WorldWideScience

Sample records for sus scrofa domestica

  1. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  2. Ultra structure of the denervated vocal muscle mechanically in hogs (sus scrofa domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão, Henrique Zaquia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature is not clear in the ultra-structural manifestations of the vocal wrinkles after neural wound. Objective: To verify the alterations that occur in a vocal fold mechanically denervated. Method: In this prospective study, it were utilized 15 hogs of commercial race (Sus scrofa domesticates, with age of 4 to 12 weeks. The animals were distributed in three groups, chosen at random. Everybody was submitted to the denervation of the right vocal fold, with surgical removal of a segment with three centimeters of the recurring right laryngeal nerve. After 45, 90 and 180 days of the operations, it was proceeded the biopsy of the vocal muscles, it was prosecuted the samples for transmission electron microscopy and, for the ultra-structural study, utilized the transmission electron microscopy Philips, model EM208S. Results: The biopsied groups with 45 and 90 days after operation of mechanical denervation, presented disorganization miofibrilar, only vestigial lines Z in many samples, as well like altered mithochondrions presenting limited sizes, and matrix mithocondrial rarefied with rare mithocondrial cristae present. The biopsied group with 180 days after operation of denervation, presented regular sarcomeres, mithocondrions with sizes and regular number with correct positioning between the sarcomerical units. Conclusion: The finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggest to re enervation of the muscle being that the muscular mithochondrions were the most sensible structures to the denervated condition, successions by the cytoarchiteture of the miofibrilas; the finds in the ultra-structure of the vocal muscles suggests to reinervation of the muscle in the period of approximately six months.

  3. The First Report of Mycobacterium celatum Isolation from Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa domestica and Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus and an Overview of Human Infections in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pate

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium celatum, a slowly growing potentially pathogenic mycobacterium first described in humans, is regarded as an uncommon cause of human infection, though capable of inducing invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. According to some reports, a serious disease due to M. celatum may also occur in individuals with no apparent immunodeficiency. In animals, an M. celatum-related disease has been described in three cases only: twice in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo and once in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis. In this paper, we report the first detection of M. celatum in a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domestica and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus. A nation-wide overview of human M. celatum infections recorded in Slovenia between 2000 and 2010 is also given. Pulmonary disease due to M. celatum was recognized in one patient with a history of a preexisting lung disease.

  4. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig (Sus Scrofa)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Taiwan Lanyu pig (Sus scrofa) and its phylogenetic relationships with other pig breeds. Thirty-four forward and reverse primers were designed. Sequencing was performed in both directions.

  5. A comparative chromosome analysis of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornnarong Siripiyasing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is the first comparative chromosome analysis report of Thai wild boar (Sus scrofa jubatus and its relationship to domestic pig (S. s. domestica by conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique. Blood samples of the Thai wild boar were taken from two males and two females kept in Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo. After standard whole blood lymphocyte culture at 37 oC for 72 hr. in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and airdried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosomes of Thai wild boar was 2n (diploid = 38, and the fundamental numbers (NF were 62 in the male and female. The type of autosomes were 12 metacentric, 14 submetacentric, 4 acrocentric and 6 telocentric chromosomes, with X and Y chromosomes being metacentric chromosomes. We found that chromosomes 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, X and Y had the same Gbanding and high-resolution technique patterns as those of domestic pig chromosomes. Chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 15 are similar to those of domestic pig chromosomes. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the Thai wild boar and the domestic pig.

  6. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Viana Correa da; Lui, Jeffrey Frederico; Band, Guilherme de Oliveira; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Grossi, Selma de Fátima; Sollero, Bruna Pena; Nunes, Cleujosí da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS ) within each population and inter population variability F IS , t...

  7. Genetic variability among the wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers (STRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Viana Correa da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the genetic variability among the wild boars, crossbred animals and pigs using microsatellite markers. Five genetic groups were studied. The fragments of three microsatellites developed for Sus scrofa domestica - IGF1, ACTG2 and TNFB - were amplified through PCR technique to evaluate the expected intra populacion variability (He and observed (Ho heterozygosity, and endogamy coefficient (F IS within each population and inter population variability F IS , testing relationship among five genetic groups to establish the genetic distance among them. The high level of observed heterozygosity values varied between 0.537 and 0.7871. Generally, F IS was low, suggesting that the endogamy did not exist between the tested animals.

  8. Helminth parasites of wild boar, Sus scrofa, in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Farsad-Hamdi, S

    1992-04-01

    Fifty-seven wild boars (Sus scrofa) from protected regions of Iran were examined for helminths. Sixteen species of helminths were collected; there were ten nematodes, one acanthocephalan, two trematodes and three larval cestodes. New host and distribution records were established for all helminths except of Taenia solium cysticerci. Wild boar shared nine of these helminths with domestic pigs, six with ruminants and three with human beings in Iran. Metastrongylus pudendotectus and M. salmi are reported for the first time from Iran.

  9. Intestinal protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, S; Rezaian, M; Hooshyar, H; Mowlavi, G R; Babaei, Z; Anwar, M A

    2004-10-01

    A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the following protozoa: Balantidium coli (25%), Tritrichomonas suis (25%), Blastocystis sp. (25%), Entamoeba polecki (17%), Entamoeba suis (8%), Iodamoeba butschlii (17%), and Chilomastix mesnili (8%). Four of these protozoan species also are reported in humans, and persons living in rural areas where wild boars are abundant should take precaution to avoid infection.

  10. Exposure of extensively farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa) to selected pig pathogens in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, K A; Papatsiros, V G; Gkotsopoulos, E K; Odatzoglou, P K; Athanasiou, L V

    2015-06-01

    Increased density and distribution of wild boar populations are likely to promote interactions and transmission of certain pathogens, not only among wild boar but also from wild boar to livestock or humans and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence against seven selected pathogens in wild boar living in four different areas in Greece. In total, 359 serum samples were collected from extensively farmed wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) originating from four distinct geographical areas throughout Greece from April 2012 to August 2013. Samples were tested for antibodies to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, African swine fever virus (ASFV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Prevalence was compared among the four regions using Fisher's exact test. Low overall seropositivities of 2.4% and 5.6% were detected for E. rhusiopathiae and PRRSV, respectively, higher ones for ADV (32.0%) and the highest (72.5% and 90.5%) for M. hyopneumoniae and A. pleuropneumoniae, respectively. All sera tested were found negative for antibodies directed against CSFV and ASFV. This is the first report of exposure of wild boars to selected pig pathogens in Greece. These results are indicative of the circulation of these pathogens in Greece with the exception of CSFV and ASFV and suggestive of the potential role of wild boars on their maintenance and transmission to their domestic counterparts and vice versa.

  11. Structural Classification of Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Gingras, Bruno; Bowling, Daniel L; Herbst, Christian T; Boeckle, Markus; Locatelli, Yann; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-04-01

    Determining whether a species' vocal communication system is graded or discrete requires definition of its vocal repertoire. In this context, research on domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) vocalizations, for example, has led to significant advances in our understanding of communicative functions. Despite their close relation to domestic pigs, little is known about wild boar ( Sus scrofa) vocalizations. The few existing studies, conducted in the 1970s, relied on visual inspections of spectrograms to quantify acoustic parameters and lacked statistical analysis. Here, we use objective signal processing techniques and advanced statistical approaches to classify 616 calls recorded from semi-free ranging animals. Based on four spectral and temporal acoustic parameters-quartile Q25, duration, spectral flux, and spectral flatness-extracted from a multivariate analysis, we refine and extend the conclusions drawn from previous work and present a statistically validated classification of the wild boar vocal repertoire into four call types: grunts, grunt-squeals, squeals, and trumpets. While the majority of calls could be sorted into these categories using objective criteria, we also found evidence supporting a graded interpretation of some wild boar vocalizations as acoustically continuous, with the extremes representing discrete call types. The use of objective criteria based on modern techniques and statistics in respect to acoustic continuity advances our understanding of vocal variation. Integrating our findings with recent studies on domestic pig vocal behavior and emotions, we emphasize the importance of grunt-squeals for acoustic approaches to animal welfare and underline the need of further research investigating the role of domestication on animal vocal communication.

  12. Helmintos e protozoários em fezes de javalis (Sus scrofa scrofa criados em cativeiro Helminths and protozoa in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa feces raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.S. Mundim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Faecal samples from 79 wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa were examined by sedimentation method, zinc sulfate flotation method, and centrifugal flotation in sugar solution for endoparasites research. The results showed that 97.5% of the samples were positive for helminths and/or protozoa as follows: strongilides (70.9%, Ascaris suum (46.9%, Trichuris suis (29.1%, Metastrongylus sp. (12.6%, Strongyloides ransomi (3.8%, Balantidium coli (38.0%, Entamoeba spp. (15.2%, Giardia spp. (1.3%, Blastocystis sp. (12.6%. The frequency of Entamoeba was higher in young animals. Coccidian oocysts were observed in 59.5% samples and five species of Eimeria and one Isospora were recovered: Eimeria scabra (31.9%, E. deblieck (31.9%, E. perminuta (23.4%, E. cerdonis (17.0%, E. scrofae (12.8% and Isospora suis (12.8%.

  13. Pseudoscardovia radai sp. nov., A representative of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of a wild pig (Sus scrofa scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Havlík, J.; Bunešová, V.; Vlková, E.; Benada, Oldřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2014), s. 2932-2938 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Sus scrofa scrofa Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  14. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  15. Serologic survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřicová, Zina; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2009), s. 479-482 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/96/1059 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Sus scrofa * serosurvey * Czech Republic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.607, year: 2009

  16. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility......Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deksne, Gunita; Kirjušina, Muza

    2013-02-01

    Consumption of undercooked pork products is considered a major risk factor for contracting toxoplasmosis in humans in several countries. In total, 803 pork samples and 606 wild boar meat samples were collected from different regions of Latvia during June 2010 and February 2011 were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using an in-house ELISA assay. Seroprevalence in wild boar (33.2%, P Latvia.

  18. Pig-mentation: postmortem iris color change in the eyes of Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Elizabeth; Cox, Margaret; Quincey, David

    2008-05-01

    Experienced forensic pathologists and examiners may be familiar with the phenomenon of postmortem iris color change; however, only Knight, Simpson's forensic medicine, Arnold, London, 1997; Ref. 1 and Saukko and Knight, Knight's forensic pathology, 3rd ed., Arnold, London, 2004; Ref. 2 have referred to it in the literature, and to date, there have been no published scientific research studies on this taphonomic artifact. A controlled experiment was conducted of postmortem changes to isolated Sus scrofa eyes. The eyes (n = 137) were separated into three groups and each sample was observed for 3-day postmortem at a different temperature. In addition, a Sus scrofa head was obtained to observe postmortem changes of eyes in situ. All isolated blue eyes in the experiment, at room temperature and higher, changed to brown/black within 48 h. The in situ blue eye, at room temperature, turned brown/black within 72 h. If iris color consistently changes postmortem in humans, then this taphonomic artifact must be incorporated into victim identification protocol, including disaster victim identification software, and autopsy reports to prevent inaccurate victim identification and inappropriate exclusion from the identification process.

  19. Sus scrofa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organization and International Society for Animal Genetics. (FAO-ISAG), are ideal for such studies. There is ... lite loci recommended for diversity studies using primers supplied courtesy of Professor M. Rothschild .... tics (direct count, effective number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosities) for all of these at 14 ...

  20. The Osteometrical Characteristics of Mandibles of Sus Scrofa Population in the Czech Republic (České Budějovice) in Comparison with Sus Scrofa Population in Chile and Japan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Líšková, Zuzana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.

    3/13, č. 3 (2007), s. 42-51 ISSN 0909-6396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Sus Scrofa * osteometry Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2007

  1. Do changes in soil properties after rooting by wild boars (Sus scrofa) affect understory vegetation in Swiss hardwood forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven Wirthner; Martin Schutz; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Matt D. Busse; James W. Kirchner; Anita C. Risch

    2012-01-01

    Recovering from small fragmented populations, wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) have considerably increased their numbers and their habitat range in many European countries during the past two decades. Although several studies have focused on the impact of wild boar rooting on selected vegetation properties, little is known about effects on entire forest ecosystems. The main...

  2. Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Vânia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999, low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9 and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.

  3. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  4. Shifts in soil biodiversity-A forensic comparison between Sus scrofa domesticus and vegetation decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanye, Ayodeji O; Thompson, Tim; Ralebitso-Senior, T Komang

    2015-12-01

    In a forensic context, microbial-mediated cadaver decomposition and nutrient recycling cannot be overlooked. As a result, forensic ecogenomics research has intensified to gain a better understanding of cadaver/soil ecology interactions as a powerful potential tool for forensic practitioners. For this study, domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) (4g) and grass (Agrostis/Festuca spp) cuttings (4g) were buried (July 2013 to July 2014) in sandy clay loam (80 g) triplicates in sealed microcosms (127 ml; 50 × 70 cm) with parallel soil only controls. The effects of the two carbon sources were determined by monitoring key environmental factors and changes in soil bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (18S rRNA gene) biodiversity. Soil pH changes showed statistically significant differences (p0.05) was observed between the treatments. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Pedersen, Kerri; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-08-15

    The protozoon Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids (Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis lupus) are definitive hosts whereas many other animal species, including pigs, are intermediate hosts for the parasite. Between 2012 and 2014, serum samples from 1059 feral swine (Sus scrofa) from 29 states of the USA were tested for N. caninum antibodies, using the N. caninum agglutination test (NAT). Of these, 159 (15.0%) feral pigs from 21 states tested positive, with a range of titers of 1:25 (cut-off) (n=153), 1:200 (1), 1:400 (1), 1:800 (3) and 1:3200 (1). Results indicate widespread exposure of feral swine to N. caninum infection across the USA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A comparative study of Sus scrofa M. longissimus dorsi with different changes in quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mikhailovna Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study of Sus scrofa muscle tissue with different defects of quality was carried out. Such analysis methods as determination of water-binding capacity (WBC and pH values, microstructural studies, proteome methods, mass spectrometric methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and determine the concentration of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin were applied in current study. DFD meat was characterized by high pH (6.2 and WBC (93.18%, while PSE - low pH (5.5 and WBC (79.19%. pH and WBC values in NOR pork was medium and averaged 5.9 and 92.05%, respectively. Microstructural studies revealed that fiber in exudative pork was the least and averaged 39.7 µm, normal pork was characterized by diameter of muscle of 45.5 µm, while DFD pork ‑ 48.3 µm. Protein composition of Sus scrofa muscle tissues were also investigated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional electrophoresis. 6 protein fractions were identified by mass spectrometry and confirmed as potential biomarkers of pork quality defects in meat and processes meat product. It also has been shown that PSE pork contains 8 characteristic peptides, NOR - 14, DFD - 18. Cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin content were measured in pork of different categories. The highest content of cathepsin D, calpain 3 and myoglobin was noticed in PSE pork and averaged 82.16 ±3.30 ng.mL-1; 1.280 ±0.082 ng.mL-1; 3.973 ±0.506 ng.mL-1, respectively. Since the study was carried out on samples of meat 24 hours after slaughter, this work had the prospect to further study of meat with different defects of quality during long-term autolysis.

  7. Characterization of Sus scrofa small non-coding RNAs present in both female and male gonads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kowalczykiewicz

    Full Text Available Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs are indispensable for proper germ cell development, emphasizing the need for greater elucidation of the mechanisms of germline development and regulation of this process by sncRNAs. We used deep sequencing to characterize three families of small non-coding RNAs (piRNAs, miRNAs, and tRFs present in Sus scrofa gonads and focused on the small RNA fraction present in both male and female gonads. Although similar numbers of reads were obtained from both types of gonads, the number of unique RNA sequences in the ovaries was several times lower. Of the sequences detected in the testes, 2.6% of piRNAs, 9% of miRNAs, and 10% of tRFs were also present in the ovaries. Notably, the majority of the shared piRNAs mapped to ribosomal RNAs and were derived from clustered loci. In addition, the most abundant miRNAs present in the ovaries and testes are conserved and are involved in many biological processes such as the regulation of homeobox genes, the control of cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Unexpectedly, we detected a novel sncRNA type, the tRFs, which are 30-36-nt RNA fragments derived from tRNA molecules, in gonads. Analysis of S. scrofa piRNAs show that testes specific piRNAs are biased for 5' uracil but both testes and ovaries specific piRNAs are not biased for adenine at the 10th nucleotide position. These observations indicate that adult porcine piRNAs are predominantly produced by a primary processing pathway or other mechanisms and secondary piRNAs generated by ping-pong mechanism are absent.

  8. Intravenous Cobinamide, a Novel Cyanide Antidote, versus Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity and Apnea in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    and severe toxicity. Cobinamide was 5 times as potent as hydroxocobalamin. hydroxocobalamin, cobinamide, cyanide , poisoning , Vitamin B12a, Vit B12...treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced cardiotoxicity of severe hypotension and of cardiac arrest in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model Intravenous...cobinamide, a novel cyanide antidote, versus hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute cyanide toxicity and apnea in a swine (Sus Scrofa) model

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  10. Determining the Cardiovascular Effect of Partial versus Complete REBOA in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-09

    the Cardiovascular Effect of Partial versus Complete REBOA in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Hemorrhagic Shock. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI...or sentience been identified as potential study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods...questions regarding applicability of REBOA in different positions for different therapeutic goals . This will, in turn, help to guide the practice of

  11. Contemporary Genetic Structure, Phylogeography and Past Demographic Processes of Wild Boar Sus scrofa Population in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  12. Serological survey of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) for tularaemia and brucellosis in South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Treml, F.; Juřicová, Zina; Huňady, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Janík, V.; Bill, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2-3 (2002), s. 60-66 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/1122; GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : Sus scrofa * serosurvey * zoonoses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.204, year: 2002 http://www.vri.cz/docs/vetmed/47-3-60.pdf

  13. A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with CorMatrix Extracellular Matrix in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    degree of pain or distress experienced by study animals , or have animals of lower phylogenetic status or sentience been identified as potential study...60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please~ all information. Use...TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: N/A 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total # Approved # Used this FY Total #Used to Date Swine (Sus scrofa) 10 10 10 2

  14. LIMITED ANTIBODY EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS IN FERAL SWINE (SUS SCROFA) IN THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Miller, Ryan S; Anderson, Theodore D; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Lewis, Jonathan R; Mihalco, Rebecca L; Gortázar, Christian; Gidlewski, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of cattle ( Bos taurus ) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis . Efforts have been made in the US to eradicate the disease in cattle, but spillover into wildlife and subsequent spillback have impeded progress in some states. In particular, infection in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) has been followed by infection in cattle in some Midwestern states. Infection has also been documented in feral swine ( Sus scrofa ) on the Hawaiian island of Molokai and in various European countries, but no large-scale survey of antibody exposure to the bacteria has been conducted in feral swine in the US. We tested 488 sera from feral swine collected near previously documented outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and captive cervids, in addition to 2,237 feral swine sera collected across the US from 1 October 2013 to 30 September 2014. While all but one of the samples were antibody negative, the results are important for establishing baseline negative data since feral swine are capable reservoirs and could be implicated in future outbreaks of the disease.

  15. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  16. Evaluation of different soil parameters and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] grassland damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Laznik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper are the correlations between different soil parameters [presence of grubs, earthworms, pH, content of P2O5, K2O and organic matter (OM in soil] and wild boar (Sus scrofa [L.] damage to grasslands. The soil samples and damage assessments were performed at six locations in the Kočevje region, which is a densely wooded part of South East Slovenia. A significant positive correlation was discovered between the extent of damage due to wild boar rooting in grasslands and the number of grubs (r=0.73, the weight of grubs (r=0.69 and the content of P2O5 (r=0.87 in the soil. The quantity and weight of grubs in soil were significantly influenced by soil pH, the content of CaCl2 (r=0.71/0.72, P2O5 (r=0.90/0.91, and OM (r=0.74/0.77; while the quantity and weight of earthworms in soil were influenced by the content of K2O (r=0.81/-0.84. A moderate yet insignificant correlation (r=0.48/0.56 was discovered between the number and weight of earthworms in soil and the extent of grassland damage. Grubs represent a more important source of protein for wild boars than earthworms; consequently, reducing the quantity of grubs in soil could minimise the extent of damage caused by boars.

  17. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to sylvatic infection. Consequently, Koreans who ingest wild boar may be at risk of a tuberculosis infection. To reduce the risk of foodborne infection and maintain public health, continuous monitoring and control strategies are required.

  19. The anatomic surgical arterial segmentation of the kidney in wild boar (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Falcão Vale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty pairs of kidneys of wild boar (Sus scrofa were studied from adult males, with permission from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment (Process nº 02001.003237/05, aiming to characterize the vasculature and anatomic surgical segmentation. The arteries of these kidneys were injected with red pigment and subsequently submitted to acid corrosion in order to identify the renal arterial vascular pattern, particularly its divisions and distribution. The results reveal the sectorial branches of the renal arteries, two in number (cranial and caudal; the sectorial arteries provide the segmentary branches to the dorsal and ventral portions of the kidney; in the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 2-6 in the cranial sector and 3-7 in the caudal sector. In the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 3-7 and 2-7 in the same respective sectors; the vascular arterial symmetry (25% between the right and left kidney in the animals is evident. There are 3 arterial anatomic surgical segments on both kidneys. On the basis of the distribution of the sectorial and segmentary arteries, it is possible to accomplish setorectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of the wild boar, with functional aspects such as species preservation and animal experimental modeling.

  20. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  1. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  2. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  3. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  4. Three-Dimensional Force Measurements During Rapid Palatal Expansion in Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Goeckner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid palatal expansion is an orthodontic procedure widely used to correct the maxillary arch. However, its outcome is significantly influenced by factors that show a high degree of variability amongst patients. The traditional treatment methodology is based on an intuitive and heuristic treatment approach because the forces applied in the three dimensions are indeterminate. To enable optimal and individualized treatment, it is essential to measure the three-dimensional (3D forces and displacements created by the expander. This paper proposes a method for performing these 3D measurements using a single embedded strain sensor, combining experimental measurements of strain in the palatal expander with 3D finite element analysis (FEA. The method is demonstrated using the maxillary jaw from a freshly euthanized pig (Sus scrofa and a hyrax-design rapid palatal expander (RPE appliance with integrated strain gage. The strain gage measurements are recorded using a computer interface, following which the expansion forces and extent of expansion are estimated by FEA. A total activation of 2.0 mm results in peak total force of about 100 N—almost entirely along the direction of expansion. The results also indicate that more than 85% of the input activation is immediately transferred to the palate and/or teeth. These studies demonstrate a method for assessing and individualizing expansion magnitudes and forces during orthopedic expansion of the maxilla. This provides the basis for further development of smart orthodontic appliances that provide real-time readouts of forces and movements, which will allow personalized, optimal treatment.

  5. Survey for selected pathogens in wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from Guam, Marianna Islands, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Christopher A; DeNicola, Anthony; Dubey, J P; Hill, Dolores E; Berghaus, Roy D; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Pigs (Sus scrofa) were introduced to Guam in the 1600's and are now present in high densities throughout the island. Wild pigs are reservoirs for pathogens of concern to domestic animals and humans. Exposure to porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis, and Leptospira interrogans has been documented in domestic swine but data from wild pigs are lacking. The close proximity of humans, domestic animals, and wild pigs, combined with the liberal hunting of wild pigs, results in frequent opportunities for pathogen transmission. From February-March 2015, blood, tissue and ectoparasite samples were collected from 47 wild pigs. Serologic testing found exposure to Brucella spp. (2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11%), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus (13%), porcine circovirus type 2 (36%), pseudorabies virus (64%), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (93%), Lawsonia intracellularis (93%), and porcine parvovirus (94%). Eleven (24%) samples had low titers (1:100) to Leptospira interrogans serovars Bratislava (n=6), Icterohaemorrhagiae (n=6), Pomona (n=2), and Hardjo (n=1). Kidney samples from nine pigs with Leptospira antibodies were negative for Leptospira antigens. Numerous pigs had Metastrongylus lungworms and three had Stephanurus dentatus. Lice (Hematopinus suis) and ticks (Amblyomma breviscutatum) were also detected. No antibodies to Influenza A viruses were detected. In contrast to the previous domestic swine survey, we found evidence of numerous pathogens in wild pigs including new reports of pseudorabies virus, PRRS virus, Brucella, and Leptospira in pigs on Guam. These findings highlight that domestic swine-wild pig interactions should be prevented and precautions are needed when handling wild pigs to minimize the risk of pathogen transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  7. Mechanical transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus by Simulium vittatum (Diptera: Simuliidae) to domestic swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Mead, Daniel G

    2009-11-01

    Biting flies have been suggested as mechanical vectors of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey Virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) in livestock populations during epidemic outbreaks in the western United States. We conducted a proof-of-concept study to determine whether biting flies could mechanically transmit VSNJV to livestock by using a black fly, Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt (Diptera: Simuliidae), domestic swine, Sus scrofa L., model. Black flies mechanically transmitted VSNJV to a naive host after interrupted feeding on a vesicular lesion on a previously infected host. Transmission resulted in clinical disease in the naïve host. This is the first demonstration of mechanical transmission of VSNJV to livestock by insects.

  8. Características morfológicas da distribuição vascular cerebral de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla Morphological characteristics of the cerebral vascular distribution of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Mammalia, Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr de A. Câmara Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a vascularização arterial do encéfalo do javali, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, e comparar com outras espécies. Cinco machos e cinco fêmeas foram injetados com látex colorido. O suprimento arterial do encéfalo foi descrito e análises morfológicas foram feitas. Nesta espécie o circuito arterial do encéfalo é formado por ramos da artéria carótida interna, como: as artérias comunicantes caudais, o ramo rostral, as artérias cerebrais rostrais, e artérias comunicantes rostrais.The aim this study was to verify the arterial vascularization of the wild boar brain, Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758, Suidae, and compare with other species. Five male and five female were injected with colored latex. The arterial supply of the brain was described and were done morphological analyses. In this species the arterial circuit of the brain is formed by the internal carotid artery branches, such as: the caudal communicant arteries, rostral branch, rostral cerebral arteries and rostral communicant arteries.

  9. Evidence for a link between tail biting and central monoamine metabolism in pigs (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valros, Anna; Palander, Pälvi; Heinonen, Mari; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Brunberg, Emma; Keeling, Linda; Piepponen, Petteri

    2015-05-01

    Tail biting in pigs is a major welfare problem within the swine industry. Even though there is plenty of information on housing and management-related risk factors, the biological bases of this behavioral problem are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between tail biting, based on behavioral recordings of pigs during an ongoing outbreak, and certain neurotransmitters in different brain regions of these pigs. We used a total of 33 pigs at a farm with a long-standing problem of tail biting. Three equally big behavioral phenotypic groups, balanced for gender and age were selected, the data thus consisting of 11 trios of pigs. Two of the pigs in each trio originated from the same pen: one tail biter (TB) and one tail biting victim (V). A control (C) pig was selected from a pen without significant tail biting in the same farm room. We found an effect of tail biting behavioral phenotype on the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, with a tendency for a higher 5-HIAA level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of TB compared to the other groups, while V pigs showed changes in both serotonin and dopamine metabolism in the striatum (ST) and limbic cortex (LC). Trp:BCAA and Trp:LNAA correlated positively with serotonin and 5-HIAA in the PFC, but only in TB pigs. Furthermore, in both ST and LC, several of the neurotransmitters and their metabolites correlated positively with the frequency of bites received by the pig. This is the first study indicating a link between brain neurotransmission and tail biting behavior in pigs with TB pigs showing a tendency for increased PFC serotonin metabolism and V pigs showing several changes in central dopamine and serotonin metabolism in their ST and LC, possibly due to the acute stress caused by being bitten. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Heavy metals in wild boar (Sus scrofa and related lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaccaroni

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are toxic elements naturally present in the environment which can be bioconcentrated by plants and animals and incorporated into food cycles. Thus the use of wildlife species as monitors is a useful tool to assess environmental pollution. Because of its ethological characteristics, wild boar is highly probable to be exposed to pollution, mainly by heavy metals. These pollutants, when present at high enough concentrations, can induce histological lesion in various tissues. The purpose of the present work was to investigate the levels of five metals (cadmium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in wild boar, Sus scrofa, originating from an Apennine area of Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy, and to evaluate any possible correlation with histological lesions eventually observed. Samples of several organs (liver, heart, kidney, diaphragm, abductor muscle, masseter, eye, testis, brain, lung and spleen were collected from hunted animals during winter 2001. Levels of metals were determined on freeze dried tissues employing microwave wet digestion. Toxicological analysis were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and data expressed on a dry weight basis. Histopatological analyses were performed on fixed samples of the same tissue. Highest mean values were found in kidney for cadmium and copper (7 ± 1 ppm and 30 ± 2.6 ppm respectively and in liver for copper (21.16 ± 3.28 ppm, lead (2139 ± 680.6 ppb, iron (415.92 ± 24.41 ppm and zinc (94.76 ± 6.11 ppm. In all other tissues, mean concentrations of each metal were at low levels, and were comparable one another. A statistical difference was found for iron (p<0.05, copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 in kidney, in testis (p<0.01 for zinc and in liver for copper (p<0.05 and cadmium (p<0.01 as function of age cohorts. When sex was considered, a statistical difference was found for iron in eye, for copper in heart and for cadmium in heart and kidney. Histopatological analysis allowed

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to selected viral and bacterial pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Campania Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnaro, Serena; Sasso, Simona; De Martino, Luisa; Longo, Mariangela; Iovane, Valentina; Ghiurmino, Gianbenedetto; Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Nava, Donatella; Baldi, Loredana; Pagnini, Ugo

    2010-01-01

    Serum samples were collected from wild boars (Sus scrofa) harvested during the 2005-2006 hunting season in Campania, southern Italy. Samples were tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogan, Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Aujeszky disease virus (ADV), porcine reproductive and respiratory stress syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). Of the 342 serum samples tested, 15 (4.4%) were seropositive to Brucella spp., nine (2.6%) were seropositive to L. interrogans, 66 (19.3%) were seropositive for Salmonella spp., 105 (30.7%) were seropositive for ADV, 27 (7.9%) were seropositive for PPV, and 129 (37.7%) were seropositive for PRRSV. All sera tested seronegative for SVDV and CSFV antibodies. These results, recorded for the first time in Campania, support the hypothesis that wild boar are reservoirs of certain infectious agents, but some infections in wild boars originate from their domestic counterparts.

  12. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in central and eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgorski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Javor, Andras; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Bunevich, Aleksei N.; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all k...

  13. Endovascular Perfusion Augmentation for Critical Care (EPACC) as a Resuscitative Adjunct in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Polytrauma Model of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    FUNDING SOURCE: Henry M. Jackson Foundation 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species : Total # Approved # Used this FY Total # Used to Date Sus scrofa 44 20...deeperunderstanding ofZone 1 versus Zone 3 aortic occlusion in the setting of hemorrhagic shock. From this data we havedeveloped a new treatment algorithm for...Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is an emerging technology to augment proximal blood pressure during the resuscitation of patients with non

  14. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  15. Associations of MYF5 gene polymorphisms with meat quality traits in different domestic pig (Sus scrofa populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The MYF5 gene is first inducibly expressed in muscle cell during embryonic muscle development and plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of skeletal muscle precursors. In this study we used PCR-RFLP to investigate two pig (Sus scrofa populations (n = 302 for two MYF5 gene polymorphisms, a previously unreported novel Met-Leu shift single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP MYF5/Hsp92II located on exon 1 and the previously identified intron 1 MYF5/HinfI SNP. Haplotype and association analysis showed that haplotypes of the two SNPs were significantly associated with drip loss rate (DLR, p < 0.05, water holding capacity (WHC, p < 0.05, biceps femoris meat color value (MCV2, p < 0.05, biceps femoris marbling score (MM2, p < 0.01, longissimus dorsi intramuscular fat percentage (IMF, p < 0.01 and longissimus dorsi Water moisture content (WM, p < 0.01 in the population 2. However, further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  16. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  17. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Honest signaling in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus): vocal allometry and the information content of grunt calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wondrak, Marianne; Huber, Ludwig; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-06-15

    The information conveyed in acoustic signals is a central topic in mammal vocal communication research. Body size is one form of information that can be encoded in calls. Acoustic allometry aims to identify the specific acoustic correlates of body size within the vocalizations of a given species, and formants are often a useful acoustic cue in this context. We conducted a longitudinal investigation of acoustic allometry in domestic piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus), asking whether formants of grunt vocalizations provide information concerning the caller's body size over time. On four occasions, we recorded grunts from 20 kunekune piglets, measured their vocal tract length by means of radiographs (X-rays) and weighed them. Controlling for effects of age and sex, we found that body weight strongly predicts vocal tract length, which in turn determines formant frequencies. We conclude that grunt formant frequencies could allow domestic pigs to assess a signaler's body size as it grows. Further research using playback experiments is needed to determine the perceptual role of formants in domestic pig communication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of a Commercial ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Chloé; Rossi, Sophie; Meier, Roman; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) but has been poorly described in this species. We evaluated the performance of a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in domestic swine when applied to wild boar sera. We tested 96 sera from wild boar in populations without mange history ("truly noninfected") collected in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2014, and 141 sera from free-ranging wild boar presenting mange-like lesions, including 50 live animals captured and sampled multiple times in France between May and August 2006 and three cases submitted to necropsy in Switzerland between April 2010 and February 2014. Mite infestation was confirmed by skin scraping in 20 of them ("truly infected"). We defined sensitivity of the test as the proportion of truly infected that were found ELISA-positive, and specificity as the proportion of truly noninfected that were found negative. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 80%, respectively. Success of antibody detection increased with the chronicity of lesions, and seroconversion was documented in 19 of 27 wild boar sampled multiple times that were initially negative or doubtful. In conclusion, the evaluated ELISA has been successfully applied to wild boar sera. It appears to be unreliable for early detection in individual animals but may represent a useful tool for population surveys.

  20. Levantamento da fauna de Coleoptera que habita a carcaça de Sus scrofa L., em Curitiba, Paraná A study of the Coleoptera (Insecta fauna that inhabits Sus scrofa L. carcass in Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Makoto Mise

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou levantar a fauna de Coleoptera associada à carcaça de Sus scrofa L.,1758, espécie utilizada como modelo em Entomologia Forense. O acréscimo ou a substituição seqüencial das espécies de insetos pode ser utilizado para estimar o intervalo post mortem (IPM. O experimento foi realizado no Centro Politécnico (UFPR, de setembro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. A cada estação foi sacrificado um suíno de 15 kg no local, colocado em gaiola. A captura dos insetos foi realizada diariamente em bandeja posicionada abaixo da carcaça e em armadilha tipo Shannon modificada, e a cada 14 dias em cinco armadilhas do tipo pit-fall. Foram coletados 4.360 Coleoptera, pertencentes a 112 espécies de 26 famílias, 12 consideradas de importância forense. A coleta ativa realizada na bandeja foi responsável pela maior captura (2.023 espécimes, seguida pela armadilha Shannon modificada (2.016 espécimes e por último pelas do tipo pit-fall (324 espécimes. Staphylinidae foi mais coletada na bandeja e Shannon modificada, e Silphidae na armadilha pit-fall. Os principais hábitos encontrados foram predador/parasita (55%e onívoro (38,05%, com poucas espécies consideradas necrófagas (1,31%.This paper sought to assess the Coleoptera fauna associated with carcasses of Sus scrofa L., 1758, which is usually used as model in Forensic Entomology. The addition and sequential substitution of insect species could be used to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI. The present study took place in Centro Politécnico (UFPR, between september 2005 to september 2006. A pig weighting 15 kg was sacrificed each season and put inside a cage. Sampling is made daily in a tray placed below the carcass and in a Shannon modified trap, and each 14 days in five pit-fall traps. 4,360 beetles were collected, belonging to 112 species of 26 families, 12 were considered of forensic potential. The active collecting made in the tray was responsible for the largest number of

  1. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Kusza

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia. We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1 clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023 and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002. SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1 north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2 Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3 Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  2. Contemporary genetic structure, phylogeography and past demographic processes of wild boar Sus scrofa population in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, Szilvia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Scandura, Massimo; Borowik, Tomasz; Jávor, András; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Kolesnikov, Mikhail; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2014-01-01

    The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most widely distributed mammals in Europe. Its demography was affected by various events in the past and today populations are increasing throughout Europe. We examined genetic diversity, structure and population dynamics of wild boar in Central and Eastern Europe. MtDNA control region (664 bp) was sequenced in 254 wild boar from six countries (Poland, Hungary, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the European part of Russia). We detected 16 haplotypes, all known from previous studies in Europe; 14 of them belonged to European 1 (E1) clade, including 13 haplotypes from E1-C and one from E1-A lineages. Two haplotypes belonged respectively to the East Asian and the Near Eastern clade. Both haplotypes were found in Russia and most probably originated from the documented translocations of wild boar. The studied populations showed moderate haplotype (0.714±0.023) and low nucleotide diversity (0.003±0.002). SAMOVA grouped the genetic structuring of Central and Eastern European wild boar into three subpopulations, comprising of: (1) north-eastern Belarus and the European part of Russia, (2) Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and most of Belarus, and (3) Hungary. The multimodal mismatch distribution, Fu's Fs index, Bayesian skyline plot and the high occurrence of shared haplotypes among populations did not suggest strong demographic fluctuations in wild boar numbers in the Holocene and pre-Holocene times. This study showed relatively weak genetic diversity and structure in Central and Eastern European wild boar populations and underlined gaps in our knowledge on the role of southern refugia and demographic processes shaping genetic diversity of wild boar in this part of Europe.

  3. Serologic, molecular, and pathologic survey of pseudorabies virus infection in hunted wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, Ranieri; Varuzza, Paolo; Mazzei, Maurizio; Poli, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    To investigate pseudorabies-virus (PrV) -antibody and viral-DNA prevalence, we collected blood, nasal and genital swabs, and tonsillar and lymph-node tissue samples from 139 wild boars (Sus scrofa; 39 piglets, 30 juveniles, and 70 adults), during the hunting season of 2010-2011 in Tuscany, Central Italy. We performed immunohistochemistry with anti-PrV monoclonal antibodies on selected tissue samples. Forty-three of 139 (30.9%) boars were PrV-antibody positive and a 1,954-base-pair PrV-specific product was amplified from nine nasal (6.5%) and 26 genital (18.7%) swabs. Sequence analysis of PrV-positive PCR products revealed identity scores of 99-100% with Suid herpesvirus 1 strain Becker (JF797219) and confirmed the identification of PrV DNA in tested swabs. There was significantly higher antibody prevalence in adults than in juveniles and in piglets than in juveniles. The prevalence of viral DNA was significantly higher in genital swabs than in nasal specimens. The percentage of positive nasal swabs did not differ among age classes. Piglets had a higher percentage of PCR-positive genital swabs than juvenile and adult subjects (30.8% vs. 13.3% and 14.3%, respectively). Results confirmed that PrV infection is widespread in the wild boar population in the study area. The presence of anti-PrV antibodies and of the PrV virus in piglets could be related to vertical transmission of the virus. This hypothesis was also supported by a higher presence of viral genome in genital swabs than in nasal swabs. This field study supports the importance of vertical transmission of PrV, and the high prevalence of virus in genital swabs supports venereal transmission in adult feral boars.

