissions results in a median emission rate of 1.0 % (IQR of 0.7–1.6 % relative to produced natural gas, overlapping the current EPA estimate of roughly 1.6 %. We conclude that emissions from liquid storage tanks are likely a major source for the observed non-methane hydrocarbon enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere.

  17. Population fragmentation leads to spatial and temporal genetic structure in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruz, B; Godoy, J A; Negro, J J

    2007-02-01

    The fragmentation of a population may have important consequences for population genetic diversity and structure due to the effects of genetic drift and reduced gene flow. We studied the genetic consequences of the fragmentation of the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) population into small patches through a temporal analysis. Thirty-four museum individuals representing the population predating the fragmentation were analysed for a 345-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region and a set of 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. Data from a previous study on the current population (N = 79) were re-analysed for this subset of 10 microsatellite markers and results compared to those obtained from the historical sample. Three shared mitochondrial haplotypes were found in both populations, although fluctuations in haplotype frequencies and the occurrence of a fourth haplotype in the historical population resulted in lower current levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity. However, microsatellite markers revealed undiminished levels of nuclear diversity. No evidence for genetic structure was observed for the historical Spanish imperial eagle population, suggesting that the current pattern of structure is the direct consequence of population fragmentation. Temporal fluctuations in mitochondrial and microsatellite allelic frequencies were found between the historical and the current population as well as for each pairwise comparison between historical and current Centro and historical and current Parque Nacional de Doñana nuclei. Our results indicate an ancestral panmictic situation for the species that management policies should aim to restore. A historical analysis like the one taken here provides the baseline upon which the relative role of recent drift in shaping current genetic patterns in endangered species can be evaluated and this knowledge is used to guide conservation actions.

  18. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy: a newly recognized fatal neurologic disease of eagles, waterfowl, and other birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John R.; Lewis, L.A.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    Wildlife biologists and health specialists have been frustrated by a long list of negative findings in their AVM investigations, however studies continue to provide pieces of information to aid the determination of the cause and its source. Available data indicated that AVM may have been present since at least 1990, occurs in at least five states, has been documented during October through April at sites of wintering populations of birds where the exposure apparently occurs, and has killed at least 90 bald eagles. Birds with AVM have difficulty or inability to fly, swim, walk, or perch, but there has been resolution of clinical signs in some affected coots. The list of affected species continues to grow, but remains confined to wild avians, including bald eagle, American coot, great horned owl, killdeer, Canada goose, mallard, ring-necked duck and bufflehead. The effects of the AVM agent on mammals, including human beings, are unknown. A neurotoxicant of manmade or natural origin is the suspected cause of AVM because no infectious disease agents, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and prions, have been found, and the lesion and epizootiology of AVM resemble those of toxicoses. Additionally it is documented, experimentally, that exposure to raptors can occur through ingestion of infected coots. Collaborative studies will continue in the effort to identify the cause of AVM, its geographic distribution, and the range of species susceptibility. Hopefully, this information can be used to identify measures that might be taken to reduce the impact of AVM on the wildlife resource. Multiple agencies, institutions, and individuals must rely on each other's expertise in the multidisciplinary approach to this problem, persevere in their efforts and take advantage of serendipity that presents itself during investigations of this newly recognized cause of wild bird mortality.

  19. Quantifying alkane emissions in the Eagle Ford Shale using boundary layer enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Geoffrey; Schade, Gunnar

    2017-09-01

    The Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas is home to a booming unconventional oil and gas industry, the climate and air quality impacts of which remain poorly quantified due to uncertain emission estimates. We used the atmospheric enhancement of alkanes from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality volatile organic compound monitors across the shale, in combination with back trajectory and dispersion modeling, to quantify C2-C4 alkane emissions for a region in southern Texas, including the core of the Eagle Ford, for a set of 68 days from July 2013 to December 2015. Emissions were partitioned into raw natural gas and liquid storage tank sources using gas and headspace composition data, respectively, and observed enhancement ratios. We also estimate methane emissions based on typical ethane-to-methane ratios in gaseous emissions. The median emission rate from raw natural gas sources in the shale, calculated as a percentage of the total produced natural gas in the upwind region, was 0.7 % with an interquartile range (IQR) of 0.5-1.3 %, below the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current estimates. However, storage tanks contributed 17 % of methane emissions, 55 % of ethane, 82 % percent of propane, 90 % of n-butane, and 83 % of isobutane emissions. The inclusion of liquid storage tank emissions results in a median emission rate of 1.0 % (IQR of 0.7-1.6 %) relative to produced natural gas, overlapping the current EPA estimate of roughly 1.6 %. We conclude that emissions from liquid storage tanks are likely a major source for the observed non-methane hydrocarbon enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. Macroinvertebrate-based assessment of biological condition at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 2000-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Healy, Brian D.; Williams, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (FS), compiled macroinvertebrate (73 sites, 124 samples) data previously collected in the Eagle River watershed from selected USGS and FS studies, 2000-07. These data were analyzed to assess the biological condition (that is, biologically ?degraded? or ?good?) at selected sites in the Eagle River watershed and determine if site class (for example, urban or undeveloped) described biological condition. An independently developed predictive model was applied to calculate a site-specific measure of taxonomic completeness for macroinvertebrate communities, where taxonomic completeness was expressed as the ratio of observed (O) taxa to those expected (E) to occur at each site. Macroinvertebrate communities were considered degraded at sites were O/E values were less than 0.80, indicating that at least 20 percent of expected taxa were not observed. Sites were classified into one of four classes (undeveloped, adjacent road or highway or both, mixed, urban) using a combination of riparian land-cover characteristics, examination of topographic maps and aerial imagery, screening for exceedances in water-quality standards, and best professional judgment. Analysis of variance was used to determine if site class accounted for variability in mean macroinvertebrate O/E values. Finally, macroinvertebrate taxa observed more or less frequently than expected at urban sites were indentified. This study represents the first standardized assessment of biological condition of selected sites distributed across the Eagle River watershed. Of the 73 sites evaluated, just over

  1. Status of vegetation management activity in the Bald Eagle Management Area and other sites at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation management program for the Bald Eagle Management Area (BEMA) at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Area (RMA, the Arsenal) was initiated in the...

  2. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, Elizabeth K; Watts, Bryan D; Turrin, Courtney L

    2016-01-01

    Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1) identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2) compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD) surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles) and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40) and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100).

  3. Utilization Probability Map for Migrating Bald Eagles in Northeastern North America: A Tool for Siting Wind Energy Facilities and Other Flight Hazards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Mojica

    Full Text Available Collisions with anthropogenic structures are a significant and well documented source of mortality for avian species worldwide. The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus is known to be vulnerable to collision with wind turbines and federal wind energy guidelines include an eagle risk assessment for new projects. To address the need for risk assessment, in this study, we 1 identified areas of northeastern North America utilized by migrating bald eagles, and 2 compared these with high wind-potential areas to identify potential risk of bald eagle collision with wind turbines. We captured and marked 17 resident and migrant bald eagles in the northern Chesapeake Bay between August 2007 and May 2009. We produced utilization distribution (UD surfaces for 132 individual migration tracks using a dynamic Brownian bridge movement model and combined these to create a population wide UD surface with a 1 km cell size. We found eagle migration movements were concentrated within two main corridors along the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coast. Of the 3,123 wind turbines ≥100 m in height in the study area, 38% were located in UD 20, and 31% in UD 40. In the United States portion of the study area, commercially viable wind power classes overlapped with only 2% of the UD category 20 (i.e., the areas of highest use by migrating eagles and 4% of UD category 40. This is encouraging because it suggests that wind energy development can still occur in the study area at sites that are most viable from a wind power perspective and are unlikely to cause significant mortality of migrating eagles. In siting new turbines, wind energy developers should avoid the high-use migration corridors (UD categories 20 & 40 and focus new wind energy projects on lower-risk areas (UD categories 60-100.

  4. Patterns of spatial distribution of golden eagles across North America: How do they fit into existing landscape-scale mapping systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jessi L.; Bedrosian, Bryan; Bell, Douglas A.; Braham, Melissa A.; Cooper, Jeff; Crandall, Ross H.; DiDonato, Joe; Domenech, Robert; Duerr, Adam E.; Katzner, Todd; Lanzone, Michael J.; LaPlante, David W.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Miller, Tricia A.; Murphy, Robert K.; Shreading, Adam; Slater, Steven J.; Smith, Jeff P.; Smith, Brian W.; Watson, James W.; Woodbridge, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Conserving wide-ranging animals requires knowledge about their year-round movements and resource use. Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) exhibit a wide range of movement patterns across North America. We combined tracking data from 571 Golden Eagles from multiple independent satellite-telemetry projects from North America to provide a comprehensive look at the magnitude and extent of these movements on a continental scale. We compared patterns of use relative to four alternative administrative and ecological mapping systems, namely Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs), U.S. administrative migratory bird flyways, Migratory Bird Joint Ventures, and Landscape Conservation Cooperatives. Our analyses suggested that eagles initially captured in eastern North America used space differently than those captured in western North America. Other groups of eagles that exhibited distinct patterns in space use included long-distance migrants from northern latitudes, and southwestern and Californian desert residents. There were also several groupings of eagles in the Intermountain West. Using this collaborative approach, we have identified large-scale movement patterns that may not have been possible with individual studies. These results will support landscape-scale conservation measures for Golden Eagles across North America.

  5. Abordaje intraoral en el síndrome de Eagle: Presentación de un caso clínico Intraoral approach in Eagle syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mareque Bueno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Eagle es una patología infrecuente secundaria a la elongación de la apófisis estiloides y/o calcificación del ligamento estilo-hioideo. La mayoría de pacientes afectados no presentan sintomatología, aunque la presión ejercida por esta estructura morfológicamente alterada contra estructuras vecinas puede desencadenar una gran variedad de síntomas, incluyendo dolor cervicofacial, sensación de cuerpo extraño en la orofaringe, aumento en la secreción salival, cefalea y dificultad para la deglución, el habla o los movimientos de la lengua. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 50 años de edad con el síndrome de Eagle. La tomografía computerizada en haz de cono confirmó la sospecha clínica. Como tratamiento se realizó la resección parcial de ambas apófisis estiloides mediante un abordaje intraoral. La presentación clínica, el diagnóstico diferencial y el tratamiento se describen en este artículo.Eagle syndrome is a rare condition resulting from either the elongation of the temporal styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. Most patients are asymptomatic, but when this structure presses against other parts of the head and neck it can originate a wide range of symptoms, including cervico-facial pain, foreign body sensation in oropharynx, increased saliva secretion, headache and difficulty with swallowing, speaking and neck or tongue movements. The case of a 50-year-old woman with Eagle syndrome is reported. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT confirmed the clinical suspicion. The intraoral approach was used for the partial resection of both styloid processes. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and differential diagnosis are described.

  6. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  7. Distribution of 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose in the coelom of healthy bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael P; Morandi, Federica; Wall, Jonathan S; Long, Misty J; Stuckey, Alan C; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2013-03-01

    To determine 2-deoxy-2-fluoro (fluorine 18)-d-glucose ((18)FDG) biodistribution in the coelom of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). 8 healthy adult bald eagles. For each eagle, whole-body transmission noncontrast CT, 60-minute dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) of the celomic cavity (immediately after (18)FDG injection), whole-body static PET 60 minutes after (18)FDG injection, and whole-body contrast CT with iohexol were performed. After reconstruction, images were analyzed. Regions of interest were drawn over the ventricular myocardium, liver, spleen, proventriculus, cloaca, kidneys, and lungs on dynamic and static PET images. Standardized uptake values were calculated. Kidneys had the most intense (18)FDG uptake, followed by cloaca and intestinal tract; liver activity was mild and slightly more intense than that of the spleen; proventricular activity was always present, whereas little to no activity was identified in the wall of the ventriculus. Activity in the myocardium was present in all birds but varied in intensity among birds. The lungs had no visibly discernible activity. Mean ± SD standardized uptake values calculated with representative regions of interest at 60 minutes were as follows: myocardium, 1. 6 ± 0.2 (transverse plane) and 1.3 ± 0.3 (sagittal plane); liver, 1.1 ± 0.1; spleen, 0.9 ± 0.1; proventriculus, 1.0 ± 0.1; cloaca, 4.4 ± 2.7; right kidney, 17.3 ± 1.0; left kidney, 17.6 ± 0.3; and right and left lungs (each), 0.3 ± 0.02. The study established the biodistribution of (18)FDG in adult eagles, providing a baseline for clinical investigation and future research.

  8. The dusk chorus from an owl perspective: eagle owls vocalize when their white throat badge contrasts most.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Penteriani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An impressive number of studies have investigated bird vocal displays, and many of them have tried to explain the widespread phenomenon of the so-called dawn and dusk chorus, the sunrise and sunset peaks in bird song output. As many as twelve non-exclusive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why twilight peaks in vocal display might be advantageous; but, even after more than two decades of study, the basis underlying the dusk and dawn chorus is still unclear. Moreover, to date, the majority of studies on this topic have focused on songbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate here a novel hypothesis on why nocturnal birds with patches of white feathers call at twilight. We propose that white plumage patches and the timing of visual signaling have co-evolved to maximize the effectiveness of social communication such as the dusk chorus. This hypothesis centers on the recent discovery that eagle owls can adopt specific forms of visual signaling and is supported by the observation that adult eagle owls possess a white throat badge that is only visible during vocal displays. By monitoring the calling of eagle owls at dusk, a peak time for bird call output, we found that white throat badges contrasted most with the surrounding background during the owls' twilight chorusing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Crepuscular and nocturnal species appear to have evolved white patches that, shown in association with vocal displays, allow them to communicate in dark surroundings. The evolution of a white badge that operates jointly with call displays at dawn and dusk may be relevant to the eagle owls' social dynamics. Our explanation for the dusk chorus may possibly represent an overlooked but common pattern of signaling among crepuscular and nocturnal birds that combine patches of white feathers with twilight displays. Furthermore, our findings could be relevant to songbirds that breed in dark forest habitats and have contrasting white

  9. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  10. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  11. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  12. Geochemical and Petrographic Characterization of Ash in the Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, E.; Lee, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Eagle Ford Formation is composed of highly laminated, organic rich shales and marls interbedded with volcanic ash. Discrete ash beds are easy to identify in outcrop as recessed layers between more resistant rock. In the finely laminated shales, the ash cannot be identified visually, which fosters the questions of whether ash is present in these shales and how that can be determined. The ash is thought to come from volcanic activity in western North America during the Cenomanian and Turonian, depositing in the Western Interior Seaway in what is now South Texas. Samples of known ash-rich beds from the Eagle Ford were analyzed using micro-XRF and thin section petrography in conjunction with ICP-MS laser ablation to determine the geochemical composition of the samples. The high CaCO3 content of the marls diluted the ash in each sample so elemental data were used to separate the two components. The amount of Ca in the ash from the total measured Ca was unknown. Carbonate takes Sr but not Al, therefore the y-intercept of a Ca/Al vs. Sr/Al graph gave the concentration of Ca in the non-carbonate components. This method was used for every cation to gather a generalized overall composition of the present day ash. The ash was found to have been altered to clays, resulting in a substantial loss of Si and thereby making the original composition of the ash indeterminable. However, certain elements like Ti and Zr are not as significantly affected by weathering. Using an empirical relationship between Ti/Zr and SiO2 in magmatic rocks from the Cretaceous Peninsular Ranges batholith, the likely source of ash, our measured Ti/Zr was used to determine the original SiO2 percentage in the ash, giving a range of 60-75 wt%. This was also checked by a Ti/Al regression analysis from the same Peninsular Ranges data, which gave a range of 67-72 wt% SiO2. These results suggest that the ash came from andesitic to rhyolitic eruptions. The discrepancy in Ti/Al and Ti/Zr calculated SiO2