  4. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  6. ESTUDIO DE LA ENTOMOFAUNA SUCESIONAL ASOCIADA A LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE UN CADÁVER DE CERDO DOMÉSTICO (Sus scrofa) EN CONDICIONES DE CAMPO

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar-Ortega, Jorge; Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad de Nariño Cll. 26ª No 23-77, San Juan de Pasto, Nariño

    2008-01-01

    Durante los meses de julio a septiembre de 2003, se realizó la caracterización de la entomofauna de importancia forense presente en la descomposición de dos cerdos (Sus scrofa), utilizados como sujeto de muestreo y control respectivamente, en la granja experimental de la Federación Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia (sede Consacá, Nariño). Los primeros insectos colonizadores del cadáver fueron las familias Calliphoridae y Sarcophagidae (Diptera); de la primera se capturaron individuos pertenec...

  7. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) as secondary reservoir of Fasciola hepatica in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; Manga-González, M Yolanda; Peixoto, Raquel; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Valero, M Adela

    2013-12-06

    Fasciolosis is an emerging or reemerging human and animal disease in numerous parts of the world. In Galicia (NW, Spain), the wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild ungulate in terms of abundance and distribution. Its population has continuously increased over the past decades and this population growth has been accompanied by a reduction of habitats, so that the wild boar populations encroach more and more frequently onto agricultural lands. The increase of the interface area between livestock and the wild boars frequently involves the sharing of pastures and water sources, so that the circulation of common pathogens is propitiated. This is the first report concerning the importance of the wild boar as a possible reservoir of Fasciola hepatica infection in Spain. Livers from 358 hunted wild boars were analyzed showing that 11.2% were parasitized by F. hepatica, with burdens ranging from 1 to 14 flukes (mean=2.3). Fecal analysis demonstrated that 40.0% of parasitized animals shed F. hepatica eggs with a mean excretion of 6.1 eggs per gram of feces (epg). The presence of coproantigens analyzed by MM3-COPRO ELISA was positive in 62.9% of infected wild boars. After incubation, the percentage of hatched eggs ranged between 41.0% and 90.0% suggesting that the wild boar is very likely to contribute to the environmental contamination with viable parasite eggs. Comparative morphometric data were obtained using a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements. F. hepatica from cattle, sheep and wild boars from the same geographical area presents a similar body development and gravidity. Our study shows for the first time that the F. hepatica uterus from the wild boar presents an intermediate size between that found in primary reservoir hosts such as cattle and sheep, i.e., the individual potential egg output capacity of the wild boar does not greatly differ from that detected in Galician livestock. These results show that F. hepatica in

  8. The European Distribution of Sus Scrofa. Model Outputs from the Project Described within the Poster – Where are All the Boars? An Attempt to Gain a Continental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Stewart Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar is a host of a number of arthropod-vectored diseases and its numbers are on the rise in mainland Europe. The species potentially impacts ecosystems, humans and farming practices and so its distribution is of interest to policy makers in a number of fields beyond that of the primarily epidemiological goal of this study. Three statistical model outputs describing the distribution and abundance of the species Sus scrofa (Wild boar are included in this data package. The extent of this dataset covers continental Europe. These data were presented as a poster [1] at the conference Genes, Ecosystems and Risk of Infection (GERI 2015. The first of the three models provide a European map presenting the probability of presence of Sus scrofa, which can be used to describe the likely geographical distribution of the species. The second and third models provide indices to help describe the likely abundance across the continent. The two indices include “the proportion of suitable habitat where presence is estimated” and a simple classification of boar abundance across Europe using quantiles of existing abundance data and proxies.

  9. Comparison of Microchip Transponder and Noncontact Infrared Thermometry with Rectal Thermometry in Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Amanda L; Hanson, Jarod M; Gabbard, Jon D; Johnson, Scott K; Register, Emery T; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2016-01-01

    During disease outbreaks, core temperature is a useful health metric in swine, due to the presence of pyrexia especially during the acute phase of infection. Despite technologic advances in other facets of swine production and health management, rectal thermometry continues to be the 'gold standard' for measuring core body temperature. However, for various reasons, collecting rectal temperatures can be difficult and unsafe depending on the housing modality. In addition, the delay between insertion of the rectal thermometer and obtaining a reading can affect measurement accuracy, especially when the pig requires physical restraint. Clearly safer, faster, and more accurate and precise temperature acquisition methods that necessitate minimal or no handling of swine are needed. We therefore compared rectal thermometers, subcutaneous microchips, and an inexpensive handheld infrared thermometer by measuring the core body temperature of 24 male castrated piglets at random intervals over a 5-wk period. The core body temperature (mean ± 1 SD) was 39.3±0.5 °C by rectal thermometry, 39.0±0.7 °C by microchip transponder, and 34.3±1.0 °C by infrared thermometry; these 3 values differed significantly. Although the readings obtain by using infrared thermometry were numerically lower than those from the other methods, it is arguably the safest method for assessing the core temperature of swine and showed strong relative correlation with rectal temperature.

  10. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ultraviolet rays.” Photochemistry and Photobiology. 5, 1966. 533–542. Gentilhomme, E. and Y. Neveux. “Epidermal Physiology.” In P...papillary dermis, homing and maturation of cells responsible for the immune barrier, protection against ultraviolet 4 Distribution A: Approved for public...Optical Radiation ROI – Region of interest, as in an area selected in an image by a computer program for analysis Steiner Stain – A stain used in histology UV – Ultraviolet , a region in the electromagnetic spectrum

  11. Espansione del Cinghiale (Sus scrofa e danni alle coltivazioni in un'area delle Prealpi occidentali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brangi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wild boar (Sus scrofa spreading and crop damage in an area of western Prealps We analysed the agricultural damage reports from 1986 to 1996 to evidence the wild boar distribution in Biella province and the pattern of land occupancy. These reports were yearly divided and mapped for the single municipalities to obtain a picture of the range variations in the time. From the same reports we calculated three indexes of the importance of the Wild boar damages: the damaged surface for each municipality, its percentage value on the surface of each municipality and the occurrence of damages for each municipality. During the study period, we observed a dramatic increase of the number of municipalities affected by wild boar damages and of the species range. The yearly damaged surface grew over 25 times too. The Discriminant Function Analysis carried out between damaged and undamaged municipalities correctly classified 78,1% of total cases by three variables: mixed woods, pastures and dry crops, the second one being the most important. The Multiple Regression Analysis of the damages occurrence vs. habitat variables explained 77,3% of independent variable variance by five variables, which entered the model. The trend analysis, carried out by the seasonal regression, using the surface and the occurrence of damages, evidenced a marked seasonality of the damages and a stability trend, after an initial positive trend. Riassunto Per evidenziare la distribuzione del Cinghiale in provincia di Biella e le modalità d'occupazione del territorio nel corso degli anni, sono state utilizzate le denunce dei danni pervenute all Amministrazione provinciale dal 1986 al 1996. Queste sono state ripartite per comune e mappate anno per anno per fornire una rappresentazione delle variazioni di areale nel corso del tempo. Dalle stesse denunce di danni e per lo stesso arco di tempo sono stati calcolati tre indici

  12. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5–10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five...... domestic pig populations. European wild boar were characterized by significantly higher levels of haplotype diversity compared to European domestic pigs (HD = 0.904 ± 0.011 and HD = 0.491 ± 0.077 respectively). Relationships among STR haplotypes were investigated by combining them with single nucleotide...... polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across...

  13. Serological investigation of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Peter; Chaignat, Valerie; Klimpel, Diana; Diller, Roland; Melzer, Falk; Müller, Wolfgang; Tomaso, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks in humans have recently been reported in many European countries, but data on the occurrence in the animal population are scarce. In North America, seroconversion of omnivores and carnivores was used as indicator for the presence of tularemia, for the European fauna, however, data are barely available. Therefore, the suitability of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as indicators for the circulation of F. tularensis in Germany was evaluated. Serum samples from 566 wild boars and 457 red foxes were collected between 1995 and 2012 in three federal states in Central Germany (Hesse, Saxony-Anhalt, and Thuringia). The overall rate of seropositive animals was 1.1% in wild boars and 7.4% in red foxes. In conclusion, serological examination of red foxes is recommended, because they can be reliably used as indicator animals for the presence of F. tularensis in the environment.

  14. Identification of mtDNA lineages of Sus scrofa by multiplex single base extension for the authentication of processed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Silva Santos, Liliana; Carneiro, Joao; Pereira, Filipe; Amorim, Antonio

    2011-07-13

    A genetic method to identify the breed of origin could serve as a useful tool for inspecting the authenticity of the increasing number of monobreed foodstuffs, such as those derived from small local European pig breeds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is practically the only reliable genomic target for PCR in processed products, and its haploid nature and strict maternal inheritance greatly facilitate genetic analysis. As a result of strategies that sought to improve the production traits of European pigs, most industrial breeds presently show a high frequency of Asian alleles, while the absence or low frequency of such Asian alleles has been observed in small rustic breeds from which highly prized dry-cured and other traditional products are derived. Therefore, the detection of Asian ancestry would indicate nonconformity in Protected Denomination of Origin products. This study presents a single base extension assay based on 15 diagnostic mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Asian and European Sus scrofa lineages. The test was robust, sensitive and accurate in a wide range of processed foodstuffs and allowed accurate detection of pig genetic material and identification of maternal ancestry. A market survey suggested that nonconformity of products derived from Portuguese breeds is an unusual event at present, but regular surveys both in the local populations and in commercial products would be advisible. Taking into consideration the limitations presented by other methodologies, this mtDNA-based test probably attains the highest resolution for the direct genetic test for population of origin in Sus scrofa food products.

  15. Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera associados à decomposição de carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae em área de Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera associated to the decay process of Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae carcasses in a Cerrado area of Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Meneses de Barros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma lista de dípteros sarcofagídeos adultos coletados em carcaça de porco Sus scrofa, em área de Cerrado, Distrito Federal, Brasil, sendo um estudo sobre a composição da fauna de Diptera na região. O trabalho de campo acompanhou o processo de decomposição da carcaça e foi realizado durante 45 dias. A partir de 4.626 indivíduos coletados foram identificadas 28 espécies, sendo 16 novos registros para a região estudada.This work presents a list of adult flesh flies collected from a pig carrion Sus scrofa, in a Cerrado area of Distrito Federal, Brazil, being a study on the composition of the dipteran fauna in the region. The field work followed the decay of the carrion and was conduced for 45 days. From 4,626 collected flesh flies, 28 species were identified, consisting in 16 new records for this region.

  16. Effect of Capreolus capreolus and Sus scrofa excreta on alanine aminotransferase activity in Glechoma hederacea leaves in conditions of Cd pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects the analysis of Cd impact on the total activity (nM pyruvic acid/ml s of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2 nitrogen metabolism and the content (mg/ml of water-soluble protein fraction (albumin in Glechoma hederacea L. leaves subject, which dominated in the research area (natural floodplain oak with Stellaria holostea L.. Cd was introduced in the form of salts Cd(NO32 in the concentrations of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.50 g/m2, equivalent to Cd in 1, 5 and 10 doses of MAC. The content of doses of MAC of Cd (5 mg/kg soil was taken into account during introduction. We observed the inhibition of the activity of ALT 3–4 times (with adding the Cd salts at a dose of 1 and 5 МAС compared to controls (area without pollution of Cd and excreta of mammals. This stress reaction took place in the protein complex as well. Thus, albumin content was equal to 72% and 80% (with Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (the area without pollution and excretory functions of mammals. It proved nonspecific response to stress. Using excreta of Capreolus capreolus L. and Sus scrofa L. shows the reduction of Cd effects and increasing the metabolic activity of ALT by 41% and 105%, respectively (with adding of Cd 1 MAC compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 1 MAC. The effect of Cd 5 MAC is offset (only with the introduction of C. capreolus excreta compared to control (pollution by Cd at a dose 5 MAC. Normalization of the albumin content (with adding of Cd 1 and 5 MAC compared to control (сontrol of Cd at a dose 1 MAC and сontrol of Cd at a dose 5 MAC with using of excreta of C. capreolus was observed. In conditions of Cd at a doze 10 MAC the ALT activity was reduced 2 times with the introduction of excreta of C. capreolus as S. scrofa compared to control (Cd at a dose 10 MAC. The introduction of excreta of S. scrofa compared with C. capreolus restored the albumin content by 10% to the control. Thus, the feasibility of using different biological

  17. Identification of chromosomal locations associated with tail biting and being a victim of tail-biting behaviour in the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kaitlin; Zanella, Ricardo; Ventura, Carlos; Johansen, Hanne Lind; Framstad, Tore; Janczak, Andrew; Zanella, Adroaldo J; Neibergs, Holly Louise

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with tail biting or being a victim of tail biting in Norwegian crossbred pigs using a genome-wide association study with PLINK case-control analysis. DNA was extracted from hair or blood samples collected from 98 trios of crossbred pigs located across Norway. Each trio came from the same pen and consisted of one pig observed to initiate tail biting, one pig which was the victim of tail biting and a control pig which was not involved in either behaviour. DNA was genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay. After quality assurance filtering, 53,952 SNPs remained comprising 74 animals (37 pairs) for the tail biter versus control comparison and 53,419 SNPs remained comprising 80 animals (40 pairs) for the victim of tail biting versus control comparison. An association with being a tail biter was observed on Sus scrofa chromosome 16 (SSC16; p = 1.6 × 10(-5)) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 3.9 × 10(-5)). An association with being the victim of tail biting was observed on Sus scrofa chromosomes 1 (SSC1; p = 4.7 × 10(-5)), 9 (SSC9; p = 3.9 × 10(-5)), 18 (SSC18; p = 7 × 10(-5) for 9,602,511 bp, p = 3.4 × 10(-5) for 9,653,881 bp and p = 5.3 × 10(-5) for 29,577,783 bp) and an unassigned chromosome (p = 6.1 × 10(-5)). An r(2) = 0.96 and a D' = 1 between the two SNPs at 9 Mb on SSC18 indicated extremely high linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that these two markers represent a single locus. These results provide evidence of a moderate genetic association between the propensity to participate in tail-biting behaviour and the likelihood of becoming a victim of this behaviour.

  18. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Escarbaduras, alteraciones al suelo y erosión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa es uno de los vertebrados exóticos más perjudiciales para las comunidades nativas de los sitios donde ha sido introducido, sobre todo en islas oceánicas. Los cerdos cimarrones habitan la Isla del Coco desde 1793 y su abundancia se estima en 400-500 individuos. Para cuantificar el impacto de los cerdos cimarrones estimé los efectos de la actividad de escarbadura y su influencia sobre la erosión natural en la Isla del Coco. Durante un año recorrí mensualmente 15 km en senderos calculando el área escarbada por transecto y recurrencia en el escarbado. Durante ocho meses comparé tasas de erosión con y sin escarbaderos. Calculé la tasa de escarbadura anual entre un 10 y un 20 % de la superficie total de la Isla del Coco. El área escarbada fue la única variable de las medidas que se correlacionó con la tasa de erosión del suelo. La tasa de erosión sin escarbaderos fue de 23.6 kg/ha/año y con escarbaderos 200.4 kg/ha/año (P Feral pigs (Sus scrofa are of the most damaging exotic vertebrates, specially on oceanic island native communities. Feral pigs inhabit Cocos Island since 1793 and there are around 400-500 individuals. In order to quantify the impacts of the feral pigs at Cocos Island, I calculated the effect of the rooting activity and its influence on the natural erosion. During one year I walked, monthly, 15 km on trails estimating rooted area by transect and rooting recurrence. During eight months I compared erosion rates with and without rootings. I estimated the annual rooting rate between 10 and 20 % of the total island surface. The rooted area was the only measured variable which correlated with the soil erosion rate. The erosion rate without rootings was 23.6 kg/ha/year and with rootings was 200.4 kg/ha/year (P < 0.01. The disturbances provoked by the rootings were not scattered homogeneously through the island. The rootings, together with the natural landslides, dominate the soil disturbance

  19. El jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa: Un invasor biológico como presa reciente del puma (Puma concolor en el sur de Chile The European wild boar (Sus scrofa: A biological invader as a recent prey of the American puma (Puma concolor in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR SKEWES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la dieta del puma (Puma concoloren los anos 1988 y 2004 en los faldeos de los volcanes Mocho y Choshuenco, pluviselva valdiviana, sur de Chile, a través de la identificación de ítemes-presas en sus heces y la búsqueda en terreno de carcasas de jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa.Se registra por primera vez al jabalí europeo entre los ítemes-presas del puma en Chile. El puma depredó predominantemente sobre juveniles y los porcentajes de consumo variaron entre un 17-37 % dependiendo del método empleado para analizar el contenido de presas presentes en sus heces.The diet of the American puma (Puma concolorwas studied in 1988 and 2004 in the foothills of the volcanoes Mocho and Choshuenco, Valdivian rainforest, southern Chile, through the identification of prey-items in their feces and field surveys of European wild boar (Sus scrofacarcasses. We reported for the first time the invader European wild boar as a puma's prey in Chile. The puma preys mainly on juveniles and its percentage of consumed prey ranges between 17 and 37 % according to the method employed to assess the analyses of their feces prey contents.

  20. Development of a rapid high-efficiency scalable process for acetylated Sus scrofa cationic trypsin production from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingzhi; Wu, Feilin; Xu, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Trypsin is one of the most important enzymatic tools in proteomics and biopharmaceutical studies. Here, we describe the complete recombinant expression and purification from a trypsinogen expression vector construct. The Sus scrofa cationic trypsin gene with a propeptide sequence was optimized according to Escherichia coli codon-usage bias and chemically synthesized. The gene was inserted into pET-11c plasmid to yield an expression vector. Using high-density E. coli fed-batch fermentation, trypsinogen was expressed in inclusion bodies at 1.47 g/L. The inclusion body was refolded with a high yield of 36%. The purified trypsinogen was then activated to produce trypsin. To address stability problems, the trypsin thus produced was acetylated. The final product was generated upon gel filtration. The final yield of acetylated trypsin was 182 mg/L from a 5-L fermenter. Our acetylated trypsin product demonstrated higher BAEE activity (30,100 BAEE unit/mg) than a commercial product (9500 BAEE unit/mg, Promega). It also demonstrated resistance to autolysis. This is the first report of production of acetylated recombinant trypsin that is stable and suitable for scale-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards harmonised procedures in wildlife epidemiological investigations: a serosurvey of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerli, Olivia; Blatter, Sohvi; Boadella, Mariana; Schöning, Janne; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a (re-)emerging disease in European countries, including Switzerland. This study assesses the seroprevalence of infection with Mycobacterium bovis and closely related agents in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland, because wild boar are potential maintenance hosts of these pathogens. The study employs harmonised laboratory methods to facilitate comparison with the situation in other countries. Eighteen out of 743 blood samples tested seropositive (2.4%, CI: 1.5-3.9%) by ELISA, and the results for 61 animals previously assessed using culture and PCR indicated that this serological test was not 100% specific for M. bovis, cross-reacting with M. microti. Nevertheless, serology appears to be an appropriate test methodology in the harmonisation of wild boar testing throughout Europe. In accordance with previous findings, the low seroprevalence found in wild boar suggests wildlife is an unlikely source of the M. bovis infections recently detected in cattle in Switzerland. This finding contrasts with the epidemiological situation pertaining in southern Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ORIGENS, RAMIFICAÇÕES E DISTRIBUIÇÕES DAS ARTÉRIAS FACIAIS EM SUÍNOS (SUS SCROFA DOMESTICUS – LINNAEUS, 1758 DA LINHAGEM SADIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Aparecida Castilho Maia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins, ramifications and distributions of the left and right facial arteries were studied in 30 stillborn pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus of the Sadia lineage, 17 males and 13 females, with the aim of increasing morphological knowledge of these structures in terms of their localization and distribution. The species was chosen for its well known commercial importance. The specimen had its artery system filled with stained solution of neoprene latex 601 A and afterwards fixed in an aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. It was observed that in 100% of the studied animals the facial arteries originated from the ventrolateral surface of the external carotid artery, rostrally to the lingual artery. The gland branches divided, supplying the mandibular, parotid, monostomática portion of the sublingual and part of the cervical thymus in muscular branches, irrigating the medial pterygoid, masseter, ventral aspect of the digastrics and cutaneous of the face muscles. Furthermore, the pharyngal branch irrigated the soft palate, tympanic bula and basihyoid, and the submentalis artery was directed towards the submental and the dorsal face of the digastrics muscles.

  3. The bioaccumulation of lead in the organs of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), red deer (Cervus elaphus L.), and wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Udała, Jan; Pilarczyk, Renata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of lead (Pb) in the livers and kidneys of free-living animals from Poland, with regard to the differences in tissue Pb content between the species. The research material consisted of liver and kidney samples collected from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) that had been hunted in 16 voivodeships of Poland. The concentration of lead had been measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method. The results show that differences in lead concentration in the organs depended on the geographic location. In roe deer and red deer, the highest mean lead concentrations in the livers and kidneys, observed in the central region of Poland, were twice as high as the lowest concentration of Pb in these animals from the northeastern region of the country. In wild boar, the highest mean concentration of Pb was noted in the livers of animals from the central region of Poland and in the kidneys of animals from the northwestern region, while the lowest lead concentrations in both organs were typical for wild boar from the southeast part of the country. Our results show that areas located in the center and in the north of Poland carry most of the burden of lead bioaccumulation.

  4. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  5. Survey of gastrointestinal parasites in wild boar (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in the Aynaloo protected area, East Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Norouzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are a threat to the wildlife by endangering the health of wild animals and serving as a source of transmission of infectious agents to livestock and humans. Despite the distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa, wild goat (Capra aegagrus and red deer (Cervus elaphus throughout the world, information on their parasitic infections is limited. Knowledge of the parasitic fauna of animals in protected areas may be used in protection of endangered species. The present study aimed to investigate the status of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in wild boar, wild goat and red deer in the Aynaloo protected area, Northwest of Kaleybar city, East Azerbaijan province. For this purpose, in spring 2015, 30 fecal samples of wild boar, 30 fecal samples of wild goat and 30 fecal samples of red deer were collected. The samples were processed using direct smear and Clayton lane floatation technique. Five species of helminths were detected from wild boar fecal samples consisting of Trichuris suis, Strongyloides suis, Physocephalus sexalatus, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus apri. Among them,  one species (Strongyloides suis was reported for the first time in Iran. Protozoa were not detected in the fecal samples of the wild boar. Wild goats were infected with Oesophagostomum columbianum, Muellerius capillaris and Eimeria spp. Respiratory larva and Eimeria spp. were detected from red deer samples.

  6. First detection of Sarcoptes scabiei from domesticated pig (Sus scrofa) and genetic characterization of S. scabiei from pet, farm and wild hosts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Pozzi, Paolo S; Bouznach, Arieli; Shkap, Varda

    2015-08-01

    In this report we describe for the first time the detection of Sarcoptes scabiei type suis mites on domestic pigs in Israel and examine its genetic variation compared with S. sabiei from other hosts. Microscopic examination of skin samples from S. scabiei-infested pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) revealed all developmental stages of S. scabiei. To detect genetic differences between S. scabiei from different hosts, samples obtained from pig, rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus), fox (Vulpes vulpes), jackal (Canis aureus) and hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) were compared with GenBank-annotated sequences of three genetic markers. Segments from the following genes were examined: cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), glutathione-S-transferase 1 (GST1), and voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC). COX1 analysis did not show correlation between host preference and genetic identity. However, GST1 and VSSC had a higher percentage of identical sites within S. scabiei type suis sequences, compared with samples from other hosts. Taking into account the limited numbers of GST1 and VSSC sequences available for comparison, this high similarity between sequences of geographically-distant, but host-related populations, may suggest that different host preference is at least partially correlated with genetic differences. This finding may help in future studies of the factors that drive host preferences in this parasite.

  7. Analysis of Serum Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Given by Alternate Routes in Swine (Sus scrofa) During Controlled Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Animal Species: To_tal #Approved # Used this FY Total# Used to Date Sus scrota 16 16 16 2. PROTOCOL TYPE I CHARACTERISTICS: (Check all applicable ...Check applicable ) 4. PROTOCOL ST A TUS: *Request Protocol Closure: _ Inactive, protocol never initiated _ Prolonged Restraint _ Multiple...analysis was delayed from October 2016 to June 2017 when the final samples were run. There were two complications which required early euthanasia of

  8. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  9. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wurster

    Full Text Available Feral pigs (Sus scrofa are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13C and δ(15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  10. A 38-year study on Trichinella spp. in wild boar (Sus scrofa) of Latvia shows a stable incidence with an increased parasite biomass in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Deksne, Gunita; Marucci, Gianluca; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Jahundoviča, Inese; Daukšte, Anžela; Zdankovska, Aleksandra; Bērziņa, Zanda; Esīte, Zanda; Bella, Antonino; Galati, Fabio; Krūmiņa, Angelika; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-01

    Trichinella spp. are zoonotic parasites transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked meat of different animal species. The most common source of infection for humans is meat from pigs and wild boar (Sus scrofa). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the incidence of Trichinella spp. infections in wild boar hunted in Latvia over a 38 year interval (1976 to 2013). A total 120,609 wild boars were individually tested for Trichinella spp. by trichinoscopy and, in case of negativity, by artificial digestion of 25 g muscles, in the 1976-2005 period, and by artificial digestion of 25-50 g muscles in the 2006-2013 period. Trichinella spp. larvae were identified at the species level by multiplex PCR. In the study period, the overall prevalence of infected wild boar was 2.5%. Trichinella britovi was the predominant (90%) species. The incidence of Trichinella spp. infection in wild boar exhibited two different trends. From 1976 to 1987, the incidence of infected/hunted wild boar increased from 0.23% to 2.56%, then it decreased to 0.19 in 1994. Thereafter, the incidence fluctuated between 0.05% and 0.37%. A statistically significant (P Latvia increased by 4.9 times and the hunting bag by 9.7 times, with a stable incidence of Trichinella spp. in the population. It follows that the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae and of T. britovi, in particular, increased. The incidence trends of Trichinella spp. in wild boar could be related to the role played by the snow in reducing the thermal shock and muscle putrefaction which increases the survival of the larvae in muscle tissues of carrion in the 1976-1993 period; and, in the 1997-2013 period, to the increased biomass of Trichinella spp. due to the increased carnivore populations, which are the main reservoirs of these parasites.

  11. Survey of [i]Toxoplasma gondii [/i]antibodies in meat juice of wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. The aims of the study were: 1 to detect antibodies against T[i]oxoplasma gondii[/i] from wild boar meat; 1 establish seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the wild boar population; 3 establish risk factors concerned in higher possible seroprevalence; 4 to estimate the usefulness of meat juice for detection of [i]T. gondii[/i] antibodies in wild boar. Material and methods. Diaphragm meat juice samples from 656 wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i] were collected during the hunting seasons between September 2008 – October 2010 from 9 districts of the Czech Republic. The samples were stratified per age category into 2 groups: piglets (n = 279 and yearlings together with adults (n = 377. The in-house ELISA test was used for the detection of antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]from the meat juice samples. Results. Antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]were detected by in-house ELISA in 260 of 656 wild boars (40% with 26% prevalence in piglets (72/279 and 50% prevalence in yearlings and adults (188/377. The district total seroprevalences ranged between 32% – 59%, with a significantly higher prevalence in the district of Havlíčkův Brod (59%. Statistically significant differences (p-value < 0.05 were found between 2 age categories, and between 9 districts, with a significant variability in the district of Havlíčkův Brod. Seroprevalence correlated positively with farm density, but without any statistical significance. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  12. Insectos asociados a fenómenos de descomposición cadavérica en cerdo blanco ( Sus scrofa en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Ospina Fonseca

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio tuvo como objeto iniciar la investigación de los insectos asociados a fenómenos dedescomposición en una zona alta, específicamente en el municipio de Mosquera (Cundina-marca. Para lograrlo se usó como biomodelo cerdo blanco (Sus scrofa por su similitud conlos humanos, éste se sacrificó y se dejó al aire libre durante ocho meses. El proceso de des-composición se dividió en cinco fases: fresco (2 días, hinchado (13 días, descomposiciónactiva (15 días, descomposición avanzada (31 días y restos secos (160 días. Durante esteperiodo se recogieron 3.539 individuos, el 86.69% pertenecientes a Diptera y el 8.36% aColeoptera. Las familias más numerosas de Diptera fueron Muscidae (62.08% y Calliphoridae(14.44%, mientras que en Coleoptera fueron Silphidae (68.58% y Staphylinidae (14.86%.Se pudo observar la participación de los géneros Calliphora, Paralucilia y Chloroprocta, estosgéneros no aparecen en zonas bajas y podrían ser propios de zonas altas. No se presentarongrupos exclusivos para cada fase del proceso, aunque la presencia y abundancia de Diptera fuemayor al inicio de la descomposición, mientras que Coleoptera (exceptuando Silphidae fuemás abundante y activo al final del proceso. La lluvia ocasionó una "regresión" en la sucesiónde insectos. El presente trabajo no constituye una herramienta de carácter legal pero es elprimer trabajo sobre entomología forense realizado en la Sabana de Bogotá y es base paratrabajos posteriores en la zona.

  13. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sarah J.; Miller, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for risk management of agricultural systems including epidemiological studies, food safety, biosecurity issues, emergency

  14. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae) en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Composición de su dieta, estado reproductivo y genética

    OpenAIRE

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-01-01

    Los cerdos cimarrones (Sus scrofa) provocan diferentes tipos de daños particularmente en islas oceánicas. En la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, fueron introducidos en 1793 y se reprodujeron exitosamente. Para reunir datos sobre la ecología de los cerdos cimarrones y conocer su impacto sobre algunas comunidades de la Isla del Coco, analicé su dieta, estado reproductivo, genética y los efectos de la depredación. Estudié la dieta por medio de análisis estomacales en una época seca y otra húmeda. Dete...

  15. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  16. Humans (Homo sapiens) judge the emotional content of piglet (Sus scrofa domestica) calls based on simple acoustic parameters, not personality, empathy, nor attitude toward animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruščáková, Iva L; Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Tallet, Céline; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-05-01

    The vocal expression of emotion is likely driven by shared physiological principles among species. However, which acoustic features promote decoding of emotional state and how the decoding is affected by their listener's psychology remain poorly understood. Here we tested how acoustic features of piglet vocalizations interact with psychological profiles of human listeners to affect judgments of emotional content of heterospecific vocalizations. We played back 48 piglet call sequences recorded in four different contexts (castration, isolation, reunion, nursing) to 60 listeners. Listeners judged the emotional intensity and valence of the recordings and were further asked to attribute a context of emission from four proposed contexts. Furthermore, listeners completed a series of questionnaires assessing their personality (NEO-FFI personality inventory), empathy [Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)] and attitudes to animals (Animal Attitudes Scale). None of the listeners' psychological traits affected the judgments. On the contrary, acoustic properties of recordings had a substantial effect on ratings. Recordings were rated as more intense with increasing pitch (mean fundamental frequency) and increasing proportion of vocalized sound within each stimulus recording and more negative with increasing pitch and increasing duration of the calls within the recording. More complex acoustic properties (jitter, harmonic-to-noise ratio, and presence of subharmonics) did not seem to affect the judgments. The probability of correct context recognition correlated positively with the assessed emotion intensity for castration and reunion calls, and negatively for nursing calls. In conclusion, listeners judged emotions from pig calls using simple acoustic properties and the perceived emotional intensity might guide the identification of the context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The Influence of Antral Ulcers on Intramural Gastric Nerve Projections Supplying the Pyloric Sphincter in the Pig (Sus scrofa domestica-Neuronal Tracing Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zalecki

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcerations in the region of antrum pylori represent a serious medical problem in humans and animals. Such localization of ulcers can influence the intrinsic descending nerve supply to the pyloric sphincter. The pyloric function is precisely regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic nerves. Impaired neural regulation could result in pyloric sphincter dysfunction and gastric emptying malfunction. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of gastric antral ulcerations on the density and distribution of intramural gastric descending neurons supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs.The experiment was performed on 2 groups of pigs: healthy gilts (n=6 and gilts with experimentally induced peptic ulcers in the region of antrum pylori (n=6. Gastric neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were labeled using the retrograde neuronal tracing technique (20μl of Fast Blue tracer injected into the pyloric sphincter muscle. After a week survival period the animals were sacrificed and the stomachs were collected. Then, the stomach wall was cross-cut into 0.5cm thick sections taken in specified intervals (section I - 1.5cm; section II - 3.5cm; section III - 5.5cm; section IV - 7.5cm starting from the sphincter. Consecutive microscopic slices prepared from each section were analyzed under fluorescent microscope to count traced neurons. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The total number of FB-positive perikarya observed within all studied sections significantly decreased from 903.3 ± 130.7 in control to 243.8 ± 67.3 in experimental animals. In healthy pigs 76.1 ± 6.7% of labeled neurons were observed within the section I, 23.53 ± 6.5% in section II and only occasional cells in section III. In experimental animals, as many as 93.8 ± 2.1% of labeled cells were observed within the section I and only 6.2 ± 2.2% in section II, while section III was devoid of such neurons. There were no traced perikarya in section IV observed in both groups of pigs.Obtained results revealed for the first time significant impact of antral ulcerations on intramural descending nerve pathways supplying the pyloric sphincter in pigs, animals of increasing value in biomedical research and great economic importance.

  18. El cerdo cimarrón (Sus scrofa, Suidae en la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica: Composición de su dieta, estado reproductivo y genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Sierra

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Los cerdos cimarrones (Sus scrofa provocan diferentes tipos de daños particularmente en islas oceánicas. En la Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, fueron introducidos en 1793 y se reprodujeron exitosamente. Para reunir datos sobre la ecología de los cerdos cimarrones y conocer su impacto sobre algunas comunidades de la Isla del Coco, analicé su dieta, estado reproductivo, genética y los efectos de la depredación. Estudié la dieta por medio de análisis estomacales en una época seca y otra húmeda. Determiné la variabilidad genética por análisis de PCR realizados sobre muestras de tejido provenientes de orejas de cerdos cimarrones de la Isla del Coco y cerdos domésticos del continente. Los cerdos fueron omnívoros y la categoría más importante de la dieta en ambas estaciones fue frutos. Los frutos fueron consumidos por más cerdos en la estación seca pero ocuparon mayor volumen en los estómagos en la estación húmeda. No detecté que los cerdos depredaran sobre especies animales endémicas ni que dispersaran semillas de especies exóticas. El 56 % de los cerdos cazados fueron machos y el 44 % hembras. El 46 % de las hembras en edad reproductiva estuvo preñada o lactante y el número medio de fetos por camada fue de 4.4. Confirmé un pico reproductivo en enero/febrero y no pude demostrar un pico reproductivo en junio/julio. El bajo número de fetos podría relacionarse con un estado de estrés poblacional. En general los resultados indican una reducida variabilidad genética para todos los parámetros evaluados en la población cimarrona aunque no tan baja como la esperada. Sugiero un mecanismo compensatorio donde la depresión por endocruzamiento reduce la consanguinidad y una especie susceptible a factores estocásticos, demográficos o ambientales se convierte en una especie adaptada y con capacidad de resilienciaFeral pigs (Sus scrofa cause different kinds of damage specially on oceanic islands. Pigs were introduced at Cocos Island

  19. Determinación de anticuerpos contra patógenos virales y bacterianos seleccionados en la población de cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa de la Reserva Natural Bahía Samborombón, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Carpinetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cerdos silvestres (Sus scrofa descienden de cruzamientos entre cerdos domésticos liberados durante la colonización con jabalíes salvajes euroasiáticos, liberados con propósitos cinegéticos. Son invasivos y su coexistencia con especies domésticas implica riesgos sanitarios. Argentina es considerada libre de fiebre aftosa (FA, peste porcina clásica (PPC y africana (PPA y síndrome reproductivo y respiratorio porcino (PRRS. La enfermedad de Aujeszky (EA y la leptospirosis son endémicas en ciertas áreas del país. El objetivo fue evaluar la presencia de ciertas enfermedades zoonóticas y/o de importancia para la producción animal y la conservación de la biodiversidad en cerdos silvestres de la Bahía de Samborombón. Se capturaron 118 animales. Se tomaron muestras de suero, tonsilas, músculo, intestino delgado, linfonódulos, entre otras. Se estudió la presencia de anticuerpos contra Brucella spp., coronavirus respiratorio porcino, virus de la estomatitis vesicular, de la FA, de la gastroenteritis transmisible porcina (TGEV, de la PPC, PPA, EA, PRRS y Leptospira spp. Se realizaron análisis bacteriológicos para Mycobacterium spp. Los resultados ratificaron la ausencia de las enfermedades exóticas e indicaron que 36 % de los animales presentó anticuerpos contra Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona y 62,5 % contra el virus de la EA. Estos resultados remarcan la importancia del monitoreo de la interfase productiva/silvestre en función de la salud pública, producción animal y conservación de la biodiversidad.

  20. Reducing Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population density as a measure for bovine tuberculosis control: effects in wild boar and a sympatric fallow deer (Dama dama) population in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, W L; Fernández-Llario, P; Benítez-Medina, J M; Cerrato, R; Cuesta, J; García-Sánchez, A; Gonçalves, P; Martínez, R; Risco, D; Salguero, F J; Serrano, E; Gómez, L; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, J

    2013-07-01

    Research on management of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in wildlife reservoir hosts is crucial for the implementation of effective disease control measures and the generation of practical bTB management recommendations. Among the management methods carried out on wild species to reduce bTB prevalence, the control of population density has been frequently used, with hunting pressure a practical strategy to reduce bTB prevalence. However, despite the number of articles about population density control in different bTB wildlife reservoirs, there is little information regarding the application of such measures on the Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is considered the main bTB wildlife reservoir within Mediterranean ecosystems. This study shows the effects of a management measure leading to a radical decrease in wild boar population density at a large hunting estate in Central Spain, in order to assess the evolution of bTB prevalence in both the wild boar population and the sympatric fallow deer population. The evolution of bTB prevalence was monitored in populations of the two wild ungulate species over a 5-year study period (2007-2012). The results showed that bTB prevalence decreased in fallow deer, corresponding to an important reduction in the wild boar population. However, this decrease was not homogeneous: in the last season of study there was an increase in bTB-infected male animals. Moreover, bTB prevalence remained high in the remnant wild boar population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating the role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa in the re-emergence of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig herds: a pathological, prevalence and risk-factor study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainity Batista Linhares

    Full Text Available Enzootic pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a significant economic impact on domestic pig production. A control program carried out from 1999 to 2003 successfully reduced disease occurrence in domestic pigs in Switzerland, but recurrent outbreaks suggested a potential role of free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa as a source of re-infection. Since little is known on the epidemiology of EP in wild boar populations, our aims were: (1 to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae infections in wild boar in Switzerland; (2 to identify risk factors for infection in wild boar; and (3 to assess whether infection in wild boar is associated with the same gross and microscopic lesions typical of EP in domestic pigs. Nasal swabs, bronchial swabs and lung samples were collected from 978 wild boar from five study areas in Switzerland between October 2011 and May 2013. Swabs were analyzed by qualitative real time PCR and a histopathological study was conducted on lung tissues. Risk factor analysis was performed using multivariable logistic regression modeling. Overall prevalence in nasal swabs was 26.2% (95% CI 23.3-29.3% but significant geographical differences were observed. Wild boar density, occurrence of EP outbreaks in domestic pigs and young age were identified as risk factors for infection. There was a significant association between infection and lesions consistent with EP in domestic pigs. We have concluded that M. hyopneumoniae is widespread in the Swiss wild boar population, that the same risk factors for infection of domestic pigs also act as risk factors for infection of wild boar, and that infected wild boar develop lesions similar to those found in domestic pigs. However, based on our data and the outbreak pattern in domestic pigs, we propose that spillover from domestic pigs to wild boar is more likely than transmission from wild boar to pigs.