  13. Application of threshold concepts to ecological management problems: occupancy of Golden Eagles in Denali National Park, Alaska: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; McIntyre, Carol; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Lubow, Bruce L.; Runge, Michael C.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we demonstrate the application of the various classes of thresholds, detailed in earlier chapters and elsewhere, via an actual but simplified natural resource management case study. We intend our example to provide the reader with the ability to recognize and apply the theoretical concepts of utility, ecological and decision thresholds to management problems through a formalized decision-analytic process. Our case study concerns the management of human recreational activities in Alaska’s Denali National Park, USA, and the possible impacts of such activities on nesting Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos. Managers desire to allow visitors the greatest amount of access to park lands, provided that eagle nesting-site occupancy is maintained at a level determined to be acceptable by the managers themselves. As these two management objectives are potentially at odds, we treat minimum desired occupancy level as a utility threshold which, then, serves to guide the selection of annual management alternatives in the decision process. As human disturbance is not the only factor influencing eagle occupancy, we model nesting-site dynamics as a function of both disturbance and prey availability. We incorporate uncertainty in these dynamics by considering several hypotheses, including a hypothesis that site occupancy is affected only at a threshold level of prey abundance (i.e., an ecological threshold effect). By considering competing management objectives and accounting for two forms of thresholds in the decision process, we are able to determine the optimal number of annual nesting-site restrictions that will produce the greatest long-term benefits for both eagles and humans. Setting a utility threshold of 75 occupied sites, out of a total of 90 potential nesting sites, the optimization specified a decision threshold at approximately 80 occupied sites. At the point that current occupancy falls below 80 sites, the recommended decision is to begin restricting

  14. An alternative design for a metal image slicing IFU for EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Robertson, David J.; Rolt, Stephen; Talbot, R. Gordon

    2012-09-01

    The Centre for Advanced Instrumentation (CfAI) of Durham University (UK) has developed a conceptual design for the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for EAGLE based on diamond-machined monolithic multi-faceted metal-mirror arrays as an alternative to the glass IFU which is currently baselined. The CfAI has built up substantial expertise with the design, manufacture, integration, alignment and acceptance testing of such systems, through the successful development of IFUs for the Gemini Near-InfraRed Spectrograph (GNIRS) and JWST NIRSpec and 24 IFUs for ESO’s K-band Multi-Object Spectrometer (KMOS). The unprecedented performance of the KMOS IFUs (Strehl risks and cost. Through the timely completion of the KMOS IFUs, which required the fabrication of an unprecedented 1152 optical surfaces, the CfAI have demonstrated that they have the capacity to produce the required volume within reasonable schedule constraints. All the facilities (design, fabrication e.g. diamond machining, metrology, integration and test) required for the successful realisation of such systems are available in-house, thus minimising programmatic risks. This paper presents the opto-mechanical design and predicted performance (based on the actual measured performance of the KMOS IFUs) of the proposed metal IFU.

  15. Convergent evidence of eagle talons used by late Neanderthals in Europe: a further assessment on symbolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romandini, Matteo; Peresani, Marco; Laroulandie, Véronique; Metz, Laure; Pastoors, Andreas; Vaquero, Manuel; Slimak, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to have a better understanding of the symbolic or not use of certain items by Neanderthals, this work presents new evidence of the deliberate removal of raptor claws occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the recent phases of the Mousterian. Rio Secco Cave in the north-east of Italy and Mandrin Cave in the Middle Rhône valley have recently produced two golden eagle pedal phalanges from contexts not younger than 49.1-48.0 ky cal BP at Rio Secco and dated around 50.0 ky cal BP at Mandrin. The bones show cut-marks located on the proximal end ascribable to the cutting of the tendons and the incision of the cortical organic tissues. Also supported by an experimental removal of large raptor claws, our reconstruction explains that the deliberate detachment occurred without damaging the claw, in a way comparable at a general level with other Mousterian contexts across Europe. After excluding that these specimens met the nutritional requirements for human subsistence, we discuss the possible implications these findings perform in our current knowledge of the European Middle Palaeolithic context.

  16. Orofacial pain induced by Eagle syndrome in an elderly patient with temporomandibular disorders - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantinides, Fulvia; Vidoni, Gabriele; Tonni, Ingrid; Bazzocchi, Gabriele; Bodin, Christiane; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Eagle syndrome (ES) is a rare disorder that can be responsible for orofacial pain. To describe the treatment of an elderly patient affected by ES and temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A patient complained of constant pain of the right temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and of the sensation of having a foreign body in the throat. Based on the patient's medical history and symptoms, a TMJs internal derangement and concomitant ES were suspected. A magnetic resonance and a computerised tomography confirmed the clinical diagnosis. A conservative treatment was initially performed to re-establish a functional occlusion. The rehabilitative treatment alleviated the pain almost totally. A slight residual uncomfortable sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the throat persisted after the oral rehabilitation but without any influence on the quality of life. In elderly patients complaining a chronic orofacial pain, the possibility of a concomitant TMD and ES has to be considered to correctly identify the source of pain. A conservative approach to identify weather TMD is the main source of pain is preferable, avoiding unnecessary invasive treatments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Convergent Evidence of Eagle Talons Used by Late Neanderthals in Europe: A Further Assessment on Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romandini, Matteo; Peresani, Marco; Laroulandie, Véronique; Metz, Laure; Pastoors, Andreas; Vaquero, Manuel; Slimak, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    To contribute to have a better understanding of the symbolic or not use of certain items by Neanderthals, this work presents new evidence of the deliberate removal of raptor claws occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the recent phases of the Mousterian. Rio Secco Cave in the north-east of Italy and Mandrin Cave in the Middle Rhône valley have recently produced two golden eagle pedal phalanges from contexts not younger than 49.1–48.0 ky cal BP at Rio Secco and dated around 50.0 ky cal BP at Mandrin. The bones show cut-marks located on the proximal end ascribable to the cutting of the tendons and the incision of the cortical organic tissues. Also supported by an experimental removal of large raptor claws, our reconstruction explains that the deliberate detachment occurred without damaging the claw, in a way comparable at a general level with other Mousterian contexts across Europe. After excluding that these specimens met the nutritional requirements for human subsistence, we discuss the possible implications these findings perform in our current knowledge of the European Middle Palaeolithic context. PMID:25010346

  18. Hyperspectral imaging of the Eagle Nebula with the Fourier Transform Spectrograph SITELLE at CFHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagey, Nicolas; McLeod, Anna Faye; Aguilar, Laura; SITELLE instrument team, CHFT science operations team

    2018-01-01

    We present the very first large field of view, optical, spectral mapping of one of the most famous star-forming regions in the Galaxy: the Eagle Nebula (M 16). The observations have been obtained with the new imaging Fourier transform spectrograph at CFHT: SITELLE. Three spectral cubes are presented, with a spectral range of 30-40 nm around the [OII] 7327, H-alpha and H-beta lines, with a resolving power of 10000, 1500 and 600, respectively. The spectral cubes cover the same region: a field of view of 11’ by 11 centered on the Pillars of Creation.We discuss the performance, calibration and data reduction of SITELLE data by comparing it to MUSE integral field data of the same region, and (within errors) obtain remarkably comparable values for fluxes, velocities, and various diagnostics for star-forming regions.With the spatial and spectral coverage of SITELLE, it was furthermore possible to confirm the bipolar structure of the Herbig-Haro object 216 present in the field. Together with narrow-band H2 and Br-gamma near-infrared data obtained with Wircam at CFHT, we further analyze the spatial correlation of the ionized and molecular emission.

  19. Orientation of native versus translocated juvenile lesser spotted eagles (Clanga pomarina) on the first autumn migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, Bernd-U; Bergmanis, Ugis; Langgemach, Torsten; Graszynski, Kai; Hinz, Arno; Börner, Ingo; Meyburg, Christiane; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-08-01

    The ontogeny of migration routines used by wild birds remains unresolved. Here we investigated the migratory orientation of juvenile lesser spotted eagles (LSE; Clanga pomarina) based on translocation and satellite tracking. Between 2004 and 2016, 85 second-hatched juveniles (Abels) were reared in captivity for release into the declining German population, including 50 birds that were translocated 940 km from Latvia. In 2009, we tracked 12 translocated juveniles, as well as eight native juveniles and nine native adults, to determine how inexperienced birds come to use strategic migration routes. Native juveniles departed around the same time as the adults and six of eight used the eastern flyway around the Mediterranean, which was used by all adults. In contrast, translocated juveniles departed on average 6 days before native LSEs, and five travelled southward and died in the central Mediterranean region. Consequently, fewer translocated juveniles (4/12) than native juveniles (7/8) reached Africa. We conclude that juvenile LSEs have a much better chance of learning the strategic southeastern flyway if they leave at an appropriate time to connect with experienced elders upon departure. It is not clear why translocated juveniles departed so early. Regardless, by the end of the year, most juveniles had perished, whether they were translocated (10/12) or not (6/8). The small number of surviving translocated juveniles thus still represents a significant increase in the annual productivity of the German LSE population in 2009. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Spatiotemporal Variability of Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Stirm, Brian H; Conley, Stephen; Mehrotra, Shobhit; Faloona, Ian C; Lyon, David

    2017-07-18

    Methane emissions from oil and gas facilities can exhibit operation-dependent temporal variability; however, this variability has yet to be fully characterized. A field campaign was conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas, to examine spatiotemporal variability of methane emissions using four methods. Clusters of methane-emitting sources were estimated from 14 aerial surveys of two ("East" or "West") 35 × 35 km grids, two aircraft-based mass balance methods measured emissions repeatedly at five gathering facilities and three flares, and emitting equipment source-types were identified via helicopter-based infrared camera at 13 production and gathering facilities. Significant daily variability was observed in the location, number (East: 44 ± 20% relative standard deviation (RSD), N = 7; West: 37 ± 30% RSD, N = 7), and emission rates (36% of repeat measurements deviate from mean emissions by at least ±50%) of clusters of emitting sources. Emission rates of high emitters varied from 150-250 to 880-1470 kg/h and regional aggregate emissions of large sources (>15 kg/h) varied up to a factor of ∼3 between surveys. The aircraft-based mass balance results revealed comparable variability. Equipment source-type changed between surveys and alterations in operational-mode significantly influenced emissions. Results indicate that understanding temporal emission variability will promote improved mitigation strategies and additional analysis is needed to fully characterize its causes.

  1. On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, John M.

    At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in California. During the first nine minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received by the three stations. When they switched to the Parkes pictures, they were of such superior quality that NASA remained with them for the rest of the 2½-hour moonwalk. The television pictures from Parkes were received under extremely trying and dangerous conditions. A violent squall struck the telescope on the day of the historic moonwalk. The telescope was buffeted by strong winds that swayed the support tower and threatened the integrity of the telescope structure. Fortunately, cool heads prevailed and as Aldrin activated the TV camera, the Moon rose into the field-of-view of the Parkes telescope. This report endeavours to explain the circumstances of the Parkes Observatory's support of the Apollo 11 mission, and how it came to be involved in the historic enterprise.

  2. Classification of crops across heterogeneous agricultural landscape in Kenya using AisaEAGLE imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piiroinen, Rami; Heiskanen, Janne; Mõttus, Matti; Pellikka, Petri

    2015-07-01

    Land use practices are changing at a fast pace in the tropics. In sub-Saharan Africa forests, woodlands and bushlands are being transformed for agricultural use to produce food for the rapidly growing population. The objective of this study was to assess the prospects of mapping the common agricultural crops in highly heterogeneous study area in south-eastern Kenya using high spatial and spectral resolution AisaEAGLE imaging spectroscopy data. Minimum noise fraction transformation was used to pack the coherent information in smaller set of bands and the data was classified with support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. A total of 35 plant species were mapped in the field and seven most dominant ones were used as classification targets. Five of the targets were agricultural crops. The overall accuracy (OA) for the classification was 90.8%. To assess the possibility of excluding the remaining 28 plant species from the classification results, 10 different probability thresholds (PT) were tried with SVM. The impact of PT was assessed with validation polygons of all 35 mapped plant species. The results showed that while PT was increased more pixels were excluded from non-target polygons than from the polygons of the seven classification targets. This increased the OA and reduced salt-and-pepper effects in the classification results. Very high spatial resolution imagery and pixel-based classification approach worked well with small targets such as maize while there was mixing of classes on the sides of the tree crowns.

  3. Convergent evidence of eagle talons used by late Neanderthals in Europe: a further assessment on symbolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Romandini

    Full Text Available To contribute to have a better understanding of the symbolic or not use of certain items by Neanderthals, this work presents new evidence of the deliberate removal of raptor claws occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the recent phases of the Mousterian. Rio Secco Cave in the north-east of Italy and Mandrin Cave in the Middle Rhône valley have recently produced two golden eagle pedal phalanges from contexts not younger than 49.1-48.0 ky cal BP at Rio Secco and dated around 50.0 ky cal BP at Mandrin. The bones show cut-marks located on the proximal end ascribable to the cutting of the tendons and the incision of the cortical organic tissues. Also supported by an experimental removal of large raptor claws, our reconstruction explains that the deliberate detachment occurred without damaging the claw, in a way comparable at a general level with other Mousterian contexts across Europe. After excluding that these specimens met the nutritional requirements for human subsistence, we discuss the possible implications these findings perform in our current knowledge of the European Middle Palaeolithic context.

  4. The diet of Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis and its agronomic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available If the importance of wildlife in agricultural pest control through predation can be conveyed, it can play an important role in the conservation of wildlife. However, such a strategy needs to be backed with convincing data. We studied the habitat preference, diet and reproductive behavior of the Indian Eagle Owl (IEO Bubo bengalensis in order to understand its role in agricultural pest control. The Owls preferred landscapes with a higher percentage of agriculture and fed on rodents, birds, reptiles, arachnids, insects and other prey species. Despite being a generalist feeder, its diet was dominated by agricultural pests, which contributed 88% of the total prey biomass. Out of the 13 rodent prey species, which comprised a major part of the diet, seven were identified as major agricultural pests and were 98% of the total rodent biomass in the diet of the IEO. The dependence of the IEO on rodent pests was further reflected by positive correlation between rodent biomass consumed and the breeding success of the owl. The IEO, therefore, plays a positive role in the biological control of crop pests. However, owls spent a longer duration of time in agricultural habitats, where they also had higher productivity. Thus IEO may be subjected to anthropogenic activities, human contact and interference. Since this owl is still hunted due to superstitious beliefs, scientific evidence elucidating the importance of the IEO in agricultural pest control can be used for its conservation by educating the farming community.

  5. High-Society Framing: The Brooklyn Eagle and the Popularity of Twilight Sleep in Brooklyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bethany; Quinlan, Margaret M

    2017-01-01

    Twilight Sleep (TS) is an obstetric intervention during which a laboring woman enters a semiconscious state via injection. TS received enthusiastic support in Brooklyn, NY, in The Brooklyn Eagle (TBE) newspaper between 1914 and 1918. The purpose of this article is to analyze the framing of TS in TBE as the most popular obstetric intervention among wealthy, White socialites in Brooklyn during the period. The coverage in TBE prompted a nearly universally positive perception of TS among the newspaper's wider readership. After extensive historiographical research and rhetorical analysis of newspaper coverage of TS in TBE, we discovered a form of framing we call "high-society framing," rooted in both wealth and notoriety. We discuss four possible effects of high-society framing: The first is the ability of high-society framing to attract or repel the public regarding a health care issue, and the second is the impact of high-society framing on public perception of medical interventions, procedures, or pharmaceuticals. A third possible effect of high-society framing is that it can alter notions of necessity, and a fourth is that high-society framing can elicit a tacit acceptance of medical interventions, procedures, and pharmaceuticals, thus obfuscating risk. Finally, we argue that high-society framing has implications for the discussion of health care in present-day mediated discourses.

  6. Styloid/C1 transverse process juxtaposition as a cause of Eagle's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sandra; Luginbuhl, Adam; Finden, Steven; Curry, Joseph M; Cognetti, David M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this case report was to characterize styloid/C1 transverse process juxtaposition as a cause for Eagle's syndrome. A case series was conducted with a chart review of 5 patients with radiographic evidence of jugular vein compression who underwent styloid process excision between 2010 and 2013. There were 4 men and 1 woman, aged 35 to 62 years (mean, 46 years). Cervicalgia (4 of 5 patients) and otalgia (4 of 5 patients) were the most commonly reported symptoms. Styloid process length ranged from 2.4 to 8.5 cm. The distance between the styloid process and the transverse process of C1 ranged from 0.05 to 0.46 cm. All patients underwent a transcervical approach for the excision of the styloid process with immediate postoperative resolution of symptoms and good cosmetic results. Styloid/C1 transverse process juxtaposition can produce symptoms of cervicalgia and otalgia even in the setting of a normal length styloid process. The transcervical approach is safe and effective for excision of the styloid process and has good functional and cosmetic results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Orientation of native versus translocated juvenile lesser spotted eagles (Clanga pomarina) on the first autumn migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmanis, Ugis; Langgemach, Torsten; Graszynski, Kai; Hinz, Arno; Börner, Ingo; Meyburg, Christiane; Vansteelant, Wouter M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ontogeny of migration routines used by wild birds remains unresolved. Here we investigated the migratory orientation of juvenile lesser spotted eagles (LSE; Clanga pomarina) based on translocation and satellite tracking. Between 2004 and 2016, 85 second-hatched juveniles (Abels) were reared in captivity for release into the declining German population, including 50 birds that were translocated 940 km from Latvia. In 2009, we tracked 12 translocated juveniles, as well as eight native juveniles and nine native adults, to determine how inexperienced birds come to use strategic migration routes. Native juveniles departed around the same time as the adults and six of eight used the eastern flyway around the Mediterranean, which was used by all adults. In contrast, translocated juveniles departed on average 6 days before native LSEs, and five travelled southward and died in the central Mediterranean region. Consequently, fewer translocated juveniles (4/12) than native juveniles (7/8) reached Africa. We conclude that juvenile LSEs have a much better chance of learning the strategic southeastern flyway if they leave at an appropriate time to connect with experienced elders upon departure. It is not clear why translocated juveniles departed so early. Regardless, by the end of the year, most juveniles had perished, whether they were translocated (10/12) or not (6/8). The small number of surviving translocated juveniles thus still represents a significant increase in the annual productivity of the German LSE population in 2009. PMID:28768749

  8. Isolation of mixed subtypes of influenza A virus from a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redig Patrick T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From April 2007 to March 2008, cloacal swabs were obtained from 246 casualty raptors recovered by various wildlife rehabilitation centers in the United States. The swabs were placed in a virus transport medium and transported to the laboratory on ice packs. At the laboratory, the samples were pooled with each pool consisting of five samples. All pools (n = 50 were screened for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV using a real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR; one of the pools was found positive. All five samples in this pool were tested individually by rRT-PCR; one sample from a bald eagle was found positive. This sample was inoculated in embryonated chicken eggs for virus isolation and a hemagglutinating virus was isolated. Complete genome sequencing of the isolate revealed a mixed infection with H1N1 and H2N1 subtypes. Further analysis revealed that the PB1-F2 gene sequence of H1N1 virus had the N66S virulence-associated substitution. Further studies on ecology and epidemiology of AIV in raptors are needed to help understand their role in the maintenance and evolution of AIV.

  9. Year-round movements of a Wahlberg's eagle Aquila wahlbergi tracked by satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyburg, B.-U.; Mendelsohn, J.M.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; Meyburg, C.; Kemp, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    An adult female Wahlberg's Eagle from northern Namibia was tracked by satellite ovcr a total distance of 8816 km and located 104 times between 11 February and 4 November 1994. It migrated on an almost due north heading to northern Cameroon, north-eastern Nigeria and western Chad through the rain forest belt of the Congo and Zaire after the breeding season. The total trans-equatorial distance between the breeding and non-breeding ranges was 3520 km. During the non-breeding season the bird ranged over a large area (ca. 60 000 km2) for about six weeks (29 April - 14 June) in these three countries in a rather nomadic pattern covering a minimum distance of 1256 km. During two further months (14 June - 14 August) it restricted its movements to an area of about 50002 km near Maiduguri in the Sudan savannah of north-eastern Nigeria. The return migration took about two weeks longer than that to the north, which took about a month.

  10. Anesthesia with Isoflurane and Sevoflurane in the Crested Serpent Eagle (Spilornis cheela hoya): Minimum Anesthetic Concentration, Physiological Effects, Hematocrit, Plasma Chemistry and Behavioral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAN, Fang-Tse; CHANG, Geng-Ruei; WANG, Hsien-Chi; HSU, Tien-Huan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The initial goal of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) for the crested serpent eagle. Next, we compared the anesthetic effects of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values and behavior in spontaneously breathing captive adult crested serpent eagles. Sixteen eagles were randomly allocated to two groups for anesthesia with ISO (n=8) or SEVO (n=8). First, we measured the MAC values of ISO and SEVO, and four weeks later, we investigated the effect of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values. The MAC values of ISO and SEVO for crested serpent eagles were 1.46 ± 0.30 and 2.03 ± 0.32%, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two anesthetics in induction time, while time of extubation to recovery was significantly shorter with SEVO. A time-related increase in end-tidal CO2 and decreases in body temperature and respiratory rates were observed during anesthesia with each anesthetic. There were no significant differences between the effect of the two anesthetics on heart rate, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values or respiration, although each caused minor respiration depression. We concluded that SEVO is a more effective inhalant agent than ISO for use in eagles, showing the most rapidest induction and recovery from anesthesia. PMID:23955396

  11. Spatial variation of mercury levels in nesting Bonelli's eagles from Southwest Portugal: effects of diet composition and prey contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)]. E-mail: lpalma@ualg.pt; Beja, Pedro [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); ERENA, Av. Visconde Valmor, 11-3, 1000-289 Lisbon (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal); Monteiro, Luis R. [IMAR, Universidade dos Acores, Departamento de Pescas e Oceanografia, Cais Sta. Cruz, 9901-862 Horta (Portugal)

    2005-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) was determined in adult Bonelli's eagles (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and their avian prey, from samples of feathers collected between 1992 and 2001 at the nesting sites of 21 pairs in Southwest Portugal. Eagle Hg levels showed great variation, reflecting primarily differences in diet composition and food chain biomagnification. Concentrations were positively correlated with the dietary proportion of insectivorous and omnivorous birds (e.g. egrets, corvids and thrushes), with very low levels for pairs feeding mainly on herbivores (e.g. rabbits, pigeons and partridges). Differences in prey contamination among breeding territories added to dietary effects in determining variation of Hg levels in eagles, shaping a spatial pattern that was largely consistent with a source of contamination in a coal-burning power-plant lying upwind of the study area. Despite this presumed contamination, Hg levels seemed to be of little concern to this eagle population, though there might be subtle deleterious effects on the reproductive output of a few pairs. This study emphasizes the need to account for dietary effects when biomonitoring Hg contamination using birds of prey. - The effects of diet composition and prey contamination added up to determine the spatial variation of Hg levels in breeding Bonelli's eagles.

  12. EAGLE DANCE AS CULTURAL IDENTITY IN THE ISOLATING TRIBAL COMMUNITY CHANGES, IN PEMATANG KABAU VILLAGE, AIR HITAM DISTRICT, SAROLANGUN REGENCY, JAMBI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Purnama

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the Eagles dance as the identity of dance incultural change in isolated tribal community (SAD, in the village of PematangKabau, Air HItam District, Sarolangun Regency, Jambi Province. CentralGovernment through the Ministry of Social Affairs moved SAD out of the jungleand then settling on a permanent area and this activity has been carried out since1973. Furthermore, the settlement resulted in a fairly fundamental change, notonly in style and environment of SAD, but more important to the identity markersand self-identity of SAD.People of SAD who had been settled, strive to keep eagle dance even bymaking some changes as far as not to break out the essential elements of the Eagledance in order to avoid a total loss of identity and their self-identity in the newneighborhoods, This study aims to see how art, in this case Eagle dance, can be amarker of identity that attaches to the SAD after they settle outside the forest. Toachieve these objectives there are three main problems which will be soughtanswers in this study, namely: (1 What does the Eagles dance of SAD in thevillage of Pematang Kabau looks like?; (2 how is the status of the Eagles dancefor SAD in the village of Pematang Kabau; and (3 how is the impact andmeaning of Eagles dance towards the SAD changes?The study with the perspective of cultural studies designing as thisqualitative research is used to solve the three problems mentioned above by usingseveral concepts, theories and techniques of data collection. Concepts are referredto Eagle dance, cultural identity, change, and isolated tribal community. Thetheory used is the identity theory, the theory of semiotics, hegemony theory, andtheory of deconstruction. Data collection techniques include participantobservation, depth interviews, and study of literature / documentation. The datacollected is processed in a descriptive analytical and subsequently presented in theform of narrative, tables, and visual

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the absence of stellar mass segregation in galaxy groups and consistent predictions from GALFORM and EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, P. R.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Lagos, C. del P.; Davies, L. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Driver, S. P.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Cortese, L.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Finnegan, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Loveday, J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the contentious issue of the presence, or lack thereof, of satellites mass segregation in galaxy groups using the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, the GALFORM semi-analytic, and the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation catalogues of galaxy groups. We select groups with halo mass 12 ≤ log (Mhalo/h-1 M⊙) EAGLE data allows us to probe much fainter luminosities (r-band magnitude of 22) as well as investigate the three-dimensional spatial distribution with intrinsic halo properties, beyond what the current observational data can offer. In both cases we find that the fainter EAGLE data show a very mild spatial mass segregation at z ≤ 0.22, which is again not apparent at higher redshift. Interestingly, our results are in contrast to some earlier findings using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate the source of the disagreement and suggest that subtle differences between the group-finding algorithms could be the root cause.

  14. Fatal attack on a Rylands' bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia rylandsi) by a black-and-white hawk-eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dara B; Williams, Sean M

    2017-04-01

    Predation risk has played an important role in primate behavioral evolution, yet natural primate-predator interactions are rarely observed. We describe the consumption and probable predation of an adult bald-faced saki monkey (Pithecia rylandsi) by a black-and-white hawk-eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus) at the Los Amigos Biological Station in lowland Amazonian Peru. To our knowledge, this is the first published case of a black-and-white hawk-eagle consuming any primate species. We contend that while most reported observations of successful and attempted predation by raptors involves the largest and most notorious species (i.e. the harpy eagle), smaller and lesser known species like S. melanoleucus should be considered more seriously as a predator of neotropical primates. We discuss the predation event in the context of understanding what other neotropical primates might be vulnerable to S. melanoleucus predation given its body size and hunting tactic.

  15. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the Warrior. The authors have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Fort Campbell, KY. This is second of two companion papers and presents the last three steps of the research model and includes Design and Validation of the Interventions, Program Integration and Implementation, and Monitor and Determine the Effectiveness of the Program. An 8-week trial was performed to validate the Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) to improve modifiable suboptimal characteristics identified in Part I. The experimental group participated in ETAP under the direction of a ETAP Strength and Conditioning Specialist while the control group performed the current physical training at Fort Campbell under the direction of a Physical Training Leader and as governed by FM 21-20 for the 8-week study period. Soldiers performing ETAP demonstrated improvements in several tests for strength, flexibility, performance, physiology, and the APFT compared to current physical training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP was proven valid to improve certain suboptimal characteristics within the 8-week trial as compared to the current training performed at Fort Campbell. ETAP has long-term implications and with expected greater improvements when implemented into a Division pre-deployment cycle of 10-12 months which will result in further systemic adaptations for each variable.

  16. MAPEM evolution of the system adjacent to the eagle well: summary and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayup-Zoauin, Ricardo N.; Toldo Junior, Elirio E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    During the early years the petroleum industry, aqueous fluids were used for well drilling. With the development of new technologies, deeper, or geometrically more complex wells have been drilled. In order to drill wells with such complexity, drilling fluids were necessary presenting high chemical inhibition for reactive clay minerals, and excellent lubricity, for overcoming the high attrition between the drilling column and the walls of the well. Non-aqueous fluids then appeared, such as petroleum-based, diesel oil-based and mineral oil-based fluids. More recently, compelled by environmental demands, the industry has developed technological alternatives to such fluids, applying fluids with very low (lower than 0.001%) rates or free from poly aromatic and biodegradable compounds for drilling operations. The most used bases are paraffins, olefins, and vegetal oil-derived esters. The environmental effects from the use of non aqueous-fluids and the associated cuttings discharge have been studied for over a decade now, basically focusing on shallow-water regions. MAPEM Project was conceived to provide the study of environmental effects caused by the discharge of cuttings impregnated with one of the new-generation non-aqueous fluids used for offshore drilling in shallow- and deep-water environments. At Campos basin, two well sites, 200 and 900 meters depth, were selected for environmental monitoring. The sedimentary environment associated to the continental slope in this basin is dominated by low deposition rates and sediment reworking by bottom currents and gravitational sediment flows. Bottom sediments in shallow waters are dominated by carbonate sands, and those of deep waters are constituted by clay minerals, relicts from the last glacial period. The present report presents environmental monitoring studies conducted in deep waters near the Eagle well, located at the BC9 sector of the Campos sedimentary basin. (author)

  17. The link between galaxy and black hole growth in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Stuart; Bower, Richard G.; Harrison, Chris M.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the connection between the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies and their central black hole accretion rate (BHAR) using the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We find, in striking concurrence with recent observational studies, that the -BHAR relation for an active galactic nucleus (AGN)-selected sample produces a relatively flat trend, whilst the -SFR relation for an SFR-selected sample yields an approximately linear trend. These trends remain consistent with their instantaneous equivalents even when both SFR and BHAR are time averaged over a period of 100 Myr. There is no universal relationship between the two growth rates. Instead, SFR and BHAR evolve through distinct paths that depend strongly on the mass of the host dark matter halo. The galaxies hosted by haloes of mass M200 ≲ 1011.5 M⊙ grow steadily, yet black holes (BHs) in these systems hardly grow, yielding a lack of correlation between SFR and BHAR. As haloes grow through the mass range 1011.5 ≲ M200 ≲ 1012.5 M⊙ BHs undergo a rapid phase of non-linear growth. These systems yield a highly non-linear correlation between the SFR and BHAR, which are non-causally connected via the mass of the host halo. In massive haloes (M200 ≳ 1012.5 M⊙), both SFR and BHAR decline on average with a roughly constant scaling of SFR/BHAR ˜ 103. Given the complexity of the full SFR-BHAR plane built from multiple behaviours, and from the large dynamic range of BHARs, we find the primary driver of the different observed trends in the -BHAR and -SFR relationships are due to sampling considerably different regions of this plane.

  18. Size evolution of normal and compact galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, M.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaye, J.; Theuns, T.; Trayford, J. W.; Qu, Y.; Schaller, M.; Berthet, M.; Helly, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the evolution of galaxy sizes, from redshift 2 to 0, for actively star forming and passive galaxies in the cosmological hydrodynamical 1003 cMpc3 simulation of the EAGLE project. We find that the sizes increase with stellar mass, but that the relation weakens with increasing redshift. Separating galaxies by their star formation activity, we find that passive galaxies are typically smaller than active galaxies at a fixed stellar mass. These trends are consistent with those found in observations and the level of agreement between the predicted and observed size-mass relations is of the order of 0.1 dex for z < 1 and 0.2-0.3 dex from redshift 1 to 2. We use the simulation to compare the evolution of individual galaxies with that of the population as a whole. While the evolution of the size-stellar mass relation for active galaxies provides a good proxy for the evolution of individual galaxies, the evolution of individual passive galaxies is not well represented by the observed size-mass relation due to the evolving number density of passive galaxies. Observations of z ˜ 2 galaxies have revealed an abundance of massive red compact galaxies, which depletes below z ˜ 1. We find that a similar population forms naturally in the simulation. Comparing these galaxies with their z = 0 descendants, we find that all compact galaxies grow in size due to the high-redshift stars migrating outwards. Approximately 60 per cent of the compact galaxies increase in size further due to renewed star formation and/or mergers.