  2. Avaliação imunofenotípica de subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de suínos neonatos (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesaltina C.M. Tchamo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância do uso do sangue do cordão umbilical como fonte potencial de células tronco hematopoiéticas e o uso do suíno doméstico (Sus scrofa como modelo para pesquisas biomédicas em medicina regenerativa, e por outro lado, visando dar um contributo sobre a quantificação das subpopulações linfocitárias no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico, objetivou-se quantificar as células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ nas amostras de sangue de suínos neonatos. Analisaram-se as amostras do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico de 48 leitões de linhagem Topigs, provenientes de porcas hígidas, inseminadas artificialmente e de parto natural. Foram coletadas amostras de sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico no momento do nascimento, por meio de venopunção da veia umbilical e seio venoso retro-oftálmico, respectivamente. As quantificações imunofenotípicas de células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ foram obtidas por citometria de fluxo. Os valores médios obtidos para as contagens das células CD4+, CD5+ e CD8+ do sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico apresentaram-se inferiores aos reportados para o sangue periférico de suínos adultos, sugerindo um componente imunológico imaturo. A proporção CD4+:CD8+ obtida no sangue do cordão umbilical (3,2±1,2% e no sangue periférico (3,2±1,7% ilustrou a predominância dos linfócitos TCD4+ com relação aos TCD8+. A quantidade relativa de células CD4+ e CD8+ no sangue do cordão umbilical e periférico foi de 1,37±0,86% e 1,15±0,57%, respectivamente.

  3. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  4. Variación genética en cerdo doméstico (Sus scrofa domestica de Córdoba-Colombia basada en marcadores microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Meléndez Gélvez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó mediante veinte microsatélites la variación genética de tres poblaciones de cerdos en Córd oba-Colombia. T odos los loci estudiados fueron polimórficos con una heterocigosidad observada que osciló en un rang o de 0.2 a 84.2 % (con una media de 68.6 % y una heterocigosidad esperada que varió entre 5.6 a 83.8 % (con una media de 70.2 % . El valor del contenido de información polimórfica (PIC para todos los marcadores analizados fluctuó entre 0.17 (el menos informativo y 0.8 3 (el más informativo. El nivel de diferenciación genética FST entre pares de poblaciones varió en el rango de 0.07 a 0.11, siendo estadísticamente significativo en todos los pares analizado s. En conclusión, los niveles de heterogocidad esperada encontrados en el presente estudio, indican que el cerdo domés tico en Córdoba, muestra un alto grado de variabilidad genética. De igual manera, la identidad genética de Nei y el e stadístico FST indican cercanía genética entre las poblaciones de Momil y Cereté, a las que se une Tierralta, indic io de migración entre esas tres poblaciones, pero manteniendo cada una su identidad genética.

  5. Avaliação dos níveis séricos de 17-alfa-OH progesterona e androstenediona durante o ciclo estral em marrãs (Sus Scrofa Domestica - Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Hélio Toniollo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foram utilizadas 21 fêmeas suínas, virgens, sexualmente aptas, criadas e mantidas sob condições industriais, para observação dos perfis hormonais séricos de 17-alfa-OH progesterona e androstenediona, durante o ciclo estral. As colheitas de sangue foram efetuadas sempre no mesmo intervalo, entre 8 e 10 horas. Cada animal foi submetido a 14 punções venosas, distribuídas nos dias zero, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22 e 23 do ciclo estral. Considerou-se o dia zero como o primeiro dia da fase estral, e o 23º dia como o primeiro do estro subseqüente. Os ensaios para dosagens hormonais foram executados utilizando-se a técnica de radioimunoensaio (RIE em fase sólida e para isso foi empregado conjunto de reagentes comerciais (Coat-A-Count®. Para o hormônio 17-alfa-OH progesterona, foram encontrados valores médios que variaram entre 0,18 e 2,7 ng/ml e para o hormônio androstenediona esses valores oscilaram entre 0,08 e 0,24 ng/ml.

  6. Pneumonia enzoótica em javalis (Sus scrofa Enzootic pneumonia in wild boars (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselene Ecco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever o quadro clínico e epidemiológico, os achados patológicos, bacteriológicos e imuno-histoquímicos de um surto de pneumonia em uma granja de Javalis do Distrito Federal, Brasil. Em um período de cinco meses, morreram 90 javalis. Desses, 63 tinham lesões pulmonares. Clinicamente apresentavam atraso no desenvolvimento corporal, diminuição do apetite, letargia, tosse e dificuldade respiratória, principalmente quando movimentados. Constatou-se elevação da temperatura, 40ºC em média. Na auscultação, havia crepitações e estertores pulmonares de intensidade moderada. As alterações macroscópicas nos pulmões analisados eram típicas de broncopneumonia lobular. As lesões caracterizavam-se por consolidação crânio-ventral na maioria dos pulmões. A coloração variava de difusamente vermelho-escuro a um padrão mosaico (lóbulos vermelho-escuros intercalados por lóbulos cinzas ou difusamente acinzentados. Na maioria dos pulmões observou-se exsudato mucopurulento na luz dos brônquios e fluindo do parênquima. Histologicamente, as alterações eram de broncopneumonia purulenta e histiocitária com focos de necrose. Em alguns animais havia também hiperplasia do BALT e, na maioria dos animais, infiltração linfocítica perivascular e peribronquial. Bordetella bronchiseptica e Streptococcus spp. foram as principais bactérias isoladas. A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou a bactéria Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae no epitélio bronquiolar e bronquial e o DNA desta bactéria foi detectado pela PCR. Este é o primeiro relato de broncopneumonia em Javalis associado à infecção por M. hyopneumoniae.The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical, epidemiological, pathological, bacteriological and immunohistochemical aspects of a pneumonia outbreak in a wild pig farm in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. Ninety wild pigs died in a period of five months, and 63 of these had pulmonary lesions. Clinically, the pigs presented reduced growth rate, anorexia, lethargy, cough and dyspnea, especially after they were moved. High body temperature (40ºC in average was verified in some animals. Auscultation revealed moderate pulmonary crepitation and stertors. Pulmonary gross lesions were typical of lobular bronchopneumonia. Lung lesions were characterized by ventral-cranial consolidation in the majority of the cases. The color of affected pulmonary areas varied from diffuse dark red to mosaic pattern (dark red lobule intercalate by grayish lobule or diffusely grayish. The majority of the lungs had mucopurulent exsudate in the bronchial lumen that also drained from the parenchyma cut surface. Upon microscopy, the changes were characterized by purulent and histiocytic bronchopneumonia with necrotic foci. In some animals, there was BALT hyperplasia associated with perivascular and peribronchial plasma cells and lymphocytes infiltration in most of these cases. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated bacteria. Immunohistochemistry evaluation demonstrated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on the luminal surface of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells, and the DNA of bacteria was detected by PCR. This is the first report of bronchopneumonia in wild boars associated with M. hyopneumoniae infection.

  7. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, P H D; Faccini, J L H; Herrera, H M; Tavares, L E R; Mourão, G M; Piranda, E M; Paes, R C S; Ribeiro, C C D U; Borghesan, T C; Piacenti, A K; Kinas, M A; Santos, C C; Ono, T M; Paiva, F

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population.

  8. Estabelecimento do processo espermatogênico em javalis ("Sus scrofa scrofa" criados em cativeiro Establishment of spermatogenic process in wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa raised in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Diniz Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa investigar o desenvolvimento do parênquima testicular de javalis, do nascimento aos 12 meses de idade, avaliando a evolução do processo de luminação e dos tipos celulares nos túbulos seminíferos e as proporções volumétricas dos componentes do parênquima testicular associando-os à caracterização das fases de desenvolvimento testicular. Foram utilizados 39 javalis criados em cativeiro, de zero a 12 meses de idade. Após a orquiectomia unilateral fragmentos dos testículos foram incluídos em resina plástica e as lâminas foram preparadas para as análises histométricas. A atividade espermatogênica e o processo de vacuolização epitelial iniciaram a partir dos três meses de idade. A evolução celular do epitélio seminífero foi mais intensa a partir dos nove meses, quando o processo espermatogênico apresentava-se completo e os túbulos seminíferos possuíam lume amplo. Aos 12 meses de idade, a morfologia do processo espermatogênico foi semelhante ao relatado para animais sexualmente maduros e a proporção tubular no parênquima testicular enquadrou-se ao descrito para a maioria dos mamíferos. Conclui-se que os javalis podem ser classificados quanto à fase de desenvolvimento testicular como impúberes do nascimento aos dois meses; como pré-púbere entre três e oito meses; como púberes aos nove meses; como pós-púberes entre 10 e 12 meses; e aos 12 meses apresentam características de animais sexualmente maduros.This study aimed to investigate the development of testicular parenchyma of wild boars, from the birth to 12 months old, evaluating the evolution process of lumination and the cellular types in seminiferous tubules and the volumetric proportions of testicular parenchyma components, associating them to the characterization of testicular development phases. A total of 39 wild boars raised in captivity had been used, from zero to 12 months old. After unilateral orchiectomy, fragments of the testicles were included in plastic resin and used to prepare slides for hystometric analyses. The beginning of spermatogenic activity and the epithelial vacuolization process occurred from three months of age. The cellular evolution of the seminiferous epithelium was more intense after the nine months, when the spermatogenic process is completed and the seminiferous tubules presented an ample light. At 12 months old, the morphology of spermatogenic process was similar to that reported for sexually mature animals and the tubular proportion are framed to the described for most of the mammals. It is ended that the period from the birth up to two months of age corresponded to the impubertal phase, from three to eight months to the transition from the prepubertal phase to puberty; to nine months at the puberty; and, from ten to twelve months of age to the after puberty phase, and to the 12 presented characteristics of animals sexually ripe.

  9. Ocorrências da família Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Díptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa Linnaeus (Suidae em Belém-PA, colonização da carcaça e sua relação com o tempo de morte do animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Daniela Raiol Bitar de Araujo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa verificar a ocorrência de Dípteros de interesse forense em uma carcaça de suíno, sua colonização e relação com o tempo de morte do animal, dando maior ênfase na família Sarcophagidae, por constituírem fauna constante e obrigatória de carcaça e por utilizarem esse substrato como sítio de procriação. O experimento foi realizado em uma área de mata, localizada nas dependências do Instituto de Pesquisa Museu Emílio Goeldi, em Belém-Pa. Foi utilizado como isca um suíno (Sus scrofa L. inteiro (com vísceras, de 14,5 Kg, recém abatido. Este foi exposto sob uma armadilha do tipo suspensa modificada, adequada à coletas de insetos adultos, sendo que também foram coletadas larvas e pupas, diretamente na carcaça. A ocorrência dos insetos adultos e de seus estágios larvais foi correlacionada com o tempo de morte do animal, a fim de possibilitar futuras inferências de tempo de morte com base na presença e dispersão destes insetos. O tempo de decomposição e a duração de cada estágio de decomposição foram registrados, tendo sido afetados provavelmente pelo tamanho da carcaça e pela estação do ano. Diferenças quanto ao padrão de sucessão não foram observadas

  10. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...

  11. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S. S.; Chen, Y.; Moran, C.; Čepica, Stanislav; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 11 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  12. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 15

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuryl, J.; Pierzchala, M.; Hojný, Jiří; Reuner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 119-125 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome15 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  13. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, S. S.; Chen, Y.; Moran, C.; Stratil, Antonín; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 38-44 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 5 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  14. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome X

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 144-151 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0597; GA ČR GA523/99/0842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome X Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  15. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 13

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Russo, V.; Davoli, R.; Sternstein, I.; Brunsch, C.; Schröffelová, D.; Stratil, Antonín; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 103-110 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome13 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  16. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 18

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dragos-Wendrich, M.; Stratil, Antonín; Hojný, Jiří; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 138-143 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/97/1305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome18 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  17. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Stratil, Antonín; Kopečný, Michal; Blažková, Pavla; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Davoli, R.; Fontanesi, L.; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 28-37 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA ČR GA523/00/0669 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 4 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  18. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čepica, Stanislav; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Stratil, Antonín; Hojný, J.; Pierzchala, M.; Kuryl, J.; Brunsch, C.; Sternstein, I.; Davoli, R.; Fontanesi, L.; Reiner, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Moser, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 74-81 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK5052113; GA ČR GA523/96/0597; GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA523/99/0842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 9 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  19. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 95-102 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome12 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  20. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Stratil, Antonín; Kopečný, Michal; Schröffelová, D.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Hojný, J.; Čepica, Stanislav; Davoli, R.; Zambonelli, P.; Brunsch, C.; Sternstein, I.; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 45-55 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 6 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  1. Linkage and QTL maping for Sus scrofa chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beeckmann, P.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-10 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome1 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  2. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yue, G.; Stratil, Antonín; Čepica, Stanislav; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Fontanesi, L.; Cagnazzo, M.; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 56-65 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/97/1305; GA AV ČR IA54553; GA ČR GA514/94/0269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 7 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  3. Linkage and QTL mapping for Sus scrofa chromosome 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beeckmann, P.; Schröffel Jr., Jaroslav; Moser, G.; Bartenschlager, H.; Reiner, G.; Geldermann, H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2003), s. 20-28 ISSN 0931-2668 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IA54553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : chromosome 3 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2003

  4. Porcine (Sus scrofa) Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    Myocardial Infarction Model Development.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col. Daren Danielson DEPARTMENT: 60MSGS/SGCH...invasively, a myocardial infarction that was isolated to the mid-anterior, left ventricular wall. In doing so, we were able to create an infarct that...be used to investigate new methodologies for treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in individuals afflicted with chronic ischemic

  5. Mitochondrial genome of Taiwan pig ( Sus Scrofa ) | Chen | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the genetic exchange between the Lanyu and other breeds is not frequent. There is also no evidence of genetic exchange or introgression caused by population migration. Therefore, we conclude that the Lanyu is an independent branch among the breeds. Key words: Complete genome, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic ...

  6. Comment: 100 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pig Sus scrofa domestica Sus_scrofa_domestica_L.png 100.png Public Domain ブタを大ヨークシャー種に差し替えました(写真 by Aono)。 ttamura 2009/05/10 21:48:01 ...

  7. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una granja orgánica de producción y comercialización de carne de cerdo (Sus scrofa domestica), cuyes (Cavia porcellus) y gallinas (Gallus gallus domesticus) para las ciudades de Tabacundo y Cayambe-Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Cobacango Catucuago, María Susana; Pazmiño Chicaiza, Samuel Eliecer

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of organic food has captivated the interest of producers and consumers primarily due to the tendency of people to know the origin and traceability of what they consume. Thus within the community of San Pablito Agualongo, we conducted the present feasibility study, through which it will offer the residents of the cities of Tabacundo and Cayambe, an organic meat product, based on respect for the animal to it grows naturally, followed by appropr...

  8. Ecología trófica del jabalí europeo (Sus scrofa silvestre en Chile Trophic ecology of the wild boar (Sus scrofa in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÓSCAR SKEWES

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Documentamos la dieta del jabalí silvestre en el centro-sur de Chile basados en el examen de 20 estómagos colectados en los faldeos de volcán Mocho-Choshuenco (39°54' S, 72°02' O y en el Parque Nacional Vicente Pérez Rosales (41°03' S, 71°54' O. La dieta está representada por animales, vegetales y hongos. Entre los vegetales y hongos son consumidas tanto las partes epígeas como hipógeas, lo mismo que frutos y semillas. Hongos y rizomas de Gunnera tinctoria constituyen ítemes vegetales cuantitativamente importantes en la alimentación. El jabalí forrajea en general en ambiente boscoso, pero las especies vegetales más frecuentes en la dieta se encuentran en espacios abiertos o fuera del bosque. El ambiente dominado por Chusquea spp. constituye un importante sitio de alimentación. Los roedores de la familia Muridae dominan entre los animales determinados en la dieta del jabalí. Esta situación, sin embargo, parece obedecer a la ocurrencia de una ratada producto de la semillación masiva de Chusquea spp. durante la época de muestreo. Las aves de la familia Rhinocryptidae e invertebrados (en especial larvas del coleóptero Chiasognathus grantii constituyen parte frecuente de los ítemes animales de la dieta del jabalí. En comparación a estudios en otras partes del mundo, el jabalí silvestre en Chile consume hongos en porcentaje de ocurrencia similar (65 % a su dieta en Estados Unidos de América pero bastante más alta que su dieta en Europa (5-32 %. En relación al volumen del componente animal, el jabalí en Chile consume más (16,1 % que en Estados Unidos de América (6 % y que en Europa (7-13 %We document the diet of wild boar in south-central Chile based on analysis of 20 stomachs collected on the outskirts of Mocho-Choshuenco volcano (39°54' S, 72°02' W and of Vicente Pérez Rosales National Park (41°03' S, 71°54' W. The diet incorporates animals, plants and fungi. Among the latter two, both epigeal and hypogeal parts are consumed, together with fruits and seeds. Fungi and rhizomes of Gunnera tinctoria are the most abundant plant items in the diet. The wild boar in Chile forages chiefly in forested environments, but nonetheless the most frequent plant items in its diet are found in open spaces or outside the forest. Environments dominated by bamboos Chusquea spp. constitute important foraging sites. Rodents in the family Muridae prevail among animal items in the wild boar diet. This situation, however, is associated to the occurrence of a mouse outbreak (ratada resulting from the mast seeding of Chusquea spp. during our study. Birds in the family Rhinocryptidae together with invertebrates (specially Coleopteran larvae of Chiasognathus grantii made up a sizeable part of the animals in the wild boar diet. In comparison to elsewhere, the wild boar in Chile consumes fungi in a similar percentage of occurence (65 % as in the United States of America but much higher than in Europe (5-32 %. With regard to the animal component, the wild boar in Chile consumes more (20 % volume of such items than in the United States of America (6 % and in Europe (7-13 %

  9. Análise cromossômica e molecular do javali europeu Sus scrofa scrofa e do suíno doméstico Sus scrofa domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Lucano Gimenez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação teve como objetivos: analisar animais presentes em diferentes criações de javalis no estado de São Paulo, com o intuito de auxiliar a identificação de javalis "puros" assim como javalis híbridos provenientes do cruzamento com o suíno doméstico, para tanto foram utilizadas avaliação do fenótipo dos animais, análises citogenéticas e da técnica molecular de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA.O estudo do número de cromossomos nas células diplóides em 104 animais destinados a análise citogenética e fenotípica, revelou polimorfismo de 2n=36, 37 e 38 cromossomos. Por meio da técnica de bandamento GTG foi possível identificação da translocação Robertsoniana entre os cromossomos 15 e 17 como responsável por esse polimorfismo. Todavia, somente com a análise citogenética isolada, não foi possível determinar se a origem desse polimorfismo é decorrente das hibridações com o suíno doméstico ou se são características inerentes ao javali. Contudo, quando associado a análise citogenética com as características fenotípicas, foi possível identificar a existência de hibridações. A análise citogenética nos animais submetidos a técnica de RAPD, revelou 2n=36 cromossomos nos 16 javalis assim como 2n=38 cromossomos nos 11 suínos e, por meio dessa técnica, foram possíveis agrupamentos, separando o suíno doméstico, javali e um possível híbrido revelando-se uma técnica com potencial no auxílio da identificação de híbridos.

  10. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis.

  11. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  12. Genetic resources, genome mapping and evolutionary genomics of the pig (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Baxter, T.; Muir, W.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    The pig, a representative of the artiodactyla clade, is one of the first animals domesticated, and has become an important agriculture animal as one of the major human nutritional sources of animal based protein. The pig is also a valuable biomedical model organism for human health. The pig's

  13. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wagnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vitovec, J.; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, J.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 191, 3-4 (2013), s. 218-227 ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Taxonomy * Morphology * Molecular analyses * Transmission studies * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  14. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 197, 3-4 (2013), s. 504-508 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 022/2010/Z; Jihočeská univerzita(CZ) 11/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Cryptosporidium suis * Eurasian wild boar * PCR * SSU Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  15. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  16. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kampen Tony A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA, several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB, the maternal lines (e.g. Ham or in both (e.g. pHu. Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only.

  17. Effects of acute dietary iron overload in pigs (Sus scrofa) with induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, A; Morales, S; Arredondo, M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported an association between high iron (Fe) levels and elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). It is believed that the formation of Fe-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals may contribute to the development of diabetes. Our goal was to determine the effect of a diet with a high Fe content on type 2 diabetic pigs. Four groups of piglets were studied: (1) control group, basal diet; (2) Fe group, basal diet with 3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate; (3) diabetic group (streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes) with basal diet; (4) diabetic/Fe group, diabetic animals/3,000 ppm ferrous sulfate. For 2 months, biochemical and hematological parameters were evaluated. Tissue samples of liver and duodenum were obtained to determine mRNA relative abundance of DMT1, ferroportin (Fpn), ferritin (Fn), hepcidin (Hpc), and transferrin receptor by qRT-PCR. Fe group presented increased levels of hematological (erythrocytes, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) and iron parameters. Diabetic/Fe group showed similar behavior as Fe group but in lesser extent. The relative abundance of different genes in the four study groups yielded a different expression pattern. DMT1 showed a lower expression in the two iron groups compared with control and diabetic animals, and Hpc showed an increased on its expression in Fe and diabetic/Fe groups. Diabetic/Fe group presents greater expression of Fn and Fpn. These results suggest that there is an interaction between Fe nutrition, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the diabetes development.

  18. The spatial ecology of free-ranging domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lian F; de Glanville, William A; Cook, Elizabeth A; Fèvre, Eric M

    2013-03-07

    In many parts of the developing world, pigs are kept under low-input systems where they roam freely to scavenge food. These systems allow poor farmers the opportunity to enter into livestock keeping without large capital investments. This, combined with a growing demand for pork, especially in urban areas, has led to an increase in the number of small-holder farmers keeping free range pigs as a commercial enterprise. Despite the benefits which pig production can bring to a household, keeping pigs under a free range system increases the risk of the pig acquiring diseases, either production-limiting or zoonotic in nature. This study used Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to track free range domestic pigs in rural western Kenya, in order to understand their movement patterns and interactions with elements of the peri-domestic environment. We found that these pigs travel an average of 4,340 m in a 12 hr period and had a mean home range of 10,343 m(2) (range 2,937-32,759 m(2)) within which the core utilisation distribution was found to be 964 m(2) (range 246-3,289 m(2)) with pigs spending on average 47% of their time outside their homestead of origin. These are the first data available on the home range of domestic pigs kept under a free range system: the data show that pigs in these systems spend much of their time scavenging outside their homesteads, suggesting that these pigs may be exposed to infectious agents over a wide area. Control policies for diseases such as Taenia solium, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis, Toxoplasmosis or African Swine Fever therefore require a community-wide focus and pig farmers require education on the inherent risks of keeping pigs under a free range system. The work presented here will enable future research to incorporate movement data into studies of disease transmission, for example for the understanding of transmission of African Swine Fever between individuals, or in relation to the life-cycle of parasites including Taenia solium.

  19. Hybridization levels in European Sus scrofa, comparison between genetic and survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    2016-01-01

    separation between WB and DP, with a limited number of hybrids in both populations. The introgression level varies considerably among populations, from non-detectable to very high. Perceived presence of hybrids, based on phenotypic characteristics or historic data, is usually higher and widespread than...

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in jejunum of Sus scrofa with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Hu, Liang; Gong, Desheng; Lu, Hanlin; Xuan, Yue; Wang, Ru; Wu, De; Chen, Daiwen; Zhang, Keying; Gao, Fei; Che, Lianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may elicit a series of postnatal body developmental and metabolic diseases due to their impaired growth and development in the mammalian embryo/fetus during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR may lead to abnormally regulated DNA methylation in the intestine, causing intestinal dysfunctions. We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology to study the jejunum tissues from four newborn IUGR piglets and their normal body weight (NBW) littermates. The results revealed extensively regional DNA methylation changes between IUGR/NBW pairs from different gilts, affecting dozens of genes. Hiseq-based bisulfite sequencing PCR (Hiseq-BSP) was used for validations of 19 genes with epigenetic abnormality, confirming three genes (AIFM1, MTMR1, and TWIST2) in extra samples. Furthermore, integrated analysis of these 19 genes with proteome data indicated that there were three main genes (BCAP31, IRAK1, and AIFM1) interacting with important immunity- or metabolism-related proteins, which could explain the potential intestinal dysfunctions of IUGR piglets. We conclude that IUGR can lead to disparate DNA methylation in the intestine and these changes may affect several important biological processes such as cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immunity, which provides more clues linking IUGR and its long-term complications.

  1. Sus scrofa: Population Structure, Reproduction and Condition in Tropical North Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three feral pig populations inhabiting contrasting environments along the north easterncoast of Australia have been investigated with respect to population structure, individual condition andreproduction. The population on Prince of Wales Island contains a large proportion of juvenile andsub-adult pigs but lacks pigs in the higher age classes. Individuals also breed at an earlier age thananimals of the mainland populations. Pig populations on Cape York Peninsula show a largerproportion of older animals and feral pigs living in rainforest habitats show a low proportion ofanimals in very young and very old age classes. Pigs from the lowland rainforest population are inbetter condition than those of the other populations for most of the year, reflecting the availability offood all year round in this environment. Differences in the population structure of the threepopulations are discussed with respect to fecundity and several mortality factors such as predation anddiseases/parasites.

  2. Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Minervini

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ. The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel, domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults, possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.

  3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY OF SUS SCROFA TISSUE EXTRACTS PROTEIN-PEPTIDE COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina R.. Vasilevskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of four methods for quantifying the protein-peptide complexes content in extracts obtained from animal raw materials, as well as the low- and highmolecular weight extract fractions: the direct spectrophotometric determination at wavelengths of 260 and 280 nm with subsequent calculation by the Kalckar formula; the biuret reaction by the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method; the method with Bradford reagent and the standard Lowry method. Experimental data analysis demonstrates that in case of the extract that contains protein-peptidic complexes in different molecular weights range, the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method shows the highest quality of protein concentration determination; while studying highmolecular weight fraction (more than 30 kDa, it is possible to obtain more information by combining the spectrophotometric method and the Kingsley-Weichselbaum method. Low-molecular weight fractions (less than 30 kD should be investigated by complex methods including the spectrophotometric method, Lowry and Bradford methods. These methods make it possible to presumably estimate protein molecules size ranges (by amount of peptide bonds, and also to determine hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids presence.

  4. Cooperation improves the access of wild boars (Sus scrofa) to food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focardi, S; Morimando, F; Capriotti, S; Ahmed, A; Genov, P

    2015-12-01

    Wild boar is a highly polycotous ungulate species, characterized by a complex and dynamical social organization based on the maintenance of long-term bonds between mother and daughters. The roots of this social organization have to be researched at the individual level, considering adaptations that improve fitness in hostile environments. We used information collected by camera-traps at artificial feeding sites, in two contrasting environments in Bulgaria (mountain habitat) and Italy (sub-Mediterranean habitat). We recorded 417 and 885 distinct groups on 7 and 11 foraging sites in Bulgaria and Italy, respectively. We computed (controlling for time range, study area and supplementary feeding site) an index of effective foraging time of the different social groups. We observed a positive and significant effect of the number of conspecifics of the same social group on the effective foraging time. The impact of the other social classes on effective foraging time is also positive, and males, yearlings, and juveniles benefited more from the presence of other social classes, while females were less affected. The access of the different social groups to foraging sites is not random. Males and yearlings play producers (i.e., search for food) and are prone to attend foraging sites before adult females and subadults, so attaining a larger foraging efficiency with respect to a situation where other groups are already present on the feeding site. Wild boars exhibit a more complex social organisation than previously believed, where cooperation prevails largely on competition. A rough division of labour is also present: yearlings, males, and juveniles use to play producers and assume a significant amount of risk determined by the presence of predators or hunters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnic -Zootechnic characterization and meat potential of Sus scrofa “creole Pig” in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Linares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this systematic scientific review was updated bibliographic information concerning the genetic, morphological, zootechnical and meat potential of creole pigs in Central and South America. It was found a population of 73 million Creoles pigs in Latin America, most under extensive, and semi extensive production systems. Since its European origin, adaptation to different ecosystems on the continent and the introduction of new breeds has led into a wide variety of creole pigs. Adaptation and introduction of breeds have led also in a rise of genetic variability of pigs benefiting the rusticity that involves a more efficient immune system. In the same way as omnivore the creole pig had a good adaptation to different diets, getting better advantage of fibrous and fatty food than commercial breeds. On the other hand, creole pigs showed an acceptable reproductive performance, distinguished by sexual precocity and high feasibility of weaning, nevertheless its growth was slow and lactation periods were long. Regarding to the quality of meat cuts , it has not been disadvantaged, if we take into account subjective criteria as well as tenderness and the nutritional value, characteristics that give higher economic value outstripping commercial pig meat.

  6. Ethnic -Zootechnic characterization and meat potential of Sus scrofa “creole Pig” in Latin America.

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, Virginia; Linares, Luis; Mendoza, Gilmar

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente revisión científica fue sistematizar información bibliográfica actualizada, concerniente a los aspectos genéticos, morfológicos, zootécnicos y potencial carnicero de los cerdos criollos de Latinoamérica encontró una población de 73 millones de cerdos criollos en Latinoamérica, la mayoría de ellos criados bajo sistemas de producción extensivos, semiextensivos y agro pastoriles. Dado su origen europeo, la adaptación a los diferentes ecosistemas del continente y la int...

  7. Creation of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Objectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in mini pigs using polystyrenemicrospheres to infarct a portion of the...underwent myocardial infarctions without misadventure. Infusion of polystyrene beads into a diagonal branch of the LAD resulted In a repeatable and...controlled myocardial Infarction.Conclusion: The method reported here provided consistent and repeatable myocardial infarcts with minimal morbidity.

  8. Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Keiter; John C. Kilgo; Mark A. Vukovich; Fred L. Cunningham; James C. Beasley

    2017-01-01

    Context. Wild pigs are an invasive species linked to numerous negative impacts on natural and anthropogenic ecosystems in many regions of the world. Robust estimates of juvenile wild pig survival are needed to improve population dynamics models to facilitate management of this economically and ecologically...

  9. On the rewarding nature of appetitive feeding behaviour in pigs (Sus scrofa): Do domesticated pigs contrafreeload?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Tilly, S.L.; Baars, A.M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Contrafreeloading is the phenomenon that animals prefer to work for food even though free food is available nearby. In this study, we investigated whether pigs express contrafreeloading in a test situation where the searching. finding and consuming of food items resembles a natural foraging

  10. Identification of Brucella spp. in feral swine (Sus scrofa) at abattoirs in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine, and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally-inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swin...

  11. [Intramural chronotopography of depolarization of myocardium of heart ventricles of pig (Sus scrofa domesticus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaeva, A S; Roshchecskaya, I M; Roshchevsky, M P

    2014-01-01

    Sequence of depolarization of myocardium of pig heart ventricles was studied by the method of multichannel synchronous cardioelectrotopography. There is established formation of areas of early depolarization in subendocardium of interventricular septum and in the base of left ventricle papillary muscles; of multiple foci--in the depth of walls; of areas of late depolarization--in subepicardium of the left ventricle dorsolateral side. As compared with other species of ungulate animals (reindeer and sheep, in pig heart ventricles, differences are revealed in locations of early and late depolarization, a breakdown of the excitation wave into subepicardium.

  12. Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa) as an Animal Model for Experimental Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yauri, Verónica; Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Verastegui, Manuela; Angulo, Noelia; Recuenco, Fernando; Cabello, Ines; Malaga, Edith; Bern, Caryn; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were infected with a Bolivian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (genotype I) and evaluated up to 150 days postinoculation (dpi) to determine the use of pigs as an animal model of Chagas disease. Parasitemia was observed in the infected pigs during the acute phase (15–40 dpi). Anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin M was detected during 15–75 dpi; high levels of anti-T.cruzi immunoglobulin G were detected in all infected pigs from 75 to 150 dpi. Parasitic DNA was observed by western blot (58%, 28/48) and polymerase chain reaction (27%, 13/48) in urine samples, and in the brain (75%, 3/4), spleen (50%, 2/4), and duodenum (25%, 1/4), but no parasitic DNA was found in the heart, colon, and kidney. Parasites were not observed microscopically in tissues samples, but mild inflammation, vasculitis, and congestion was observed in heart, brain, kidney, and spleen. This pig model was useful for the standardization of the urine test because of the higher volume that can be obtained as compared with other small animal models. However, further experiments are required to observe pathological changes characteristic of Chagas disease in humans. PMID:26928841

  13. Pertumbuhan dan Reproduksi Lalat Musca domestica pada Berbagai Media Perkembangbiakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Musca domestica was insect that disturbing human and other animal. Intensity M. Domestica with human living includes public healthy. The aim of research is to observe succeed of Mdomestica in breeding wether difJerent place. Larva growth in each stadia was different, 2-4 days average. Its contributed by humidity. On dry container, pupae that succes eksklosi only 50%. Presentation offood show difJerences oflarvae development. 3rd stage of larvae that has enough food is 17mm in length and 12mm in length for larvae with less food. Salty water make larvae growing faster than water without salto Development of Musca domestica in laboratory injluenced by high humidity, preset of food and adaptation of Musca domestica its self.Keywords : Musca domestica, rearing, development, humidity, food, salt - water

  14. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  15. R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53 / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53. National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain / Christopher Seaman. Pickwick IMP Classics CD PCD 1080; Selected comparisons: SNO, Järvi (3/88) Chandos CHAN 8572"

  16. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  17. Evaluation of semen parameters of boars (Sus scrofa experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii/ Avaliação dos parâmetros seminais de cachaços (Sus scrofa experimentalmente infectados com Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the influence of T. gondii on semen parameters and spermatozoa morphology, eight boars were inoculated with T. gondii. Experimental groups consisted of: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocysts of P strain; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 tachyzoites of RH strain and GIII (n=2, control noninoculated. Evaluations of semen parameters (volume, motility, strength, concentration, study of spermatozoa morphology, serology (RIFI, parasitemia and hemograms were performed. For this purpose, blood and semen collection were carried out on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 and weekly until 84 days post-inoculation. Non hematimetrics alterations and clinical signs were observed on animals. Parasitemia was detected in an animal inoculated with oocysts, on the 7th day post inoculation (DPI and in a two pigs of GII (tachyzoites, on the 3rd and 49th DPI. Serology results revealed the presence of antibody anti-T. gondii on the animals inoculated with oocysts or tachyzoites since 7th DPI, with tittles of 256 and 64, reaching a maximal level of 4096 on days 11 and 9 post inoculation, respectively. The GIII (control was negative through out all experimental period. The semen parametersevaluated did not present any alteration due to toxoplasmosis. Significative differences (PCom o objetivo de investigar a influência do Toxoplasma gondii nos parâmetros seminais e na morfologia espermática de suínos, oito reprodutores foram inoculados com T. gondii, sendo constituídos os seguintes grupos experimentais: GI (n=3 1,5 x 104 oocistos da cepa P, via oral; GII (n=3 1,0 x 106 taquizoítos da cepa RH, via subcutânea e GIII (n=2, controle. Foram realizadas avaliações de parâmetros espermáticos (volume, motilidade, vigor, concentração, estudo da morfologia dos espermatozóides, exames sorológicos(RIFI, parasitemia e hemogramas. Para tanto, colheitas de sangue e sêmen foram realizadas nos dia -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14 e semanalmente até 84 dias pós-inoculação. Nenhuma alteração hematimétrica e nos parâmetros clínicos foi observada nos animais. Parasitemia foi detectada em um animal inoculado com oocistos, no 7o dia pós-infecção (DPI e em outros dois suínos do GII (taquizoítos, nos 3o e 49o DPI.Exames sorológicos revelaram a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii nos animais inoculados comoocistos ou taquizoítos a partir do 7º dia pós-infecção (DPI, com títulos de 256 e 64, alcançando pico de4096 nos dias 11 e 9 pós-inoculação, respectivamente. O GIII (controle manteve-se negativo durantetodo o período experimental. Os parâmetros espermáticos avaliados não apresentaram nenhuma alteraçãoque pudesse ser atribuída a toxoplasmose. Diferenças significativas (P<0,05 quanto às patologiasespermáticas não foram observadas entre os grupos inoculados e o grupo controle.

  18. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  19. Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  20. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat juice of wild boar (Sus scrofa in several districts of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  1. Accelerating Coagulation in Traumatic Injuries Using Inorganic Polyphosphate-Coated Silica Nanoparticles in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-13

    blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : 9 male and 4 female pigs weighing 65±8 kg were anesthetized and instrumented . After abdominal...nanoparticles (PLNP) will decrease blood loss in a swine in a swine model. Methods : Pigs were anesthetized and instrumented and randomized to receive...study/training models in this protocol? No. REDUCTION: Since the last IACUC approval, have any methods been identified to reduce the number of live

  2. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  3. The Effect of Hypothermia on Prolonged Distal Aortic Balloon Occlusion in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    normothermia followed by 4 hours of zone III REBOA, resuscitation with shed blood, and 3 hours of critical care . Physiologic parameters were continuously ...REBOA.Methods: 12 swine were anesthetized, instrumented , then underwent 15 blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to hypothermia or...ng/mL [14,181-24,779]; p 0.01). Fascial compartment pressures were significantly lower during critical care in the hypothermia group (p = 0.03

  4. Association of Oxelytrum cayennense (Silphidae, Coleoptera with Pig Carcasses (Sus scrofa, Suidae in Terra Firme Areas in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Resumo. Aspectos da colonização do silfídeo Oxelytrum cayennense (Sturm em carcaças de porcos do tamanho de um homem adulto na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke são apresentados. Esta espécie colonizou as carcaças de porcos do estágio enfisematoso à esqueletização. Adultos foram observados eventualmente predando larvas de moscas a partir do segundo dia de intervalo pós-morte e suas larvas foram observadas a partir do quinto dia se alimentando em áreas esqueletizadas, provavelmente limpando os ossos dos tecidos moles remanescentes. O comportamento predatório dos adultos nas larvas de dípteros mais velhas podem impactar suas populações e complicar estimativas de intervalo pós-morte, uma vez que estas são freqüentemente usadas para esta estimativa. Além disso, adultos e larvas têm potencial uso como indicadores de intervalo pós-morte (IPM porque o adulto pode colonizar carcaças do segundo dia em diante e as larvas do quinto dia em diante.

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  6. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  7. A Pilot Study of Peritoneal Perfusion with a Novel Hemoglobin Based Oxygen Carrier in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    peritoneum for gas exchange and lung replacement. Ten Yorkshire-cross swine were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, instrumented, and laparotomized...Inflow and outflow tubing were be placed in the abdomen, and connected to a heart- lung bypass circuit, and the abdomen closed. Animals were then...the endotracheal tube was clamped, ceasing gas exchange in the lung . Arterial blood gases and time to death were then recorded. No differences were

  8. Proteomic analysis of pig (Sus scrofa olfactory soluble proteome reveals O-GlcNAcylation of secreted odorant-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eNAGNAN-LE MEILLOUR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of olfactory binding proteins (OBPs is a key point to understand their role in molecular olfaction. Since only few different sequences were characterized in each mammalian species, they have been considered as passive carriers of odors and pheromones. We have explored the soluble proteome of pig nasal mucus, taking benefit of the powerful tools of proteomics. Combining two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and western-blot with specific antibodies, our analyses revealed for the first time that the pig nasal mucus is mainly composed of secreted OBP isoforms, some of them being potentially modified by O-GlcNAcylation. An ortholog gene of the glycosyltransferase responsible of the O-GlcNAc linking on extracellular proteins in Drosophila and Mouse (EOGT was amplified from tissues of pigs of different ages and sex. The sequence was used in a phylogenetic analysis, which evidenced conservation of EOGT in insect and mammalian models studied in molecular olfaction. Extracellular O-GlcNAcylation of secreted OBPs could finely modulate their binding specificities to odors and pheromones. This constitutes a new mechanism for extracellular signaling by OBPs, suggesting that they act as the first step of odor discrimination.

  9. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) as a bioindicator of organochlorine compound contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of West Pomerania Province, NW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Marciniak, Andrzej; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Drozd, Radosław; Ligocki, Marek; Prokulewicz, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the presence and determine the residue levels of DDT, lindane, endrin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of wild boars from the area of West Pomerania, NW Poland; to determine the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) as a biomarker of biological response and to assess the toxicological risk for consumers of the wild boar offal. The presence of pesticide residues and PCBs was found in all examined liver samples. The highest concentration was observed for endrin, and then, the descending order was PCBs >DDTs >lindane >dl-PCBs. The mean hepatic concentrations of endrin, PCBs, DDTs and lindane were 117.28, 78.59, 67.95 and 7.24 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Among the dioxin-like PCB congeners, 118 and 156 were dominant in liver samples. The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) level calculated for dl-PCBs was 2.10 ± 1.11 pg WHO-PCB-TEQ/g. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) negative correlation between the concentration of lindane, DDTs and PCBs (as a sum of indicator congeners) in the liver and in the activity of GST. However, GST activities showed no significant correlation with any of the dl-PCBs. In five boar liver samples, the levels of certain organochlorine compounds exceeded the maximum residue levels (MRLs). In one sample, the MRLs were exceeded simultaneously for PCBs, endrin and DDTs and in another one-for endrin and DDTs. In the remaining three samples, only PCB levels were exceeded.

  10. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 184, 2/4 (2012), 122-125 ISSN 0304-4017 Grant - others:Mšk(CZ) 6007665806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cryptosporidium suis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II * Eurasian wild boar * SSU * PCR Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  11. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  12. Novel Techniques for Retroperitoneal Implantation of Telemetry Transmitters for Physiologic Monitoring in Gottingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Indianapolis, IN) twice daily immediately after runs were cleaned. Enrichment consisted of a mixture of fruits and vegetables 3 times weekly...any clinical signs and were otherwise SPF for an exhaustive list of viral, bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens . Minipigs were fasted for at...EEG lead wires was kinked, resulting in loss of the outer covering with exposed wire. In this animal, the com- promised EEG lead appeared to be

  13. Classification of Culturable Bifidobacterial Population from Colonic Samples of Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) Based on Three Molecular Genetic Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Killer, Jiří; Mekadim, Ch.; Geigerová, M.; Rada, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 11 (2017), s. 1324-1331 ISSN 0343-8651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : digestive tract * gut microbiota Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.322, year: 2016

  14. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus and swine (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paul F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB, and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly] were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  15. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-03

    Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  16. A Pilot Study of Open Venous Revascularization using Expandable PTFE Stent Grafts in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    expandable stent-grafts that are designed to expand within a vessel to cover an injury or open a blockage. Methods: 3 Yorkshire cross swine were...expandable PTFE stent graft was deployed into the vessel in an open direct fashion . The swine were awoken and allowed to ambulate. At 72 hours, conduit

  17. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cucchi

    Full Text Available Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG and Xinzhai (XZ sites (Henan Province. To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps. From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China's complex societies.

  18. Social Complexification and Pig (Sus scrofa) Husbandry in Ancient China: A Combined Geometric Morphometric and Isotopic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasse, Marie; Zhao, Chunqing; Gao, Jiangtao; Hu, Yaowu; Yuan, Jing; Vigne, Jean-Denis

    2016-01-01

    Pigs have played a major role in the economic, social and symbolic systems of China since the Early Neolithic more than 8,000 years ago. However, the interaction between the history of pig domestication and transformations in Chinese society since then, have not been fully explored. In this paper, we investigated the co-evolution from the earliest farming communities through to the new political and economic models of state-like societies, up to the Chinese Empire, using 5,000 years of archaeological records from the Xiawanggang (XWG) and Xinzhai (XZ) sites (Henan Province). To trace the changes of pig populations against husbandry practices, we combined the geometric morphometric analysis of dental traits with a study of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bone collagen. The domestication process intensified during the Neolithic Yangshao, prompted by greater selective pressure and/or better herd control against wild introgression. After that, pig farming, in XWG, relied on local livestock and a gradual change of husbandry practices overtime. This was characterized by a gentle increase in millet foddering and animal protein intake, until a complete change over to household management during the Han dynasty. The only rupture in this steady trend of husbandry occurred during the Longshan period, with the appearance of small sized and idiosyncratic pigs with specific feeding practices (relying on millet and household scraps). From three exploratory hypothesis, we explored the possibility of anti-elite pig production in XWG during the Longshan period, as a means to resist incorporation into a new economic model promoting intensified domestic production. This exploratory hypothesis is the most suitable to our dataset; however, numerous areas need to be explored further in order to adequately document the role of pigs in the rise of China’s complex societies. PMID:27384523

  19. Bifidobacterium apri sp nov., a thermophilic actinobacterium isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, R.; Killer, Jiří; Salmonová, H.; Geigerová, M.; Švejstil, R.; Švec, P.; Sedláček, I.; Rada, V.; Benada, Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 7 (2017), s. 2349-2356 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacterium * wild pigs * thermophilic bifidobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  20. A statistical GIS-based analysis of Wild boar (Sus scrofa traffic collisions in a Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amici

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available vThis study was aimed at analysing the most relevant environmental variables involved in vehicle–wild boar road collisions in a Mediterranean area, starting from a territorial information system implemented in a GIS environment. Landscape structure indices and local qualitative and quantitative variables were correlated to identify the most frequent predisposing factors of collisions. Statistical tests of the considered parameters indicated a higher frequency of collisions in the evening hours of late summer and autumn (P<0.05 compared with daytime and night-time, localized nearness to attraction points (feeding or resting sites; P<0.001 and closeness to no-hunting areas (P<0.001. In addition, local road parameters (shape of road, visibility at road sides, etc. considerably increased the risk of collisions.

  1. Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus scrofa) Model with Extracellular Matrix and Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Use additional pages If necessary.) PROTOCOL #: FDG20140039A DATE: 13 August 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a...model developed in protocols FDG20120019A and FDG20130043A, we were able to successfully create myocardial infarctions in pigs with a high survival rate...applications.) ObJectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in miniplgs using polystyrene microspheres to Infarct a

  2. Swine (Sus scrofa) as a Model of Postinfarction Mitral Regurgitation and Techniques to Accommodate Its Effects during Surgical Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Eric L; Shi, Weiwei; Duara, Rajnish; Melone, Todd A; Kalra, Kanika; Strong, Ashley; Girish, Apoorva; McIver, Bryant V; Thourani, Vinod H; Guyton, Robert A; Padala, Muralidhar

    2016-01-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common heart-valve lesion after myocardial infarction in humans. Because it is considered a risk factor for accelerated heart failure and death, various surgical approaches and catheter-based devices to correct it are in development. Lack of a reproducible animal model of MR after myocardial infarction and reliable techniques to perform open-heart surgery in these diseased models led to the use of healthy animals to test new devices. Thus, most devices that are deemed safe in healthy animals have shown poor results in human efficacy studies, hampering progress in this area of research. Here we report our experience with a swine model of postinfarction MR, describe techniques to induce regurgitation and perform open-heart surgery in these diseased animals, and discuss our outcomes, complications, and solutions.

  3. Intravenous cobinamide versus hydroxocobalamin for acute treatment of severe cyanide poisoning in a swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Tanen, David A; Boudreau, Susan; Castaneda, Maria; Zarzabal, Lee A; Vargas, Toni; Boss, Gerry R

    2014-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antidote for cyanide poisoning. Cobinamide is a potential antidote that contains 2 cyanide-binding sites. To our knowledge, no study has directly compared hydroxocobalamin with cobinamide in a severe, cyanide-toxic large-animal model. Our objective is to compare the time to return of spontaneous breathing in swine with acute cyanide-induced apnea treated with intravenous hydroxocobalamin, intravenous cobinamide, or saline solution (control). Thirty-three swine (45 to 55 kg) were intubated, anesthetized, and instrumented (continuous mean arterial pressure and cardiac output monitoring). Anesthesia was adjusted to allow spontaneous breathing with FiO2 of 21% during the experiment. Cyanide was continuously infused intravenously until apnea occurred and lasted for 1 minute (time zero). Animals were then randomly assigned to receive intravenous hydroxocobalamin (65 mg/kg), cobinamide (12.5 mg/kg), or saline solution and monitored for 60 minutes. A sample size of 11 animals per group was selected according to obtaining a power of 80%, an α of .05, and an SD of 0.17 in mean time to detect a 20% difference in time to spontaneous breathing. We assessed differences in time to death among groups, using Kaplan-Meier estimation methods, and compared serum lactate, blood pH, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation time curves with repeated-measures ANOVA. Baseline weights and vital signs were similar among groups. The time to apnea and cyanide dose required to achieve apnea were similar. At time zero, mean cyanide blood and lactate concentrations and reduction in mean arterial pressure from baseline were similar. In the saline solution group, 2 of 11 animals survived compared with 10 of 11 in the hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide groups (Pcyanide concentrations became undetectable at the end of the study in both antidote-treated groups, and no statistically significant differences were detected between the 2 groups for mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, respiratory rate, lactate, or pH. Both hydroxocobalamin and cobinamide rescued severely cyanide-poisoned swine from apnea in the absence of assisted ventilation. The dose of cobinamide was one fifth that of hydroxocobalamin. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxocobalamin Versus Sodium Thiosulfate for the Treatment of Acute Cyanide Toxicity in a Swine (Sus scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    and 12 with both. What this study adds to our knowledge Hydroxocobalamin alone reversed shock caused by cyanide poisoning . Sodium thiosulfate alone...loss of life that might be associated with the relatively uncontrolled absorption through an inhalational model of cyanide poisoning . We addressed this...al. Prehospital administration of hydroxocobalamin for smoke inhalation–associated cyanide poisoning : 8 years of experience in the Paris Fire Brigade

  5. Prevalence and diversity of Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, V.; Janiszewski, P.; Forejtek, P.; Rajský, D.; Kotková, Michaela; Ravaszová, P.; McEvoy, J.; Kváč, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 2 (2014), s. 761-767 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : molecular epidemiology * pig farms * humans Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  6. The challenge of detecting classical swine fever virus circulation in wild boar (Sus scrofa): Simulation of sampling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Schulz, Katja; Blome, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    with a justifiable effort. The simulation of increased sample sizes per sampling interval showed only a slightly better performance but would be unrealistic in practice, especially outside the main hunting season. Further studies on other approaches such as targeted or risk-based sampling for virus detection...... investigations play a major role in the early detection of new introductions and in regions immunized with a conventional vaccine. The required financial resources and personnel for reliable testing are often large, and sufficient sample sizes to detect low virus prevalences are difficult to obtain. We conducted...

  7. First molecular identification and phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a symptomatic sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies.

  8. The first pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3 strain isolated from a hunted wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, A; Platt-Samoraj, A; Szczerba-Turek, A; Syczyło, K; Szweda, W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the bioserotypes and virulence markers of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from wild boars in Poland. Bacteriological examination of 302 rectal swabs from 151 wild boars resulted in the isolation of 40 Y. enterocolitica strains. The majority of the examined strains (n = 30), belonged to bioserotype 1A/NI. The presence of individual Y. enterocolitica strains belonging to bioserotypes 1B/NI (3), 1A/O:8 (2), 1A/O:27 (2), 2/NI (1), 2/O:9 (1) and 4/O:3 (1) was also demonstrated. Amplicons corresponding to ail and ystA genes were observed only in one Y. enterocolitica strain--bioserotype 4/O:3. The ail and ystB gene amplicons were noted in 11 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains, although single amplicons of ystB gene were found in 28 of the tested samples. In four out of eight cases when two Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated from the same animal, the strains differed in biotype, serotype or virulence markers. The European population of wild boars continues to grow and spread to new areas, therefore, wild boars harbouring potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains pose a challenge to public health.

  9. Short Contribution: Severe Enamel Defects and Malformations of Canines in Pre-Historic and Historic Domestic Pigs from Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teegen, W.-R.; Kyselý, René

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-146 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : domestic pig (Sus scrofa f. domestica) * enamel defect * enamel and root hypoplasia * Iron Age (La Tène period) * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2014-02-kysely.pdf

  10. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species.

  11. Fatal attraction. Control of the housefly (Musca domestica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Despite its long association with man, the housefly (Musea domestica Linnaeus) remains one of the most difficult pests to control. It is a ubiquitous insect that can be found in houses, stables, food processing factories and other domesticated areas and buildings. Reliance on insecticides for fly

  12. Results of target tracking with a Musca domestica inspired sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Robert W; Khan, Arif; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Frost, Susan

    2014-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous work done at the University of Wyoming (and presented at a previous Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium), this paper discusses the results of using a Musca domestica based sensor platform as a target tracking mechanism for the measurement of wing deflection of fixed-wing aircraft. The testing of the sensor hardware and accompanying software is described, and the results are analyzed. Work remains to be done to improve robustness and adaptability, but given specific operating conditions, the sensor is a viable alternative to other technologies, and provides results with improved efficiency, speed, and computational load.

  13. El folklore y sus paradojas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HONORIO M. VELASCO MAILLO

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los rasgos más sobresalientes de la historia del folklore en España y otras naciones europeas son sus paradojas. Propuesto primero como ciencia ha llegado a ser claramente rechazado por posteriores ambientes científicos. Tendría interés hacer una historia social del folklore. Este artículo sugiere que tales paradojas y contradicciones están relacionadas con el paradigma científico que asumieron sus promotores, el evolucionismo cultural y con un concepto idealizado de "pueblo", que ayudaron a construir presentando colecciones de materiales. También analiza las diferentes funciones sociales que ha cumplido el discurso folklórico.

  14. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  15. Transcriptional response of Musca domestica larvae to bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Tang

    Full Text Available The house fly Musca domestica, a cosmopolitan dipteran insect, is a significant vector for human and animal bacterial pathogens, but little is known about its immune response to these pathogens. To address this issue, we inoculated the larvae with a mixture of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and profiled the transcriptome 6, 24, and 48 h thereafter. Many genes known to controlling innate immunity in insects were induced following infection, including genes encoding pattern recognition proteins (PGRPs, various components of the Toll and IMD signaling pathways and of the proPO-activating and redox systems, and multiple antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, we also uncovered a large set of novel immune response genes including two broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (muscin and domesticin, which might have evolved to adapt to house-fly's unique ecological environments. Finally, genes mediating oxidative phosphorylation were repressed at 48 h post-infection, suggesting disruption of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial function at the late stages of infection. Collectively, our data reveal dynamic changes in gene expression following bacterial infection in the house fly, paving the way for future in-depth analysis of M. domestica's immune system.

  16. Transcriptomic responses to biotic stresses in Malus x domestica: a meta-analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, Bipin; Marra, Francesco Paolo; Caruso, Tiziano; Martinelli, Federico

    2018-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an...

  17. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  18. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  19. Encontro do parasita Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae em Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae no Brasil Finding of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasite breeding in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Marchiori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a primeira ocorrência de Hemencyrtus herbertii parasitando pupas de Musca domestica em fezes humanas no Brasil.This is the first report of the occurrence of Hemencyrtus herbertii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae parasitizing pupae of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in human feces in Brazil.

  20. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  1. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  2. BIOEFFICACY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THYMUS VULGARIS AND EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS AGAINST HOUSEFLY, MUSCA DOMESTICA L.

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. CHINTALCHERE; S. LAKARE; R. S. PANDIT

    2013-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a cosmopolitan insect, associated with vectoring of various etiologicalagents. In order to search for effective control method, bioefficacy of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)and Clove leaf (Eugenia coryophyllus) was studied against housefly. The LC (50) 3.18ug/cm2 value of Clove leaf oilwas found highly effective as compared to LC (50) value 4.39ug/cm2 of Thyme essential oil for inducing mortalityof M. domestica larvae. The adulticidal activity o...

  3. A preliminary study of the effects of individual response to challenge tests and stress induced by humans on learning performance of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajon, Sophie; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Schmitt, Océane; Devillers, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated whether individual behavioural characteristics of piglets and stress induced by experience with humans can influence learning performance. After weaning, piglets received a chronic experience with humans to modulate their emotional state: rough (ROU), gentle (GEN), or minimal (MIN) experience. Simultaneously, they were trained on a discrimination task. Afterward, their behaviour during challenge tests was assessed. The first learning step of the task involved associating a positive sound cue with a response (approach a trough) and success of piglets depended mostly on motivation to seek for reward. Although the experience with humans did not have direct effect, the degree of fear of handler, measured based on their reactivity to a human approach test, was related to motivation to seek rewards and learning speed of this first step in stressed ROU piglets, but not in MIN and GEN piglets. In contrast, the second learning step was more cognitively challenging, since it involved discrimination learning, including negative cues during which piglets had to learn to avoid the trough. Locomotion activity, measured during an open-field test, was associated with performance of the discrimination learning. To conclude, fearfulness towards humans and locomotion activity are linked with learning performance in relation to task complexity, highlighting the necessity to take into account these factors in animal research and management. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Infrarenal Aortic Balloon Occlusion on Weaning from Supraceliac Aortic Balloon Occlusion in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    all animals , and continued for six hours. Half of the animals were randomly assigned to Zone-3 REBOA for an additional 45 minutes following Zone-1...concentration or resuscitation requirements.Conclusion: In an animal model of hemorrhagic shock and Zone-1 REBOA, subsequent Zone-3 aortic occlusion did not add

  5. Effects of a Taser: Conducted Energy Weapon on the Circulating Red-Blood-Cell Population and Other Factors in Sus scrofa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-30

    our study favoring either young or old RBCs being released from the spleen is unknown. Since alkalosis (rather than acidosis) tends to result in...204. 70. Waśkiewicz Z, Kłapcińska B, Sadowska-Krępa E, Czuba M, Kempa K, Kimsa E, Gerasimuk D. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon...cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic effects of a long duration electronic control device exposure in human volunteers. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2010;6

  6. Technique Refinement and Validation of Variable Aortic Occlusion via Extracorporeal Flow Circuit in a Pig Model (Sus scrofa) of Uncontrolled Hemorrhage with Subsequent Resuscitation and Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-24

    animals and minimized the ischemic insult to distal vascular beds, thus preserving organ viability as evidenced by early return of urine output and...changes (PI/CI/AI/TC/lnstructor) since the last IACUC approval of protocol, or annual review ? x_ Yes No Ifyes, complete the following sections (Additions

  7. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  8. Influence of human activities on the activity patterns of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, van N.; Ohashi, H.; Koike, S.; Kaji, K.

    2015-01-01

    Human ageing and population decline in Japan are causing agricultural field abandonment and providing new habitats for Japanese sika deer and wild boar. These species have expanded their distribution and increased in abundance across Japan and are causing increased agricultural damage. Effective

  9. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  10. Data from: Untangling the hybrid nature of modern pig genomes: a mosaic derived from biogeographically distinct and highly divergent Sus scrofa populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Madsen, O.; Frantz, L.A.F.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The merging of populations after an extended period of isolation and divergence is a common phenomenon, in natural settings as well as due to human interference. Individuals with such hybrid origins contain genomes that essentially form a mosaic of different histories and demographies. Pigs are an

  11. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P.

    1966-06-01

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [fr

  12. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Rhodococcus equi in wild boars (Sus scrofa), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Cisek, Agata Anna; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Czopowicz, Michał; Welz, Mirosław; Kita, Jerzy

    2015-05-22

    Rhodococcus equi is now considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen. Sources and routes of human infection remain unclear but foodborne transmission seems to be the most probable way. Strains of pig or bovine type are most often isolated from human cases and moreover R. equi is present in submaxillary lymph nodes of apparently healthy pigs and wild boars intended for human consumption. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of R. equi in submaxillary lymph nodes in wild boars, roe deer and red deer. Samples were collected from 936 animals and 27 R. equi strains were isolated, from 5.1 % of wild boars (23/452), 0.7 % of red deer (2/272) and 0.9 % of roe deer (2/212). Genetic diversity of all 27 isolates was studied using VspI-PFGE method, resulting in the detection of 25 PFGE patterns and four PFGE clusters. PFGE patterns of the isolates were compared with virulence plasmid types and no concordance was observed. R. equi was present in wild animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of R. equi infection for humans. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of R. equi prevalence in tissues of roe deer and red deer. However, risk associated with wild ruminant consumption seems marginal. Investigation of R. equi transmission between animals and humans based exclusively on types of virulence plasmids seems to be insufficient to identify sources of R. equi infection for people.

  13. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  14. Annotation Of Novel And Conserved MicroRNA Genes In The Build 10 Sus scrofa Reference Genome And Determination Of Their Expression Levels In Ten Different Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nielsen, Mathilde; Hedegaard, Jakob

    The DNA template used in the pig genome sequencing project was provided by a Duroc pig named TJ Tabasco. In an effort to annotate microRNA (miRNA) genes in the reference genome we have conducted deep sequencing to determine the miRNA transcriptomes in ten different tissues isolated from Pinky...... against miRBase, we identified more than 600 conserved known miRNA/miRNA*, which is a significant increase relative to the 211 porcine miRNA/miRNA* deposited in the current version of miRBase. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcript profiles provided important information on the relative abundance...... and tissue-specificity of miRNA expression. In addition, we are currently analyzing our data using miRDeep for de novo discovery and annotation of the pig genome with both conserved and novel miRNAs. So far this analysis revealed the identity and genomic position of 535 miRNA genes of which 97 were novel...

  15. Estimativa do número de cardiomiócitos do ventrículo esquerdo em suínos (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Palmeira Sarmento

    2009-01-01

    Os estudos relacionados ao coração têm sido realizados ao longo dos anos de forma bastante comum, tendo em vista a grande importância que este órgão tem na medicina. Problemas relacionados ao mesmo são uma das principais causas de mortes e internações no Brasil e no mundo, por causa disso, avanços no que diz respeito a inovações tecnológicas e novas metodologias de estudo tem sido propostas cada vez com mais freqüência, e, o suíno tem se mostrado um modelo bastante útil, pois apresenta divers...

  16. Pituitary-adrenal activation in pre-parturient pigs (Sus scrofa) is associated with behavioural restriction due to lack of space rather than nesting substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, S.; Calvert, S.K.; Stevenson, J.; Leeuwen, van N.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has shown that pre-parturient primiparous pigs (gilts) housed in behaviourally restrictive farrowing crates without straw redirect their nest-building behaviour to non-manipulable substrates such as the bars of the crate. These gilts also show elevated plasma adrenocorticotropic

  17. Development and Validation of a Simplified Renal Replacement Therapy Suitable for Prolonged Field Care in a Porcine (Sus scrofa) Model of Acute Kidney Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Animal ___ Medical Readiness ___ Prolonged Restraint ___ Training: non-Live Animal ___ Health Promotion ___ Multiple Survival Surgery...Military Health System Research Symposium 2018, FL. 11. PROTOCOL OBJECTIVES: (Were the protocol objectives met, and how will the outcome or training...dialysis catheter (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT) was introduced into the right external jugular vein. Bilateral nephrectomies were performed

  18. Pseudoscardovia suis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Bifidobacteriaceae isolated from the digestive tract of wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Mrázek, Jakub; Bunešová, V.; Havlík, J.; Koppová, Ingrid; Benada, Oldřich; Rada, V.; Kopečný, Jan; Vlková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2013), 11-16 ISSN 0723-2020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QJ1210093 Program:QJ Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bifidobacteriaceae * Digestive tract * Multilocus sequence analysis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.310, year: 2013

  19. Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin in the Treatment of Acute, Severe Cyanide Induced Cardiotoxicity in a Swine (Sus Scrofa) Model - An Alternate Administration Route for Chemical Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    Ut:IVI:I... I 11:111VI:> Hydroxocobalamin, hypotension, cyanide , poisoning , intraosseous, Vitamin B 12a, Vitamin B 12 I 1:). :>CI...U I111 T L.L~:>:>II...Il l Ll:. ~IIIU :>Utili I Ll: :>a. I...UIIIII1~1... I IIIVIVItll:l1 lntraosseous hydroxocobalamin in the treatment of acute, severe cyanide induced...between 2 groups of swine in acute cyanide toxicity and treated with IV HOC or 10 HOC. We also compared blood cyanide , lactate, pH, nitrotyrosine levels

  20. Intravenous versus intramuscular cobinamide compared to intravenous saline (control) in the treatment of acute, survivable, hydrogen sulfide toxicity in swine (Sus Scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    shown that cobinamide successfully reverses cyanide poisoning in an animal model. Moreover, cobinamide can be administered via the IM route making it an...toxicity and ease with which it can be produced. Several potential antidotes have been proposed for hydrogen sulfide poisoning , but none have been...completely successful. Our studies indicate that cobinamide can successfully reverse hydrogen sulfide poisoning in an animal model. We have also

  1. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna occidentalis em javalis (Sus scrofa ferus no estado de Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em javalis no Estado de Goiás. De um rebanho de 80 javalis, 15 adoeceram e um morreu. Os sinais clínicos observados foram apatia, prostração, ataxia, tremores musculares, incoordenação, relutância em mover-se, decúbito esternal ou lateral, paresia e paralisia espástica, principalmente dos membros pélvicos. As principais alterações macroscópicas consistiam de palidez moderada a acentuada da musculatura esquelética dos membros pélvicos e torácicos e no lombo, especialmente nos músculos da coxa. Microscopicamente, observou-se degeneração e necrose flocular, multifocal, leve a moderada, monofásica, com fragmentação de fibras na musculatura esquelética. Nos cortes transversais, havia fibras musculares tumefeitas e hipereosinofílicas. Adicionalmente, havia degeneração microvacuolar hepatocelular difusa, leve a moderada. A atividade sérica da CK estava acentuadamente elevada em dois javalis avaliados e da TGO aumentou em um javali afetado.

  2. A comparison of proximal tibia, distal femur, and proximal humerus infusion rates using the EZ-IO intraosseous device on the adult swine (Sus scrofa) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairet, Julio; Bebarta, Vikhyat; Lairet, Kimberly; Kacprowicz, Robert; Lawler, Christopher; Pitotti, Rebecca; Bush, Anneke; King, James

    2013-01-01

    We sought to compare the flow rates of the proximal tibia, the distal femur, and the proximal humerus using high pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) through an intraosseous (IO) infusion needle in an adult swine model. We performed a prospective interventional study in 11 swine. After placement of central vein and arterial lines, blood was removed via the central line until the animal's mean arterial pressure decreased 25% from the recorded baseline. We inserted a 25-mm IO needle into the proximal tibia and 45-mm needles into the distal femur and proximal humerus. All extremities were utilized in each study animal. We infused normal saline at each site for 10 minutes with a pressure bag inflated to the highest achievable pressure (greater than 300 mmHg) as measured at the infusion site with a calibrated portable inline pressure gauge. We measured the volume of normal saline remaining and we calculated infusion rates for each site. We then compared infusion flow rates between the three locations. Statistical analysis and comparison of the infusion rates of all three study arms were as performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The average weight of the swine was 71 kg (range 64-84 kg). Successful placement of the IO needle was confirmed at all three sites. The mean infusion flow rate was 213 mL/min (standard deviation [SD] 53.2 mL/min) for the proximal humerus, 138 mL/min (SD 65.3 mL/min) for the distal femur, and 103 mL/min (SD 48.1 mL/min) for the proximal tibia (p IO placement, with a potential for higher flow rates than the proximal tibia and distal femur when resuscitating a patient.

  3. Origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve in pig fetuses (Sus scrofa domesticus – Linnaeus, 1758 from the lineage Pen Ar Lan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Antônio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The origin and distribution of the sciatic nerve was studied in 31 pig fetuses from the lineage Pen Ar Lan, being 22 males and 9 females, after being fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. In these animals, the lumbar vertebrae ranged from 5 to 7, with a predominance of 6, something which contributed to variations in the origin of this nerve. The sciatic nerve originated in 80.64% of the antimeres from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve (L5; in 96.77 % of L6; in 6.45% of L7; in 100% of S1; and in 64.51% of S2. The composition of this nerve took place in 45.16% of the animals due to the union of L5, L6, S1 and S2; in 32.25% of L5, L6 and S1; in 12.90% of L6, S1 and S2; in 6.45% of L6, L7 and S1; and in 3.22% L5, S1 and S2. There was symmetry in the origin of the sciatic nerve in all specimens under study. This nerve sent branches to the superficial gluteal, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris muscles in all specimens, and, in a lesser frequency, to the twins, quadratus femoris, adductors, as well as the middle, accessory, and deep gluteal muscles. In 74.19% of the sample, a branch communicating to the pudendal nerve was observed.

  4. Serological and molecular investigation of the prevalence of Aujeszky's disease in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the subregions of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2013-08-30

    The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic Selection for Fruit Quality Traits in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Chagné, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Volz, R.K.; Whitworth, C.; Carlisle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents

  6. Isolation and characterization of strong gene regulatory sequences from apple, Malus x domestica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Tinnenbroek, I.E.M.; Krens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the strong expression of genes in plant tissue, the availability of specific gene regulatory sequences is desired. We cloned promoter and terminator sequences of an apple (Malus x domestica) ribulose biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (MdRbcS), which is known for its high expression and

  7. [Cloning and characterization of Caveolin-1 gene in pigeon, Columba livia domestica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Xing-Guo; Gu, Zhi-Liang

    2010-10-01

    Caveolins, a class of principal proteins forming the structure of caveolae in plasmalemma, were encoded by caveolins gene family. Caveolin-1 gene is a member of caveolins gene family. In the present study, a full-length of 2605 bp caveolin-1 cDNA sequence in Columba livia domestica, which included a 537 bp complete ORF encoding a 178 amino acids long putative peptide, were obtained by using RT-PCR and RACE technique. The Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 CDS shared 80.1% - 93.4% homology with Bos taurus, Canis lupus familiaris, Gallus gallus and Rattus norvegicus. Meanwhile, the putative amino acid sequence of Columba livia domestica caveolin-1 shared 85.4% - 97.2% homology with the above species. The semi-quantity RT-PCR revealed that Caveolin-1 expressions were detectable in all the Columba livia domestica tissues and the expressional level of caveolin-1 gene was high in adipose, medium in various muscles, low in liver. These results demonstrated that Caveolin-1 gene was potentially involved in some metabolic pathways in adipose and muscle.

  8. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  9. A microsatellite marker linkage map of the housefly, Musca domestica : Evidence for male recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeyer, B.; Pen, I.; Beukeboom, L. W.

    We present the first molecular marker linkage map for Musca domestica containing 35 microsatellite plus six visible markers. We report the development of 33 new microsatellite markers of which 19 are included in the linkage map. Two hundred and thirty-six F2 individuals were genotyped from three

  10. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. field population to laboratory breeding causes transcriptional alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H.; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450...

  11. Biological changes in Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera:Muscidae), induced by gamma radiation (60 Co)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecchi, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This work was carried out in the Entomology Section of the Centre of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The objective of the present research work was to investigate some effects of gamma radiation on the various stages of M. domestica life cycle. (author)

  12. Metilcelulosa: sus aplicaciones farmacéuticas

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia Villanueva, Cristián; Sapag Hagar, Jaime

    1995-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es señalar las propiedades más importantes de la metilcelulosa (MC) y explicar de qué manera éstas son determinadas por sus características físicas y químicas. Además, se discuten algunas de sus aplicaciones más importantes en formulaciones farmacéuticas.

  13. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal.

  14. The enhancement by caffeine of the frequency of lethal dominant mutation induced by gamma radiation in oocytes of Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targa, H.J.; Rogatko, A.

    1982-01-01

    The results obtained, when a new technique for feeding insects is employed, on the effects of caffeine of the radiation - induced breaks of oocyte chromatids of Musca domestica are presented. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Transmission Electron Microscopic Morphological Study and Flow Cytometric Viability Assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii Susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, Shuiqing; Li, Rongjiang; Feng, Yongwen; Wang, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc), a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica), has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the...

  16. Neoliberalismo e intervencionismo: sus fuentes y razones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Kalmanovitz

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una reseña sobre el papel del intervencionismo estatal en la conducción de la economía y de la pugna con el neoliberalismo, se hace una revisión de los modelos económicos aplicados a lo largo del siglo y se muestran sus rasgos principales, sus problemas y sus paradojas. A partir de alfí, se examina lo sucedido en América Latina, para dar cuenta de las particularidades del caso colombiano, cuyo modelo en esta década muestra una distancia grande del modelo neoliberal, mientras sus problemas lo acercan a los dilemas y sin salidas del intervencionismo, en un contexto que requeriría otras fórmulas para hacer posible la paz. Frente a ello, se examinan las posiciones y propuestas de los economistas, vistas bajo la aguda polarización entre intervencionismo y neoliberalismo, pero en circunstancias críticas que alejan los logros en torno a la modernización, la estabilidad de precios, la sólida fundamentación macroeconómica y la democratización política.

  17. Larvicidal efficiency of the fungus Amanita muscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paiva Carapeto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the larvicidal action of two formulations of Amanita muscaria against Musca domestica. Two methods of extraction were tested: an aqueous extract from dried, powdered basidiomes (DPB; and an extract from fresh basidiomes liquefied in water (FLB. The mortality caused by the DPB extract varied from 14.67% to 100%. The efficiency of the FLB extract varied from 10.67% to 89.33%. The mean lethal concentration (LC50 of the DPB extract was approximately 1,931.02 ppm, whereas the LC50 for the FLB extract was about 30%. The extracted substances from these methods did not interfere with the development period of immatures and did not influence pupal weight. These results show the potential of A. muscaria extracts for controlling M. domestica.

  18. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  19. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  20. Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Larva Musca Domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam Beberapa Jenis Kotoran Ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Rosyad, Abdul; Kinasih, Ida

    2013-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly's life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  1. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae) dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani Eka Putra; Abdul Rosyad; Ida Kinasih

    2015-01-01

    House fly (Musca domestica) is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fl...

  2. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Dajpratham, Piyapat; Taechaarpornkul, Wirat; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Lukkanapichonchut, Pranee; Chootip, Chirawan; Saengsuwan, Jittima; Tantayakom, Kesthamrong; Laongpech, Supphalak

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement. Methods 367 primary knee osteoarthritis patients with a pain score of 5 or higher were randomized to receive ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day or C. domestica extracts 1,500 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results 185 and 182 patients were randomly assigned into C. domestica extracts and ibuprofen groups, respectively. The baseline characteristics were no different between groups. The mean of all WOMAC scores at weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed significant improvement when compared with the baseline in both groups. After using the noninferiority test, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) of WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, and WOMAC function scores at week 4 adjusted by values at week 0 of C. domestica extracts were noninferior to those for the ibuprofen group (P=0.010, P=0.018, and P=0.010, respectively), except for the WOMAC stiffness subscale, which showed a trend toward significance (P=0.060). The number of patients who developed AEs was no different between groups. However, the number of events of abdominal pain/discomfort was significantly higher in the ibuprofen group than that in the C. domestica extracts group (P=0.046). Most subjects (96%–97%) were satisfied with the treatment, and two-thirds rated themselves as improved in a global assessment. Conclusion C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group. PMID:24672232

  3. Histological data concerning the pig (sus scrofa) for use in radiobiology. I. Normal histology of certain systems. 2. Injuries caused by total {gamma} irradiation; Donnees histologiques sur le porc (sus scrofa), utilisables en radiobiologie. 1. histologie normale de certains appareils. 2. etude des lesions consecutives a une irradiation {gamma} totale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenet, J.L.; Vaiman, M.; Nizza, P. [Commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The domestic pig lately become a laboratory whose anatomical and physiological characteristics appear to be appreciated for certain radiological studies. In this report the authors describe research which they have carried out (in particular in the field of histology) on domestic pigs of different species with a view to compiling a record which might be of help to future workers in this field. The second part of their work deals with anatomical and histological injuries caused by total exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt 60 at doses of around 285 rads. (authors) [French] Le porc domestique est devenu depuis peu un animal de laboratoire, dont les caracteristiques anatomiques et physiologiques paraissent fort appreciees pour certaines etudes de radiobiologie. Dans ce rapport les auteurs font part des recherches qu'ils ont effectuees (notamment dans le domaine de l'histologie) sur des porcs domestiques de differentes races, de maniere a constituer un document capable de venir en aide aux utilisateurs eventuels. La deuxieme partie de leur travail traite de lesions anatomiques et histologiques, consecutives a des expositions totales aux rayonnements gamma du cobalt 60 a des doses voisines de 285 rads. (auteurs)

  4. Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in farmed wild boars (Sus scrofa in Rio Grande do Sul Síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis (Sus scrofa de criações comerciais no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This report concerns an outbreak of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in wild boars from commercial herds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The main clinical signs were progressive wasting, respiratory distress, diarrhea, and ocular discharges. Enhanced lymph nodes and spleens, ascites, hydrothorax, and non collapsed lungs were the principal gross lesions. Varying degrees of lymphohistiocytic infiltrates in lymph nodes, spleen, and intestines were the most significant microscopic changes. Although a total of 26 animals had showed clinical and pathological findings consistent with the disease, only in 11 of them it was possible to confirm a PMWS diagnosis through the association of specific lesions in lymphoid tissues with the presence of the viral antigen detected by immunohistochemistry. These findings were similar to those reported in the swine disease.Descreve-se a ocorrência da síndrome multissistêmica do definhamento suíno em javalis de dois rebanhos comerciais no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os principais sinais observados foram definhamento progressivo, tosse, espirros, diarréia e descarga ocular. Linfonodos e baços aumentados, ascite, hidrotórax e pulmões não colapsados foram os principais achados macroscópicos. Infiltrados linfo-histiocitários de graus variáveis em linfonodos, baços e intestinos foram as lesões microscópicas mais relevantes. Embora 26 animais tenham apresentado achados clínicos e patológicos compatíveis com a enfermidade, apenas em 11 desses foi possível confirmar o diagnóstico através da associação de lesões histológicas específicas nos tecidos linfóides com a presença do antígeno viral, detectado pela técnica de imunoistoquímica. Tanto os achados clínicos como patológicos foram semelhantes aos descritos na doença suína.