  19. Biology of Myliobatis goodei (Springer, 1939), a widely distributed eagle ray, caught in northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Manuel; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Chondrichthyans play an important role in structuring marine communities. Myliobatis goodie is an eagle ray reported from South Carolina in the USA (35°N) to Santa Cuz, Argentina (44°S), however little is known about this species, which is considered data deficient by the IUCN. In order to create adequate management strategies for this species, biological information is sorely needed. The objective of this study was to describe the biology of the population of M. goodei and its relationships with season, sex and the geographic features of Anegada Bay, Argentina (from 39.96°S to 40.60°S and from 62.10°W to 62.46°W) in 2008. Specifically, the population structure of M. goodie was studied by sex, seasons and sites, its food habits by seasons and sites, and the reproductive biology by seasons and sex. The results show that M. goodei exhibits seasonal migrations. Young-of-the-year remain in the bay all year long, while adults enter during spring and summer. Juveniles in spring are likely to become first-time mating individuals that migrate into open sea at the end of summer. These individuals would return to give birth for the first time and mate for the second time during the next year at summer. Anegada Bay would then be a mating and nursery area for the species. M. goodei behave as a generalist feeder with a uniform diet composed mainly of bivalves. Seasonal differences in the diet found arise from differences in prey diversity between summer and spring. Spatial differences, however, arise from the different abundances of caprellids and bivalves. Trophic level was 3.2 and it constitutes the first reference for this species, characterizing it as a secondary consumer.

  20. Heritability and Genome-Wide Association Analyses of Sleep Duration in Children: The EAGLE Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marcella; Pappa, Irene; Bustamante, Mariona; Bonilla, Carolina; Suarez, Anna; Tiesler, Carla M; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Andersson, Sture; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Estivill, Xavier; Evans, David M; Flexeder, Claudia; Forns, Joan; Gonzalez, Juan R; Guxens, Monica; Huss, Anke; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Julvez, Jordi; Lahti, Jari; López-Vicente, Mónica; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manz, Judith; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Perola, Markus; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Salo, Perttu P; Shahand, Shayan; Schulz, Holger; Standl, Marie; Thiering, Elisabeth; Timpson, Nicholas J; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; Smith, George Davey; Estarlich, Marisa; Heinrich, Joachim; Räikkönen, Katri; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Tiemeier, Henning; Sunyer, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Low or excessive sleep duration has been associated with multiple outcomes, but the biology behind these associations remains elusive. Specifically, genetic studies in children are scarce. In this study, we aimed to: (1) estimate the proportion of genetic variance of sleep duration in children attributed to common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), (2) identify novel SNPs associated with sleep duration in children, and (3) investigate the genetic overlap of sleep duration in children and related metabolic and psychiatric traits. We performed a population-based molecular genetic study, using data form the EArly Genetics and Life course Epidemiology (EAGLE) Consortium. 10,554 children of European ancestry were included in the discovery, and 1,250 children in the replication phase. We found evidence of significant but modest SNP heritability of sleep duration in children (SNP h(2) 0.14, 95% CI [0.05, 0.23]) using the LD score regression method. A novel region at chromosome 11q13.4 (top SNP: rs74506765, P = 2.27e-08) was associated with sleep duration in children, but this was not replicated in independent studies. Nominally significant genetic overlap was only found (rG = 0.23, P = 0.05) between sleep duration in children and type 2 diabetes in adults, supporting the hypothesis of a common pathogenic mechanism. The significant SNP heritability of sleep duration in children and the suggestive genetic overlap with type 2 diabetes support the search for genetic mechanisms linking sleep duration in children to multiple outcomes in health and disease.

  1. Quartz types, authigenic and detrital, in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Formation, South Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Kitty L.; Ergene, Suzan M.; Ozkan, Aysen

    2016-06-01

    Lithologic heterogeneity of the Eagle Ford Formation in South Texas arises from mixing of extrabasinal grains of siliciclastic composition with intrabasinal grain assemblages composed dominantly of marine carbonate with a lesser component of biosiliceous debris. Detrital quartz in particular is derived from both extrabasinal and intrabasinal sources, posing a challenge for the use of bulk compositional data for mudrock classification. Extrabasinal detrital quartz supplied along a major axis of siliciclastic influx, the Woodbine depositional system of East Texas, is reduced to a minor part of the grain assemblage in South Texas. Petrographic evidence and point-count results indicate that around 85 percent of total quartz in these rocks, equal to about 12.6 volume percent, is authigenic. Thus, significant quantities of authigenic silica are not restricted to siliceous mudrocks, but can be found in carbonate-rich mudrocks as well. Formerly opaline skeletons of radiolaria, the dominant source of silica for authigenic quartz precipitation, are only poorly preserved by replacements including calcite, dolomite, pyrite, and quartz. Dissolved silica released by dissolution of radiolarians, and perhaps also by volcanic glass dissolution is re-precipitated in a variety of forms, including matrix-dispersed microquartz cement, fillings within primary intragranular pores, and grain replacement of both calcareous and siliceous allochems. The mass balance of dissolved silica mobilized from radiolarians and other reactive silicates and the precipitation of authigenic quartz is uncertain because the initial volumes of now-dissolved detrital material versus the final volume of authigenic material (quartz and other authigenic silicates) cannot be determined with accuracy.

  2. Time Series Analysis of Energy Production and Associated Landscape Fragmentation in the Eagle Ford Shale Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Young, Michael H.; Wolaver, Brad D.; Andrews, John R.; Breton, Caroline L.

    2017-11-01

    Spatio-temporal trends in infrastructure footprints, energy production, and landscape alteration were assessed for the Eagle Ford Shale of Texas. The period of analysis was over four 2-year periods (2006-2014). Analyses used high-resolution imagery, as well as pipeline data to map EF infrastructure. Landscape conditions from 2006 were used as baseline. Results indicate that infrastructure footprints varied from 94.5 km2 in 2008 to 225.0 km2 in 2014. By 2014, decreased land-use intensities (ratio of land alteration to energy production) were noted play-wide. Core-area alteration by period was highest (3331.6 km2) in 2008 at the onset of play development, and increased from 582.3 to 3913.9 km2 by 2014, though substantial revegetation of localized core areas was observed throughout the study (i.e., alteration improved in some areas and worsened in others). Land-use intensity in the eastern portion of the play was consistently lower than that in the western portion, while core alteration remained relatively constant east to west. Land alteration from pipeline construction was 65 km2 for all time periods, except in 2010 when alteration was recorded at 47 km2. Percent of total alteration from well-pad construction increased from 27.3% in 2008 to 71.5% in 2014. The average number of wells per pad across all 27 counties increased from 1.15 to 1.7. This study presents a framework for mapping landscape alteration from oil and gas infrastructure development. However, the framework could be applied to other energy development programs, such as wind or solar fields, or any other regional infrastructure development program.

  3. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: understanding observations of large-scale outflows at low redshift with EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tescari, E.; Cortese, L.; Power, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Ho, I.-T.; Crain, R. A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Kewley, L. J.; Schaye, J.; Bower, R. G.; Theuns, T.; Schaller, M.; Barnes, L.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J. J.; Goodwin, M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leslie, S. K.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; Medling, A. M.; Richards, S. N.; Sweet, S. M.; Tonini, C.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a study of galactic outflows driven by stellar feedback. We extract main-sequence disc galaxies with stellar mass 109 ≤ M⋆/ M⊙ ≤ 5.7 × 1010 at redshift z = 0 from the highest resolution cosmological simulation of the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) set. Synthetic gas rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (σ) maps are created and compared to observations of disc galaxies obtained with the Sydney-AAO (Australian Astronomical Observatory) Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI), where σ-values greater than 150 km s-1 are most naturally explained by bipolar outflows powered by starburst activity. We find that the extension of the simulated edge-on (pixelated) velocity dispersion probability distribution depends on stellar mass and star formation rate surface density (ΣSFR), with low-M⋆/low-ΣSFR galaxies showing a narrow peak at low σ (∼30 km s-1) and more active, high-M⋆/high-ΣSFR galaxies reaching σ > 150 km s-1. Although supernova-driven galactic winds in the EAGLE simulations may not entrain enough gas with T <105 K compared to observed galaxies, we find that gas temperature is a good proxy for the presence of outflows. There is a direct correlation between the thermal state of the gas and its state of motion as described by the σ-distribution. The following equivalence relations hold in EAGLE: (i) low-σ peak ⇔ disc of the galaxy ⇔ gas with T <105 K; (ii) high-σ tail ⇔ galactic winds ⇔ gas with T ≥105 K.

  4. Use of multiple modes of flight subsidy by a soaring terrestrial bird, the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos, when on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Turk, Philip J; Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael J; Cooper, Jeff L; Brandes, David; Tremblay, Junior A; Lemaître, Jérôme

    2015-11-06

    Large birds regularly use updrafts to subsidize flight. Although most research on soaring bird flight has focused on use of thermal updrafts, there is evidence suggesting that many species are likely to use multiple modes of subsidy. We tested the degree to which a large soaring species uses multiple modes of subsidy to provide insights into the decision-making that underlies flight behaviour. We statistically classified more than 22 000 global positioning satellite-global system for mobile communications telemetry points collected at 30-s intervals to identify the type of subsidized flight used by 32 migrating golden eagles during spring in eastern North America. Eagles used subsidized flight on 87% of their journey. They spent 41.9% ± 1.5 ([Formula: see text], range: 18-56%) of their subsidized northbound migration using thermal soaring, 45.2% ± 2.1 (12-65%) of time gliding between thermals, and 12.9% ± 2.2 (1-55%) of time using orographic updrafts. Golden eagles responded to the variable local-scale meteorological events they encountered by switching flight behaviour to take advantage of multiple modes of subsidy. Orographic soaring occurred more frequently in morning and evening, earlier in the migration season, and when crosswinds and tail winds were greatest. Switching between flight modes allowed migration for relatively longer periods each day and frequent switching behaviour has implications for a better understanding of avian flight behaviour and of the evolution of use of subsidy in flight. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Integrating stimulation practices with geo-mechanical properties in liquid-rich plays of Eagle Ford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Ahmed

    Many of the techniques for hydraulically fracturing design were attempted in the liquid-rich Eagle Ford developments. This study shows why different results were observed due to the variation of geomechanical stresses of the rock across a play and related reservoir properties. An optimum treatment for a liquids-rich objective is much different than that for a gas shale due primarily to the multiphase flow and higher viscosities encountered. This study presents a new treatment workflow for liquids-rich window of Eagle Ford Shale. Review and integration of data from multiple sets across the play are used as input to a 3D hydraulic fracture simulator to model key fracture parameters which control production enhancement. These results are then used within a production analysis and forecast, well optimization, and economic model to compare treatment designs with the best placement of proppant to deliver both high initial production and long term ultimate recoveries. A key focus for this workflow is to maximize proppant transport to achieve a continuous - optimum conductive - fracture half length. Often, due to the complexity of unconventional deposition, it is difficult to maintain complete connectivity of a proppant pack back to the wellbore. As a result, much of the potential of the fracture network is lost. Understanding the interaction of a hydraulic fracture and the rock fabric helps with designing this behavior to achieve the best results. These results are used to determine optimum well spacing to effectively develop within a selected reservoir acreage. Currently, numerous wells exist with over two years of production history in much of the Eagle Ford shale formation. Results from this study are used to compare values from field production to demonstrate the importance of employing a diligent workflow in integrating reservoir and operational parameters to the fracture design. A proper understanding and application of hydraulic fracturing modeling is achieved

  6. Perch height and the hunting success of the Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis (Franklin (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae targeting anuran prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into the predation of a pair of Indian Eagle Owls on anurans disclosed the fact that the greatest success (52.17% was when the owls pounced from a height of less than 2m and the lowest (12.5% was from a height of 5–6 m.  No success was recorded when the owls pounced from over a height of 6m or when they tried wading in water to catch their prey.  Overall, 146 pounces were observed and the strike success was 28.7%. 

  7. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie New

    Full Text Available Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1 in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4; 80th

  8. PENGUKURAN KINERJA KEUANGAN DENGAN METODE EAGLES (Studi Kasus Pada Bank BUMN Yang Listing Di BEI Tahun 2011 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinerja keuangan bank biasanya diukur dengan indikator kecukupan modal, likuiditas dan profitabilitas bank. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis EAGLES, untuk mengukur dan membandingkan kinerja bank secara lebih tepat, obyektif dan konsisten. Populasi yang digunakan adalah semua bank BUMN yang listing di BEI tahun 2011-2013. Hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa kinerja keuangan bank BUMN ditinjau dari rasio ROA (Return On Asset, Asset Quality, DGR (Deposite Growth Rate, CCR (Core Capital Ratio, SRQ by Out Interest, menunjukan nilai normal. Sedangkan bank BUMN ditinjau dari aspek, ROE (Return On Equity , LGR (loan growth rate, liquidity, CAR (capital adequacy ratio SRQ by Personalia, menunjukan kinerja keuangan yang kurang baik.

  9. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C; Runge, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  10. Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The objectives of this framework are to facilitate the study design and execution to test the effectiveness of bat and eagle impact-reduction strategies at wind energy sites. Through scientific field research, the wind industry and its partners can help determine if certain strategies are ready for operational deployment or require further development. This framework should be considered a living document to be improved upon as fatality-reduction technologies advance from the initial concepts to proven readiness (through project- and technology-specific testing) and as scientific field methods improve.

  11. Changes in baseflow patterns in water-limited shale oil and gas regions: the Eagle Ford play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, S.; Brena-Naranjo, J. A.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying and analyzing the contribution of groundwater from shallow aquifers to rivers as baseflow is very important for water supply and riverine ecosystem health, especially in water-limited catchments. Baseflow depends on the water available (precipitation), vegetation (land use, water use), aquifer properties and water-table depth. In this context, human activities such as groundwater abstraction for multiple purposes can alter the relationship between aquifer storage and baseflow. In this study, we analyzed observed changes in baseflow patterns of 40 catchments located across the Eagle Ford shale gas/oil play (Texas) during the period 1986-2015. The Eagle Ford sedimentary formation is actually the largest shale oil producing region in the US with large production in shale gas. Intensive unconventional resources extraction in the Eagle Ford play started in 2009 and gas/oil production increased faster than in other plays, accompanied by a rise in groundwater consumption for HF purposes. Spatial and temporal impacts on baseflow at the Eagle Ford play derived from HF were assessed by means of different patterns such as baseflow hydrograph separation, flow-duration curves, empirical storage-discharge relationships and streamflow recession curve analysis. A comparison during different periods of water use for HF activities was performed: pre-development period (1986-2000); moderate period (2001-2008); and intensive period (2009-2015). The pre-development period was considered as a baseline and catchments located inside and outside the play area were separately analyzed. The results show negative changes on baseflow patterns during the intensive HF period that were not observed during the moderate period, especially in catchments located inside the play. These changes were also characterized by a decline on mean annual baseflow volume and shorter hydrograph recession times, that led to a shift in the streamflow regime in some catchments from perennial to

  12. Results of the monitoring of the Steppe Eagle population in Trans-Baikal Territory (Zabaikalsky Kray in 2015, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Barashkova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ornithological survey was carried out in July–August 2015 in steppe areas of Russian part of Dauria (Trans-Baikal Territory, or Zabaikalsky Krai in the frames of monitoring the population of the Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis. Research was conducted at 13 study sites in 10 administrative districts of the region, including 11 study sites which were surveyed repeatedly (after first survey in 2010. A total of 57 nesting territories with 95 nest structures were identified in 2010 and 2015 together. Additionally adult birds were recorded in 24 points but nests were not found. In 2015 we checked 35 of 40 nesting territories that were identified in 2010 while other 35 nesting territories (including 17 ones with nest structures are localized for the first time. A total of 27 nestlings and fledglings (1.4±0.5 nestlings and fledglings produced per successful nest in 19 nests were recorded during the 2015 survey. In 2010, the status of Steppe Eagle in Dauria was assessed as extremely unfavorable. The main population characteristics had not essentially changed to 2015. Actual average nesting density slightly increased but still is close to 1 pair per 100 km2. An average distance between neighbor active nests in Dauria is unexpectedly long as comparing with such figures in other regions of the Steppe Eagle nesting. More than a half of potentially available nesting territories remain unoccupied, and the share of unoccupied nesting territories almost did not change. The productivity of successful nests (average brood size remains low – on average 1.4±0.5 fledglings and nestlings per successful nest in 2015. The negative factors such as power lines that are dangerous for birds and steppe wild fires are still acting. More than 40 % of all the nesting territories were affected by fires in 2015; the nest structures were completely burnt at 17% of the known nesting territories visited in 2015. Meanwhile the following positive trends can be noted: the

  13. Nesting of the Blakiston's Fish-Owl in the Nest of the Steller’s Sea Eagle, Magadan Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina G. Utekhina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 one Steller’s Sea Eagle nest was occupied by a Blakiston’s Fish Owl, the first record of which came from the Nature Reserve Inspector, E.A. Stepanov, who, on May 17, noted the pair of fish owls near a Steller’s Sea Eagle nest on the western bank of the Chelomdja River, 3 km downstream from the Moldot ranger’s station. On that date one of the owls was sitting in the nest, and another was sitting in a tree nearby the nest. On May 26, E. Stepanov observed the owls in the same position. We observed the nest on 20 and 21 June 2015, and saw one large Blakiston’s Fish Owl chick in the nest; no adults were noted. Inspector A. Stepanov saw the chick in the nest on June 23, and an adult in a nearby.  Magadan State Reserve Inspector A. Akhanov reported that the nest was empty and no adults were seen on June 25.