  5. Occurrence of Hymenoptera on Sus scrofa carcasses during summer and winter seasons in southeastern Brazil Ocorrência de Hymenoptera em carcaças de Sus scrofa durante as estações de inverno e verão do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable importance has been given to nest construction and larval food transport to the nest as a precondition for the eusociality of insects. Most adult hymenopterans feed on liquids, although bees and a few wasps may also feed on pollen. Carrion represents an additional source of protein for some species and they will scavenge for dead animals in the wild. This paper aims at analyzing Hymenoptera visitors on a pig carcass during the process of decomposition, in the summer of 2005 and the winter of 2006 in Brazil, and comparing the results with other studies in the Neotropical region. To our knowledge, this is the first study which described the occurence of Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista and Scaptotrigona depilis on decomposing carcasses in southeastern Brazil. It also raises the hypothesis of possible applications of Hymenoptera to achieve more precise PMI estimations, apart from other insects already known as having great importance in such estimates.Considerável importância tem sido dada às construções de ninhos e transporte de alimento larval para o ninho como uma pré-condição para a eusociabilidade dos insetos. Muitos adultos de himenópteros alimentam-se em líquidos, embora as abelhas e poucas vespas podem também se alimentarem de pólen. Carcaças representam uma fonte adicional de proteína para algumas espécies e elas foram uma vez observadas se alimentando de animais mortos na natureza. Este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar Hymenoptera visitantes em carcaças de porcos durante o verão de 2005 e inverno de 2006 no Brasil, ao longo dos estágios de decomposição, comparando com resultados de outros estudos na região Neotropical. Pelo nosso conhecimento, esse é o primeiro estudo que descreveu a ocorrência de Agelaia pallipes, Polybia paulista e Scaptotrigona depilis em carcaças em decomposição no sudeste do Brasil. Isso também aumenta a hipótese na possibilidade de aplicação de Hymenoptera em auxiliar a estimar o IPM de maneira mais precisa, sem levar em conta insetos que já possuem grande importância forense.

  6. Reduction in Musca domestica fecundity by dsRNA-mediated gene knockdown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Sanscrainte

    Full Text Available House flies (Musca domestica are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP transcripts RPL26 and RPS6. Ovaries showed highly reduced provisioning and clutch reductions of 94-99% in RP dsRNA treated flies but not in actin-5C or GFP treated flies. Gene expression levels were significantly and specifically reduced in dsRNA injected groups but remained unchanged in the control dsGFP treated group. Furthermore, injections with an Aedes aegypti conspecific dsRNA designed against RPS6 did not impact fecundity, demonstrating species specificity of the RNAi response. Analysis of M. domestica tissues following RPS6 dsRNA injection showed significant reduction of transcript levels in the head, thorax, and abdomen but increased expression in ovarian tissues. This study demonstrates that exogenous dsRNA is specifically effective and has potential efficacy as a highly specific biocontrol intervention in adult house flies. Further work is required to develop effective methods for delivery of dsRNA to adult flies.

  7. Transcriptomic responses to biotic stresses in Malus x domestica: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Bipin; Marra, Francesco Paolo; Caruso, Tiziano; Martinelli, Federico

    2018-01-31

    RNA-Seq analysis is a strong tool to gain insight into the molecular responses to biotic stresses in plants. The objective of this work is to identify specific and common molecular responses between different transcriptomic data related to fungi, virus and bacteria attacks in Malus x domestica. We analyzed seven transcriptomic datasets in Malus x domestica divided in responses to fungal pathogens, virus (Apple Stem Grooving Virus) and bacteria (Erwinia amylovora). Data were dissected using an integrated approach of pathway- and gene- set enrichment analysis, Mapman visualization tool, gene ontology analysis and inferred protein-protein interaction network. Our meta-analysis revealed that the bacterial infection enhanced specifically genes involved in sugar alcohol metabolism. Brassinosteroids were upregulated by fungal pathogens while ethylene was highly affected by Erwinia amylovora. Gibberellins and jasmonates were strongly repressed by fungal and viral infections. The protein-protein interaction network highlighted the role of WRKYs in responses to the studied pathogens. In summary, our meta-analysis provides a better understanding of the Malus X domestica transcriptome responses to different biotic stress conditions; we anticipate that these insights will assist in the development of genetic resistance and acute therapeutic strategies. This work would be an example for next meta-analysis works aiming at identifying specific common molecular features linked with biotic stress responses in other specialty crops.

  8. Effects of Persea americana Mill. seed extracts on the postembryonic development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscoide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia del C. Molina Bertrán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The synthetic insecticides used to control Diptera are harmful to the environment and humans. Extracts and compounds from plants are a more sustainable source for the development of bio-insecticides. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of Persea americana Mill seeds as an alternative control of the species Musca domestica. Methods: The extracts were obtained by two methods, the Shaker (S and the Soxhlet extraction (SE method, using 94% ethanol as the solvent. Also, the qualitative chemical composition was determined by phytochemical screening. The effect of the two extracts on the post-embryonic development of the fly as well as the adulticidal effect was evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of metabolites such as alkaloids, coumarins, tannins, flavonoids, sugars and amino acids. The influence on the post-embryonic development of M. domestica was demonstrated, especially on the viability of larvae and neolarvae to adults; however, the effect on the weight and duration of each period was low. The adulticidal effects of the extracts were determined by the lethal concentration 50(LC50 of 2.910 mg/100 mL and 3.944 mg/100 mL for the S and SE extracts, respectively. Conclusions: Both extracts showed their insecticidal effects against Musca domestica, but the extract elaborated by S method showed greater influence diminishing viability and better adulticidal effect.

  9. Infectivity of housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to different entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muzammil; Freed, Shoaib

    The housefly Musca domestica is a worldwide insect pest that acts as a vector for many pathogenic diseases in both people and animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the virulence of different local isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea on M. domestica using two bioassay techniques: (1) adult immersion and (2) a bait method applied to both larvae and adults. The results showed evidence of a broad range of responses by both stages (larvae and adults) to the tested isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea. These responses were concentration-dependent, with mortality percentages ranging from 53.00% to 96.00%. Because it resulted in lower LC 50 values and a shorter lethal time, B. bassiana (Bb-01) proved to be the most virulent isolate against both housefly larvae and adults. Sublethal doses of the tested isolates were also assessed to evaluate their effect on M. domestica fecundity and longevity. The fungal infections reduced housefly survival regardless of their sex and also decreased egg production in females. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  11. Altavoces y Sus Características.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Ortiz, Juan Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de aprendizaje aborda la definición de los altavoces desde el campo electroacústico relacionando su principio de funcionamiento mecánico eléctrico y sus características mas importantes como lo son su tipo, respuesta en frecuencia, impedancia, sensibilidad y patrón polar. Contenido realizado por el docente de la Escuela de Ciencias Básicas Tecnología e Ingeniería Ing. Juan G. Cabrera O.

  12. A domestic porcine model for studying the effects of radiation on head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christoph R; Kloss, Frank; Singh, Sarvpreet; Vasiljevic, Danijela; Stigler, Robert; Auberger, Thomas; Wenzel, Volker; Klima, Günter; Lukas, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Gassner, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) of the head and neck region is often accompanied by serious side effects. Research in this area is needed to improve treatment outcomes and ameliorate therapy tolerance. Laboratory rodents are barely matching today's clinical standards in RT research. Yet domestic swine (Sus scrofa domestica) have previously proved suitable for various advanced tests in clinical research and training. We therefore investigated whether S. scrofa domestica is also appropriate for irradiation of the mandible. A common scheme for irradiation treatment of S. scrofa domestica mandibles in a split-mouth design was acquired by applying computed tomography (CT) scanning under sedation. Basing on close anatomic resemblance, a standard treatment plan comprising 2 opposed irradiation fields could be accomplished. RT was carried out in a clinical environment with 2 × 9 Gy. The resulting operating procedure facilitated complication-free sedation, transport, positioning, CT scanning, and effective irradiation. Based on common standards applied for RT in humans, domestic pigs can be employed to progress RT clinical research. Due to their human-like anatomy, physiology, size, and weight, the swine model is expedient for advancing experimental RT of the head and neck area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical composition and insecticidal property of Myrsine stolonifera (Koidz.) walker (Family: Myrsinaceae) on Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue Gui; Li, Qian; Jiang, Su Rong; Li, Pei; Yang, Ji Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Musca domestica is one of the most important pests of human health, and has developed strong resistance to many chemicals used for its control. One important approach for creating new pesticides is the exploration of novel compounds from plants. During a wide screening of plants with insecticidal properties that grow in southern China, we found that the methanolic extracts of Myrsine stolonifera had insecticidal activity against the adults of M. domestica. However, the insecticidal constituents and mechanisms of the M. stolonifera extracts remain unclear. The insecticidal components of the methanolic extracts of M. stolonifera were isolated with activity-guided fractionation. From the spectra of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS), the compounds were identified as syringing (1), 2,6-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenol-1-O-β-d-glu (2), kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu (3), and quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu (4). This study is the first to report the spectral data for compounds 3 and 4, and their LC 50 values were 0.52mg/g sugar and 0.36mg/g sugar 24h after treatment of the adults of M. domestica, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 (LC 25 ) also inhibited the activities of the enzymes carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, mixed function oxidase, and acetylcholine esterase of adult M. domestica, particularly mixed function oxidase and acetylcholine esterase. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 3 and 4 on cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potentials (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were demonstrated on SL-1 cells. From the extracts of M. stolonifera, quercetin-3-O-glu-rha-glu and kaempferol-3-O-glu-rha-glu have displayed comparable toxicities to rotenone on M. domestica and also exhibited cytotoxic effects on SL-1 cells; therefore, the extracts of M. stolonifera and their compounds have potential as botanical insecticides to control M. domestica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra...... with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex-ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex-ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding...

  15. La Eutonía-Sus Principios

    OpenAIRE

    Rovella, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende dar cuenta de la Eutonía como práctica corporal dando cuenta de sus objetivos y principios La Eutonía fue creada por Gerda Alexander.El término, del griego, Eu: bueno, óptimo-Tonus: tensión; expresa la idea de una tonicidad armoniosamente equilibrada en adaptación constante al estado o actividad del momento. Es una disciplina basada en la experiencia del propio cuerpo, que conduce a la persona hacia una toma de conciencia de si misma y propone un aprendizaje para ...

  16. TELECENTROS COMUNITARIOS MANIZALES VISTOS POR SUS USUARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUlio César Meza Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un ejercicio de evaluación de los Telecentros Comunitarios de la ciudad de Manizales (Caldas, Colombia, con el fin de identificar la percepción que sobre ellos tienen sus usuarios. Para ello se encuestan a 597 usuarios que han cursado alguna de las capacitaciones ofrecidas por Manizales Vive Digital, que reflejan la alta aceptación del programa y su efecto positivo sobre el proceso de inclusión digital en la ciudad.

  17. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  18. Estudio sobre el mercado laboral yerbatero, sus protagonistas, y sus luchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Jordán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reseña bibliográfica acerca del libro “Cosechando yerba mate. Estructuras sociales de un mercado agrario en el Nordeste argentino” (2012 de Victor Rau. Dicho estudio analiza el mercado laboral agrario yerbatero, recuperando su historicidad en la región, atendiendo a las estructuras sociales que han condicionando su funcionamiento, como las variables que permitieron la reconfiguración de la estructura del mercado actual, sobretodo a partir de los años ’90. Para ello, se enfoca en los asalariados agrícolas, sus condiciones de venta de fuerza de trabajo, y sus acciones colectiva de protesta.

  19. Parasite protozoa of importance in public health picked up by Musca domestica Linnaeus in Lima, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Martín; Martínez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudia...

  20. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  1. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  2. Effects of relative humidity, temperature, and population density on production of cuticular hydrocarbons in housefly Musca domestica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, N; Den Otter, CJ

    The production of cuticular hydrocarbons by both males and females of Musca domestica L. under very wet conditions (90% relative humidity) compared to the production at 50 and 20% relative humidity is delayed up to at least 3 days after emergence from the pupae. Eight days after emergence, however,

  3. Genetic variability in apple fruit polyphenol composition in Malus × domestica and Malus sieversii germplasm grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Richard K; McGhie, Tony K

    2011-11-09

    Variations in the concentrations of flavan-3-ol, oligomeric procyanidin, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcone, flavonol, and anthocyanin polyphenol groups and total polyphenols were examined in the fruit peel and cortical flesh of 93 (80 Malus × domestica and 13 Malus sieversii) apple genotypes in at least 1 year between 2003 and 2005 grown at one site in New Zealand (NZ). Differences among genotypes accounted for 46-97% of the total variation in the concentrations of total polyphenols and each of the individual phenol groups in the flesh and peel in both species, whereas effects of year and genotype × year were minimal, except for peel flavonols in M. × domestica and flesh flavonols in both species. In these cases, differences among genotypes accounted for less than 30% of the total variation, which was less than the variation found for the interaction between genotype and year. Total polyphenol concentrations among genotypes were spread over a 7- and 9-fold range in the flesh and a 4- and 3-fold range in the peel of M. sieversii and M. × domestica, respectively, with the spread in concentrations of individual polyphenol groups in each tissue and within each species varying from a 2-fold to over a 500-fold range. Higher concentrations were generally found in M. sieversii. In M. × domestica, cultivars and breeding selections originating in NZ had lower average flesh and peel total polyphenols and chlorogenic acid than older cultivars previously imported into NZ from overseas countries.

  4. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  5. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  6. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  7. Cuatricentenario: "Alonso Berruguete y sus figuras"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Navarro

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available El Amor y la Muerte, el Extasis y la Nada, gesto español de puro abolengo trágico. He aquí a Don Alonso Berruguete, escultor que nació en la villa de Paredes de Nava, provincia de Palencia, "por los años de 1480" y murió en Toledo el año de 1561. En el Casón del Retiro de Madrid sus silentes "creaturas" celebran con música de Victoria el cuatricentenario del maestro. Sobre el terciopelo verde y escarlata Adoraciones y Calvarios donde se retrata a lo vivo el pensamiento taumaturgo de la España terrible del siglo XVI.

  8. Heat shock transcriptional factors in Malus domestica: identification, classification and expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Filomena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs play a crucial role in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress conditions and in plant growth and development. Apple (Malus domestica Borkh is an economically important fruit tree whose genome has been fully sequenced. So far, no detailed characterization of the Hsf gene family is available for this crop plant. Results A genome-wide analysis was carried out in Malus domestica to identify heat shock transcriptional factor (Hsf genes, named MdHsfs. Twenty five MdHsfs were identified and classified in three main groups (class A, B and C according to the structural characteristics and to the phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa. Chromosomal duplications were analyzed and segmental duplications were shown to have occurred more frequently in the expansion of Hsf genes in the apple genome. Furthermore, MdHsfs transcripts were detected in several apple organs, and expression changes were observed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis in developing flowers and fruits as well as in leaves, harvested from trees grown in the field and exposed to the naturally increased temperatures. Conclusions The apple genome comprises 25 full length Hsf genes. The data obtained from this investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Hsf gene family in apple, and provide the basis for further studies to dissect Hsf function during development as well as in response to environmental stimuli.

  9. Molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas from houseflies (Musca domestica in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Ommi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to report the molecular detection and antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas among houseflies (Musca domestica in Shahrekord and Isfahan provinces of Iran. Materials and methods. Flies were caught from household kitchens, cattle farms, animal hospitals, human hospitals, slaughter house and poultry farms and put in collection separate sterile tubes. Isolation was accomplished by culture of flies in alkaline peptone water followed by identification with Aeromonas-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results. Out of 600 houseflies 73 (12.2% were infected with Aeromonas spp. Significantly higher frequencies of Aeromonas were isolated in Shahrekord province (13.0%; 39/300 than in Isfahan province (11.3%; 34/300. The recovery frequencies of the organisms were significantly lower in kitchens as compared to those in cattle farms and hospital wards which were similar. Higher proportions of infected flies were obtained during summer whereas low proportions were obtained during winter. Conclusions. It is concluded that houseflies do harbor diarrheagenic pathogens, including Aeromonas especially during summer. The carried organisms are resistant to a number of antimicrobials at different levels. Thus, future plans aimed at stemming infections caused by these organisms should take flies into account. Control efforts of infections caused by this particular bacterium should therefore take into account Musca domestica.

  10. On the genomics of immunoglobulins in the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Olp, Jonathan J; Miller, Robert D

    2009-08-01

    Annotated maps of the IGH, IGK, and IGL loci in the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica were generated from analyses of the available whole genome sequence for this species. Analyses of their content and organization confirmed a number of previous conclusions based on characterization of complementary DNAs encoding opossum immunoglobulin heavy and light chains and limited genomic analysis, including (a) the predominance of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) subgroup and clan, (b) the presence of a single immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclass, (c) the apparent absence of an IgD, and (d) the general organization and V gene complexity of the IGK and IGL light chain loci. In addition, several unexpected discoveries were made including the presence of a partial V to D, germline-joined IGHV segment, the first germline-joined Ig V gene to be found in a mammal. In addition was the presence of a larger number of IGKV subgroups than had been previously identified. With this report, annotated maps of the major histocompatibility complex, T-cell receptor, and immunoglobulin loci have been completed for M. domestica, the only non-eutherian mammalian species for which this has been accomplished, strengthening the utility of this species as a model organism.

  11. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Valério, A. A. [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R. [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa, J. A. R. G., E-mail: joao@lnls.br [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Estrutural (CeBiMe), Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), CP 6192, Campinas, SP 13084-971 (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress.

  12. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Antonio; Scasciamacchia, Silvia; Garofolo, Giuliano; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Tarsitano, Elvira; Adone, Rosanna

    2010-08-17

    Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus) was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  13. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  14. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author)

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  16. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  17. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using the fungus Entomophthora muscae (chon Fresenius to eliminate some larval roles of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Yas Lahmood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studied effect serial concentrations from spores filtrate of fungus Entomophthora muscae on some larval roles of musca domestica in laboratory. Results were made clear that the insect roles are sensitive to fungus, and treated the food larva of musca domestica and sprinkle it by concentration 2.8×106 , 2.8×107, 2.8×108 (spore/ml has led to get rates of destruction of cumulative faculty certified on the concentration and time its magnitude 16.60 , 47.67, 53.30 % respectively , also recorded some phenotypic distortion infected dead larva represent by contraction and blackening body. The treatment of pupael by sprinkling the previous fungus concentration recorded rate of destruction of accumulative faculty its magnitude 13.33, 26.67, 33.33% respectively, also the rates emergence of adults ranged between 66.67 – 86.67 % in comparison with rates of emergence of adults in control treatment 96.67% The results are made clear that adults treatment by sprinkle with last concentration from fungus spore filtrate recorded rates of distraction its magnitude 46.61, 56.67, 70% respectively after one week from treatment .

  19. Crystallization, data collection and phasing of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marana, S. R.; Cançado, F. C.; Valério, A. A.; Ferreira, C.; Terra, W. R.; Barbosa, J. A. R. G.

    2006-01-01

    The digestive lysozymes 1 and 2 from M. domestica were crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystallographic data were processed to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å in both cases. Lysozymes are mostly known for their defensive role against bacteria, but in several animals lysozymes have a digestive function. Here, the initial crystallographic characterization of two digestive lysozymes from Musca domestica are presented. The proteins were crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium sulfate or PEG/2-propanol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.9 Å using synchrotron radiation. The lysozyme 1 and 2 crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 (unit-cell parameters a = 36.52, b = 79.44, c = 45.20 Å, β = 102.97°) and the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 (unit-cell parameters a = 73.90, b = 96.40, c = 33.27 Å), respectively. The crystal structures were solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is in progress

  20. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Malus domestica fruit extract from Kashan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jelodarian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidants are considered as the main factors in the inhibition of unwanted oxidation reactions. Materials and Methods: In this research the antioxidant potential of the fresh fruits of 4 cultivars (A to D of Malus domestica (M. domestica cultivated in the Kashan, Qamsar area was evaluated. The antioxidant activity of the samples were evaluated using two complementary antioxidant assays: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests and the results were compared with the synthetic standard antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Results: Total phenolic contents of the samples are also estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test. In both DPPH β-carotene/linoleic acid tests in the concentration of 2 mg/ml, only samples from cultivar A showed moderate antioxidant activity with 63.92±0.42 and 6.02±0.03 inhibition percentages, respectively and other samples were weakly active. Conclusion: The Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol test was also showed very little phenolic compounds for the fruits. In conclusion, weak antioxidant activity was estimated for the studied apple cultivars.

  2. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  3. Characterisation ofSorbus domesticaL. Bark, Fruits and Seeds: Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić, Boris; Šola, Ivana; Likić, Saša; Cindrić, Iva Juranović; Rusak, Gordana

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the nutritional value of service tree ( Sorbus domestica L.) bark, fruit exocarp and mesocarp, and seeds by establishing the levels of macro- and microelements, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Our results revealed that all of the tested service tree samples were rich in potassium. Bark was the best source of calcium and zinc, while seeds were the best source of magnesium. Compared to the bark and seeds, fruit exocarp and mesocarp contained significantly lower amounts of these three elements. Immature exocarp and bark contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activity. Maturation significantly decreased the amount of total phenolics in fruits, as well as the antioxidant activity of total phenolics and total tannins from exocarp, but not from mesocarp. Exocarp was the richest in total flavonoids. Based on the obtained data, we have concluded that the under-utilised species S. domestica L. could serve as an important source of mineral elements and antioxidants in the human diet.

  4. The aphrodisiac effect and toxicity of combination Piper retrofractum L, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma domestica infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Rahmawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum L merupakan salah satu tanaman yang diketahui memiliki efek stimulan pada tubuh. Dari penelitian pendahuluan diketahui bahwa dalam bentuk infusa, LD50 nya rendah dan termasuk bahan yang tidak toksik. Infusa pada tikus putih dengan dosis 2,1 mg/10 gram berat badan mempunyai efek androgenik dan anabolik. Alkaloid utama dalam buah cabe jawa yang diduga merupakan senyawa aktif berkhasiat afrodisiaka adalah piperin. Pegagan (Centella asiatica dan temulawak (Curcuma domestica berfungsi sebagai bahan tambahan pendukung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui toksisitas dan efek afrodisiaka infus ramuan buah cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak pada tikus jantan. Metode: Parameter efek afrodisiaka dilihat dari frekuensi introduction, climbing, dan coitus tikus jantan dibandingkan kontrol serta kadar hormon testosteron sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Toksisitas subkronik ditentukan dari kadar SGOT, SGPT, ureum, dan kreatinin sebelum dan sesudah pemberian infusa ramuan selama 3 bulan.Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifi kan parameter frekuensi climbing dan coitus antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok yang diberi infusa ramuan (P=0,032. Sementara pemberian infusa ramuan Piper retrofractum L., Centella asiatica, dan Curcuma domestica tidak menyebabkan perbedaan yang signifi kan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jantan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Pemberian infusa ramuan dosis tinggi (5000 mg/200g BB menyebabkan perubahan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT dan ureum tikus kelompok perlakuan.Kesimpulan: Infusa ramuan cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak memiliki efek afrodisiaka pada libido tikus jantan galur SD dan pemberian ramuan dosis 5000mg/200g BB tikus setiap hari selama 3 bulan berturut-turut menyebabkan peningkatan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT, dan ureum tikus. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:19-22 Kata kunci: afrodisiaka, toksisitas, Piper retrofractum LAbstractIntroduction: Piper retrofractum L

  5. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and mineral composition of low-temperature fractioning products of Malus domestica Borkh (common Antonovka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has been performed. We obtained by fractionation the biologically active products that are the dehydrated concentrate of juice and the powder of pomace fibers. Use of low temperature minimizes biological value losses during processing. These fractions of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka are experimentally studied. It is found that the fractions have high antioxidant activity and include bioflavonoids and organic and phenol carboxylic acids. Analysis of chromatograms showed availability of the identical compounds in the products of low-temperature fractionation. Sodium and potassium are part of the cells of biological systems as highly mobile ionic forms. Therefore, these elements prevail in the concentrated juice. Iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are biogenic trace elements or components of enzyme systems and are evenly distributed as in plant cell walls as well in protoplasm. It follows from the results of the study of the mineral composition that the products of the low-temperature fractioning can be used for a functional food as a result of its high content of magnesium and iron. The low-temperature fractionation of fruit Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka has antimicrobial activity against the standard strains of spoilage: Bacillus subtilis VKM-B-501, Micrococcus luteus VKM-As-2230, Aspergillus flavus VKM-F-1024, Penicillium expansion VKM-F-275, Mucor mucedo VKM- F-1257, Rhizopus stolonifer VKM- F-2005. Experimental data show that the products of low-temperature fractioning of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka inhibit microorganism's growth. The detected composition of Malus domestica Borkh (Common Antonovka fractions allows using these products as natural additives in food technology to maintain and increase period of storage and also for preventive nutrition.

  6. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi, One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rademaker

    Full Text Available The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2 large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  7. First Ecological Study of the Bawean Warty Pig (Sus blouchi), One of the Rarest Pigs on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Mark; Meijaard, Erik; Semiadi, Gono; Blokland, Simen; Neilson, Eric W; Rode-Margono, Eva Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Bawean warty pig (Sus blouchi) is an endemic pig species confined to the 192 km(2) large island of Bawean in the Java Sea, Indonesia. Due to a lack of quantitative ecological research, understanding of natural history and conservation requirements have so far been based solely on anecdotal information from interviews with local people and study of captive and museum specimens. In this study we provide the first assessment of population and habitat preferences for S. blouchi by using camera trapping. From the 4th of November 2014 to January 8th 2015, we placed camera traps at 100 locations in the forested protected areas on Bawean. In 690.31 camera days (16567.45 hours) we captured 92 independent videos showing S. blouchi. Variation in S. blouchi trapping rates with cumulative trap effort stabilized after 500 camera days. An important outcome is that, in contrast to the suggestion of previous assessments, only S. blouchi was detected and no S. scrofa was found, which excludes hybridization threats. We fitted a Random Encounter Model, which does not require the identification of individual animals, to our camera-trapping data and estimated 172-377 individuals to be present on the island. Activity patterns and habitat data indicate that S. blouchi is mainly nocturnal and prefers community forests and areas near forest borders. Next to this, we found a positive relationship between S. blouchi occupancy, distance to nearest border, litter depth and tree density in the highest ranking occupancy models. Although these relationships proved non-significant based on model averaging, their presence in the top ranking models suggests that these covariables do play a role in predicting S. blouchi occurrence on Bawean. The estimated amount of sites occupied reached 58%. Based on our results, especially the estimation of the population size and area of occupancy, we determine that the species is Endangered according to the IUCN/SSC Red List criteria.

  8. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoids play an essential role in the control of house flies Musca domestica. The development of neonicotinoid resistance was found in two field populations. 766b was 130- and 140-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 17- and 28-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively...... impact. Neonicotinoid resistance was in all cases suppressed by PBO. The cytochrome P450 genes CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 were constitutively over-expressed in resistant strains and CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 differentially expressed between sexes. The highest level of CYP6A1 expression was observed in both gender...... of the imidacloprid-selected strain after neonicotinoid exposure. CYP6D1 expression was increased after neonicotinoid exposure in resistant males. CYP6D3 expression was induced in both sexes upon neonicotinoid exposure but significantly higher in females....

  9. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  10. Helminth-bacteria interaction in the gut of domestic pigeon Columba livia domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Debraj; Nandi, Anadi Prasad; Chatterjee, Soumendranath

    2016-03-01

    The present paper is an attempt to study the interaction between the helminth parasite and bacteria residing in the gut of domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the gut bacterial isolate were done and the isolate was identified as Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510). The interaction of Staphylococcus sp. with Cotugnia cuneata, an intestinal helminth parasite of domestic pigeon was studied on the basis of the difference between 'mean worm burden' of antibiotic treated infected pigeons and infected pigeons without any antibiotic treatment. The ANOVA and Tukey tests of the data obtained showed that antibiotic treatment reduced the mean worm burden significantly. The biochemical properties of Staphylococcus sp. DB1 (JX442510) also showed a mutualistic relationship with the physiology of C. cuneata.

  11. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  12. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of dried Portuguese apple variety (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Tânia C S P; Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Alves, Maria José; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-02-01

    Malus domestica Borkh apples are one of the most consumed fruits in the world, due to their sweetness and flavour. Herein, 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple fruits were characterized regarding their nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive properties. Besides nutrients, flavan-3-ols (i.e., epicatechin and B-type procyanidins) as also hydroxycinnamoyl-quinic acids and phloretin derivatives were identified in the samples. Extracts prepared from 'Bravo de Esmolfe' also proved to have antioxidant activity and antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria, namely methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Listeria monocytogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, and against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli (ESBL) (producing extended spectrum β-lactamases) and Morganella morganii. There is very little information about 'Bravo de Esmolfe' apple, so this study is important to inform consumers about an alternative source of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ahmadi, Amin; Himan, Mohammadpour

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran. Study was done on 100 pigeons from January to June 2010 in Isfahan located in south of Iran. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from all birds. Also blood samples were obtained from wing vein and thin smears were prepared from them. All smears were stained by Giemsa and were examined by immersion. Out of 100 Oropharyngeal swab smears 57 (57%) were positive for T. gallinae and Haemoproteus gallinae were detected in 62 pigeons (62%) from which blood smear were taken. The present study is in close agreement with other studies in Iran. But infestation rate to theses parasite in world are very different. These differences were probably linked to geographical variations and differences in the feeding habitat and abundance of vehicles of Haemoproteus.

  14. Plasticity in behavioural responses and resistance to temperature stress in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    2015-01-01

    , at the stressful high temperature Spanish flies flew the furthest and Danish flies the shortest distance. Neither body size nor wing loading affected flight performance, although flies with narrower wings tended to fly further (wing shape effect). Swiss flies were most active in terms of locomotor activity......Organisms can respond to and cope with stressful environments in a number of ways including behavioural, morphological and physiological adjustments. To understand the role of behavioural traits in thermal adaptations we compared heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity, flight...... performance and morphology of three European populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from different thermal conditions (Spain, Switzerland and Denmark) at benign and stressful high temperatures. Spanish flies showed greater heat resistance than Swiss and Danish flies. Similarly...

  15. Optimizing dehydration of apples Malus Domestica with fructo-oligosaccharide incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Buranelo Egea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to study the effect of the variables of the osmotic dehydration process on sliced Fuji apples (Malus domestica using a 2 x 3² factorial design. The variables studied in the apple slices were the pretreatment (blanching or acidification, the temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC and the FOS concentration (40%, 50% and 60% m/v of the osmotic solution. There was no difference among the pretreatments for the water activity and titratable acidity. The slices pre-treated by the acidification presented less enzymatic browning (greatest luminosity L* value combined with a greater soluble solid contents (thus, this treatment was selected. Treatments T4 (45ºC and 40% m/v and T7 (60ºC and 40%m/v, using the acidification presented responses within the recommended standards and FOS were validated by the repetition.

  16. Occupational Hazards of Fyling Pigs: A Swine model of Hypobaric Induced Neuronal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Profess ional Presentation Approval 18 APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled Occupational Hazards of Flving Pigs : A Swine Model of...RANK1’GRAOE, ’TITlE OF RE \\llEW’ER 45. REVIEWER 31GNAT’IJRE so_ o,o.TE FR-C"\\/.OUS EDlnCNB ARE Ol>SCLETE OCCU PATIONAL HAZARDS OF FLYING PIGS : A SWINE...necessitates intubation or anesthetization of exposure subjects, miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were repetiti vely exposed to non-hypoxic

  17. Primary characterization and basal promoter activity of two hexamerin genes of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Moreira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexamerins are high molecular-weight proteins found in the hemolymph of insects and have been proposed to function as storage proteins. In previous studies, two Musca domestica hexamerins, designated Hex-L and Hex-F were characterized. Hex-L is synthesized exclusively by the larval fat bodies, is secreted into the hemolymph and likely provides a source of amino acids and energy during metamorphosis. Hex-F synthesis is induced by a proteinaceous meal and occurs only in the adult insect fat bodies. Hex-F also is secreted into the hemolymph and it has been suggested that in females it may be an amino acid reservoir to be used during the final stages of egg formation. Genomic clones containing full-length copies of the genes MdHexL1 and MdHexF1, encoding subunits of the larval and the adult female hexamerin, respectively, were isolated. Complete nucleotide sequences, including the 5'-end untranscribed regions, were determined and analyzed for each of the genes. Comparisons of the conceptual translation products of the cloned genes indicated that MdHexL1 and MdHexF1 are related to the larval serum proteins (LSP 1 and 2 of Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster. DNA fragments containing the putative promoters of the two hexamerin genes were compared and cloned into a plasmid vector so as to drive the expression of the GFP reporter gene. The constructs were assayed in vitro in transfected S2 Drosophila melanogaster cells demonstrating that the cloned M. domestica DNA fragments exhibit promoter activity.

  18. In silico analysis of the polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 from apple, Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsaunyane, Lerato Bt; Oelofse, Dean; Dubery, Ian A

    2015-03-11

    The Malus domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1) gene, encoding the M. domestica polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1 (MdPGIP1), was isolated from the Granny Smith apple cultivar (GenBank accession no. DQ185063). The gene was used to transform tobacco and potato for enhanced resistance against fungal diseases. Analysis of the MdPGIP1 nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene comprises 993 nucleotides that encode a 330 amino acid polypeptide. In silico characterization of the MdPGIP1 polypeptide revealed domains typical of PGIP proteins, which include a 24 amino acid putative signal peptide, a potential cleavage site [Alanine-Leucine-Serine (ALS)] for the signal peptide, a 238 amino acid leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a 46 amino acid N-terminal domain and a 22 amino acid C-terminal domain. The hydropathic evaluation of MdPGIP1 indicated a repetitive hydrophobic motif in the LRR domain and a hydrophilic surface area consistent with a globular protein. The typical consensus glycosylation sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr was identified in MdPGIP1, indicating potential N-linked glycosylation of MdPGIP1. The molecular mass of non-glycosylated MdPGIP1 was calculated as 36.615 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point as 6.98. Furthermore, the secondary and tertiary structure of MdPGIP1 was modelled, and revealed that MdPGIP1 is a curved and elongated molecule that contains sheet B1, sheet B2 and 310-helices on its LRR domain. The overall properties of the MdPGIP1 protein is similar to that of the prototypical Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP 2 (PvPGIP2), and the detected differences supported its use in biotechnological applications as an inhibitor of targeted fungal polygalacturonases (PGs).

  19. La noción de “seguridad humana”: sus virtudes y sus peligros

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alcázar, Javier

    2012-01-01

    El concepto de seguridad humana ha estado al centro de un amplio debate desde que el PNUD lo adoptara en su ‘‘Informe sobre Desarrollo Humano’’de 1994. Algunos han señalado sus ventajas como alternativa a concepciones más tradicionales de la seguridad, mientras que los críticos del concepto insisten en su ambigüedad y la posibilidad de que sea utilizado para justificar, incluso, acciones violentas en la línea del realismo político. En estas páginas, tras un balance de los pros y contras, se d...

  20. Food passage time through the alimentary tract of a brazilian teleost fish, Prochilodus scrofa (Steindachner, 1881 using radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lamounier Barbieri

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O tempo de passagem de alimentos através do trato digestivo do peixe detritívoro de água doce Prochilodus scrofa foi determinado com o uso de técnicas radiográficas e de sulfato de bário como meio de contraste. Os peixes foram mantidos em tanques com temperatura constante de 23ºC e receberam via oral, através de um cateter, uma mistura de 2,5 partes de ração peletizada moída e 1 parte de suspensão oral do meio de contraste (Celobar. As radiografias foram obtidas em intervalos de 3 horas. Imediatamente após a introdução da mistura, visualizou-se o preenchimento gástrico pelo contraste. Foi observado um esfíncter existente entre os estômagos cárdico e pilórico. Após 3 horas, 80 por cento do intestino proximal estava repleto. Após 6 horas, o contraste atingiu as porções proximal, média e distal do intestino. Após 9 horas, 70 por cento do intestino distal estava repleto, e após 12 horas, havia a marcação do segmento do reto (25 por cento da porção distal do intestino.

  1. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming; Reid, William R; Zhang, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that not only is insecticide resistance conferred via multiple gene up-regulation, but it is mediated through the interaction of regulatory factors. However, no regulatory factors in insecticide resistance have yet been identified, and there has been no examination...... of the regulatory interaction of resistance genes. Our current study generated the first reference transcriptome from the adult house fly and conducted a whole transcriptome analysis for the multiple insecticide resistant strain ALHF (wild-type) and two insecticide susceptible strains: aabys (with morphological...... recessive markers) and CS (wild type) to gain valuable insights into the gene interaction and complex regulation in insecticide resistance of house flies, Musca domestica. Results Over 56 million reads were used to assemble the adult female M. domestica transcriptome reference and 14488 contigs were...