  14. Integrated ground-based hyperspectral imaging and geochemical study of the Eagle Ford Group in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Khan, Shuhab; Godet, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral imaging to map an outcrop of the Eagle Ford Group in west Texas. The Eagle Ford Group consists of alternating layers of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and volcanic ash deposits with high total organic content deposited during the Cenomanian - Turonian time period. It is one of the few unconventional source rock and reservoirs that have surface representations. Ground-based hyperspectral imaging scanned an outcrop and hand samples at close ranges with very fine spatial resolution (centimeter to sub-millimeter). Spectral absorption modeling of clay minerals and calcite with the modified Gaussian model (MGM) allowed quantification of variations of mineral abundances. Petrographic analysis confirmed mineral identifications and shed light on sedimentary textures, and major element geochemistry supported the mineral quantification. Mineral quantification resulted in mapping of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and bentonites (volcanic ash beds). The lack of spatial associations between the grainstones and bentonites on the outcrop calls into question the hypothesis that the primary productivity is controlled by iron availability from volcanic ash beds. Enrichment of molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) indicated "unrestricted marine" paleo-hydrogeology and anoxic to euxinic paleo-redox bottom water conditions. Hyperspectral remote sensing data also helped in creating a virtual outcrop model with detailed mineralogical compositions, and provided reservoir analog to extract compositional and geo-mechanical characteristics and variations. The utilization of these new techniques in geo-statistical analysis provides a workflow for employing remote sensing in resource exploration and exploitation.

  15. Captive propagation of bald eagles at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and introductions into the wild, 1976-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1981-01-01

    One to 5 pairs of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were in the captive propagation project at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center during 1976-80. Four pairs produced viable eggs or young by natural mating in one or more years. Pairs laid second clutches 9 of 11 times when their first clutches were collected within 8 days of clutch completion. Sixty-nine percent of fertile artificially incubated eggs hatched; 93% of fertile parent-incubated eggs hatched. Eleven eaglets from artificially incubated eggs were hand reared. Age of birds at the time they were acquired from the wild was not a factor in their reproductive success. Ten hand-reared and 2 parent-reared young were fostered to adult Bald Eagles at active wild nests; 11 were accepted and survived. Eleven parent-reared young were provided to hacking projects. Egg transplants to wild nests were conducted, but discontinued because of poor success. Double clutching of captive pairs has not resulted in substantially increased numbers of eaglets. Additional research is needed in artificial incubation, artificial insemination, and nutrition and care of hand-reared eaglets.

  16. Feather content of porphyrins in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings depends on body condition and breeding site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Del Mar Delgado, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Lourenço, Rui; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2018-02-13

    Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found two porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III) in the body feathers of 19 eagle owl fledglings from seven breeding territories. Coproporphyrin III, but not protoporphyrin IX feather concentration, was positively associated with the body mass of fledglings and with the quality of the breeding sites where they were reared with respect to food quality and availability. As coproporphyrin III is produced under oxidative stress, we suggest that good breeding sites may lead to fledglings in good condition. This in turn may make fledglings induce certain level of free radical and coproporphyrin III production to signal to conspecifics their site-mediated capacity to cope with oxidative stress. This is the first time that porphyrin content in the integument has been found to be related to individual quality, opening a new scenario for studying evolution of animal coloration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential habitat of Javan Hawk-Eagle based on multi-scale approach and its implication for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfatimah, C.; Syartinilia; Mulyani, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia the Javan Hawk-Eagle has been designated as one of the 25 top priority protected species to be increased by 10% of current population number. Lack of suitable habitat is most likely the reason for the decline of the species in landscapes subject to major human modification. Central part of Java Island has suffered the most severe forest damage and fragmentation compared to the western part and eastern part of the island. This study presents the number of predicted suitable habitats for Javan Hawk-Eagle in the central part of Java Island based on habitat probability model. Multi-scale approach was being used to determine the accuracy level of patches reading between different image resolutions. 38 patches were detected at 30 m2, 28 patches at 90 m2, and 19 patches were detected at 250 m2 images resolutions. Higher reading implied more landscape structures within different regions should be considered during management of habitat conservation. Therefore, larger scale of conservation management application should be conducted as well.

  18. Estimating updraft velocity components over large spatial scales: contrasting migration strategies of golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Brandes, David; Mandel, James T; Bildstein, Keith L; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Katzner, Todd; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior A

    2012-02-01

    Soaring birds migrate in massive numbers worldwide. These migrations are complex and dynamic phenomena, strongly influenced by meteorological conditions that produce thermal and orographic uplift as the birds traverse the landscape. Herein we report on how methods were developed to estimate the strength of thermal and orographic uplift using publicly available digital weather and topography datasets at continental scale. We apply these methods to contrast flight strategies of two morphologically similar but behaviourally different species: golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, and turkey vulture, Cathartes aura, during autumn migration across eastern North America tracked using GPS tags. We show that turkey vultures nearly exclusively used thermal lift, whereas golden eagles primarily use orographic lift during migration. It has not been shown previously that migration tracks are affected by species-specific specialisation to a particular uplift mode. The methods introduced herein to estimate uplift components and test for differences in weather use can be applied to study movement of any soaring species. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Hydraulic Fracturing and Production Optimization in Eagle Ford Shale Using Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize

  20. Warrior Model for Human Performance and Injury Prevention: Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP) Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Crawford, Kim; Lovalekar, Mita; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer B; Smalley, Brain W; McGrail, Mark A; Rowe, Russell S; Cardin, Sylvain; Lephart, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Physical training for United States military personnel requires a combination of injury prevention and performance optimization to counter unintentional musculoskeletal injuries and maximize warrior capabilities. Determining the most effective activities and tasks to meet these goals requires a systematic, research-based approach that is population specific based on the tasks and demands of the warrior. We have modified the traditional approach to injury prevention to implement a comprehensive injury prevention and performance optimization research program with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) at Ft. Campbell, KY. This is Part I of two papers that presents the research conducted during the first three steps of the program and includes Injury Surveillance, Task and Demand Analysis, and Predictors of Injury and Optimal Performance. Injury surveillance based on a self-report of injuries was collected on all Soldiers participating in the study. Field-based analyses of the tasks and demands of Soldiers performing typical tasks of 101st Soldiers were performed to develop 101st-specific laboratory testing and to assist with the design of the intervention (Eagle Tactical Athlete Program (ETAP)). Laboratory testing of musculoskeletal, biomechanical, physiological, and nutritional characteristics was performed on Soldiers and benchmarked to triathletes to determine predictors of injury and optimal performance and to assist with the design of ETAP. Injury surveillance demonstrated that Soldiers of the 101st are at risk for a wide range of preventable unintentional musculoskeletal injuries during physical training, tactical training, and recreational/sports activities. The field-based analyses provided quantitative data and qualitative information essential to guiding 101st specific laboratory testing and intervention design. Overall the laboratory testing revealed that Soldiers of the 101st would benefit from targeted physical training to meet the specific demands of

  1. An example of an interspecific chick rearing in Birds of Prey: the Marsh Harrier grown by the Greater Spotted Eagle in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We visited a breeding territory of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga in Zavyalivskiy Wildlife Preserve of Altai Region on the 1st August, 2014. In the nest, located in a pine tree, we found a fledgling of the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus and a nestling of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the first juvenile plumage. When we approached the nest, the female GSE flew off, followed by the fledgling of the Harrier, who uttered food-begging calls, but soon returned to the nest. The present situation possibly emerged after the adult eagle caught a nestling of the harrier but failed to kill it. Judging by prey remains near the nest, another nestling of the Marsh Harrier was eaten at the age of 25 days. But the second one survived and begun to call for food. The maternal instinct of the female Greater Spotted Eagle would have prevented her from killing the harrier, instead prompting her to feed it.

  2. Bald Eagle Nestling Mortality Associated with Argas radiatus and Argas ricei Tick Infestation and Successful Management with Nest Removal in Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne; Orr, Kathy; Schuler, Krysten; McCarty, Kyle; Jacobson, Kenneth; Meteyer, Carol

    2016-10-01

    Eight Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) nestlings heavily infested with larval ticks were found in or under a nest near the confluence of the Verde and Salt rivers in Arizona in 2009-11. The 8-12-wk-old nestlings were slow to respond to stimuli and exhibited generalized muscle weakness or paresis of the pelvic limbs. Numerous cutaneous and subcutaneous hemorrhages were associated with sites of tick attachment. Ticks were identified as Argas radiatus and Argas ricei. Treatment with acaricides and infection with West Nile virus (WNV) may have confounded the clinical presentation in 2009 and 2010. However, WNV-negative birds exhibited similar signs in 2011. One nestling recovered from paresis within 36 h after the removal of all adult and larval ticks (>350) and was released within 3 wk. The signs present in the heavily infested Bald Eagle nestlings resembled signs associated with tick paralysis, a neurotoxin-mediated paralytic syndrome described in mammals, reptiles, and wild birds (though not eagles). Removal of the infested nest and construction of a nest platform in a different tree was necessary to break the cycle of infection. The original nesting pair constructed a new nest on the man-made platform and successfully fledged two Bald Eagles in 2012.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SNOWFALL ON BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF FREE-FLYING BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Ronald A; Reichart, Letitia M; Mandernack, Brett A; Solensky, Matthew; Schoenebeck, Casey W; Redig, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002. Individual BLL ranged from nondetectable to 335 μg/dL, with 73% of the samples testing positive for acute exposure to lead. Eagle BLL did not significantly differ between age or sex, but levels were higher immediately following the hunting season, and they were lower when the previous month's snowfall was greater than 11 cm. This study suggests a window of time between the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting season and the onset of snow when the population experienced peak exposure to lead. Combining these findings with existing research, we offer a narrative of the annual lead exposure cycle of Upper Mississippi River Valley Bald Eagles. These temporal associations are necessary considerations for accurate collection and interpretation of BLL.

  4. Conservation of the endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924 (Aves: Falconiformes): density, age-structure and population numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, van S. (Bas); Nijman, Vincent; Sözer, Resit

    2001-01-01

    The endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is considered threatened with extinction because of its small population size and fragmentation of its habitat on the densely populated island of Java, Indonesia. Like many other tropical forest raptors little is known about many of its population

  5. Conservation of the endemic Javan Hawk-eagle Soizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924 (Aves: Falconiformes): density, age-structure and population numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balen, van S.

    2001-01-01

    The endemic Javan hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is considered threatened with extinction because of its small population size and fragmentation of its habitat on the densely populated island of Java, Indonesia. Like many other tropical forest raptors little is known about many of its population

  6. Persistent organic pollutants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different tissues of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, V L B; Sonne, C; Soler-Rodriguez, F

    2013-01-01

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (e.g. dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), in six matrices (muscle, liver, kidney, adipose, blood, preen oil) of 17 white-tailed eagles from We...

  7. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3)--Animals 2; Geoboards 2; Transportation; Groups 2; Dinosaurs 2; and Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkoski, Kay

    Six thematic activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented primary-level children. "Animals 2" teaches the concept that animals have a variety of characteristics and attributes, by having students choose an animal, think of a problem the animal might have to solve, picking…

  8. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3)--Animals 3; Magnets; Sight; Geoboards 3; Dinosaurs 3; and Groups 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkoski, Kay

    Six thematic activity booklets are presented for implementing Project EAGLE, an enrichment program for gifted and talented primary-level children. "Animals 3" introduces endangered animals and locates their home areas on maps or globes, using nine learning activities involving science and creative writing. "Magnets" discusses…

  9. The effect of kleptoparasitic bald eagles and gyrfalcons on the kill rate of peregrine falcons hunting dunlins wintering in British Columbia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, T.J.; Out, M.; Tabak, M.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism in birds has been the subject of much research, and the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a known kleptoparasite. It has been reported to pirate ducks captured by Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus), but ours is the first study to examine the effect of kleptoparasitic Bald

  10. Recent switch by the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini) in the Pacific northwest to associative nesting with Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) to gain predator protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, I.M.; Butler, R.W.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias fannini Chapman, 1901) in the Pacific northwest appears to have modified nesting behaviour in response to the strong recent recovery of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus (L., 1766)) population. Previously undescribed, herons now often nest in close

  11. Predicting spatial patterns of eagle migration using a mesoscale atmospheric model: a case study associated with a mountain-ridge wind development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, B; Alexander, N; Johnston, N; Bradley, J; Pomeroy, A C; Jackson, P L; Otter, K A

    2014-01-01

    High resolution numerical atmospheric modeling around a mountain ridge in Northeastern British Columbia (BC), Canada was performed in order to examine the influence of meteorology and topography on Golden Eagle migration pathways at the meso-scale (tens of km). During three eagle fall migration periods (2007-2009), local meteorological conditions on the day of peak bird counts were modeled using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. Hourly local surface wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure and relative humidity were also monitored during these migration periods. Eagle migration flight paths were observed from the ground and converted to three-dimensional tracks using ArcGIS. The observed eagle migration flight paths were compared with the modeled vertical velocity wind fields. Flight tracks across the study area were also simulated using the modeled vertical velocity field in a migration model based on a fluid-flow analogy. It was found that both the large-scale weather conditions and the horizontal wind fields across the study area were broadly similar on each of the modeled migration days. Nonetheless, the location and density of flight tracks across the domain varied between days, with the 2007 event producing more tracks to the southwest of the observation location than the other 2 days. The modeled wind fields suggest that it is not possible for the eagles to traverse the study area without leaving updraft regions, but birds do converge on the locations of updrafts as they move through the area. Statistical associations between observed eagles positions and the vertical velocity field suggest that to the northwest (and to a lesser extent the southwest) of the main study ridge (Johnson col), eagles can always find updrafts but that they must pass through downdraft regions in the NE and SE as they make their way across the study area. Finally, the simulated flight tracks based on the fluid-flow model and the vertical

  12. The Legal Status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle in Spain and Thoughts on Environmental Law and Policy as Contributing Factors in the Conservation of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila Adalberti, with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of applicable international, European and Spanish laws and policies is given, and the role played by these instruments is considered together with successes attained with diverse conservation goals in respect of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. The exceptionally comprehensive character of the legal protection of the Spanish Imperial Eagle is highlighted, in conjunction with some extra-legal factors that have contributed to successful outcomes. While quantification of the role of the law in the conservation of a species remains elusive, it is probably safe to conclude that environmental law and policy have played a vital and central role in the improvement of the conservation status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. It is submitted that the conservation interventions on behalf of the Spanish Imperial Eagle show that concerted legal and other conservation interventions can effectively halt and reverse the decline of an endangered species. However, such interventions are onerous and expensive and ideally, effective conservation measures should be in place before populations have declined to a critical level. Birds of prey face similar threats in South Africa and Spain, and a number of South African raptor species will soon be classified as endangered. While South African biodiversity laws and policy are similar to the European and Spanish laws in general import and methodology, the South African laws and policy are more restricted in scope, less detailed and less prescriptive. When comparing the use of Spanish and South African legislation in the conservation of birds of prey, sight must not be lost of the varying conservation needs

  13. Applying citizen-science data and mark-recapture models to estimate numbers of migrant golden eagles in an important bird area in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Andrew J.; Duerr, Adam E.; Brandes, David; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of population abundance are important to wildlife management and conservation. However, it can be difficult to characterize the numbers of broadly distributed, low-density, and elusive bird species. Although Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare, difficult to detect, and broadly distributed, they are concentrated during their autumn migration at monitoring sites in eastern North America. We used hawk-count data collected by citizen scientists in a virtual mark–recapture modeling analysis to estimate the numbers of Golden Eagles that migrate in autumn along Kittatinny Ridge, an Important Bird Area in Pennsylvania, USA. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of our abundance estimates to variation in eagle capture histories, we applied candidate models to 8 different sets of capture histories, constructed with or without age-class information and using known mean flight speeds 6 1, 2, 4, or 6 SE for eagles to travel between hawk-count sites. Although some abundance estimates were produced by models that poorly fitted the data (ĉ > 3.0), 2 sets of population estimates were produced by acceptably performing models (cˆ less than or equal to 3.0). Application of these models to count data from November, 2002–2011, suggested a mean population abundance of 1,354 6 117 SE (range: 873–1,938). We found that Golden Eagles left the ridgeline at different rates and in different places along the route, and that typically ,50% of individuals were detected at the hawk-count sites. Our study demonstrates a useful technique for estimating population abundance that may be applicable to other migrant species that are repeatedly detected at multiple monitoring sites along a topographic diversion or leading line.

  14. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Eurasian eagle owls (Bubo bubo) in three different scenarios of heavy metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Silvia; Martínez-López, Emma; León-Ortega, Mario; Martínez, José Enrique; García-Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the present study is the assessment of oxidative stress related to metals in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) from three areas (agricultural and rural area, industrial area, and mining area) of Murcia, Southern Spain. Mean blood metal concentrations were Cd=0.07±0.21, Pb=3.27±5.21, Cu=10.62±4.77, Zn=311.47±67.14, Hg=2.32±3.83 μg/dl wet weight. Although individuals from the mining area had significant higher Pb and Hg concentrations, and significant lower glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in red blood cells (RBC); the lack of differences in oxidative damage to membrane lipids (TBARS) among areas suggests that the antioxidant capacity of the different populations is able to deal with oxidant species and maintain TBARS levels in the same amount. Despite the low levels of metals, several oxidative stress biomarkers were correlated with metal concentrations. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals cause effects on the antioxidant system in Eagle owls. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.3 μg/dl produced an inhibition in GPx (32%) and CAT (26%) activity in RBC. However, Cd concentrations higher than 0.02 μg/dl were enough to produce an inhibition of these enzymes. Regarding Pb levels, blood concentrations above 2 μg/dl produced an inhibition of 8% and 10.5% in GPx and CAT activities, respectively, in RBC. A depletion of 16% and 4% in tGSH levels was associated with Pb concentrations higher than 15 and 3 μg/dl, respectively, in individuals from the ancient mine site. In addition, Pb concentrations above 2 and 10 μg/dl produced a TBARS induction of 10% and 28%, respectively, in individuals from both the industrial and the mining area. Finally, Hg concentrations greater than 3 and 10 μg/dl resulted in a TBARS induction of 102% and 190%, respectively, in Eurasian eagle owls from the industrial area. Our findings show that Pb may produce effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in Strigiformes at

  15. Abstracts of contributions presented in the VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutschová Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca was held on October 2-5, 201 3 in Barónka hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia and it was organised by Raptor Protection of Slovakia (RPS in cooperation with the Czech Society for Ornithology and MME/BirdLife Hungary, under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment, supported by the International Visegrad Fund. Results of 43 experts from ten countries, including three countries of Visegrad region (Slovakia, Czech Republic and Hungary were presented in 20 presentations and five posters. Six contributions are published in Slovak Raptor Journal volume 8, issue 1 (2014 as full papers, further twelve contributions are published here as conference abstracts.

  16. Adaptive Capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle in Power Lines Exploration for Nesting Purposes in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinur H. Bekmansurov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents information on the eastern imperial eagle nesting on electricity pylons in the Republic of Tatarstan (area of 67836.2 km2 on the eastern part of East-European (Russian Plain, where the habitat of this species, marked in GIS (ArcView 3.2a, is 49 thousand km2. During the research in 2011–2015 5 nests were found on steel electricity pylons, which sustains 3.25% from the whole amount of nesting areas (n=154. Rather local disposition of all found cases of nests on electricity pylons in Eastern Zakamye (High Zavolzhye limited by one landscape subzone – typical and southern forest-steppe, and in only two landscape regions with adjacent borders – indicates some general conditions which caused the adaptation.  Distance between nests on power lines in the Republic of Tatarstan ranged from 21.5 to 49.9 km, averaging 29.5±13.64 km (n=5. As this territory lacks interspecific competition, the main reason of nesting on electricity pylons is probably the reduction of distance to forage resources in conditions of intraspecific competition in the densest nesting group. Adaptive capabilities of the Eastern Imperial Eagle are connected with their ability to occupy nests of other birds, high tolerance to human influence, and with the high density of the power lines and low density of long-boled forests. It’s reported that the imperial eagles’ adaptation to living in environment with dense power line network continues, which expresses in increase of the nesting on electricity pylons.

  17. Productivity, embryo and eggshell characteristics, and contaminants in bald eagles from the Great Lakes, USA, 1986 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, David A.; Elliott, Kyle; Bowerman, William; Shieldcastle, Mark C.; Postupalsky, Sergej; Kubiak, Timothy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Elliott, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in eggs of fish-eating birds from contaminated environments such as the Great Lakes of North America tend to be highly intercorrelated, making it difficult to elucidate mechanisms causing reproductive impairment, and to ascribe cause to specific chemicals. An information- theoretic approach was used on data from 197 salvaged bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs (159 clutches) that failed to hatch in Michigan and Ohio, USA (1986–2000). Contaminant levels declined over time while eggshell thickness increased, and by 2000 was at pre-1946 levels. The number of occupied territories and productivity increased during 1981 to 2004. For both the entire dataset and a subset of nests along the Great Lakes shoreline, polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, fresh wet wt) were generally included in the most parsimonious models (lowest-Akaike's information criterion [AICs]) describing productivity, with significant declines in productivity observed above 26 µg/g ΣPCBs (fresh wet wt). Of 73 eggs with a visible embryo, eight (11%) were abnormal, including three with skewed bills, but they were not associated with known teratogens, including ΣPCBs. Eggs with visible embryos had greater concentrations of all measured contaminants than eggs without visible embryos; the most parsimonious models describing the presence of visible embryos incorporated dieldrin equivalents and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). There were significant negative correlations between eggshell thickness and all contaminants, with ΣPCBs included in the most parsimonious models. There were, however, no relationships between productivity and eggshell thickness or Ratcliffe's index. The ΣPCBs and DDE were negatively associated with nest success of bald eagles in the Great Lakes watersheds, but the mechanism does not appear to be via shell quality effects, at least at current contaminant levels, while it is not clear what other mechanisms were involved.

  18. Susan G. Komen for the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de sus senos:Consejos útiles para mujeres El Cancer de Mama y el Medio Ambiente: Preguntas y Respuestas Guía de herramientas de educación sobre el cancer de seno para comunidades hispanas/Latinas About Us ...

  19. Entretien avec Susan Holtz | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au seuil du prochain millénaire, le développement planétaire durable pose des défis complexes et d'envergure. Partout dans le monde, on cherche à relever ces défis en intégrant les politiques environnementales, sociales et économiques.

  20. Bald eagle nesting and reproductive success along the Pacific Coast of the Alaska Peninsula/Becharof National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Kubugakli to Cape Kunmik, 10 May - 25 July 1989, Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting success was examined along the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula, from Cape Kubugakli to Cape Kunmik, during the...

  1. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  2. Why do some institutional arrangements succeed? Voluntary protection of forest biodiversity in Southwestern Finland and of the Golden Eagle in Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hiedanpää

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite global, regional, and national policy efforts, biodiversity is on the decline worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to explore the critically important institutional and social features of those economic instruments that in practice motivate beneficiaries and stakeholders to protect biodiversity. The paper presents two case studies: the natural values trading (NVT scheme in southwestern Finland and the protection of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in Finnish Lapland. NVT builds upon the voluntary actions of landowners, payments for ecosystem services, and a fixed-term period of protection (ten years. The protection of the golden eagle is based on tolerance payments. This paper combines legal studies and institutional economics to abduct the reasons underlying the success of both cases. In both cases, institutional entrepreneurship promoted the confidence of stakeholders and beneficiaries in the schemes and the consequent trust amongst the agents encouraged the actors to modify their behaviour.

  3. Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the rpo147 and DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alexa A; Leone, Angelique M; Toplon, David E; Archer, Linda L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-12-01

    A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were done to amplify and sequence DNA polymerase and rpo147 genes. The 4b gene was also analyzed by a previously developed assay. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences found it to be poxvirus of the genus Avipoxvirus and clustered with other raptor isolates. Better phylogenetic resolution was found in rpo147 rather than the commonly used DNA polymerase. The novel consensus rpo147 PCR assay will create more accurate phylogenic trees and allow better insight into poxvirus history.

  4. Optical colours and spectral indices of z = 0.1 eagle galaxies with the 3D dust radiative transfer code skirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, James W.; Camps, Peter; Theuns, Tom; Baes, Maarten; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2017-09-01

    We present mock optical images, broad-band and H α fluxes, and D4000 spectral indices for 30 145 galaxies from the eagle hydrodynamical simulation at redshift z = 0.1, modelling dust with the skirt Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The modelling includes a subgrid prescription for dusty star-forming regions, with both the subgrid obscuration of these regions and the fraction of metals in diffuse interstellar dust calibrated against far-infrared fluxes of local galaxies. The predicted optical colours as a function of stellar mass agree well with observation, with the skirt model showing marked improvement over a simple dust-screen model. The orientation dependence of attenuation is weaker than observed because eagle galaxies are generally puffier than real galaxies, due to the pressure floor imposed on the interstellar medium (ISM). The mock H α luminosity function agrees reasonably well with the data, and we quantify the extent to which dust obscuration affects observed H α fluxes. The distribution of D4000 break values is bimodal, as observed. In the simulation, 20 per cent of galaxies deemed 'passive' for the skirt model, i.e. exhibiting D4000 >1.8, are classified 'active' when ISM dust attenuation is not included. The fraction of galaxies with stellar mass greater than 1010 M⊙ that are deemed passive is slightly smaller than observed, which is due to low levels of residual star formation in these simulated galaxies. Colour images, fluxes and spectra of eagle galaxies are to be made available through the public eagle data base.

  5. Collision risk in white-tailed eagles. Modelling kernel-based collision risk using satellite telemetry data in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Roel; Nygaard, Torgeir; Dahl, Espen Lie; Reitan, Ole; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-05-15

    Large soaring birds of prey, such as the white-tailed eagle, are recognized to be perhaps the most vulnerable bird group regarding risk of collisions with turbines in wind-power plants. Their mortalities have called for methods capable of modelling collision risks in connection with the planning of new wind-power developments. The so-called 'Band model' estimates collision risk based on the number of birds flying through the rotor swept zone and the probability of being hit by the passing rotor blades. In the calculations for the expected collision mortality a correction factor for avoidance behaviour is included. The overarching objective of this study was to use satellite telemetry data and recorded mortality to back-calculate the correction factor for white-tailed eagles. The Smoela wind-power plant consists of 68 turbines, over an area of approximately 18 km2. Since autumn 2006 the number of collisions has been recorded on a weekly basis. The analyses were based on satellite telemetry data from 28 white-tailed eagles equipped with backpack transmitters since 2005. The correction factor (i.e. 'avoidance rate') including uncertainty levels used within the Band collision risk model for white-tailed eagles was 99% (94-100%) for spring and 100% for the other seasons. The year-round estimate, irrespective of season, was 98% (95-99%). Although the year-round estimate was similar, the correction factor for spring was higher than the correction factor of 95% derived earlier from vantage point data. The satellite telemetry data may provide an alternative way to provide insight into relative risk among seasons, and help identify periods or areas with increased risk either in a pre- or post construction situation. (Author)

  6. Distribution, nesting activities, and age-class of territorial pairs of golden eagles at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Patrick S.; Wiens, J. David

    2017-03-22

    The substantial numbers of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed by collisions with oldgeneration wind turbines each year at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California has been well documented from previous studies. Few eagle nests have been documented in the APWRA, however, and adults and subadults 3+ years of age killed by turbines were generally not associated with nearby territories. We searched a subset of randomly selected survey plots for territorial pairs of golden eagles and associated nesting attempts within the APWRA as part of a broader investigation of population dynamics in the surrounding northern Diablo Range. In contrast to limited historical observations from 1988 to 2013, our surveys documented up to 15 territorial pairs within 3.2 kilometers (km) of wind turbines at the APWRA annually, 9 of which were not previously documented or only observed intermittently during historical surveys. We found evidence of nesting activity by adult pairs at least once during our study at six of these territories. We also determined that 23–36 percent of territories identified within 3.2 km of the APWRA had a subadult pair member, but that no pairs with a subadult member attempted to nest. These data will be useful to developers, wildlife managers, and future raptor studies in the area to evaluate and minimize the potential effects of wind energy or other development activities on previously unknown territorial pairs in the area.

  7. Use of whole blood lymphocyte stimulation test for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redig, P T; Dunnette, J L; Sivanandan, V

    1984-11-01

    Mitogen-induced whole blood lymphocyte stimulation tests for immunocompetency studies in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were developed. Combinations of incubation times, blood dilutions, concentrations of [3H]thymidine and [125I]2-deoxyuridine, antibiotics, phytohemagglutinin-P, and concanavalin A were tested for their effects on the stimulation index (SI). An antibiotic combination of gentamicin plus amphotericin B yielded low SI with lymphocytes from bald eagles, but not with lymphocytes from great horned owls or red-tailed hawks. Penicillin plus streptomycin caused no such depression of SI. Lymphocytes from all 3 species yielded maximum responses with a 48-hour prelabel and 12- to- 16 hour postlabel incubation period at 41 C and 1:20 blood dilution. Optimal mitogen concentrations for lymphocytes from bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, and great horned owls were 25 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of phytohemagglutinin-P/well, respectively, and 2.5 micrograms, 10 micrograms, and 10 micrograms of concanavalin A/well, respectively. Differences in SI were not seen between the 2 radioactive labels. The optimal concentration of the [3H]thymidine label ranged from 0.06 to 0.125 microCi/well.

  8. Geochemical Analysis of Parasequences within the Productive Middle Member of the Eagle Ford Formation at Lozier Canyon near Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Timothy E.

    The middle member of the Eagle Ford formation is a heterogeneous, carbonate-shale unit that is a focus of unconventional oil and gas exploration in southern Texas. Exploration results have been mixed because of the apparent heterogeneity of the member. In this study, the extent of heterogeneities in the Eagle Ford on the "bedding-scale" were examined by evaluating changes in organic and inorganic geochemistry. Samples were collected vertically in outcrop covering four non-consecutive parasequences. These samples were analyzed using a Rock Eval 6 Analyzer(TM) to determine source rock generative potential and a Niton(TM) XRF to evaluate inorganic geochemistry to identify changes in paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, and clastic influx. From pyrolysis data, it is determined that Parasequence 1 potentially displays an increase in source rock potential, Parasequence 2 potentially displays a constant source rock potential, and Parasequences 3 and 4 potentially display overall decreases in source rock potential during deposition. From the inferred paleoredox conditions, paleoproductivity, and clastic influx, it is determined that Parasequence 1 experienced a potential increase in oxygen abundance, Parasequence 2 experienced a potential decrease in oxygen abundance, and Parasequences 3 and 4 potentially experienced increases in oxygen abundance during deposition. It is concluded that geochemical heterogeneities do exist on a bedding scale within the parasequences of the middle member of the Eagle Ford. Additional comprehensive sampling and analysis is recommended in the future in order to tie these data to subsurface data for economic application.