  2. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  3. Los directores aprendiendo de sus maestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ortega Muñoz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de investigación está enmarcado dentro de la línea de indagación Aprendizaje para la Gestión y versa sobre los principales aprendizajes que han adquirido los directivos de educación básica del estado de Durango, México, para el mejor ejercicio de su función. Desde un estudio de narrativa, se recopilaron historias de 16 directores de educación primaria estatal pertenecientes a la zona escolar 24 del sector educativo no. 1 de la Secretaría de Educación Pública. El análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante la herramienta de análisis de información cualitativa Atlas ti versión 7.5. Los hallazgos de la investigación muestran que los principales aprendizajes que los directivos de educación básica del estado de Durango, México han adquirido de sus maestros para el mejor ejercicio de su función son dos: a el trabajo en equipo, del cual se desprenden componentes como una eficaz y eficiente organización del trabajo, el trabajar siempre en colaboración y tener la mejor de las actitudes para trabajar; y b el liderazgo compartido, aspecto en que se perciben elementos como el óptimo manejo y resolución de conflictos, el liderazgo y la toma de decisiones en conjunto por parte del colectivo escolar. Abstract This research paper, framed within the line of inquiry Learning Management, deals with the main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico, for the best performance of their duties, from a study of narrative histories of 16 directors of state primary education outside the school zone 24 the education sector 1 of the Ministry of Education. The data analysis was performed using the computer statistical package you Atlas ti version 7.5. The research findings show that there are two main lessons that have acquired the management of basic education in the state of Durango, Mexico from their teachers for the better performance of their function: a teamwork

  4. Laser bendability of SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composite and its constituent layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Seyedkashi, S. M.; Gollo, Mohammad Hoseinpour; Biao, Jin; Moon, Young Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Laminated composites are of great interest in different industries while having the advantages of all base metals. In this research, the laser bending of a three-layered SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composite is characterized both experimentally and numerically. This composite can be used in the microelectronics industry since it has the anti-corrosion and strength capability of stainless steel, and the electrical superiority of copper. The specimens are bent using a Ytterbium fiber laser irradiated on a straight path along the sheet width. The effects of bending parameters including the number of passes, scanning velocity, beam diameter, laser power and delay time between passes are examined for a three-layered laminated sheet, and compared with its constituent steel and copper layers. It is found that the thin copper mid-layer strongly affects the rate of bending per pass. Heat distribution and plastic strain along the thickness during the process are characterized by using the finite element method. The Cu mid-layer decreases the bending angle, but also postpones the onset of melting, and thus can be compensated by the application of higher laser powers. It is shown that the bending angle increases with an increase in laser power and delay time, and a decrease in laser velocity and beam diameter.

  5. Reduction of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Campylobacter jejuni in poultry manure by rearing of Musca domestica fly larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Fischer, C.; Bjerrum, L.

    2017-01-01

    A major barrier for using animal waste as substrate for production of insects for feed or food is the concern for safety of the end products. In this study we investigated how rearing of fly larvae of Musca domestica in poultry manure influenced the counts of three pathogenic test strains...... of the larvae stage. This study provides data for evaluation of feed safety of fly larvae reared on animal waste. Furthermore suggests a potential use for reduction of these pathogens in manure....

  6. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as euca...

  7. Maize Lc transcription factor enhances biosynthesis of anthocyanins, distinct proanthocyanidins and phenylpropanoids in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Flachowsky, Henryk; Fischer, Thilo C; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Forkmann, Gert; Treutter, Dieter; Schwab, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Thomas; Szankowski, Iris

    2007-10-01

    Flavonoids are a large family of polyphenolic compounds with manifold functions in plants. Present in a wide range of vegetables and fruits, flavonoids form an integral part of the human diet and confer multiple health benefits. Here, we report on metabolic engineering of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) by overexpression of the maize (Zea mays L.) leaf colour (Lc) regulatory gene. The Lc gene was transferred into the M. domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation which resulted in enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in regenerated shoots. Five independent Lc lines were investigated for integration of Lc into the plant genome by Southern blot and PCR analyses. The Lc-transgenic lines contained one or two Lc gene copies and showed increased mRNA levels for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3 beta-hydroxylase (FHT), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), leucoanthocyanidin reductases (LAR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and anthocyanidin reductase (ANR). HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analyses revealed higher levels of the anthocyanin idaein (12-fold), the flavan 3-ol epicatechin (14-fold), and especially the isomeric catechin (41-fold), and some distinct dimeric proanthocyanidins (7 to 134-fold) in leaf tissues of Lc-transgenic lines. The levels of phenylpropanoids and their derivatives were only slightly increased. Thus, Lc overexpression in Malus domestica resulted in enhanced biosynthesis of specific flavonoid classes, which play important roles in both phytopathology and human health.

  8. Microscopia óptica e eletrônica do corpúsculo de Stannius do curimbatá (Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ferreira Goldman Pinheiro

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stannius corpuscles of Prochilodus scrofa are studied microscopically (both optically and electronically as well as macroscopically. Two CS, and sometimes 3 or 4, are found per animal. They are pink-coloured organs, rounded in shape and scattered laterally in the first anterior third of the kidney. Each CS is enveloped by a thick connective tissue capsule. The grandular parenchyma consists of only one cellular (PAS-/AF- type, cylindrical in shape, with oval or rounded nucleus located eccentrically with visible nucleolus. The ultrastructural description is as follows: well developed Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in moderate quantities. Electron-dense granules numerous. CS highly vascularized.

  9. Housefly (Musca domestica) and Blow Fly (Protophormia terraenovae) as Vectors of Bacteria Carrying Colistin Resistance Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Li; Yassin, Afrah Kamal; Kelly, Patrick; Butaye, Patrick; Li, Jing; Gong, Jiansen; Cattley, Russell; Qi, Kezong; Wang, Chengming

    2018-01-01

    Flies have the capacity to transfer pathogens between different environments, acting as one of the most important vectors of human diseases worldwide. In this study, we trapped flies on a university campus and tested them for mobile resistance genes against colistin, a last-resort antibiotic in human medicine for treating clinical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Quantitative PCR assays we developed showed that 34.1% of Musca domestica (86/252) and 51.1% of Protophormia terraenovae (23/45) isolates were positive for the mcr-1 gene, 1.2% of M. domestica (3/252) and 2.2% of P. terraenovae (2.2%, 1/45) isolates were positive for mcr-2 , and 5.2% of M. domestica (13/252) and 44.4% of P. terraenovae (20/45) isolates were positive for mcr-3 Overall, 4.8% (9/189) of bacteria isolated from the flies were positive for the mcr-1 gene ( Escherichia coli : 8.3%, 4/48; Enterobacter cloacae : 12.5%, 1/8; Providencia alcalifaciens : 11.8%, 2/17; Providencia stuartii : 4.9%, 2/41), while none were positive for mcr-2 and mcr-3 Four mcr-1 -positive isolates (two P. stuartii and two P. alcalifaciens ) from blow flies trapped near a dumpster had a MIC for colistin above 4 mg/ml. This study reports mcr-1 carriage in Providencia spp. and detection of mcr-2 and mcr-3 after their initial identification in Belgium and China, respectively. This study suggests that flies might contribute significantly to the dissemination of bacteria, carrying these genes into a large variety of ecological niches. Further studies are warranted to explore the roles that flies might play in the spread of colistin resistance genes. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most serious global threats to human health. An option for treatment of the Gram-negative ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumannii , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) bacteria with multiple drug resistance was

  10. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las intoxicaciones

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de una intoxicación, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  11. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las lesiones viales

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las lesiones viales, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  12. Proteja a sus seres queridos de un ahogamiento

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de un ahogamiento, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  13. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las quemaduras

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las quemaduras, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  14. Cortical plasticity following stripe rearing in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica: neural response properties of V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James C; Donaldson, Michaela S; Krubitzer, Leah A

    2017-02-01

    The functional organization of the primary visual area (V1) and the importance of sensory experience in its normal development have been well documented in eutherian mammals. However, very few studies have investigated the response properties of V1 neurons in another large class of mammals, or whether sensory experience plays a role in shaping their response properties. Thus we reared opossums (Monodelphis domestica) in normal and vertically striped cages until they reached adulthood. They were then anesthetized using urethane, and electrophysiological techniques were used to examine neuronal responses to different orientations, spatial and temporal frequencies, and contrast levels. For normal opossums, we observed responses to the temporal and spatial characteristics of the stimulus to be similar to those described in small, nocturnal, eutherian mammals such as rats and mice; neurons in V1 responded maximally to stimuli at 0.09 cycles per degree and 2.12 cycles per second. Unlike other eutherians, but similar to other marsupials investigated, only 40% of the neurons were orientation selective. In stripe-reared animals, neurons were significantly more likely to respond to vertical stimuli at a wider range of spatial frequencies, and were more sensitive to gratings at lower contrast values compared with normal animals. These results are the first to demonstrate experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system of a marsupial species. Thus the ability of cortical neurons to alter their properties based on the dynamics of the visual environment predates the emergence of eutherian mammals and was likely present in our earliest mammalian ancestors. These results are the first description of visual response properties of the most commonly studied marsupial model organism, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Further, these results are the first to demonstrate experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system of a marsupial species. Thus the ability of

  15. Cortical plasticity following stripe rearing in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica: neural response properties of V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James C.; Donaldson, Michaela S.

    2016-01-01

    The functional organization of the primary visual area (V1) and the importance of sensory experience in its normal development have been well documented in eutherian mammals. However, very few studies have investigated the response properties of V1 neurons in another large class of mammals, or whether sensory experience plays a role in shaping their response properties. Thus we reared opossums (Monodelphis domestica) in normal and vertically striped cages until they reached adulthood. They were then anesthetized using urethane, and electrophysiological techniques were used to examine neuronal responses to different orientations, spatial and temporal frequencies, and contrast levels. For normal opossums, we observed responses to the temporal and spatial characteristics of the stimulus to be similar to those described in small, nocturnal, eutherian mammals such as rats and mice; neurons in V1 responded maximally to stimuli at 0.09 cycles per degree and 2.12 cycles per second. Unlike other eutherians, but similar to other marsupials investigated, only 40% of the neurons were orientation selective. In stripe-reared animals, neurons were significantly more likely to respond to vertical stimuli at a wider range of spatial frequencies, and were more sensitive to gratings at lower contrast values compared with normal animals. These results are the first to demonstrate experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system of a marsupial species. Thus the ability of cortical neurons to alter their properties based on the dynamics of the visual environment predates the emergence of eutherian mammals and was likely present in our earliest mammalian ancestors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY These results are the first description of visual response properties of the most commonly studied marsupial model organism, the short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Further, these results are the first to demonstrate experience-dependent plasticity in the visual system of a marsupial species

  16. Hematological and physiological changes induced by short-term exposure to copper in the freshwater fish, Prochilodus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. MAZON

    Full Text Available Hematological and physiological changes in the blood of juveniles of the freshwater fish, Prochilodus scrofa were determined after acute exposure to 20, 25, and 29 mugCu L-1 in water (pH 7.5; hardness 24.5 mg L-1 as CaCO3 for 96 h. Copper exposure to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1 caused significant increase in the hematocrit and red blood cell values. The increase in red blood cells was associated with increase in whole blood hemoglobin only in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Leukocytes increased following copper exposure and were significantly higher in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Differential leukocyte percentage displayed significant reduction in lymphocytes and an increase in neutrophils in fish exposed to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1. The percentage of monocytes remained unchanged after copper exposure. The thrombocytes did not change. There was a significant decrease in plasma [Na+] and [Cl-] and a significant drop in blood pH in fish exposed to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1 while [K+] showed significant increase in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Copper exposure led to ionoregulatory impairment, although chloride cell hypertrophy was induced. The changes in red blood cells suggest a compensatory response to respiratory surface reduction of gills (tissue damage and cell proliferation in order to maintain oxygen transference from water to the tissues, allowing the fish to survive during the so-called shock phase of LC50 exposure, at least while at rest.

  17. Hematological and physiological changes induced by short-term exposure to copper in the freshwater fish, Prochilodus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZON A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematological and physiological changes in the blood of juveniles of the freshwater fish, Prochilodus scrofa were determined after acute exposure to 20, 25, and 29 mugCu L-1 in water (pH 7.5; hardness 24.5 mg L-1 as CaCO3 for 96 h. Copper exposure to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1 caused significant increase in the hematocrit and red blood cell values. The increase in red blood cells was associated with increase in whole blood hemoglobin only in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Leukocytes increased following copper exposure and were significantly higher in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Differential leukocyte percentage displayed significant reduction in lymphocytes and an increase in neutrophils in fish exposed to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1. The percentage of monocytes remained unchanged after copper exposure. The thrombocytes did not change. There was a significant decrease in plasma [Na+] and [Cl-] and a significant drop in blood pH in fish exposed to 25 and 29 mugCu L-1 while [K+] showed significant increase in fish exposed to 29 mugCu L-1. Copper exposure led to ionoregulatory impairment, although chloride cell hypertrophy was induced. The changes in red blood cells suggest a compensatory response to respiratory surface reduction of gills (tissue damage and cell proliferation in order to maintain oxygen transference from water to the tissues, allowing the fish to survive during the so-called shock phase of LC50 exposure, at least while at rest.

  18. Analise espacial dos aglomerados de nascimentos ocorridos em hospitais SUS e nao SUS do municipio de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carla dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a distribuição espacial de nascidos vivos (NV do município de São Paulo (MSP, verificar se há dependência espacial, identificar possíveis diferenças no perfil dos nascimentos e avaliar as distâncias percorridas entre os domicílios e os hospitais do parto. Foram estudados os NV ocorridos em hospitais de alta complexidade, quatro SUS e quatro da rede não SUS no MSP em 2008. Foram georreferenciados 46.190 NV: 48,8% em hospitais SUS e 51,2% não SUS, estes representaram 27,9% do total de NV do MSP. Os NV de hospitais SUS formaram dois aglomerados com elevada proporção de domicílios com renda de 1/2 a 2SM, concentração de favelas e altas taxas de natalidade. Os NV de hospitais não SUS formaram um aglomerado na região central do MSP, onde há elevada proporção de domicílios com renda > 10 SM e baixa natalidade. Foram encontradas diferenças estaticamente significantes das características maternas, da gestação e do parto entre os NV de hospitais SUS e não SUS e da frequência de gemelaridade. Não houve diferença na prevalência de baixo peso e pré-termo. Os resultados mostraram existir diferenciais no perfil dos aglomerados de NV, que refletem as desigualdades das condições de vida do MSP.

  19. La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores La violencia de hijos adolescentes contra sus progenitores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Aroca Montolío

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Prosecutor’s Office of the Minor, the accusation interposed by mothers and/or fathers victims by theirs children, along 2007 were 2603, in 2008 amounted 4.211, in 2009 there were 5.209 and in 2010 there were 8.000 accusations. Suede this worrying increase, the principal aim of our article is to check the scientific international and national documentation, from 1957 until the year 2010 that analyses the phenomenon of the adolescent violence against parents, to achieve an approximation to its keys that there allows us the comprehension and analysis of this serious familiar problem. For it we will analyse: (a the importance of this crime by means of criminological mediators: prevalence and incidence; (b the age and sex variables’ aggressors to be able to establish a basic profile about theirs and, (c the violence types that the teenagers wield to damage, prejudice and suffering against their progenitors, with the aim to obtain what they want. The information obtained in this research review and qualitative analysis, change in base to the methodology used and the type of sample under study to obtain conclusions. Even though, we wantto do research into needs to investigate this type of familiar violence, and from there, to do researches with rigorous scientific methodologies, unifying criteria and variables to be investigating, to be able to anticipate in this increasing problem that the parents have. Según la Fiscalía del Menor en el año 2007, las denuncias interpuestas por madres y/o padres, víctimas de malos tratos por sus hijos e hijas menores de edad, fueron 2.683. En 2008 ascendieron a 4.211, en 2009 se presentaron 5.209 y en el año 2010 se registraron 8.000 denuncias. Ante éste preocupante incremento, el objetivo principal de nuestro artículo es revisar la documentación científica que analiza la violencia filio-parental,  desde 1957 hasta el año 2011, para lograr una aproximación a sus claves que nos permita la

  20. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus...... that inhibits egg production in infected females and is characterized by salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms. MdSGHV has been detected in housefly samples from North America, Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and the southwestern Pacific. In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations......, and the polymorphism detected was correlated with geographic source. The virulence of the geographic MdSGHV isolates was evaluated by per os treatment of newly emerged and 24-h-old houseflies with homogenates of infected salivary glands. In all cases, 24-h-old flies displayed a resistance to oral infection...

  1. Microscopic investigation to determine the effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. treatment on different life stages of Musca domestica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2017-06-01

    Microscopic investigation was done to determine the effect of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus on different life stages of Musca domestica . Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fungal infected larvae showed sluggish movement, rigor, and failure of body to balance in water. Treated larvae also revealed varied level of cuticle shrinkage and extreme dehydration. Surface of B. bassiana infected pupae showed varied stage of mycelial growth, while the cadaver of adult fly was observed to have extensive fungal growth covering their entire body surface. The application of C. citratus oils on M. domestica larvae resulted in skin shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation, while the treated pupae showed high incidence of incomplete emergence and malformation in emerged adult flies. The current study establishes effect of C. citratus essential oil and B. bassiana infection on different life stages of M. domestica .

  2. Release of copper from embedded solid copper bullets into muscle and fat tissues of fallow deer (Dama dama), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa) and effect of copper content on oxidative stability of heat-processed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann-Irschik, I; Sager, M; Paulsen, P; Tichy, A; Bauer, F

    2015-10-01

    When venison with embedded copper bullets was subjected to different culinary processing procedures, the amount of copper released from the embedded bullet was affected more by the retention period of the bullet in the meat during cool storage, than by the different heating protocols. The presence of copper fragments had no significant effect on levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Conversely, TBARS in lean meat (fallow deer, wild boar, roe deer) were significantly affected by culinary treatment (higher TBARS in boiled and boiled-stored meat than in meat barbecued or boiled in brine). In pork-beef patties doped with up to 28mg/kg Cu, TBARS increased after dry-heating and subsequently storing the meat patties. The amount of copper doping had no effect on TBARS for 0 and 7days of storage, but a significant effect at day 14 (fat oxidation retarded at higher Cu doses). Evidence is presented that wild boar meat may be more sensitive to fat oxidation than pork-beef. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of colloids or crystalloids on acute respiratory distress syndrome in swine (Sus scrofa models with severe sepsis: analysis on extravascular lung water, IL-8, and VCAM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismala Dewi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a fatal complication of severe sepsis. Due to its higher molecular weight, the use of colloids in fluid resuscitation may be associated with fewer cases of ARDS compared to crystalloids. Extravascular lung water (EVLW elevation and levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 have been studied as indicators playing a role in the pathogenesis of ARDS. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of colloid or crystalloid on the incidence of ARDS, elevation of EVLW, and levels of IL-8 and VCAM-1, in swine models with severe sepsis.Methods: This was a randomized trial conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, IPB, using 22 healthy swine models with a body weight of 8 to 12 kg. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive either colloid or crystalloid fluid resuscitation. After administration of endotoxin, clinical signs of ARDS, EVLW, IL-8, and VCAM-1 were monitored during sepsis, severe sepsis, and one- and three hours after fluid resuscitation. Analysis of data using the Wilcoxon test , Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney test, unpaired t test.Results: Mild ARDS was more prevalent in the colloid group, while moderate ARDS was more frequent in the crystalloid group. EVLW elevation was lower in the colloid compared to the crystalloid group. There was no significant difference in IL-8 and VCAM-1 levels between the two groups.Conclusion: The use of colloids in fluid resuscitation does not decrease the probability of ARDS events compared to crystalloids. Compared to crystalloids, colloids are associated with a lower increase in EVLWI, but not with IL-8 or VCAM-1 levels.

  4. Assessing the Hemodynamic Effects of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in Traumatic Cardiac Arrest When Closed Chest Compressions are Augmented by Directing the Area of Maximal Compression Over the Left Ventricle in a Swine Model (sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Assessing the hemodynamic effects of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in traumatic cardiac arrest when closed...Principal Investigator (PI): Name Rank Date of IACUC Training Branch of Service / Corps Staff Resident Fellow Civilian Department / Office

  5. The Effect Of Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure on Traumatic Brain Injury and Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta and Variable Aortic Control in a Porcine Model (Sus scrofa) of Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Supraphysiologic Blood Pressure On Traumatic Brain Injury And Proximal Tissue Beds During Resuscitative Balloon Occlusion Of The Aorta And Variable Aortic...combined effects of increased proximal mean arterial pressure (pMAP), carotid blood flow (Qcarotid), and intracranial pressure (ICP) from REBOA would...Mandatory) The Effect of REBOA, Partial Aortic Occlusion and Aggressive Blood Transfusion on Traumatic Brain Injury in a Swine Polytrauma Model

  6. Standard metabolic rates of Lepisma saccharina and Thermobia domestica: effects of temperature and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Appel, Arthur G

    2013-06-01

    Silverfish, Lepisma saccharina L., and firebrats, Thermobia domestica (Packard), are two common thysanuran pests in the urban environment. Both species can survive for extended periods without feeding, suggesting that they have some metabolic modifications compared with other insects which cannot tolerate extended starvation. To investigate potential metabolic modifications and to compare silverfish and firebrats, we measured the standard metabolic rate of both species at five temperatures (10, 20, 25, 30, 40°C) across a range of body masses using closed system respirometry. Temperature had a stronger effect on firebrat mass specific [Formula: see text] (mlg(-1)h(-1)) than on silverfish mass specific [Formula: see text] for adults (>0.00700g: firebrat Q10=2.32, silverfish Q10=2.07) and immatures (metabolic substrate with temperature. These results are interpreted with respect to the life histories and environment of both species. Finally, metabolic rates are compared with those of ticks and other arthropods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Future bloom and blossom frost risk for Malus domestica considering climate model and impact model uncertainties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Hoffmann

    Full Text Available The future bloom and risk of blossom frosts for Malus domestica were projected using regional climate realizations and phenological ( = impact models. As climate impact projections are susceptible to uncertainties of climate and impact models and model concatenation, the significant horizon of the climate impact signal was analyzed by applying 7 impact models, including two new developments, on 13 climate realizations of the IPCC emission scenario A1B. Advancement of phenophases and a decrease in blossom frost risk for Lower Saxony (Germany for early and late ripeners was determined by six out of seven phenological models. Single model/single grid point time series of bloom showed significant trends by 2021-2050 compared to 1971-2000, whereas the joint signal of all climate and impact models did not stabilize until 2043. Regarding blossom frost risk, joint projection variability exceeded the projected signal. Thus, blossom frost risk cannot be stated to be lower by the end of the 21st century despite a negative trend. As a consequence it is however unlikely to increase. Uncertainty of temperature, blooming date and blossom frost risk projection reached a minimum at 2078-2087. The projected phenophases advanced by 5.5 d K(-1, showing partial compensation of delayed fulfillment of the winter chill requirement and faster completion of the following forcing phase in spring. Finally, phenological model performance was improved by considering the length of day.

  8. Differential distribution of glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels in the housefly Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tomo; Ozoe, Fumiyo; Azuma, Masaaki; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    l-Glutamic acid (glutamate) mediates fast inhibitory neurotransmission by affecting glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates. The molecular function and pharmacological properties of GluCls have been well studied, but not much is known about their physiological role and localization in the insect body. The distribution of GluCls in the housefly (Musca domestica L.) was thus compared with the distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls). Quantitative PCR and ligand-binding experiments indicate that the GluCl and GABACl transcripts and proteins are predominantly expressed in the adult head. Intense GluCl immunostaining was detected in the lamina, leg motor neurons, and legs of adult houseflies. The GABACl (Rdl) immunostaining was more widely distributed, and was found in the medulla, lobula, lobula plate, mushroom body, antennal lobe, and ellipsoid body. The present findings suggest that GluCls have physiological roles in different tissues than GABACls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A three-dimensional stereotaxic atlas of the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chlodzinska, Natalia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Banasik, Tomasz; Djavadian, Ruzanna L; Węglarz, Władysław P; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2018-05-01

    The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers. Individual imaging modalities were reconstructed into a three-dimensional form and then registered to the MR image by means of affine and deformable registration routines. Based on a superimposition of the 3D images, 113 anatomical structures were demarcated and the volumes of individual regions were measured. The stereotaxic coordinate system was defined using a set of cranial landmarks: interaural line, bregma, and lambda, which allows for easy expression of any location within the brain with respect to the skull. The atlas is released under the Creative Commons license and available through various digital atlasing web services.

  10. Molecular survey on zoonotic tick-borne bacteria and chlamydiae in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Mani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the presence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feral pigeons (Columba livia domestica) from urban areas. Spleen samples from 84 feral pigeons, found dead with traumatic injuries in urban areas, were examined by PCR to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp., and Chlamydophila spp. Twenty (23.8%) pigeons were infected by tick-borne agents, in particular 2 (2.38%) animals resulted positive for Bartonella spp., 5 (5.95%) for C. burnetii, 5 (5.95%) for Rickettsia spp., 13 (15.47%) for B. burgdorferi sensu lato. All birds scored negative for A. phagocytophilum. Moreover, 17 (20.23%) pigeons were positive for Chlamydophila spp. and among them 10 (11.9%) for Chlamydophila psittaci. Mixed infections by two or three agents were detected in 8 (9.52%) animals. Feral pigeons living in urban and periurban areas are a hazard for the human health as source of several pathogens. The obtained results confirm pigeons as reservoirs of chlamydial agents and suggest that they may be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic tick-borne infections too. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) can use magnetic cues for locating food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalau, Peter; Holtkamp-Rötzler, Elke; Fleissner, Gerta; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    2007-10-01

    An experimental group of homing pigeons ( Columba livia f. domestica) learned to associate food with a magnetic anomaly produced by bar magnets that were fixed to the bowl in which they received their daily food ration in their home loft; the control group lacked this experience. Both groups were trained to search for two hidden food depots in a rectangular sand-filled arena without obvious visual cues; for the experimental birds, these depots were also marked with three 1.15 × 106 μT bar magnets. During the tests, there were two food depots, one marked with the magnets, the other unmarked; their position within the arena was changed from test to test. The experimental birds searched within 10 cm of the magnetically marked depot in 49% of the test sessions, whereas the control birds searched there in only 11% of the sessions. Both groups searched near the control depot in 11 and 13% of the sessions, respectively. The significant preference of the magnetically marked food depot by the experimental birds shows that homing pigeons cannot only detect a magnetic anomaly but can also use it as a cue for locating hidden food in an open arena.

  12. The consequences of clone size for paternal and maternal success in domestic apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Matthew B; Kron, Paul; Husband, Brian C

    2004-09-01

    Clonal growth in plants can increase pollen and ovule production per genet. However, paternal and maternal reproductive success may not increase because within-clone pollination (geitonogamy) can reduce pollen export to adjacent clones (pollen discounting) and pollen import to the central ramets (pollen limitation). The relationship between clone size and mating success was investigated using clones of Malus × domestica at four orchards (blocks of 1-5 rows of trees). For each block, maternal function was measured as fruit and seed set in all rows and paternal function as siring rate estimated from isozyme profiles in the first row of the adjacent block. Expected relations between reproductive success and clone size were generated from simulations and data on pollen dispersal in this species. Siring rate per clone averaged 70% and did not increase significantly with block size, consistent with simulations of pollen dispersal under pollen discounting. Simulations also indicated that the ratio of compatible to incompatible pollen received by a tree should decline with increased block size and from the periphery to the center of blocks. However, female function was not significantly reduced among block sizes or within blocks. The results suggest that paternal function may be more sensitive to the effects of clonality than female function.

  13. Characterization of three chalcone synthase-like genes from apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Ali, Samah; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ibdah, Muhammad; Shachtier, Alona; Eyal, Yoram; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2017-08-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica Brokh.) is a widely cultivated deciduous tree species of significant economic importance. Apple leaves accumulate high levels of flavonoids and dihydrochalcones, and their formation is dependent on enzymes of the chalcone synthase family. Three CHS genes were cloned from apple leaves and expressed in Escherichia coli. The encoded recombinant enzymes were purified and functionally characterized. In-vitro activity assays indicated that MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 code for proteins exhibiting polyketide synthase activity that accepted either p-dihydrocoumaroyl-CoA, p-coumaroyl-CoA, or cinnamoyl-CoA as starter CoA substrates in the presence of malonyl-CoA, leading to production of phloretin, naringenin chalcone, and pinocembrin chalcone. MdCHS3 coded a chalcone-dihydrochalcone synthase enzyme with narrower substrate specificity than the previous ones. The apparent Km values of MdCHS3 for p-dihydrocoumaryl-CoA and p-coumaryl-CoA were both 5.0 μM. Expression analyses of MdCHS genes varied according to tissue type. MdCHS1, MdCHS2 and MdCHS3 expression levels were associated with the levels of phloretin accumulate in the respective tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenotypic changes associated with RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase in apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Tomes, Sumathi; Jones, Midori; McGhie, Tony K; Stevenson, David E; Johnson, Ross A; Greenwood, David R; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-05-01

    We have identified in apple (Malus × domestica) three chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. In order to understand the functional redundancy of this gene family RNA interference knockout lines were generated where all three of these genes were down-regulated. These lines had no detectable anthocyanins and radically reduced concentrations of dihydrochalcones and flavonoids. Surprisingly, down-regulation of CHS also led to major changes in plant development, resulting in plants with shortened internode lengths, smaller leaves and a greatly reduced growth rate. Microscopic analysis revealed that these phenotypic changes extended down to the cellular level, with CHS-silenced lines showing aberrant cellular organisation in the leaves. Fruit collected from one CHS-silenced line was smaller than the 'Royal Gala' controls, lacked flavonoids in the skin and flesh and also had changes in cell morphology. Auxin transport experiments showed increased rates of auxin transport in a CHS-silenced line compared with the 'Royal Gala' control. As flavonoids are well known to be key modulators of auxin transport, we hypothesise that the removal of almost all flavonoids from the plant by CHS silencing creates a vastly altered environment for auxin transport to occur and results in the observed changes in growth and development. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF SPERMIOGENESIS IN A FIRE-BRAT INSECT, THERMOBIA DOMESTICA PACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, S. R.

    1964-01-01

    The fine structure of the mature spermatozoon of the insect Thermobia domestica has been investigated. This flagellate spermatozoon is unique with respect to the relative positions of the centriole, nucleus, mitochondrial nebenkern derivatives, and acrosome along the length of the cell. The acrosome lies at the posterior end of the nucleus. Unlike spermatozoa of most animals, the Thermobia spermatozoon has a nucleus that reveals an unusual lamellar pattern of the material inside of it. This flagellate spermatozoon is also unusual in its tendency to intertwine with other spermatozoa, and during movement the intertwined portion of two (double) spermatozoa is always directed forwards. In the axial filament complex, one of the fibrils of each peripheral double fibril bears a hook-shaped process. An indistinct granular material is seen between the 9 outer coarse fibers. Cytoplasmic tubules, probably corresponding to the "microtubules" of other investigators (67), have been observed around the nucleus, mitochondrial nebenkern derivatives, axial filament complex, and acrosome. A description is given of a complex membrane system which surrounds and separates the main organelles of the cell from each other. PMID:14245431

  16. Effiacy of citronella and eucalyptus oils against Musca domestica, Cimex lectularius and Pediculus humanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehangir Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess potential impacts of two indigenous plant oils: the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus for their insecticidal effect against Musca domestica (house fly, Cimex lectularius (bed bug and Pediculus humanus (louse. Methods: The oils of these two medicinal plants were applied separately at various concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mL/cup in cups lined with filter paper containing the target insects. Mortality was evaluated after fixed intervals (6, 12 and 24 h subsequent to the release of adult insects. Results: Results showed that both oils exhibited concentration and time dependent mortality against the tested insects. Data pertaining to present investigation clearly showed that percentage mortality owing to these botanicals against these medical pests was significantly high (98.33% at the rate of 3 mL for 24 h of exposure, followed by 2 and 1 mL concentrations with 12 and 6 h of exposure times. Conclusions: The results suggest that these plant oils possess good insecticidal properties against house fly, bed bug, and louse, and are safe to humans. Furthermore, the molecular (biochemical based study of these botanicals against diverse species of pests will be of much significance to control these pest insects.

  17. Trehalose 6-phosphate signal is closely related to sorbitol in apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Gala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala. Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit. However, under sorbitol-limited conditions, Tre6P levels were positively correlated with both sorbitol and sucrose. In the presence of different exogenous sugar supply, Tre6P levels increased corresponding with sorbitol, but this was not the case with sucrose. In addition, Tre6P content and sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were more highly correlated with ADP-glucose levels under sorbitol-limited conditions and fruit development stages, respectively. These results suggest that Tre6P is more closely related to sorbitol than other soluble sugars and has an important role in influencing carbon metabolism in apple.

  18. The Evolving Puzzle of Autosomal Versus Y-linked Male Determination in Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ronda L.; Meisel, Richard P.; Scott, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-traD, promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-traD chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination. PMID:25552607

  19. Identification and testing of oviposition attractant chemical compounds for Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Feng; Kone, N'Golopé; Chen, Jing-Hua; Zhu, Fen; Han, Ri-Chou; Lei, Chao-Liang; Kenis, Marc; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-09-26

    Oviposition attractants for the house fly Musca domestica have been investigated using electrophysiological tests, behavioural assays and field tests. Volatiles were collected via head space absorption method from fermented wheat bran, fresh wheat bran, rearing substrate residue and house fly maggots. A Y-tube olfactometer assay showed that the odor of fermented wheat bran was a significant attractant for female house flies. Bioactive compounds from fermented wheat bran for house fly females were identified by electrophysiology and mass spectrophotometry and confirmed with standard chemicals. Four electrophysiologically active compounds including ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, methyl linoleate, and linoleic acid were found at a proportion of 10:24:6:0.2. Functional imaging in the female antennal lobes revealed an overlapped active pattern for all chemicals. Further multiple-choice behavioural bioassays showed that these chemicals, as well as a mixture that mimicked the naturally occurring combination, increased the attractiveness of non-preferred rearing substrates of cotton and maize powder. Finally, a field demonstration test revealed that, by adding this mimic blend into a rearing substrate used to attract and breed house flies in West Africa, egg numbers laid by females were increased. These chemicals could be utilized to improve house fly production systems or considered for lure traps.

  20. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  1. Toxicity and resistance of field collected Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) against insect growth regulator insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Arshad, Muhammad; Hafeez, Faisal

    2016-04-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a serious pest of public health importance with the ability to develop insecticide resistance. The focus of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and resistance of the field collected house flies from Punjab, Pakistan, against insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides. House flies collected from six different localities exhibited very low levels of resistance to cyromazine, triflumuron, and methoxyfenozide compared with the Lab-susceptible reference strain, with resistance ratios (RRs) ranging between 3.56- to 8.19-fold, 1.45- to 3.68-fold, and 2.20- to 8.60-fold, respectively. However, very low to low levels of resistance were observed for pyriproxyfen and very low to moderate levels for lufenuron with RRs ranged from 4.13- to 11.63-fold to 8.57- to 22.75-fold, respectively. There was a significant correlation between RRs of cyromazine and triflumuron (r = 0.976, p insecticides tested will continue unless resistance management practices are followed.

  2. Effects of Foliar Treatments of Salicylic Acid on Apple (Malus domestica L. Against Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Türkyılmaz Ünal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we aim to increase frost resistance and improve the yield and quality of apple is important in Turkey and world economy. Phenological and morphological observations, physiological and biochemical analyzes were carried out in apple (Malus domestica L. plants. It was studied to determine the effects of foliar Salicylic acid (0, 500 ppm/plant and 1000 ppm/plant on adaptation of this plant when exposed to freezing stress, the quality and yield. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents, total protein amount, proline amount, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase enzymatic activities were measured. The study planned by random experimental design and statistical analysis of data with SPSS program (LSD test were made. It was determined that fruit and shoot numbers were increased in samples exposed to 500 ppm salicylic acid and while fruit weights were increased in samples exposed to 500 ppm and 1000 ppm salicylic acid compared to the control. Also, colour of plants were darkened. Chla, chlb, total chl, proline, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase amounts were increased significantly compared to the control group. Increases occured in the carotenoid and the protein amounts are not significant statistically. In the light of obtained data, foliar application of salicylic acid were found to reduce the effects of freezing stress and to increase the yield and quality of apple plants.

  3. Inmigrantes andinos en Madrid: Sus danzas y sus músicas tradicionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Morales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In our urban context we get in touch with people that have been forced to leave their countries under different circumstances in order to live in Spain. This article analyses their wish to maintain a group identity and how this identity is materialized by some individuals through traditional dance and music. The study is intended as a framework for subsequent educational investigations that relate that cultural reality with the situation in secondary schools where children of Latin American immigrants study.Nuestro entorno ciudadano inmediato nos pone en contacto diario con personas que por diferentes razones se han visto obligadas a dejar sus países de origen para instalarse en España. Este artículo analiza el deseo que surge en ellas de mantener una identidad de grupo, y cómo ésta se concreta en ciertos individuos mediante manifestaciones de danza y música popular tradicional. El estudio pretende servir de marco para ulteriores investigaciones educativas que vinculen esa realidad cultural con la situación de institutos de enseñanza secundaria en los que estudian hijos de inmigrantes latinoamericanos.

  4. Musca domestica como vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en mercados y basurales de Lima y Callao

    OpenAIRE

    Béjar C, Vilma; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Chumpitaz C, Jorge; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Pareja C, Elizabeth; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Valencia B, Esther; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Huamán R, Ana; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Sevilla A, Carlos; Tapia B, Mario; Saez F, Gloria; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Demostrar que la mosca doméstica (Musca domestica) es un vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en distritos de Lima y Callao. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal. Unidad de estudio: Musca domestica. Entre mayo de 2004 y julio de 2005 se realizó un muestreo en diferentes distritos de las provincias de Lima y el Callao teniendo en cuenta el índice de infestación de cada zona elegida. Se recolectaron moscas de mercados, periferia y basurales aledaños. ...

  5. A experiência da pesquisa EnsinaSUS The experience of EnsinaSUS research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Koifman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a trajetória do projeto EnsinaSUS, da pesquisa desenvolvida em seu interior e das múltiplas dimensões e implicações na direção do conhecimento das experiências que têm sido realizadas nos cursos da área de saúde em relação aos processos de mudança que estão em desenvolvimento. Pretendemos compartilhar a experiência de integração de pesquisadores, de diferentes origens institucionais e profissionais, na construção de um projeto comum, alimentado da vivência desses atores. Essa experiência almejou inovar e construir uma nova gramática para discussão e compreensão dos processos pedagógicos e sua interface com a saúde e o trabalho, na produção de um cuidado que se faça distinto na concepção da assistência à saúde, produzindo cuidado usuário-centrado, numa perspectiva dialógica e ético-política. Entendemos que as práticas de ensino e extensão funcionam como dispositivos abertos de um 'fazer-pensar-saber' em integralidade, forjando novas concepções, sentidos e significados da saúde, da vida, do conhecimento e da educação. Pautamo-nos na idéia de que as explicações da práxis pedagógica podem ser entendidas como possibilidade da construção histórica da cidadania. Encontramos alguns mecanismos de legitimação e canais de articulação, intercâmbio e solidariedade como resposta de interação de diversidades. A equipe representou a composição de redes de representação em espaços culturais e políticos plurais.This article describes the EnsinaSUS Project, the research developed within the project, and the various dimensions and implications that will lead to understanding the experiences that have been taking place in courses in the field of health care as regards their processes of change. Our aim is to share the experience of integrating researchers, coming from different institutional and professional backgrounds, in order to build a common project, based on their

  6. ElecSus: Extension to arbitrary geometry magneto-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S.; Hughes, Ifan G.