  9. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna M; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V M; Helander, Björn O; Rigét, Frank F; Eriksson, Ulla C

    2012-11-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990-2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980-2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985-2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Geology and sequence stratigraphy of undiscovered oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous petroleum systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group and related strata, U.S. Gulf Coast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Russell F.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pearson, Krystal M.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the technically recoverable undiscovered oil and gas onshore and in State waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. The USGS defined three assessment units (AUs) with potential undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) strata of the Eagle Ford Group and correlative rocks. The assessment is based on geologic elements of a total petroleum system, including hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and traps (formation, timing, and seals). Conventional oil and gas undiscovered resources are in updip sandstone reservoirs in the Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa and Woodbine Formations (or Groups) in Louisiana and Texas, respectively, whereas continuous oil and continuous gas undiscovered resources reside in the middip and downdip Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale in Texas and the Tuscaloosa marine shale in Louisiana. Conventional resources in the Tuscaloosa and Woodbine are included in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU, in an area where the Eagle Ford Shale and Tuscaloosa marine shale display vitrinite reflectance (Ro) values less than 0.6%. The continuous Eagle Ford Shale Oil AU lies generally south of the conventional AU, is primarily updip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge, and is defined by thermal maturity values within shales of the Eagle Ford and Tuscaloosa that range from 0.6 to 1.2% Ro. Similarly, the Eagle Ford Shale Gas AU is defined downdip of the shelf edge where source rocks have Ro values greater than 1.2%. For undiscovered oil and gas resources, the USGS assessed means of: 1) 141 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 502 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and 4 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the Eagle Ford Updip Sandstone Oil and Gas AU; 2) 853 MMBO, 1707 BCFG, and 34 MMBNGL in the

  11. Marine wind farms - seabirds, white-tailed eagles, Eurasian eagle-owl and waders. A screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg - sjoefugl, havoern, hubro og vadere. En screening av potensielle konfliktomraader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, S.; Lorentsen, S.-H.; Dahl, E.L.; Follestad, A.; Hanssen, F.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2010-06-15

    sufficient quality to be used for this method. For the species where less data was available (e.g. geese, waders, white-tailed eagle and the Eurasian eagle-owl) we have chosen to illustrate potential conflicts by means of maps of the major functional areas. The results are presented in maps, where the WSI is given for 10x10 km squares. The results of the study showed a clear difference in WSI between areas and seasons. For the seabirds it was shown that especially the large breeding colonies in Vesteraalen, Roest and Runde were areas with high WSI. In Vesteraalen, the gannets and some of the puffin colonies resulted in a high WSI, while on Roest auks and for Runde gannets and gulls resulted in high WSI-values. Further south it was mainly gulls and terns that caused high WSI-values on the coast of Vest- Agder and between Jaeren and Karmoey. The results for the breeding season were as expected, as other studies have previously pointed to these sites as valuable areas. There were some similarities between important localities in summer and winter, for example between Jaeren and Vesteraalen. But during the winter season, areas such as Lista, Nordoeyerne and Gossen (Moere and Romsdal), Smoela, Froan, Oerlandet, Frost, Vikna and Vega also showed a high vulnerability. For the white-tailed sea eagle especially the islands of Smoela, Hitra and Froeya, as well as the area from Bodoe to Steigen were very important. For the Eurasian eagle-owl the coast of Helgeland and the areas surrounding Karmoey in Rogaland were most important. For waders and geese the focus was on important resting and moulting sites. Such sites for geese and eiders are distributed across the study area, with the most important and largest areas being the coast of central Norway and northwards. For waders a number of important resting areas are spread over the entire study area, but with a concentration of localities along the coast of Moere and Romsdal and Rogaland, especially along the coast of Jaeren. In our

  12. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in golden eagle nestlings: Unnoticed scavenging on livestock carcasses and other potential exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Junza, Alexandra; Barrón, Dolores

    2017-05-15

    Wildlife exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur through contaminated water, and through the excreta and carcasses of medicated livestock, with potential for bioaccumulation and transfer through food webs. We evaluated whether nestling exposure to pharmaceuticals can occur from food delivered to nests in the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), a top predator and facultative scavenger. Despite the fact that diet analysis suggests an apparently low dependence on livestock carcasses reduced to two piglets remains (1.5% of food remains, n=134), a high proportion of nestlings (71%, n=7) showed fluoroquinolone residues in plasma, mostly enrofloxacin, which is exclusively used in veterinary treatments. The occurrence and concentration (54.5±6.6μg·L(-1)) of fluoroquinolones in plasma was similar to those found in the nestlings of three vulture species largely dependent on livestock carcasses obtained at supplementary feeding stations, which are managed for the conservation of their populations. Although the number of analysed eaglets is comparatively small, the fact that enrofloxacin was found in all nests sampled in three breeding seasons suggest an exposure to the drugs similar to that of vultures. An underestimation of the role of carrion, especially from small piglets whose consumption may have gone unnoticed, and the predation of semi-domestic prey and generalist prey exploiting carcasses of medicated livestock, can contribute to explaining the unexpectedly high occurrence of these drugs in eaglets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality Assessment of Roof Planes Extracted from Height Data for Solar Energy Systems by the EAGLE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schuffert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels and the upwards trend in energy costs over time, many countries—especially in Europe—have begun to modify their energy policies aiming to increase that percentage obtained from renewable energies. The EAGLE (FP7 program, European Commission has developed a web-based platform to promote renewable energy systems (RES in the public and private sectors, and to deliver a comprehensive information source for all interested users. In this paper, a comprehensive quality assessment of extracted roof planes suitable for solar energy installations (photovoltaic, solar thermal from height data derived automatically from both LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging and aerial images will be presented. A shadow analysis is performed regarding the daily path of the sun including the shading effects of nearby objects (chimneys, dormers, vegetation, buildings, topography, etc.. A quality assessment was carried out for both LiDAR and aerial images of the same test sites in UK and Germany concerning building outline accuracy, extraction rate of roof planes and the accuracy of their geometric parameters (inclination and aspect angle, size. The benefit is an optimized system to extract roof planes for RES with a high level of detail, accuracy and flexibility (concerning different commonly available data sources including an estimation of quality of the results which is important for individual house owners as well as for regional applications by governments or solar energy companies to judge their usefulness.

  14. Degradation testing of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium: Influence of medium sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.marco@mtm.kuleuven.be [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg, 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Institute of Materials Research, Division Metallic Biomaterials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str., 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Van der Biest, Omer [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg, 44, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-05-01

    This work studies the in vitro degradation of Mg alloys for bioabsorbable implant applications under near physiological conditions. For this purpose, the degradation behaviour of Mg alloys in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) which is a commonly used cell culture medium is analysed. Unfortunately, DMEM can be contaminated by microorganisms, acidifying the medium and accelerating the Mg degradation process by dissolution of protective degradation layers, such as (Mg{sub x},Ca{sub y})(PO{sub 4}){sub z}. In this paper the influence of sterilization by applying UV-C radiation and antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin) is analysed with two implant material candidates: Mg–Gd and Mg–Ag alloys; and pure magnesium as well as Mg–4Y–3RE as a reference. - Highlights: • Contamination of DMEM by microorganisms increases the degradation rate of Mg. • Mg and its alloys show passivation during long term immersion tests in DMEM. • The use of a control sample position is essential to assess H{sub 2} evolution in DMEM.

  15. Spontaneous imbibition of water and determination of effective contact angles in the Eagle Ford Shale Formation using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiStefano, Victoria H.; Cheshire, Michael C.; McFarlane, Joanna; Kolbus, Lindsay M.; Hale, Richard E.; Perfect, Edmund; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Santodonato, Louis J.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; LaManna, Jacob M.; Bingham, Philip R.; Starchenko, Vitaliy; Anovitz, Lawrence M.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of fundamental processes and prediction of optimal parameters during the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process results in economically effective improvement of oil and natural gas extraction. Although, the modern analytical and computational models can capture fracture growth, there is a lack of experimental data on spontaneous imbibition and wettability in oil and gas reservoirs for the validation of further model development. In this work, we used neutron imaging to measure the spontaneous imbibition of water into fractures of Eagle Ford Shale with known geometries and fracture orientations. An analytical solution for a set of nonlinear second-order differential equations was applied to the measured imbibition data to determine effective contact angles. The analytical solution fit the measured imbibition data reasonably well and determined effective contact angles were slightly higher than static contact angles due to effects of in-situ changes in velocity, surface roughness, and heterogeneity of mineral surfaces on the fracture surface. Additionally, small fracture widths may have retarded imbibition and affected model fits, which suggests that average fracture widths are not satisfactory for modeling imbibition in natural systems.

  16. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  17. Leadership and management influences the outcome of wildlife reintroduction programs: findings from the Sea Eagle Recovery Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Alexandra E

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife reintroductions and translocations are statistically unlikely to succeed. Nevertheless, they remain a critical part of conservation because they are the only way to actively restore a species into a habitat from which it has been extirpated. Past efforts to improve these practices have attributed the low success rate to failures in the biological knowledge (e.g., ignorance of social behavior, poor release site selection), or to the inherent challenges of reinstating a species into an area where threats have already driven it to local extinction. Such research presumes that the only way to improve reintroduction outcomes is through improved biological knowledge. This emphasis on biological solutions may have caused researchers to overlook the potential influence of other factors on reintroduction outcomes. I employed a grounded theory approach to study the leadership and management of a successful reintroduction program (the Sea Eagle Recovery Project in Scotland, UK) and identify four critical managerial elements that I theorize may have contributed to the successful outcome of this 50-year reintroduction. These elements are: 1. Leadership & Management: Small, dedicated team of accessible experts who provide strong political and scientific advocacy ("champions") for the project. 2. Hierarchy & Autonomy: Hierarchical management structure that nevertheless permits high individual autonomy. 3. Goals & Evaluation: Formalized goal-setting and regular, critical evaluation of the project's progress toward those goals. 4. Adaptive Public Relations: Adaptive outreach campaigns that are open, transparent, inclusive (esp. linguistically), and culturally relevant.

  18. Leadership and management influences the outcome of wildlife reintroduction programs: findings from the Sea Eagle Recovery Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Sutton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife reintroductions and translocations are statistically unlikely to succeed. Nevertheless, they remain a critical part of conservation because they are the only way to actively restore a species into a habitat from which it has been extirpated. Past efforts to improve these practices have attributed the low success rate to failures in the biological knowledge (e.g., ignorance of social behavior, poor release site selection, or to the inherent challenges of reinstating a species into an area where threats have already driven it to local extinction. Such research presumes that the only way to improve reintroduction outcomes is through improved biological knowledge. This emphasis on biological solutions may have caused researchers to overlook the potential influence of other factors on reintroduction outcomes. I employed a grounded theory approach to study the leadership and management of a successful reintroduction program (the Sea Eagle Recovery Project in Scotland, UK and identify four critical managerial elements that I theorize may have contributed to the successful outcome of this 50-year reintroduction. These elements are: 1. Leadership & Management: Small, dedicated team of accessible experts who provide strong political and scientific advocacy (“champions” for the project. 2. Hierarchy & Autonomy: Hierarchical management structure that nevertheless permits high individual autonomy. 3. Goals & Evaluation: Formalized goal-setting and regular, critical evaluation of the project’s progress toward those goals. 4. Adaptive Public Relations: Adaptive outreach campaigns that are open, transparent, inclusive (esp. linguistically, and culturally relevant.

  19. Merging the "Morphology-Performance-Fitness" Paradigm and Life-History Theory in the Eagle Lake Garter Snake Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Elizabeth A; Gangloff, Eric J; Palacios, Maria G; Carr, Katherine E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2017-08-01

    The morphology-performance-fitness paradigm for testing selection on morphological traits has seen decades of successful application. At the same time, life-history approaches using matrix methods and perturbation studies have also allowed the direct estimate of selection acting on vital rates and the traits that comprise them. Both methodologies have been successfully applied to the garter snakes of the long-term Eagle Lake research project to reveal selection on morphology, such as color pattern, number of vertebrae, and gape size; and life-history traits such as birth size, growth rates, and juvenile survival. Here we conduct a reciprocal transplant study in a common laboratory environment to study selection on morphology and life-history. To place our results in the ecomorphology paradigm, we measure performance outcomes (feeding rates, growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 titers) of morphological variation (body size, condition) and their fitness consequences for juvenile survival-a trait that has large fitness sensitivities in these garter snake populations, and therefore is thought to be subject to strong selection. To better merge these two complementary theories, we end by discussing our findings in a nexus of morphology-performance-fitness-life history to highlight what these approaches, when combined, can reveal about selection in the wild. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Leadership and management influences the outcome of wildlife reintroduction programs: findings from the Sea Eagle Recovery Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife reintroductions and translocations are statistically unlikely to succeed. Nevertheless, they remain a critical part of conservation because they are the only way to actively restore a species into a habitat from which it has been extirpated. Past efforts to improve these practices have attributed the low success rate to failures in the biological knowledge (e.g., ignorance of social behavior, poor release site selection), or to the inherent challenges of reinstating a species into an area where threats have already driven it to local extinction. Such research presumes that the only way to improve reintroduction outcomes is through improved biological knowledge. This emphasis on biological solutions may have caused researchers to overlook the potential influence of other factors on reintroduction outcomes. I employed a grounded theory approach to study the leadership and management of a successful reintroduction program (the Sea Eagle Recovery Project in Scotland, UK) and identify four critical managerial elements that I theorize may have contributed to the successful outcome of this 50-year reintroduction. These elements are: 1. Leadership & Management: Small, dedicated team of accessible experts who provide strong political and scientific advocacy (“champions”) for the project. 2. Hierarchy & Autonomy: Hierarchical management structure that nevertheless permits high individual autonomy. 3. Goals & Evaluation: Formalized goal-setting and regular, critical evaluation of the project’s progress toward those goals. 4. Adaptive Public Relations: Adaptive outreach campaigns that are open, transparent, inclusive (esp. linguistically), and culturally relevant. PMID:26157602

  1. Methane and benzene in drinking-water wells overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Engle, Mark A.; Belitz, Kenneth; Ging, Patricia B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Jurgens, Bryant; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Tollett, Roland W.; Kresse, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Water wells (n = 116) overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to investigate the occurrence and sources of selected hydrocarbons in groundwater. Methane isotopes and hydrocarbon gas compositions indicate most of the methane in the wells was biogenic and produced by the CO2 reduction pathway, not from thermogenic shale gas. Two samples contained methane from the fermentation pathway that could be associated with hydrocarbon degradation based on their co-occurrence with hydrocarbons such as ethylbenzene and butane. Benzene was detected at low concentrations (ages >2500 years, indicating the benzene was from subsurface sources such as natural hydrocarbon migration or leaking hydrocarbon wells. One sample contained benzene that could be from a surface release associated with hydrocarbon production activities based on its age (10 ± 2.4 years) and proximity to hydrocarbon wells. Groundwater travel times inferred from the age-data indicate decades or longer may be needed to fully assess the effects of potential subsurface and surface releases of hydrocarbons on the wells.

  2. Observations of metals in the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium and comparison to the EAGLE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica L.; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; Wendt, Martin

    2016-11-01

    We study the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium (IGM) by comparing new, high-quality absorption spectra of eight QSOs with = 3.75, to virtual observations of the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We employ the pixel optical depth method and uncover strong correlations between various combinations of H I, C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, and O VI. We find good agreement between many of the simulated and observed correlations, including τ_{O VI}(τ_{H I}). However, the observed median optical depths for the τ_{C IV}}(τ_{H I}) and τ_{Si IV}(τ_{H I}) relations are higher than those measured from the mock spectra. The discrepancy increases from up to ≈0.1 dex at τ_{H I}=1 to ≈1 dex at τ_{H I}=10^2, where we are likely probing dense regions at small galactocentric distances. As possible solutions, we invoke (a) models of ionizing radiation softened above 4 Ryd to account for delayed completion of He II reionization; (b) simulations run at higher resolution; (c) the inclusion of additional line broadening due to unresolved turbulence; and (d) increased elemental abundances; however, none of these factors can fully explain the observed differences. Enhanced photoionization of H I by local sources, which was not modelled, could offer a solution. However, the much better agreement with the observed O VI(H I) relation, which we find probes a hot and likely collisionally ionized gas phase, indicates that the simulations are not in tension with the hot phase of the IGM, and suggests that the simulated outflows may entrain insufficient cool gas.

  3. The origin of scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    We use the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation to study the magnitude and origin of the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation for central galaxies. We separate cause and effect by correlating stellar masses in the baryonic simulation with halo properties in a matched dark matter only (DMO) simulation. The scatter in stellar mass increases with redshift and decreases with halo mass. At z = 0.1, it declines from 0.25 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1011 M⊙ to 0.12 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1013 M⊙, but the trend is weak above 1012 M⊙. For M200, DMO < 1012.5 M⊙ up to 0.04 dex of the scatter is due to scatter in the halo concentration. At fixed halo mass, a larger stellar mass corresponds to a more concentrated halo. This is likely because higher concentrations imply earlier formation times and hence more time for accretion and star formation, and/or because feedback is less efficient in haloes with higher binding energies. The maximum circular velocity, Vmax, DMO, and binding energy are therefore more fundamental properties than halo mass, meaning that they are more accurate predictors of stellar mass, and we provide fitting formulae for their relations with stellar mass. However, concentration alone cannot explain the total scatter in the M_star - M_{200, DMO} relation, and it does not explain the scatter in Mstar-Vmax, DMO. Halo spin, sphericity, triaxiality, substructure and environment are also not responsible for the remaining scatter, which thus could be due to more complex halo properties or non-linear/stochastic baryonic effects.

  4. Blood lead levels and δ-ALAD inhibition in nestlings of Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) to assess lead exposure associated to an abandoned mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramírez, P; Martínez-López, E; María-Mojica, P; León-Ortega, M; García-Fernández, A J

    2011-01-01

    In order to biomonitor lead contamination in Southeastern Spain, 218 blood samples from 28 to 30-day old Eurasian Eagle Owl chicks (Bubo bubo) born between 2003 and 2007 were analysed. In general, mean lead levels showed that chicks were exposed to background concentrations. However, mean levels in chicks born in an ancient and abandoned mining site ("Sierra Minera Cartagena-La Union") or in their surroundings (Geometric mean (GM) = 5.83 μg/dl, range 0.49-25.61 μg/dl), an area highly polluted by lead and other metals, were significantly higher (p ALAD activity is considered the best biomarker for lead exposure and effect in birds, the activity of this enzyme was also evaluated and correlated with lead levels in blood. In this study, low levels of blood lead inhibited δ-ALAD, even when lead concentrations were lower than the limits described by other authors in raptors. Adverse effects caused by this inhibition may occur when blood lead levels were above 15 μg/dl, although only eight chicks presented these concentrations in their blood. Sampling site also influenced enzymatic activity, since it decreased about 60% in the polluted area in relation to the rest. For all these reasons, further research regarding risk assessment for lead exposure in Eagle Owls nesting in the polluted area is advisable. Our results suggest that the Eurasian Eagle Owl can be considered a suitable sentinel animal for monitoring lead contamination and δ-ALAD activity can be used as a sensitive biomarker for lead exposure and effect in this species.

  5. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Graciá

    Full Text Available The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70's. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species' demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species' pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals

  6. Genetic Signatures of Demographic Changes in an Avian Top Predator during the Last Century: Bottlenecks and Expansions of the Eurasian Eagle Owl in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciá, Eva; Ortego, Joaquín; Godoy, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Juan Manuel; Blanco, Guillermo; del Mar Delgado, María; Penteriani, Vincenzo; Almodóvar, Irene; Botella, Francisco; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The study of the demographic history of species can help to understand the negative impact of recent population declines in organisms of conservation concern. Here, we use neutral molecular markers to explore the genetic consequences of the recent population decline and posterior recovery of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last century, the species was the object of extermination programs, suffering direct persecution by hunters until the 70’s. Moreover, during the last decades the eagle owl was severely impacted by increased mortality due to electrocution and the decline of its main prey species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). In recent times, the decrease of direct persecution and the implementation of some conservation schemes have allowed the species’ demographic recovery. Yet, it remains unknown to which extent the past population decline and the later expansion have influenced the current species’ pattern of genetic diversity. We used eight microsatellite markers to genotype 235 eagle owls from ten Spanish subpopulations and analyse the presence of genetic signatures attributable to the recent population fluctuations experienced by the species. We found moderate levels of differentiation among the studied subpopulations and Bayesian analyses revealed the existence of three genetic clusters that grouped subpopulations from central, south-western and south-eastern Spain. The observed genetic structure could have resulted from recent human-induced population fragmentation, a patchy distribution of prey populations and/or the philopatric behaviour and habitat selection of the species. We detected an old population bottleneck, which occurred approximately 10,000 years ago, and significant signatures of recent demographic expansions. However, we did not find genetic signatures for a recent bottleneck, which may indicate that population declines were not severe enough to leave detectable signals on the

  7. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analyses of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis from Three Areas in Western North America; Initial Results and Conservation Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica H Craig

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026. Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97% was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  8. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) from three areas in western North America; initial results and conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Erica H; Adams, Jennifer R.; Waits, Lisette P.; Fuller, Mark R.; Whittington, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles. Our results indicate high genetic diversity, low genetic structure and high connectivity. Nuclear DNA Fst values between Idaho and California were low but significantly different from zero (0.026). Bayesian clustering methods indicated a single population, and we were unable to distinguish summer breeding residents from different regions. Results of the mtDNA AMOVA showed that most of the haplotype variation (97%) was within the geographic populations while 3% variation was partitioned among them. One haplotype was common to all three areas. One region-specific haplotype was detected in California and one in Idaho, but additional sampling is required to determine if these haplotypes are unique to those geographic areas or a sampling artifact. We discuss potential sources of the high gene flow for this species including natal and breeding dispersal, floaters, and changes in migratory behavior as a result of environmental factors such as climate change and habitat alteration. Our preliminary findings can help inform the USFWS in development of golden eagle management strategies and provide a basis for additional research into the complex dynamics of the North American subspecies.

  9. EAGLE 2006 – Multi-purpose, multi-angle and multi-sensor in-situ and airborne campaigns over grassland and forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Su

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available EAGLE2006 – an intensive field campaign for the advances in land surface hydrometeorological processes – was carried out in the Netherlands from 8th to 18th June 2006, involving 16 institutions with in total 67 people from 16 different countries. In addition to the acquisition of multi-angle and multi-sensor satellite data, several airborne instruments – an optical imaging sensor, an imaging microwave radiometer, and a flux airplane – were deployed and extensive ground measurements were conducted over one grassland site at Cabauw and two forest sites at Loobos and Speulderbos in the central part of the Netherlands. The generated data set is both unique and urgently needed for the development and validation of models and inversion algorithms for quantitative land surface parameter estimation and land surface hydrometeorological process studies. EAGLE2006 was led by the Department of Water Resources of the International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC and originated from the combination of a number of initiatives supported by different funding agencies. The objectives of the EAGLE2006 campaign were closely related to the objectives of other European Space Agency (ESA campaign activities (SPARC2004, SEN2FLEX2005 and especially AGRISAR2006. However, one important objective of the EAGLE2006 campaign is to build up a data base for the investigation and validation of the retrieval of bio-geophysical parameters, obtained at different radar frequencies (X-, C- and L-Band and at hyperspectral optical and thermal bands acquired simultaneously over contrasting vegetated fields (forest and grassland. As such, all activities were related to algorithm development for future satellite missions such as the Sentinels and for validation of retrievals of land surface parameters with optical and thermal and microwave sensors onboard current and future satellite missions. This contribution describes the campaign objectives and

  10. Mood disorders and risk of lung cancer in the EAGLE case-control study and in the U.S. Veterans Affairs inpatient cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Capo-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mood disorders may affect lung cancer risk. We evaluated this hypothesis in two large studies.We examined 1,939 lung cancer cases and 2,102 controls from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE case-control study conducted in Italy (2002-2005, and 82,945 inpatients with a lung cancer diagnosis and 3,586,299 person-years without a lung cancer diagnosis in the U.S. Veterans Affairs Inpatient Cohort (VA study, composed of veterans with a VA hospital admission (1969-1996. In EAGLE, we calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, with extensive adjustment for tobacco smoking and multiple lifestyle factors. In the VA study, we estimated lung cancer relative risks (RRs and 95% CIs with time-dependent Poisson regression, adjusting for attained age, calendar year, hospital visits, time within the study, and related previous medical diagnoses. In EAGLE, we found decreased lung cancer risk in subjects with a personal history of mood disorders (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.44-0.79, based on 121 lung cancer incident cases and 192 controls and family history of mood disorders (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.50-0.77, based on 223 lung cancer cases and 345 controls. The VA study analyses yielded similar results (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.71-0.77, based on 2,304 incident lung cancer cases and 177,267 non-cancer person-years in men with discharge diagnoses for mood disorders. History of mood disorders was associated with nicotine dependence, alcohol and substance use and psychometric scales of depressive and anxiety symptoms in controls for these studies.The consistent finding of a relationship between mood disorders and lung cancer risk across two large studies calls for further research into the complex interplay of risk factors associated with these two widespread and debilitating diseases. Although we adjusted for smoking effects in EAGLE, residual confounding of the results by smoking cannot be ruled out.

  11. Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 square degrees of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02

  12. Galaxy-galaxy lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 deg2 of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02 EAGLE predictions are in broad agreement with the observed profiles for both central and satellite galaxies, although the signal is underestimated at R ≈ 0.5-2 h- 1 Mpc for the highest stellar mass bins. When central and satellite galaxies are considered simultaneously, agreement is found only when the selection function of lens galaxies is taken into account in detail. Specifically, in the case of GAMA galaxies, it is crucial to account for the variation of the fraction of satellite galaxies in bins of stellar mass induced by the flux-limited nature of the survey. We report the inferred stellar-to-halo mass relation and we find good agreement with recent published results. We note how the precision of the GGL profiles in the simulation holds the potential to constrain fine-grained aspects of the galaxy-dark matter connection.

  13. Characterization of the Metabochip in diverse populations from the International HapMap Project in the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Dana C; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Wilson, Sarah; Roberson, Jamie; Gillani, Niloufar B; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Dilks, Holli H; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genomic regions associated with common human disease and quantitative traits. A major research avenue for mature genotype-phenotype associations is the identification of the true risk or functional variant for downstream molecular studies or personalized medicine applications. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we as Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) are fine-mapping GWAS-identified genomic regions for common diseases and quantitative traits. We are currently genotyping the Metabochip, a custom content BeadChip designed for fine-mapping metabolic diseases and traits, in∼15,000 DNA samples from patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry linked to de-identified electronic medical records from the Vanderbilt University biorepository (BioVU). As an initial study of quality control, we report here the genotyping data for 360 samples of European, African, Asian, and Mexican descent from the International HapMap Project. In addition to quality control metrics, we report the overall allele frequency distribution, overall population differentiation (as measured by FST), and linkage disequilibrium patterns for a select GWAS-identified region associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to illustrate the utility of the Metabochip for fine-mapping studies in the diverse populations expected in EAGLE, the PAGE study, and other efforts underway designed to characterize the complex genetic architecture underlying common human disease and quantitative traits.

  14. SWIFTER THAN EAGLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    combination of machine gun fire and accurate bombing of the port bow the Ju 86 was able to head the Watussi for Cape Town but was unable to prevent her crew .... stern at an altitude of 20 feet scoring direct hits with three of his four 250 pound bombs and stopping the Prosperina in her tracks, allowing an RAF Beaufort to ...

  15. SWIFTER THAN EAGLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a nominal price. As a result a motley collection of. Tutors, Wapitis, Hartebeeste, Hawker Harts and even 3 ex-Imperial Airways DH 66 Hercules transports began .... the fuel and supplies they so desperately needed to parry the Allied thrust. For this reason it was imperative that Axis shipping for Tobruk be stopped at all costs.

  16. Variations in Multiscale (nano to mm) Porosity in the Eagle Ford Shale as a Function of Maturity through the Oil Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anovitz, L. M.; Cole, D. R.; Swift, A.; Sheets, J.; Elston, H. W.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Cook, A.; Chipera, S.; Littrell, K. C.; Mildner, D. F.; Wasbrough, M.

    2013-12-01

    Porosity and permeability are key variables that link the thermal-hydrologic, geomechanical and geochemical behavior in rock systems and are thus important input parameters for transport models. Recent neutron scattering studies have indicated that the scales of pore sizes in rocks extend over many orders of magnitude from nanometer pores with huge amounts of total surface area to large open fracture systems (multiscale porosity, cf. Anovitz et al., 2009, 2011, 2013a,b). However, despite a considerable amount of effort combining conventional rock petrophysics with more sophisticated neutron scattering and electron microscopy studies, the quantitative nature of this porosity in tight gas shales, especially at smaller scales and over larger rock volumes, remains largely unknown (Clarkson, 2011). We lack a quantitative understanding of the multiscale porosity regime (i.e., pore size, shape, and volume, pore size distribution, pore connectivity, pore wall roughness) in rocks. Nor is it understood how porosity is affected by regional variation, thermal changes across the oil window, and, most critically, hydraulic fracturing operations. In order to begin to provide a quantitative understanding of porosity at nanometer to core scales in these shale formations and how it relates to gas storage and recovery we have used a combination of small and ultrasmall angle neutron scattering measurments made on the GP-SANS instrument at ORNL/HFIR, and the NG3-SANS and BT5-USANS instruments and NIST/NCNR, with SEM/BSE and X-ray Computed Tomographic imaging to analyze the pore structure of both clay and carbonate-rich samples of the Eagle Ford Shale. The Eagle Ford Shale is a late Cretaceous unit underlying much of southeast Texas and probably adjacent sections of Mexico. It outcrops in an arc from north of Austin, through San Antonio and then west towards Kinney County. It is hydrocarbon rich, and buried portions straddle the oil window. The Eagle Ford is currently one of the most

  17. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Langelier, K M; Mineau, P; Wilson, L K

    1996-07-01

    During the winter of 1990 in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada, nine birds of prey were found with symptoms of anticholinesterase poisoning. Immediate surgical removal of crop contents of three birds decreased mortality and recovery time. Chemical analysis was conducted on crop contents, which contained mainly duck parts. A bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) contained 200 micrograms/g and a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) 2.2 micrograms/g carbofuran, while the crop of another red-tailed hawk contained 30 micrograms/g fensulfothion. There was evidence that granular carbofuran and fensulfothion persisted long enough in the wet, low pH conditions of the Fraser Delta to kill waterfowl and cause secondary poisoning of raptors several months after application of the pesticides.

  18. Change in diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo suggests decline in biodiversity in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem Governorate, Palestinian Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Zuhair S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo was studied in Wadi Al Makhrour, Bethlehem, Palestinian Territories in 2015 with fresh and several year old pellets. Three species of arthropods, one reptile species, at least four bird species, and six species of mammals were recovered from the studied pellets. Black rat (Rattus rattus was the most common prey (37.0%, followed by the southern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor (29.4% and birds (21.8%. Comparison of recent and older pellets showed change in diet composition. Recent pellets contained more Rattus rattus compared to older ones. Older pellets included more naturally-occurring species such as Meriones tristrami, Microtus guentheri, and Rousettus aegyptiacus, which were absent in newer pellets.

  19. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  20. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.