    2018-03-01

    We present a major update to ElecSus, a computer program and underlying model to calculate the electric susceptibility of an alkali-metal atomic vapour. Knowledge of the electric susceptibility of a medium is essential to predict its absorptive and dispersive properties. In this version we implement several changes which significantly extend the range of applications of ElecSus, the most important of which is support for non-axial magnetic fields (i.e. fields which are not aligned with the light propagation axis). Supporting this change requires a much more general approach to light propagation in the system, which we have now implemented. We exemplify many of these new applications by comparing ElecSus to experimental data. In addition, we have developed a graphical user interface front-end which makes the program much more accessible, and have improved on several other minor areas of the program structure.

  7. Rosario Castellanos, feminista a partir de sus propias palabras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lamas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir del análisis de sus escritos periodísticos, se recupera a Rosario Castellanos como una pionera intelectual del feminismo mexicano. Se defiende la idea de que en sus artículos periodísticos se plasma con fuerza y lucidez un pensamiento feminista moderno, que gira en torno a los efectos del mandato cultural de la feminidad, aportando a la crítica de la situación de las mujeres mexicanas. Castellanos rechaza el victimismo, reivindica la necesidad de terminar con la autocomplacencia femenina y propone que las mujeres se responsabilicen de sus vidas, madurando y puliendo ideas que hoy en día tienen vigencia y radicalidad notables.

  8. Strategies for sustainable households. The SusHouse project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergragt, Ph.J.; Knot, J.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The international SusHouse project has developed a strategy design approach that can contribute to major (factor 20) efficiency improvements in household activities. Stakeholder workshops have been held to develop scenarios for a sustainable future (2050). These scenarios were evaluated on their economic consequences, environmental impacts and consumer acceptance. the results were then used as the input for a second round of stakeholder workshops, which aimed at developing short-term strategies and implementation plans. This Research Note reviews the SusHouse approach and its results. It ends with suggestions for further steps to be taken. A SusHouse CD-ROM is available, containing all final project reports as well as a scenario presentation in the form of images and short texts. 22 refs

  9. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    We report on the performance of a novel sampling method for determining fruit quality variability and yield from an orchard, which focus on its applicability for the fruit industry. We used the ‘fractionator’ tree sampling method to investigate the quality variability of a small, representative...... sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...

  10. Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Beserra, Eduardo B.; Zanuncio, Teresinha V.; Zanuncio, José C.; Santos, Germi P.

    1995-01-01

    Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860) were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV) in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil) at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viabil...

  11. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  12. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica l.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayduch, Dana; Joyner, Chester

    2013-07-01

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals because of its broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. This study aimed to determine the temporal expression of lysozyme in the life history of house flies (from egg through adults) on both the mRNA and protein level, and to determine the tissue-specific expression of lysozyme in adult flies induced by feeding Staphylococcus aureus. From 30-min postoviposition through adulthood, all life history stages of the house fly express lysozyme on the mRNA level. In adult flies, lysozyme is expressed both locally in the alimentary canal and systemically in the fat body. Interestingly, we found that during the normal life history of flies, lysozyme protein was only detected in larval stages and older adults, likely because of ingestion of immune-stimulating levels of bacteria, not experienced during egg, pupa, and teneral adult stages. Constitutive expression on the mRNA level implies that this effector is a primary defense molecule in all stages of the house fly life history, and that a mechanism for posttranscriptional control of mature lysozyme enzyme expression may be present. Lysozyme active enzyme primarily serves both a digestive and defensive function in larval and adult flies, and may be a key player in the ability of Musca domestica L. to thrive in microbe-rich environments.

  13. Fluidized bed material apples at disposal levels: effects on an apple orchard. [Malus domestica Borkh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcak, R.F.

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion represents and economical technology for the burning of high S fossil fuel. The combustion residue is a dry, alkaline material resulting from the burning of coal (or other fuel source) and limestone. Although the residue has been assessed as a limestone substitute, the current study examines the potential for disposing of relatively large quantities. Fluidized bed material (FBM) was applied at two rates to the surface area within the rows of an established apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard containing four tree types. The rates were either 9.2 kg/m/sup 2/ (low rate), 36 kg/m/sup 2/ (high rate), or untreated control. The tree types used were Spuree Rome on M9, Redchief Delicious on M9 or M9/MM106, and Sturdeespur Delicious on M9. Cumulative yields (kg/tree) were enhanced on three of four tree types over a period of 6 yr. A 15% reduction in yield was noted for Redchief Delicious on M9/MM106 stocks at the high FBM rate. No nutritional related problems were noted for this or any other of the tree types used. Part of the yield reduction noted was due to fruit size differences and/or differential sensitivity of this interstock/rootstock combination to the altered soil chemical properties. Generally, amended soil pH increased to about 7.0 for either rate, and electrical conductivity increased five fold at the high rate of FBM addition. Agricultural utilization of large volume (up to 112 Mg/ha) of FBM, compared to past research where FBM was used as a lime substitute (2-6 mg/ha), appears to be a feasible alternative. However, rootstock selection for apple may need to consider the resultant changes in soil chemical status from FBM additions.

  14. Compositional analysis and insecticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus (family: Myrtaceae) essential oil against housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2012-05-01

    The essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) was evaluated for its chemical composition and insecticidal activity against the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Chemical composition of E. globulus oil revealed 1,8-cineole (33.6%), α-pinene (14.2%) and d-limonene (10.1%) as major constituents, while vapour profile of E. globulus oil determined through solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis showed 1,8-cineole (56.5%), α-pinene (16.9%), d-limonene (5.5%) and linalool acetate (3.4%) as principal components. Vapour phase of the oil showed increase in the contents of oxygenated monoterpenes. Insecticidal activity of E. globulus oil was assessed against larvae and pupae of housefly, through two different bioassays: contact toxicity and fumigation. Contact toxicity assay with larva showed lethal concentration, LC(50), between 2.73 and 0.60μl/cm(2) for different observation days while lethal time, LT(50), varied between 6.0 and 1.7 days. In fumigant assay for housefly larvae, LC(50) values of 66.1 and 50.1μl/l were obtained in 24h and 48h, respectively. Oil treated larvae showed surface shrinkage, spinous cells proliferation and bleb formation in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Pupicidal effectivity was measured in terms of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) which was 36.0-93.0% for contact toxicity and 67.9-100% for fumigation toxicity assay. Considerable activity of E. globulus oil against larvae and pupae of housefly demonstrates its potentiality as a viable option for the development of eco-friendly product for housefly control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  16. Detection and molecular status of Isospora sp. from the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Murakoshi, Fumi; Nomura, Osamu; Suzuki, Toru; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-10-01

    The domestic pigeon, Columba livia domestica, is reared for meat production, as a pet, or for racing. Few reports have characterized the parasitic protists from the genus Isospora isolated from Columbiformes. We detected Isospora-like oocysts from C. livia reared for racing. The oocyst contained two sporocysts, and each sporocyst included four sporozoites. The sporulated oocysts (n=4) were spherical; their mean diameters were 25.6 (24.0-27.2)×24.7 (23.4-26.0) μm. Micropyles, polar granules, and oocyst residuum were absent. The mean length and width of the sporocysts (n=8) were 19.5 (18.5-20.5) and 11.2 (10.2-12.1) μm, respectively. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were observed. Single-oocyst PCR revealed two different 18S rRNA gene sequences and one 28S rRNA gene sequence in a single oocyst of Isospora sp. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene, the two sequences made a group which fell within a cluster of known avian Isospora species. A tree based on the 28S rRNA gene sequence indicated that sequences from the pigeon Isospora sp. fell within a cluster of avian Isospora species. Both trees failed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the avian Isospora species due to limited resolution. Because the morphological description of Isospora sp. is based on only four oocysts, Isospora sp. is not proposed as a novel species here. This is the first description of Isospora sp. isolated from the domestic pigeon C. livia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Manipulation of primary sex ratio in birds: lessons from the homing pigeon (Columba livia domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Müller, Martina S; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2013-12-01

    Across various animal taxa not only the secondary sex ratio but also the primary sex ratio (at conception) shows significant deviations from the expected equal proportions of sons and daughters. Birds are especially intriguing to study this phenomenon as avian females are the heterogametic sex (ZW); therefore sex determination might be under direct control of the mother. Avian sex ratios vary in relation to environmental or maternal condition, which can also affect the production of maternal steroids that in turn are involved in reproduction and accumulate in the developing follicle before meiosis. As the proximate mechanisms underlying biased primary sex ratio are largely elusive, we explored how, and to what extent, maternal steroid hormones may be involved in affecting primary or secondary sex ratio in clutches of various species of pigeons. First we demonstrated a clear case of seasonal change in sex ratio in first eggs both in the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) and in a related species, the Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus), both producing clutches of two eggs. In the Homing Pigeon (Columba livia domestica), domesticated from the Rock Pigeon, testosterone treatment of breeding females induced a clear male bias, while corticosterone induced a female bias in first eggs and we argue that this is in line with sex allocation theory. We next analyzed treatment effects on follicle formation, yolk mass, and yolk hormones, the latter both pre- and post-ovulatory, in order to test a diversity of potential mechanisms related to both primary and secondary sex ratio manipulation. We conclude that maternal plasma hormone levels may affect several pre-ovulatory mechanisms affecting primary sex ratio, whereas egg hormones are probably involved in secondary sex ratio manipulation only.

  18. Fate of egg proteins during the development of Columba livia domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Aslan, Ibtisam Omar

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of egg white into the yolk and consumption of yolk proteins by the embryo are largely unexplored in the pigeon Columba livia domestica. Here, we investigated the route of egg white transfer as well as the degradation and uptake of yolk proteins by the pigeon embryo. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of proteins in different egg compartments throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow the egg white transfer, and we measured its activity using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as a substrate. Moreover, we determined the general protease activity during different developmental stages in the yolk using casein. Finally, we examined the expression of aminopeptidase-N (APN) and oligopeptide transporter PepT1 genes in the yolk sac membrane (YSM) from incubation day 8 until day 17. Several electrophoretic bands of presumptive egg white proteins appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically in the egg compartments. It appeared on day 12 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 14 in the yolk. Moreover, protease activity in the yolk increased significantly on day 14 and thereafter. APN expression was largest on day 8 and reduced generally afterward, whereas PepT1 expression peaked between days 13 and 15 but then reduced substantially. Our results suggest that the egg white proteins move through the amnion and intestine into the yolk where they undergo degradation by the activated proteases. Furthermore, the YSM appears to have a role in protein consumption, and this role decreases toward hatch. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Is Multifactorial Sex Determination in the House Fly, Musca domestica (L.), Stable Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P; Davey, Taira; Son, Jae Hak; Gerry, Alec C; Shono, Toshio; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination pathways evolve rapidly, usually because of turnover of master regulatory genes at the top of the developmental pathway. Polygenic sex determination is expected to be a transient state between ancestral and derived conditions. However, polygenic sex determination has been observed in numerous animal species, including the house fly, Musca domestica House fly males carry a male-determining factor (M) that can be located on any chromosome, and an individual male may have multiple M factors. Females lack M and/or have a dominant allele of the Md-tra gene (Md-tra D ) that acts as a female-determining locus even in the presence of multiple copies of M. We found the frequency and linkage of M in house flies collected in Chino, CA (USA) was relatively unchanged between 1982 and 2014. The frequency of females with Md-tra D in the 2014 collection was 33.6% (n = 140). Analysis of these results, plus previously published data, revealed a strong correlation between the frequencies of Md-tra D and multiple M males, and we find that these populations are expected to have balanced sex ratios. We also find that fitness values that allow for the invasion and maintenance of multiple sex determining loci suggest that sexually antagonistic selection could be responsible for maintaining polygenic sex determination in house fly populations. The stability over time and equilibrium frequencies within populations suggest the house fly polygenic sex determination system is not in transition, and provide guidance for future investigations on the factors responsible for the polymorphism. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala') vascular tissue and phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Gould, Nick; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Sutherland, Paul; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2010-08-04

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'). We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  1. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  2. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) on developmental stages of house fly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, M; D'Souza, Placid E; Patil, Jagadeesh

    2017-09-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica is a major domestic, medical and veterinary pest. The management of these flies reliance on insecticide, causes environmental constraints, insecticide resistance and residues in the meat, skin. Therefore one of the eco-friendly alternate methods is by using biological agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). In the present study evaluated the survival of EPN species Steinernema feltiae , Heterorhabditis indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in poultry manure and also their efficacy against different developmental stages of house fly. After exposing to poultry manure, S. feltiae showed more survival as followed by H. indica , S. carpocapsae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi in all exposition period. When the exposition period extended to 96 h, all nematode species survivability was drastically reduced. After exposing these nematodes to poultry manure at 24 h their virulence capacity against wax moth, Galleria mellonella showed all the nematode species were able cause 100% mortality. However their progeny production was significantly reduced. Fly eggs and pupae were refractory to these nematode infection. Petri dish without artificial diet assay showed that, second and 3rd-instar larvae were highly susceptible to EPNs as compared to larvae provided with artificial diet. H. indica showed high virulence capacity compared to other nematodes tested. Poultry manure assay revealed that, H. indica and S. carpocapsae caused minimal mortality where as S. feltiae , S. glaseri and S. abbasi did not cause any mortality. This may be because of poor survival and limited movement of nematodes in poultry manure which may be due to ammonia, other toxic substances in poultry manure. The decrease in larval mortality in manure suggests that biocontrol of housefly by using EPNs is unlikely.

  3. Facial Mechanosensory Influence on Forelimb Movement in Newborn Opossums, Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Desmarais

    Full Text Available The opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is born very immature but crawls, unaided, with its forelimbs (FL from the mother's birth canal to a nipple where it attaches to pursue its development. What sensory cues guide the newborn to the nipple and trigger its attachment to it? Previous experiments showed that low intensity electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion induces FL movement in in vitro preparations and that trigeminal innervation of the facial skin is well developed in the newborn. The skin does not contain Vater-Pacini or Meissner touch corpuscles at this age, but it contains cells which appear to be Merkel cells (MC. We sought to determine if touch perceived by MC could exert an influence on FL movements. Application of the fluorescent dye AM1-43, which labels sensory cells such as MC, revealed the presence of a large number of labeled cells in the facial epidermis, especially in the snout skin, in newborn opossums. Moreover, calibrated pressure applied to the snout induced bilateral and simultaneous electromyographic responses of the triceps muscle in in vitro preparations of the neuraxis and FL from newborn. These responses increase with stimulation intensity and tend to decrease over time. Removing the facial skin nearly abolished these responses. Metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors being involved in MC neurotransmission, an antagonist of these receptors was applied to the bath, which decreased the EMG responses in a reversible manner. Likewise, bath application of the purinergic type 2 receptors, used by AM1-43 to penetrate sensory cells, also decreased the triceps EMG responses. The combined results support a strong influence of facial mechanosensation on FL movement in newborn opossums, and suggest that this influence could be exerted via MC.

  4. Characterisation of microRNAs from apple (Malus domestica 'Royal Gala' vascular tissue and phloem sap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkonyi-Gasic Erika

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play an important role in development and environmental responses. Hundreds of plant miRNAs have been identified to date, mainly from the model species for which there are available genome sequences. The current challenge is to characterise miRNAs from plant species with agricultural and horticultural importance, to aid our understanding of important regulatory mechanisms in crop species and enable improvement of crops and rootstocks. Results Based on the knowledge that many miRNAs occur in large gene families and are highly conserved among distantly related species, we analysed expression of twenty-one miRNA sequences in different tissues of apple (Malus x domestica 'Royal Gala'. We identified eighteen sequences that are expressed in at least one of the tissues tested. Some, but not all, miRNAs expressed in apple tissues including the phloem tissue were also detected in the phloem sap sample derived from the stylets of woolly apple aphids. Most of the miRNAs detected in apple phloem sap were also abundant in the phloem sap of herbaceous species. Potential targets for apple miRNAs were identified that encode putative proteins shown to be targets of corresponding miRNAs in a number of plant species. Expression patterns of potential targets were analysed and correlated with expression of corresponding miRNAs. Conclusions This study validated tissue-specific expression of apple miRNAs that target genes responsible for plant growth, development, and stress response. A subset of characterised miRNAs was also present in the apple phloem translocation stream. A comparative analysis of phloem miRNAs in herbaceous species and woody perennials will aid our understanding of non-cell autonomous roles of miRNAs in plants.

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a chicken-type lysozyme gene from housefly (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Zhao, Xiaofan; Wang, Jinxing

    2009-01-01

    Lysozymes can hydrolyze bacteria and play an important role in animal digestion and innate immunity. The cDNA of a chicken-type lysozyme gene (Mdlys) was cloned from housefly (Musca domestica). The 484 bp full-length cDNA contains a 426 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes MdLys of 141 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the MdLys was similar to chicken-type lysozymes. Spatio-temporal expression of Mdlys was analyzed by RT-PCR. The Mdlys transcript can be detected in both midgut and fat body and was expressed at a relatively lower level at the embryo stage. Mdlys mRNA was upregulated 2 h post bacterial challenge, maintained for 2 to 6 h, and slightly declined from 12 to 24 h post-injection. Western blot analysis showed that MdLys was highly expressed in midgut and was also detected in the hemolymph and fat body. MdLys expression was slightly increased in midgut after challenging with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. Its expression was also slightly increased in the fat body after challenging with S. aureus, but no obvious change occurred after E. coli challenge. MdLys expression in the hemolymph was not affected by bacterial challenge. In the developmental stages, MdLys expression levels had no obvious change from the first instar to the pupae stage. There was also no variation under 24 h starvation stress. Recombinant MdLys displayed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Together, these results suggest that MdLys may play an important role in the innate immunity of houseflies.

  6. Phytohormone Interaction Modulating Fruit Responses to Photooxidative and Heat Stress on Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sun-related physiological disorders such as sun damage on apples (Malus domestica Borkh are caused by cumulative photooxidative and heat stress during their growing season triggering morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in fruit tissues not only while it is on the tree but also after it has been harvested. The objective of the work was to establish the interaction of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA, abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET and its precursor ACC (free and conjugated, MACC during development of sun-injury-related disorders pre- and post-harvest on apples. Peel tissue was extracted from fruit growing under different sun exposures (Non-exposed, NE; Exposed, EX and with sun injury symptoms (Moderate, Mod. Sampling was carried out every 15 days from 75 days after full bloom (DAFB until 120 days post-harvest in cold storage (1°C, > 90%RH. Concentrations of IAA, ABA, JA, SA, were determined using UHPLC mass spectrometry, and ET and ACC (free and conjugated MACC using gas chromatography. IAA was found not to be related directly to sun injury development, but it decreased 60% in sun exposed tissue, and during fruit development. ABA, JA, SA, and ethylene concentrations were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in Mod tissue, but their concentration, except for ethylene, were not affected by sun exposure. ACC and MACC concentrations increased until 105 DAFB in all sun exposure categories. During post-harvest, ethylene climacteric peak was delayed on EX compared to Mod. ABA and SA concentrations remained stable throughout storage in both tissue. JA dramatically increased post-harvest in both EX and Mod tissue, and orchards, confirming its role in low temperature tolerance. The results suggest that ABA, JA, and SA together with ethylene are modulating some of the abiotic stress defense responses on sun-exposed fruit during photooxidative and heat stress on the tree.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the GH3 family in apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huazhao; Zhao, Kai; Lei, Hengjiu; Shen, Xinjie; Liu, Yun; Liao, Xiong; Li, Tianhong

    2013-05-02

    Auxin plays important roles in hormone crosstalk and the plant's stress response. The auxin-responsive Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) gene family maintains hormonal homeostasis by conjugating excess indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acids (JAs) to amino acids during hormone- and stress-related signaling pathways. With the sequencing of the apple (Malus × domestica) genome completed, it is possible to carry out genomic studies on GH3 genes to indentify candidates with roles in abiotic/biotic stress responses. Malus sieversii Roem., an apple rootstock with strong drought tolerance and the ancestral species of cultivated apple species, was used as the experimental material. Following genome-wide computational and experimental identification of MdGH3 genes, we showed that MdGH3s were differentially expressed in the leaves and roots of M. sieversii and that some of these genes were significantly induced after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. Given the role of GH3 in the negative feedback regulation of free IAA concentration, we examined whether phytohormones and abiotic stresses could alter the endogenous auxin level. By analyzing the GUS activity of DR5::GUS-transformed Arabidopsis seedlings, we showed that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments suppressed the auxin response. These findings suggest that other phytohormones and abiotic stress factors might alter endogenous auxin levels. Previous studies showed that GH3 genes regulate hormonal homeostasis. Our study indicated that some GH3 genes were significantly induced in M. sieversii after various phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments, and that ABA, SA, salt, and cold treatments reduce the endogenous level of axuin. Taken together, this study provides evidence that GH3 genes play important roles in the crosstalk between auxin, other phytohormones, and the abiotic stress response by maintaining auxin homeostasis.

  8. Convergent and divergent evolution of genomic imprinting in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Radhika

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon resulting in parent-of-origin specific monoallelic gene expression. It is postulated to have evolved in placental mammals to modulate intrauterine resource allocation to the offspring. In this study, we determined the imprint status of metatherian orthologues of eutherian imprinted genes. Results L3MBTL and HTR2A were shown to be imprinted in Monodelphis domestica (the gray short-tailed opossum. MEST expressed a monoallelic and a biallelic transcript, as in eutherians. In contrast, IMPACT, COPG2, and PLAGL1 were not imprinted in the opossum. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs involved in regulating imprinting in eutherians were not found at any of the new imprinted loci in the opossum. Interestingly, a novel DMR was identified in intron 11 of the imprinted IGF2R gene, but this was not conserved in eutherians. The promoter regions of the imprinted genes in the opossum were enriched for the activating histone modification H3 Lysine 4 dimethylation. Conclusions The phenomenon of genomic imprinting is conserved in Therians, but the marked difference in the number and location of imprinted genes and DMRs between metatherians and eutherians indicates that imprinting is not fully conserved between the two Therian infra-classes. The identification of a novel DMR at a non-conserved location as well as the first demonstration of histone modifications at imprinted loci in the opossum suggest that genomic imprinting may have evolved in a common ancestor of these two Therian infra-classes with subsequent divergence of regulatory mechanisms in the two lineages.

  9. Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Tillman, John; Tong, Cindy B.S.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Luby, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Soft scald and soggy breakdown are important postharvest physiological disorders of apple (Malus × domestica). ‘Honeycrisp’ and some of its offspring are particularly susceptible to developing these disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with high

  10. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  11. Genome analysis methods: Malus x domestica [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oints for assembly of corresponding gene sequences ... 103,076 FgenesH , Twinscan , GlimmerHMM , and GeneWise 57,386 GDR; http://www.ros...aceae.org/species/malus/malus_x_domestica/genome_v1.0 v1.0 v1.0 10.1038/ng.654 20802477 ...

  12. Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Het.: Pentatomidae fed with larvae of Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Col.: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (Dip.: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction and longevity of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae or Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae larvae were studied during two generations at 24.7 ± 1.1ºC, 70 ± 10% R.H. and 12 h of photophase. Body weight of newly-emerged adults, oviposition period, number of egg masses, total number of eggs and longevity of S. cincticeps were higher when fed on Z. confusa or T. molitor larvae than on M. domestica larvae. Regardless of diet, S. cincticeps showed better reproduction and longevity in the second generation in laboratory conditions.Foram avaliadas, em duas gerações, a reprodução e a longevidade de Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa Gebien, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ou Musca domestica (L. (Diptera: Muscidae a 24,7 ± 1,1ºC, 70 ± 10% de U.R. e fotofase de 12 h. O peso de adultos recém emergidos, o período de oviposição, o número de posturas, de ovos totais e a longevidade de fêmeas de S. cincticeps foram maiores com larvas de Z. confusa ou T. molitor que com M. domestica. Independentemente do tipo de presa, S. cincticeps mostrou melhor performance reprodutiva e longevidade na segunda geração.

  13. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF RNA STRUCTURES MODULATING THE EXPRESSION OF THE mRNA BIOGENESIS FACTOR SUS1

    OpenAIRE

    ABUQATTAM, ALI NA

    2017-01-01

    Sus1 is a conserved protein involved in chromatin remodeling and mRNA biogenesis. The SUS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unusual, as it contains two introns and is alternatively spliced, retaining one or both introns in response to changes in environmental conditions. SUS1 splicing may allow the cell to control Sus1 expression, but the mechanisms that regulate this process remain unknown. In this thesis project, we have investigated whether the structure adopted by SUS1 RNA sequences co...

  15. Development of novel techniques to extract phenolic compounds from Romanian cultivars of Prunus domestica L. and their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Massafra, Chiara; Moldovan, Cadmiel; Sisea, Cristian; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Zara, Susi; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zengin, Gokhan; Crișan, Gianina; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-04-21

    In the present work, fourteen cultivars of Prunus domestica were analysed to investigate their phenolic pattern with the purpose of using the leaves as potential resources of bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction techniques were optimized in order to obtain an exhaustive multi-component panel of phenolic compounds. The best phenolic-enriched recovery was achieved using MAE in water:methanol (30:70), and this procedure was further applied for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. In order to prove the safeness of these extracts, the biological potential of the Prunus cultivars was tested by several in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was evaluated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and in most of the cases the treatment with different concentrations of extracts didn't show cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. Only 'Carpatin' and 'Minerva' cultivars, at 250 and 500 μg/mL, reduced partially cell viability of HGFs population. Noteworthy, Centenar cultivar was the most active for the α-glucosidase inhibition (6.77 mmolACAE/g extract), whereas Ialomița cultivar showed the best antityrosinase activity (23.07 mgKAE/g extract). Overall, leaves of P. domestica represent a rich alternative source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The Impact of Different Water Regime on Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Pyrus pyraster L. and Sorbus domestica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Šajbidorová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit is considered to be significant cause of photosynthesis defects. Measuring of chlorophyll fluorescence is one of the methods revealing defects in the photosynthetic apparatus. The experiment was established with two woody plant (Pyrus pyraster L. and Sorbus domestica L. cultivated in two different regimes of the substrate saturation. The measurement of the modulated fluorescence of chlorophyll a was done by FMS1 fluorometer during three-week period between June and September (2012 and 2013. There were analysed selected parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence: Fv/Fm – maximum quantum efficiency of PSII, ΦPSII – effective quantum yield of PSII and RFD – chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio. According to the obtained results, Pyrus pyraster has probably higher potential for adaptation to water deficiency. There were recorded the significant decreases mainly in the values of parameter RFD and ΦPSII for Sorbus domestica within duration of experiment with different water regime in both growing seasons 2012 and 2013. The results document a weak sensitivity of the parameter Fv/Fm on changes in the amount of available water in the substrate in both taxa.

  17. Transmission electron microscopic morphological study and flow cytometric viability assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Shuiqing; Li, Rongjiang; Feng, Yongwen; Wang, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc), a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica), has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Mdc against clinical isolates of MDR-A. baumannii and elucidate the related antibacterial mechanisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Mdc was 4 μg/mL. Bactericidal kinetics of Mdc revealed rapid killing of A. baumannii (30 min). Flow cytometry using viability stain demonstrated that Mdc causes A. baumannii membrane permeabilization in a concentration- and time-dependent process, which correlates with the bactericidal action. Moreover, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination showed that Mdc is capable of disrupting the membrane of bacterial cells, resulting in efflux of essential cytoplasmic components. Overall, Mdc could be a promising antibacterial agent for MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  18. Transmission Electron Microscopic Morphological Study and Flow Cytometric Viability Assessment of Acinetobacter baumannii Susceptible to Musca domestica cecropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections are difficult to treat owing to the extremely limited armamentarium. Expectations about antimicrobial peptides' use as new powerful antibacterial agents have been raised on the basis of their unique mechanism of action. Musca domestica cecropin (Mdc, a novel antimicrobial peptide from the larvae of Housefly (Musca domestica, has potently active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria standard strain. Here we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Mdc against clinical isolates of MDR-A. baumannii and elucidate the related antibacterial mechanisms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Mdc was 4 μg/mL. Bactericidal kinetics of Mdc revealed rapid killing of A. baumannii (30 min. Flow cytometry using viability stain demonstrated that Mdc causes A. baumannii membrane permeabilization in a concentration- and time-dependent process, which correlates with the bactericidal action. Moreover, transmission electron microscopic (TEM examination showed that Mdc is capable of disrupting the membrane of bacterial cells, resulting in efflux of essential cytoplasmic components. Overall, Mdc could be a promising antibacterial agent for MDR-A. baumannii infections.

  19. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  20. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of <70%, and 12 hours photophase. Fifteen hymenopteran specimens were dissected daily to evaluate their stage and development time. The phenology concluded that S. endius had a development cycle of 19 days with an incubation period of 24 hours. The development of the larvae of S. endius occurred in the subsequent eight days, during which a series of morphological alterations were observed. The pre-pupal stage occurred on the tenth day, where the movement ceased and elimination of the meconium started. The pupal stage occurred from the 11th to the 19th day, with emergence of males first, followed by female emergence approximately 24 hours later. These results allowed the evaluation of aspects of the detailed bionomics of the development of S. endius in order to record and program production of this parasitoid, thus optimizing its utilization as a biological control agent.

  1. Apple ring rot-responsive putative microRNAs revealed by high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin-Yi; Du, Bei-Bei; Gao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Tu, Xu-Tong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Qu, Shen-Chun

    2014-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which silence target mRNA via cleavage or translational inhibition to function in regulating gene expression. MiRNAs act as important regulators of plant development and stress response. For understanding the role of miRNAs responsive to apple ring rot stress, we identified disease-responsive miRNAs using high-throughput sequencing in Malus × domestica Borkh.. Four small RNA libraries were constructed from two control strains in M. domestica, crabapple (CKHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (CKFu), and two disease stress strains, crabapple (DSHu) and Fuji Naga-fu No. 6 (DSFu). A total of 59 miRNA families were identified and five miRNAs might be responsive to apple ring rot infection and validated via qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we predicted 76 target genes which were regulated by conserved miRNAs potentially. Our study demonstrated that miRNAs was responsive to apple ring rot infection and may have important implications on apple disease resistance.

  2. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  3. Abundance of domestic dove (Columbia livia domestica Gmelin, 1789 in Santiago de Tolú, Sucre, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime De La Ossa V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determination of the population abundance and diet resources of C. livia domestica and in Santiago de Tolú city, Sucre, Colombia. Materials and methods. The work was carried out during 6 months: January-March and September-November of 2015, in dry season and rains season, between the 06:00 and the 08:00 hours, 4 fixed point sampling was used with timed counts; likewise, measurements were taken for the noise levels found in the study area. Results. The total population was 185 individuals, with a total density of 7.71 ind/ha (5.9-9.0. significant difference was obtained (p<0.01 among the 4 studied populations, it was observed that the main feeding source is residuals of human food deposited as urban waste, when comparing the volumes of available waste and the density in each place it is observed that direct relationship exists. Significant populational differences are not determined among the two seasons studied. The levels sound oscillated among 40.3-72.1dB. The calculated density was lower when compared to other studies but higher than the density that has been established as harmful for this species in urban populations. Conclusions. C. livia domestica it is recognized like a species considered urban plague, because it transmits diverse zoonotics diseases, it affects infrastructure and it contaminates foods by means of its excrements, the registration of its density, becomes a high-priority necessity for the public health.

  4. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  5. Evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties of SUS430/C11000/SUS430 composites during the laser-forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, Hamed Delfan; Seyedkashi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Gollo, Mohammad Hoseinpour; Moon, Young Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Multilayered sheet metals have been widely used to achieve a wide range of favorable mechanical, physical, thermal and electrical properties. Laser beam irradiation over these materials creates extreme temperature changes that can lead to changes in the microstructural properties. Microstructure plays a very crucial role in determining the mechanical property of the irradiated region, thus determining the optimum laser processing conditions. In this study, metallographic studies, as well as tensile, fatigue and hardness tests, are undertaken on SUS430/C11000/SUS430 laminated composites that have been exposed to laser irradiation with different number of passes. This composite can be used in the microelectronics industry since it has the anti-corrosion and strength capability of stainless steel, and the electrical superiority of copper. Ytterbium fiber laser is used in such a way that the governing mechanism of the process is the temperature gradient mechanism. Evolution of the microstructure is revealed by metallography, and the fracture levels of tension and fatigue test specimens are further evaluated by SEM. This study illustrates the significant effects of successive laser irradiation on the evolution of microstructure and mechanical properties, which lead to some suggestions for improving the properties of laser-formed SUS430/C11000/SUS430 composites.

  6. La tibia y sus deformidades congénitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín Malagón Castro

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio sobre la Tibia y sus anomalías congénitas lo hemos dividido en 2 grandes capítulos. En el primero bosquejamos sintéticamente los caracteres anatómicos y radiológicos del hueso tibial sano. En el segundo, pasamos revista a las deformidades congénitas de la Tibia: Ausencia, Amputaciones, Incurvaciones, Pseudoartrosis, etc.

  7. Material test data of SUS304 welded joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Tai [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kawakami, Tomohiro [Nuclear Energy System Incorporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    This report summarizes the material test data of SUS304 welded joints. Numbers of the data are as follows: Tensile tests 71 (Post-irradiation: 39, Others: 32), Creep tests 77 (Post-irradiation: 20, Others: 57), Fatigue tests 50 (Post-irradiation: 0), Creep-fatigue tests 14 (Post-irradiation: 0). This report consists of the printouts from 'the structural material data processing system'. (author)

  8. The effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants and spices (3), Curcuma xanthoriza, curcuma aeruginosa, curcuma domestica and kaemferia galanga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chosdu, Rahayu; Hilmy, Nazly; Bagiawati, Sri

    1985-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on medicinal plants by studying the characteristics of the essential oils of these samples. The samples studied were ''temu lawak'' (Curcuma xanthoriza), ''temu hitam'' (Curcuma aeruginosa), turmeric (Curcuma domestica) and galanga (Kaemferia galanga). The sliced tubers, which contained 8 to 14% of moisture were packed in low density polyethylene bags of 0.13 mm thickness, then irradiated with doses of 0, 5 and 10 kGy. Some samples were directly analyzed and the rest were stored for six months at temperatures of 29±2 0 C and under 70 to 95% humidity. The results showed that the water activity (Aw), the content and characteristics of essential oils, analyzed on a gas liquid chromatography, were not changed by irradiation and storage, but the water content was changed by storage. It was observed also that after irradiation and storage mould and bacteria contents decreased. (author)

  9. Old Apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh) Varieties with Hypoallergenic Properties: An Integrated Approach for Studying Apple Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegro, Mara; Eccher, Giulia; Populin, Francesca; Sorgato, Chiara; Savazzini, Federica; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea; Antico, Andrea; Botton, Alessandro

    2016-12-07

    Freshly consumed apples (Malus domestica L. Borkh) can cause allergic reactions because of the presence of four classes of allergens. Knowledge of the genetic factors affecting the allergenic potential of apples would provide important information for the selection of hypoallergenic genotypes, which can be combined with the adoption of new agronomical practices to produce fruits with a reduced amount of allergens. In the present research, a multiple analytical approach was adopted to characterize the allergenic potential of 24 apple varieties released at different ages (pre- and post-green revolution). A specific workflow was set up including protein quantification by means of polyclonal antibodies, immunological analyses with sera of allergic subjects, enzymatic assays, clinical assessments on allergic patients, and gene expression assays on fruit samples. Taken as a whole, the results indicate that most of the less allergenic genotypes were found among those deriving from selection processes carried out prior to the so-called "green revolution".

  10. Heritability and genetic and phenotypic correlations of apple (Malus x domestica) fruit volatiles in a genetically diverse breeding population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Daryl D; Hunt, Martin B; Alspach, Peter A; Whitworth, Claire J; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C

    2009-09-09

    Flavor is an important quality trait of fruit and a target for improvement through plant breeding. Eighty-nine flavor volatiles from 240 apple (Malus domestica) genotypes from a highly diverse breeding population were measured by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) over 2 years. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations were calculated for 23 flavor volatiles. Genetic correlations showed coinheritance of five groups of volatiles, ethyl esters, alcohols and alpha-farnesene, propyl and butyl esters, propanoate and 2-methylbutanoate esters, and acetate esters, consistent with our knowledge of volatile biosynthesis in apple. This work demonstrates a genetic structure underlying the highly variable volatile profiles observed for apple fruit and the potential of GC-MS volatile profiling for the genetic analysis of aroma volatiles in genetically diverse populations.

  11. Histological Observation and Expression Patterns of antimicrobial peptides during Fungal Infection in Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Jiangfan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Housefly, Musca domestica, has a complicated immune system. However, its underlying operating mechanism remains elusive. Candida albicans is a major pathogen affecting humans by causing deep infection fungous disease, but it is non-symbiotic in houseflies. To investigate the C. albicans infection process in housefly, the changes in morphological and histological and expression patterns of antimicrobial peptide were monitored to indicate the insect's response to fungal infection. The results showed that scattered brown spots were comprising melanized encapsulation and encapsulated fungal cells were initially observed at the inner side of larvae's body wall 3 h post-infection (PI. Between 6 and 36 h PI, the whole body of larvae was densely covered with the brown spots, which then gradually disappeared. The majority had disappeared at 48 h PI. Some fungi colonized in the gaps between the body wall and the muscle layer, as well as among muscle fibers of the muscle layer at 12 h PI and hyphal was observed at 18 h PI. These fungi colonized distribution changed from a continuous line to scattered spots at 24 h PI and virtually disappeared at 48 h. The results of quantitative PCR analysis revealed that in coordination with the variation during the infection, the expression levels of four antimicrobial peptides were up-regulated. In conclusion, C. albicans infection in M. domestica larvae involved the following stages: injection, infection, immune response and elimination of the pathogen. The rapid response of antimicrobial peptides, melanized encapsulation and agglutination played a vital role against the pathogenic invasion.

  12. LA INSPECCIÓN TRIBUTARIA Y SUS AVANCES

    OpenAIRE

    VICEDO ARMIÑANA, RAFAEL

    2014-01-01

    Para llevar a cabo y hacer efectiva su potestad de gestión, las entidades locales necesitan una autonomía económico-financiera, debiendo de disponer de medios tributarios y patrimoniales suficientes para el cumplimiento de sus funciones, tal y como reconoce el artículo 142 de la Constitución Española, de acuerdo con el cual, las Haciendas Locales deberán disponer de los medios suficientes para el desarrollo de las funciones que la Ley atribuye a las Corporaciones respectivas, y se nutrirán fu...

  13. Kant, sus maestros y los maestros de la humanidad

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Acevedo, Clara Inés

    1999-01-01

    A instancias de Newton y Rousseau, con sus planteamientos sobre la gravitación universal y la rivindicación del sentimiento y la moralidad, respectivameente, Kant se ocupó de la insociable sociabilidad del ser humano, que genera la dialéctica de la guerra y la paz, antítesis de la ley moral y premisa de todo sistema social; del problema de la paz mundial, promulgando la necesidad de un organismo legal internacional que agrupara todos los Estados del planeta, para así disminuir las guerras y p...

  14. Padres hombres custodios - PHC: la paternidad, sus alcances y motivaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Barahona, José Gustavo; Ruíz Gómez, Marina Stella

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación comprendió las concepciones sobre paternidad presentes en los padres hombres al solicitar la custodia de sus hijas e hijos menores de siete años ante el ICBF de la ciudad de Cali con un diseño cualitativo de aproximación fenomenológica, se utilizó el instrumento de entrevista en profundidad con cinco padres hombres custodios - PHC. Los resultados se presentaron en relación a las distinciones expresadas por los PHC acerca de las razones que los llevó a solicit...

  15. Entusiastas, aficionados y espectadores: sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrosa, Miquel; Cruz, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    El interés de las ciencias aplicadas al deporte en los espectadores y el espectáculo deportivo ha sido más bien escaso y en muchos casos sobrecentrado en la violencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una clasificación alternativa de los aficionados al fútbol a partir del tipo de contacto que tienen con el espectáculo y describir sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso. Mil setecientas diecinueve personas asistentes a partidos de fútbol organizados por la Liga de...

  16. Entusiastas, aficionados y espectadores: sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso

    OpenAIRE

    Miquel Torregrosa; Jaume Cruz

    2009-01-01

    El interés de las ciencias aplicadas al deporte en los espectadores y el espectáculo deportivo ha sido más bien escaso y en muchos casos sobrecentrado en la violencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una clasificación alternativa de los aficionados al fútbol a partir del tipo de contacto que tienen con el espectáculo y describir sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso. Mil setecientas diecinueve personas asistentes a partidos de fútbol organizados por la Liga de Fútbol Profesional con...

  17. Perfect Syncarpy in Apple (Malus × domestica ‘Summerland McIntosh’) and its Implications for Pollination, Seed Distribution and Fruit Production (Rosaceae: Maloideae)

    OpenAIRE

    SHEFFIELD, CORY S.; SMITH, ROBERT F.; KEVAN, PETER G.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The gynoecium of the domestic apple, Malus × domestica, has been assumed to be imperfectly syncarpic, whereby pollination of each stigmatic surface can result in fertilization within only one of the five carpels. Despite its implied effect on fruit quantity and quality, the resulting influence of flower form on seed set and distribution within the apple fruit has seldom been investigated. Instead, poor fruit quality is usually attributed to problems with pollination, suc...

  18. Toxicity of herbal medicines with interest to SUS: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Brazil, ever since colonization plants have been used as natural products; thus, the National Health Surveillance Agency has been establishing rules for herbal medicine regulation; in this light, 71 plant species were chosen and empirically used in the country to investigate their medicinal properties. Currently, 12 of these 71 plants have been approved to be used in SUS (Public Health System, the remaining species still need further research. Thusly, this review aimed to seek information from toxicological studies on the plants that have not yet been officially approved, to stimulate new research in the field, promoting an economical and functional impact. In order to obtain the information, the keywords plant name + toxicity and/or toxicological studies were searched in the most prominent databases, both in English and in Portuguese. The ten plants with the most references were included in this review. Among the ten plants assessed, three have all the required studies required by the National Health Surveillance Agency, two of which we recommend the immediate adoption by SUS. In general, three plants have a determined LD50, nine have reproductive toxicity data, and five have not yet shown any sign of toxicity.

  19. Entusiastas, aficionados y espectadores: sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Torregrosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El interés de las ciencias aplicadas al deporte en los espectadores y el espectáculo deportivo ha sido más bien escaso y en muchos casos sobrecentrado en la violencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es proponer una clasificación alternativa de los aficionados al fútbol a partir del tipo de contacto que tienen con el espectáculo y describir sus valores, motivaciones y compromiso. Mil setecientas diecinueve personas asistentes a partidos de fútbol organizados por la Liga de Fútbol Profesional contestaron cuestionarios sobre sus valores, motivaciones y relación con el fútbol. Los resultados muestranque los entusiastas son los aficionados más motivados y comprometidos con el fútbol al mismo tiempo que participan significativamente más de valores relacionados con el conservadurismo y la autopromoción que las otras tres categorías (espectadores, aficionados presenciales y aficionados virtuales. La clasificaciónpropuesta en base al tipo de contacto con el fútbol permite conceptualizar el fútbol como algo más que lo que ocurre en los estadios y abre las puertas a intervencionesdesde lo positivo para promover el fair play y la deportividad en los aficionados.

  20. Cicatrici: El secreto de sus ojos di Sacheri e Campanella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Volpe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 the Argentinian writer Eduardo Sacheri published The Question in Their Eyes (La pregunta de sus ojos.  The novel narrates on a double level, both fictional and temporal, the decision of a retired prosecutor to come to terms with a case of rape and murder which had taken place years earlier: his life had been shattered by the consequences of that tragedy, and writing about it would be a way to start living again.  The director Juan José Campanella - widely famous for having directed episodes of the television series Law & Order, but especially as the director of successful films such as El hijo de la novia - decided to adapt the novel and involved Sacheri in the project: the close collaboration between writer and director produced a bold screenplay that adds to the noir thriller a more romantic dimension.  Disproving the commonplace of the writer jealous of his work, they wrote together a new version which retains certain elements of the original text, but also introduces a number of relevant changes to the structure, characters and ending of the novel.  The Secret in Their Eyes  (El secreto de sus ojos, shot in 2008, was released the following year and in 2010 won the Academy Award for best foreign language film.

  1. Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Jantan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC50 value 0.57 μmol/L as reference, with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33 μmol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9% of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC50 value of 1.93 μmol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8% and zerumbone (3.5%, exhibited IC50 values of 10.18 and 24.90 μmol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs.

  2. The distribution and impact of common copy-number variation in the genome of the domesticated apple, Malus x domestica Borkh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, James; Chagné, David; Merriman, Tony R; Black, Michael A

    2015-10-23

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes, and a growing body of evidence suggests that genes affected by CNV are enriched in processes that are associated with environmental responses. Here we use next generation sequence (NGS) data to detect copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) within the Malus x domestica genome, as well as to examine their distribution and impact. CNVRs were detected using NGS data derived from 30 accessions of M. x domestica analyzed using the read-depth method, as implemented in the CNVrd2 software. To improve the reliability of our results, we developed a quality control and analysis procedure that involved checking for organelle DNA, not repeat masking, and the determination of CNVR identity using a permutation testing procedure. Overall, we identified 876 CNVRs, which spanned 3.5 % of the apple genome. To verify that detected CNVRs were not artifacts, we analyzed the B- allele-frequencies (BAF) within a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array dataset derived from a screening of 185 individual apple accessions and found the CNVRs were enriched for SNPs having aberrant BAFs (P apple scab. We present the first analysis and catalogue of CNVRs in the M. x domestica genome. The enrichment of the CNVRs with R gene models and their overlap with gene loci of agricultural significance draw attention to a form of unexplored genetic variation in apple. This research will underpin further investigation of the role that CNV plays within the apple genome.

  3. Musca domestica como vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en mercados y basurales de Lima y Callao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Béjar C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Demostrar que la mosca doméstica (Musca domestica es un vector mecánico de bacterias enteropatógenas en distritos de Lima y Callao. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal. Unidad de estudio: Musca domestica. Entre mayo de 2004 y julio de 2005 se realizó un muestreo en diferentes distritos de las provincias de Lima y el Callao teniendo en cuenta el índice de infestación de cada zona elegida. Se recolectaron moscas de mercados, periferia y basurales aledaños. En el laboratorio fueron procesadas en medios de cultivo para aislamiento de enterobacterias y su identificación. Resultados: De un total de 780 moscas domésticas se aisló Escherichia coli enteropatógena, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se estableció una relación directa entre el hallazgo de bacterias enteropatógenas y las zonas de mayor grado de infestación (20 moscas/hora de observación. Conclusión: El aislamiento de bacterias enteropatógenas en Musca domestica permitió demostrar su papel vector.

  4. House Fly (Musca domestica L. (Diptera Muscidae Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L. (Díptera Muscidae en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L. and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, larva mortality, pupa size, and weight and time of development to the adult stage were assessed. Results show that swine, poultry and calf manure produced a significantly higher number of adult flies, shorter life cycles and larger and heavier pupae. Cow, dog, goat and horse manure follow in effectiviveness for fly production. Composted swine manure was totally ineffective for domestic fly development.En algunas comunas del Valle del Huasco, Región de Atacama, Chile, se encuentran diversas explotaciones pecuarias con diferentes sistemas de manejo, las cuales constituyen focos generadores de mosca doméstica, Musca domestica L., y otras especies de moscas con importancia sanitaria y médica. Estos insectos provocan pérdidas económicas en dichos planteles afectando además el bienestar de poblaciones urbanas cercanas. Con el objetivo de cuantificar la importancia de dichos focos en la generación de mosca doméstica, se realizó un ensayo de laboratorio donde se evaluó como sustrato de desarrollo del insecto estiércol de diferentes especies animales y estiércol de cerdo compostado. La calidad de estos sustratos en la producción del insecto se evaluó a través de los siguientes parámetros biológicos: tiempo de desarrollo de larvas, mortalidad de larvas, tamaño y peso de pupas, y tiempo hasta la emergencia de moscas adultas. Los resultados indicaron que el estiércol de cerdo, gallina y ternero produce significativamente más moscas adultas, con un

  5. La etnobotánica: su alcance y sus objetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultes Richard Evans

    1941-11-01

    Full Text Available Existe entre la Botánica y la Antropología una ciencia intermedia a la que, desde hace medio siglo, se ha dado el nombre de Etnobotánica. Como ocurre con otras ciencias interfacultativas o interdisciplinales la Etnobotánica no se puede definir fácilmente y por esto ha habido muchas diferencias de opinión en cuanto a su alcance y sus objetos. En su más amplio sentido, la Etnobotánica es el estudio de las relaciones que existen entre el hombre y su ambiente vegetal, es decir las plantas que lo rodean. En un sentido más restringido, se ha considerado solamente como el estudio del uso de las plantas cultivadas y silvestres por los pueblos primitivos, usualmente los aborígenes.

  6. Estudio de las propiedades del grafeno y sus posibilidades

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Guijarro, Ángel Luis

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto es el de estudiar mediante elipsometría las propiedades ópticas de una capa de grafeno sobre varios sustratos, y cómo ésta puede alterar los parámetros ópticos del material sobre el que reposa. Partiendo de muestras de cobre y silicio, se estudiará cómo pueden ser modificadas sus propiedades con tan sólo depositar sobre ellas una capa de grafeno cuyo espesor es el de un átomo. Se usará un elipsómetro de alta precisión proporcionado por el INTA para anal...

  7. Diferença de Classe no SUS é inconstitucional!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alethele de Oliveira Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre a ‘diferença de classe’ decorre do Recurso Extraordinário (RE 581488 interposto pelo Conselho Regional de Medicina do Rio Grande do Sul (Cremers em face da decisão do Tribunal Regional Federal da 4ªRegião (TRF –4ª, em favor do município de Canela (RS (1 junto ao Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF, com repercussão geral  reconhecida sob o número 579. Trata-se da possibilidade de que paciente do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS pague valor financeiro por hotelaria diferenciada, ou ainda, médico de sua preferência.

  8. The role of dentists in the Unified Health System (SUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Denise; Abegg, Claídes; Cesa, Kátia

    2004-01-01

    O Sistema Único de Saúde é um processo social em construção permanente, sendo fundamental a contínua discussão sobre seu modelo de atenção, os paradigmas explicativos do processo saúde-doença que o embasam e o papel de diferentes profissionais que nele atuam. Esse trabalho objetiva a discussão sobre a atuação do cirurgião-dentista no SUS. Uma forma de sistematizar suas possibilidades de atuação é a sua inserção no sistema. Em nível central ou distrital, deve atuar em equipes interdisciplinare...

  9. Migrantes culiacanenses en California: Diversidad en sus redes migratorias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto SÁNCHEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho la dinámica extraordinaria que tienen los lugares de reciente migración, ya sea como lugares de origen o destino. El estado de Sinaloa se suma a esta dinámica en la cual aparecen ahora sus tres principales zonas urbanas --Culiacán, Mazatlán y Ahome-- dentro de su mapa migratorio. Sin embargo la migración, como proceso social, implica una serie de interrelaciones formadas tiempo atrás. Éstas repercuten en la conformación de las nuevas redes migratorias. No obstante, durante décadas, las principales zonas de expulsión en Sinaloa han sido rurales y siguen teniendo un papel esencial en las actuales relaciones sociales de los migrantes provenientes de Culiacán.

  10. FEAP-SUS: integration of sustainability in design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Machado Ferroli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Industrial Design is an activity that requires creativity, sense of management, great capacity of synthesis and much knowledge in the design area. Considering by virtue of the expressive volume of data and information, the designer uses methodologies, tools and techniques project that help this activity. These fools needs priors relevant factors, without neglecting any of them. This demands an interdisciplinary attitude towards the essence, involving several areas of knowledge and forcing the designer to a good management capacity of information (design management. Adding to this matter is also the inclusion of sustainability, and the aspects that constitute it: economic sustainability, social and environmental. So, this work presents the development of the FEAP – SUS tool. The Study Case was applied in Project Graduation from the Industrial Design Course at the UNIVALI.

  11. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.

  12. Modelos de gestão e o SUS Management models and Brazil's National Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ibañez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O recente documento do Ministério do Planejamento sobre Fundações Públicas (2005 e a crise da área hospitalar colocaram novamente na agenda do SUS a questão dos modelos de gestão pública. O objetivo deste artigo é situar no contexto das reformas de estado pensadas na década de 90 para o Brasil, as propostas de mudança dos modelos de gestão da administração pública, com foco no processo de implementação do SUS. Essa abordagem trata em primeiro lugar da personalidade jurídica das organizações de saúde na esfera estatal, conceituando o público a partir de seus objetivos; em segundo, discute o contexto as reformas de estado e as mudanças propostas para a administração pública. Os autores entendem que critérios e parâmetros para avaliação institucional devem contemplar quatro aspectos: subordinação à política de saúde; legalidade; eficiência gerencial e capacidade de controle. A partir do quadro de referencia geral elaborou-se uma análise comparativa em relação à proposta das fundações públicas de direito privado. Na análise comparativa das características desse tipo de entidade proposta para gestão hospitalar, observam-se semelhanças com a proposta de Organizações Sociais. Fundação Estatal e Contrato de Gestão podem ser vistos como modelos que possibilitam modernizar o Estado, além de re-introduzirem o tema da reforma hospitalar na agenda governamental brasileira.The recent document on Public Foundations issued by the Ministry of Planning (2005 and the crisis in the hospital area bring the issue of public management models back to the agenda of Brazil's National Health System (SUS. This paper brings up changes in civil service management models within the context of the State restructuring processes of the 1990s in Brazil, particularly in the National Health System (SUS. The approach examines, initially, the legal status of healthcare entities at the State level, establishing their publics by

  13. Docentes de inglés de primaria, secundaria y terciaria: Sus creencias pedagógicas sobre sus estudiantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Díaz-Larenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Como agente reflexivo de su propia práctica, el profesorado construye creencias pedagógicas sobre el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje y, en particular, sobre el rol que sus estudiantes deben asumir en el aprendizaje de un idioma. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar las creencias pedagógicas de treinta docentes de inglés de primaria, secundaria y terciaria, en Chile, sobre el rol estudiantil en el proceso didáctico. Un cuestionario, una entrevista semi-estructurada, un diario auto-biográfico y cinco diarios de observación no-participante fueron utilizados para revelar las creencias pedagógicas de sus informantes. Los datos arrojados por los instrumentos fueron analizados con el programa cualitativo ATLASTI, que permitió el levantamiento de tres dimensiones y diez categorías, mediante el uso de la técnica del análisis de contenido semántico. Los resultados muestran que los tres grupos de profesorado declaran que estudiantes que aprenden una lengua extranjera deben tener características personales y académicas relacionadas con la motivación, la participación, la autonomía, entre otras; sin embargo, al interior del aula asumen un rol pasivo y reactivo frente al ambiente de enseñanza altamente estructurado que genera el personal docente. En conclusión, las creencias que cada docente sostiene se alimentan de la teoría y se corroboran o cuestionan en la práctica de aula, a modo de una relación bidireccional entre teoría y práctica, y viceversa.

  14. Estudio del seno coronario y sus tributarias en individuos colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Ballesteros, MD., MSc.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La expresión morfológica del seno coronario se caracteriza por su gran variabilidad, especialmente en lo que se relaciona con longitud, calibres, territorios drenados y frecuencia de sus tributarias. Se evaluaron las variaciones del seno coronario en 68 senos coronarios (56 hombres; 12 mujeres de corazones extraídos como material de necropsia, a individuos colombianos. Los senos fueron inyectados con resina sintética y se registraron sus características anatómicas. La longitud promedio de los senos fue de 25,96 mm (± 6,34 y su diámetro distal de 8,94 mm (± 1,66. Las formas fueron cilíndrica, en embudo y aplanada en 67,6%, 23,5% y 8,9% respectivamente. La vena cardiaca magna se originó en el ápex cardiaco en 57,4% de los casos y en el tercio inferior del surco interventricular anterior en 39,7%. A nivel del surco atrioventricular tuvo un calibre de 5,47 mm (± 0,72. En 77,9% la vena cardiaca magna se ubicó a la izquierda de la arteria interventricular anterior. El trígono arterio-venoso del corazón estuvo presente en 58,8%. La vena cardiaca media tuvo como origen el tercio inferior de la superficie ventricular anterior (53% y el ápex cardiaco (47%. Ésta desembocó directamente en el atrio derecho en 17% de los casos. Su calibre en el segmento cercano al seno fue de 4 mm (± 0,77. Se presentó anastomosis de las venas cardiacas magna y media en 58,8%; en el ápex cardiaco (33,8% y en el segmento inferior del surco interventricular anterior. Se destaca la presencia de una vena cardiaca magna corta y de una vena cardiaca media de amplia trayectoria en un número significativo de casos. De igual forma, la desembocadura de la vena cardiaca media en el atrio derecho estuvo presente en casi una quinta parte de los corazones estudiados.

  15. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in a resistant dairy population of Musca domestica L [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan

    Full Text Available House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-"A" and LC50: LC50-"B" significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies.

  16. Transfer of egg white proteins and activation of proteases during the development of Anas platyrhynchos domestica embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shbailat, Seba Jamal; Abuassaf, Razan Ataallah

    2018-03-01

    The route of egg white transfer into the yolk and the mechanisms underlying the digestion of egg proteins are unexplored in the fertilized egg of the duck, Anas platyrhynchos domestica. Here, we investigated the route(s) of egg white transfer and we determined the type of activated proteases during duck embryo development. Initially, we tested the electrophoretic patterns of egg proteins throughout development. Then, we used lysozyme as a reference protein to follow egg white transfer and we measured its activity. After that, we determined the type of activated proteases by employing different types of protease inhibitors. Several presumptive egg white protein bands appeared in different egg compartments. Also, lysozyme activity was detected chronologically on day 15 in the extraembryonic fluid, on day 17 in the amniotic and intestinal fluids and on day 19 in the yolk. Furthermore, acidic aspartic proteases seemed to be activated at hatch in the intestine and late in development in the yolk. Our results suggest that the main route of egg white transfer into the yolk is through the amniotic cavity and intestinal lumen. Also, the transferred egg white and endogenous yolk proteins are probably digested by the activated acidic proteases in the intestine and yolk.

  17. Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Extracts from Leaves of Some Malus domestica Cultivars: Antiradical and Antimicrobial Analysis of These Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sowa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol, ethyl acetate, water extracts, and precipitate were obtained from leaves of Malus domestica cultivars: Golden delicious, Jonagold, Elstar, Ligol, and Mutsu. Antiradical activity of these extracts was measured using the ABTS+∙ radical, and antimicrobial activity was measured with the disk-diffusion method. Phenolic compounds were measured with the colorimetric method and identified with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The highest antiradical activity was observed for the Jonagold variety, and in particular strong activity was noted for ethyl acetate extracts. Antimicrobial activity was observed against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Candida glabrata. Particularly susceptible to the extracts activity appeared to be Staphylococcus aureus, but the growth of Candida glabrata was inhibited in the presence of ethyl acetate extracts. With the HPLC method we identified a high amount of phloridzin (above 500 mg per g of ethyl acetate extracts, lower amounts of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, and quercitrin, and traces of p-hydroxybenzoic and chlorogenic acids. The contribution of phloridzin to antiradical activity of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts was very high (above 90%. In water extract the contribution of phloridzin was between 38.9 and 55.2%, chlorogenic acid 22.7 and 36.1%, and hyperoside 12.2 and 13.3%.

  18. Bacteria on housefly eggs, Musca domestica, suppress fungal growth in chicken manure through nutrient depletion or antifungal metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin; Thu, Kelsie; Tsang, Michelle; Moore, Margo; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-09-01

    Female houseflies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), lay their eggs in ephemeral resources such as animal manure. Hatching larvae compete for essential nutrients with fungi that also colonize such resources. Both the well-known antagonistic relationship between bacteria and fungi and the consistent presence of the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca on housefly eggs led us to hypothesize (1) that K. oxytoca, and possibly other bacteria on housefly eggs, help curtail the growth of fungal resource competitors and (2) that such fungi indeed adversely affect the development of housefly larvae. Bacteria washed from housefly eggs significantly reduced the growth of fungi in chicken manure. Nineteen bacterial strains and ten fungal strains were isolated from housefly eggs or chicken manure, respectively. Co-culturing each of all the possible bacterium-fungus pairs revealed that the bacteria as a group, but no single bacterium, significantly suppressed the growth of all fungal strains tested. The bacteria's adverse effect on fungi is due to resource nutrient depletion and/or the release of antifungal chemicals. Well-established fungi in resources significantly reduced the number of larval offspring that completed development to adult flies.

  19. Involvement of plasma membrane peroxidases and oxylipin pathway in the recovery from phytoplasma disease in apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patui, Sonia; Bertolini, Alberto; Clincon, Luisa; Ermacora, Paolo; Braidot, Enrico; Vianello, Angelo; Zancani, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) may be affected by apple proliferation (AP), caused by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'. Some plants can spontaneously recover from the disease, which implies the disappearance of symptoms through a phenomenon known as recovery. In this article it is shown that NAD(P)H peroxidases of leaf plasma membrane-enriched fractions exhibited a higher activity in samples from both AP-diseased and recovered plants. In addition, an increase in endogenous SA was characteristic of the symptomatic plants, since its content increased in samples obtained from diseased apple trees. In agreement, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was increased too. Jasmonic acid (JA) increased only during recovery, in a phase subsequent to the pathological state, and in concomitance to a decline of salicylic acid (SA). Oxylipin pathway, responsible for JA synthesis, was not induced during the development of AP-disease, but it appeared to be stimulated when the recovery occurred. Accordingly, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, detected in plasma membrane-enriched fractions, showed an increase in apple leaves obtained from recovered plants. This enhancement was paralleled by an increase of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) activity, detected in leaf microsomes, albeit the latter enzyme was activated in either the disease or recovery conditions. Hence, a reciprocal antagonism between SA- and JA-pathways could be suggested as an effective mechanism by which apple plants react to phytoplasma invasions, thereby providing a suitable defense response leading to the establishment of the recovery phenomenon. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  20. Evaluation of the hormonal state of columnar apple trees (Malus x domestica) based on high throughput gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, Clemens; Petersen, Romina; Lokan, Stefanie; Brauksiepe, Bastienne; Braun, Peter; Schmidt, Erwin R

    2013-02-01

    The columnar phenotype of apple trees (Malus x domestica) is characterized by a compact growth habit with fruit spurs instead of lateral branches. These properties provide significant economic advantages by enabling high density plantings. The columnar growth results from the presence of a dominant allele of the gene Columnar (Co) located on chromosome 10 which can appear in a heterozygous (Co/co) or homozygous (Co/Co) state. Although two deep sequencing approaches could shed some light on the transcriptome of columnar shoot apical meristems (SAMs), the molecular mechanisms of columnar growth are not yet elaborated. Since the influence of phytohormones is believed to have a pivotal role in the establishment of the phenotype, we performed RNA-Seq experiments to study genes associated with hormone homeostasis and clearly affected by the presence of Co. Our results provide a molecular explanation for earlier findings on the hormonal state of columnar apple trees. Additionally, they allow hypotheses on how the columnar phenotype might develop. Furthermore, we show a statistically approved enrichment of differentially regulated genes on chromosome 10 in the course of validating RNA-Seq results using additional gene expression studies.

  1. Down-regulation of POLYGALACTURONASE1 alters firmness, tensile strength and water loss in apple (Malus x domestica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G; Sutherland, Paul W; Johnston, Sarah L; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Hallett, Ian C; Mitra, Deepali; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J

    2012-08-02

    While there is now a significant body of research correlating apple (Malus x domestica) fruit softening with the cell wall hydrolase ENDO-POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1), there is currently little knowledge of its physiological effects in planta. This study examined the effect of down regulation of PG1 expression in 'Royal Gala' apples, a cultivar that typically has high levels of PG1, and softens during fruit ripening. PG1-suppressed 'Royal Gala' apples harvested from multiple seasons were firmer than controls after ripening, and intercellular adhesion was higher. Cell wall analyses indicated changes in yield and composition of pectin, and a higher molecular weight distribution of CDTA-soluble pectin. Structural analyses revealed more ruptured cells and free juice in pulled apart sections, suggesting improved integrity of intercellular connections and consequent cell rupture due to failure of the primary cell walls under stress. PG1-suppressed lines also had reduced expansion of cells in the hypodermis of ripe apples, resulting in more densely packed cells in this layer. This change in morphology appears to be linked with reduced transpirational water loss in the fruit. These findings confirm PG1's role in apple fruit softening and suggests that this is achieved in part by reducing cellular adhesion. This is consistent with previous studies carried out in strawberry but not with those performed in tomato. In apple PG1 also appears to influence other fruit texture characters such as juiciness and water loss.

  2. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-kereamy, Ashraf; El-sharkawy, Islam; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Taheri, Ali; Errampalli, Deena; Kumar, Prakash; Jayasankar, Subramanian

    2011-03-23

    Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5) has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica). Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phytoalexin (camalexin) pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  4. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  5. The effect of Beauveria bassiana infection on cell mediated and humoral immune response in house fly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sapna; Kumar, Peeyush; Malik, Anushree

    2015-10-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi that manifest infections by overcoming insect's immune response could be a successful control agent for the house fly, Musca domestica L. which is a major domestic, medical, and veterinary pest. In this study, the immune response of house fly to Beauveria bassiana infection was investigated to reveal fundamental aspects of house fly hemocyte biology, such as hemocyte numbers and size, which is poorly understood. The total hemocyte counts (THCs) in B. bassiana-infected house fly showed an initial increase (from 6 to 9 h), followed by subsequent decrease (9 to 12 h) with increase in time of infection. The THCs was slightly greater in infected flies than the non-infected ones. Insight into relative hemocyte counts depicted a significant increase in prohemocyte (PR) and decrease in granulocyte (GR) in infected house flies compared to non-infected ones. The relative cell area of hemocyte cells showed a noticeable increase in PR and intermediate cells (ICs), while a considerable reduction was observed for plasmatocyte (PL) and GR. The considerable variation in relative cell number and cell area in the B. bassiana-infected house flies indicated stress development during infection. The present study highlights changes occurring during B. bassiana invasion to house fly leading to establishment of infection along with facilitation in understanding of basic hemocyte biology. The results of the study is expected to help in better understanding of house fly immune response during fungal infection, so as to assist production of more efficient mycoinsecticides for house fly control using B. bassiana.

  6. The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites caught in a pig-pen in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Maike; Klimpel, Sven; Sievert, Kai

    2009-03-09

    In the present study a total of 224 specimens of the synanthropic house fly (Musca domestica) were caught in a pig-pen of an organic farmer in Dormagen (Germany). The flies were examined for their potential as a carrier of metazoan parasites. On the exoskeletons and in the intestines of the flies the eggs and/or larvae of four endoparasite nematode species of domestic pigs (Ascaris suum, Strongyloides ransomi, Metastrongylus sp., undetermined Strongylida) were isolated. Also one ectoparasite species, the hog louse (Haematopinus suis), was detected on the exoskeleton of one fly. The analysis of the pig faeces as potential source revealed many eggs and larvae of nematodes. A high number of A. suum eggs (62.0% of all found nematode eggs), many eggs of strongylid nematodes (21.0%), some eggs of S. ransomi and few eggs of Trichuris suis were detected. However Metastrongylus sp. could not be identified in the faeces. Further laboratory experiments verified the potential of the house fly as a transmitter of the pig parasites A. suum and T. suis. In the intestines of 59 flies (49.2%) from 120 experimentally used house flies, nematode eggs of both nematode species were detected. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of the house fly as a vector of metazoan pig parasites.

  7. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  8. Estrogenic Effect of 70% Ethanol Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. Extract on Ovariectomized Female Mice (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of extract turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. on endometrium thickness, vaginal epithelium, mammary gland, and protein of estrogen receptor of ovariectomized mice was examined. Twenty five ovariectomized mice which were divided into five groups, were treated by ethynilestradiol (8,4 x 10-3 g, aquades (10 ml, and turmeric extract at doses 230 mg/kg b.w.; 310 mg/kg b.w.; and 390 mg/kg b.w. for eight days. At the end of experiments the mice were killed, then the uterus, vagina, and mammae were removed and the wet weight of uterus was recorded. Uterus, vagina, and mammae were examined histologically. Estrogen receptor protein from uterus were analized by using SDS-PAGE. One way anava test showed that turmeric extract at doses 310 mg/kg b.w. and 390 mg/kg b.w give estrogenic effect on vaginal ephitelium, endometrium thickness, and diametre of mammary glands. SDS-PAGE analysis showed there were differences in protein concentration between control and treatment groups which were seen in the thickness of the bands. Estrogen receptor band could be detected in sampel of treatment groups at molecular weight 45 kDa.

  9. Evolution analysis of Dof transcription factor family and their expression in response to multiple abiotic stresses in Malus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengrong; Yuan, Li; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xuesen; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2018-01-10

    As a family of transcription factors, DNA binding with one figure (Dof) proteins play important roles in various biological processes in plants. Here, a total of 60 putative apple (Malus domestica) Dof genes (MdDof) were identified and mapped to different chromosomes. Chromosomal distribution and synteny analysis indicated that the expansion of the MdDof genes came primarily from segmental and duplication events, and from whole genome duplication, which lead to more Dof members in apples than in other plants. All 60 MdDof genes were classified into thirteen groups, according to multiple sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree constructed of Dof genes from apple, peach (Prunus persica), Arabidopsis and rice. Within each group, the members shared a similar exon/intron and motif compositions, although the sizes of the MdDof genes and encoding proteins were quite different. Several Dof genes from the apple and peach were identified to be homologues based on their close synteny relationship, which suggested that these genes bear similar functions. Half of the MdDof genes were randomly selected to determine their responses to different stresses. The majority of MdDof genes were quite sensitive to PEG, NaCl, cold and exogenous ABA treatment. Our results suggested that MdDof family members may play important roles in plant tolerance to abiotic stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insecticide Mixtures Could Enhance the Toxicity of Insecticides in a Resistant Dairy Population of Musca domestica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Lee, Jong-Jin

    2013-01-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., are important pests of dairy operations worldwide, with the ability to adapt wide range of environmental conditions. There are a number of insecticides used for their management, but development of resistance is a serious problem. Insecticide mixtures could enhance the toxicity of insecticides in resistant insect pests, thus resulting as a potential resistance management tool. The toxicity of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin benzoate and fipronil were assessed separately, and in mixtures against house flies. A field-collected population was significantly resistant to all the insecticides under investigation when compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. Most of the insecticide mixtures like one pyrethroid with other compounds evaluated under two conditions (1∶1-“A” and LC50: LC50-“B”) significantly increased the toxicity of pyrethroids in the field population. Under both conditions, the combination indices of pyrethroids with other compounds, in most of the cases, were significantly below 1, suggesting synergism. The enzyme inhibitors, PBO and DEF, when used in combination with insecticides against the resistant population, toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and emamectin were significantly increased, suggesting esterase and monooxygenase based resistance mechanism. The toxicities of bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the resistant population of house flies could be enhanced by the combination with chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil. The findings of the present study might have practical significance for resistance management in house flies. PMID:23613758

  11. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity.

  12. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  13. Cartagena de Indias: historiografía de sus fortificaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Segovia Salas

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available La historia militar de Cartagena de Indias está ligada a la doble condición de ser centro de intercambio con reputación de opulencia, y de constituirse con el tiempo en puntal geopolítico por sus condiciones defensivas. De estos dos aspectos, el que ha despertado el mayor y más temprano interés historiográfico por su sabor romántico ha sido la narración de los épicos ataques y defensas de la ciudad colonial antes y después de rodearse de murallas de piedra. Desde cuando el noble francés Jean François de la Roque, señor de Roberval , compañero de Cartier en las tempranas expediciones al Canadá y conocido en las crónicas como Roberto Baal u O'valle, la sorprendiera en 1544, Cartagena nunca dejó de vivir bajo la amenaza de "enemigas venganzas".

  14. Las playas de Quintana Roo: sus riesgos y vulnerabilidad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torruco Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las playas son sistemas donde se ejercen presiones antrópicas y ambientales, en este estudio se analizaron sus condiciones bioeconómicas con la finalidad de obtener un modelo que permita determinar el grado de vulnerabilidad y la matriz de riesgo en las playas del Estado de Quintana Roo para un mejor uso sustentable. Se formularon matrices con registros biológicos y socioeconómicos obtenidos entre el 2009 y 2010 en temporadas de alto registro turístico, obteniendo 17 variables en 20 playas analizadas. La evaluación se efectuó con el modelo semiparamétrico del tipo KSIM con dos escenarios: uno sin control/restricción en el desarrollo costero y otro con las mismas características pero con decremento en demanda turística por baja calidad ambiental. Los resultados mostraron un marcado descenso en playas arenosas y costas rocosas. En el modelo se hace referencia a la importancia de los procesos de las playas y su interrelación con los factores biológicos, sociales y económicos más importantes, proporcionando una visión integral de todas las variables. Se recomienda incrementar el modelo dándole mayor envergadura, integrando a las instituciones que influyen en el control de las acciones en estas playas, lo que dará un mejor referente y monitoreo a corto, mediano y largo plazo.

  15. Factibilidad del empleo de hongos entomopatógenos en el control de Musca domestica l. en paisajes antropizados del Noroeste de Michoacán, México.

    OpenAIRE

    García Munguía, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue seleccionar aislamientos de los hongos M. anisopliae y B. bassiana capaces de colonizar y controlar adultos y larvas de Musca domestica e identificar las condiciones ambientales de temperatura y humedad relativa favorables para su empleo. B. bassiana y M. anisopliae fueron transmitidos sexualmente en M. domestica usando 1, 5 y 10 machos vírgenes de 3 dias de edad, expuestos a 6 x 108 conidias mL- 1 de hongos los cuales fueron confinados con 30 hemb...

  16. Sindicalismo, SUS e planos de saúde Trade unionism, Unified Health System (SUS and private health insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Pina

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a interlocução do sindicalismo brasileiro com o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e os planos e seguros privados de saúde. São ponderadas algumas teses na Saúde Coletiva à luz de estudos mais recentes nas Ciências Sociais sobre o sindicalismo e realizada análise documental para o caso da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT, tomado aqui como referência. Aponta-se a necessidade de considerar os pesos relativos que a ação sindical atribuiu a cada um dos aspectos da relação, SUS e planos privados de saúde, pelas distintas conjunturas do país. O conflito entre trabalhadores e empresas somado ao desemprego e à precarização do trabalho expõe os limites das coberturas assistenciais privadas e impele a representação sindical a pleitear a intervenção estatal. O trabalho refletiu sobre as distintas modalidades de ação sindical na empresa e no Estado. A complexidade dessa dinâmica fez emergir um setor sindical interessado na gestão da previdência complementar e dos planos de saúde e, ao mesmo tempo, recria as circunstâncias e traz novas possibilidades de as organizações sindicais se colocarem na cena política e aglutinar os interesses de amplos segmentos dos trabalhadores para pressionar o Estado na defesa da melhoria do sistema público de saúde.The article intends to discuss the patterns of interlocution between the Brazilian trade unionism, the public health system (SUS and the private health insurance sector. Some thesis originated in the Public Health area about the subject are debated, in the light of more recent Social Science's studies concerned the Brazilian unionism. It presents a documentary analysis for the case of the largest National Workers Organization, named CUT. The need to discuss the problem in distinct political and economic conjunctures of the country is pointed out. The conflicts between the workers and the companies, added to the unemployment and deregulation of the labor markets

  17. Desenvolvimento de Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae alimentado com larvas de Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae Development of Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae fed with Zophobas confusa, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Beserra

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Egg viability and nymphal development of the predatory bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål, 1860 were evaluated during two generations in the Biological Control Laboratory of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuária (Bioagro/UFV in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil at 24.72±1.10ºC and photophase of 12 hours. Three treatments were represented by S. cincticeps fed with Zophobas confusa Gebien, 1906, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 larvae. Higher egg viability of this predator was found when the preys were Z. confusa and T. molitor, 74.46% and 80.91 %, than in M. domestica, 57.02%, but incubation period showed no differences between preys. Shorter nymphal development and higher nymphal viability were found with Z. confusa and T. molitor than with M. domestica. Higher weight increase was found for nymphs which originated males and females in the second generation specialy with the first two preys.

  18. Corrosion property for solid state bonded joint of SUS304L stainless steel and Zr; SUS304L ko to Zr ko tono koso setsugo tsugite no taishokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ei, K.; Irie, H.; Kasugai, T. [National Research Institute for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-05-01

    Corrosion resistance of diffusion bonded joint with Ta foil inserted between the bonded surfaces and friction welding joint for SUS304L and Zr was examined in 3N-HNO{sub 3} solution contained Cr{sup 6+} ion. In a short term dipping test, it was difficult to qualitatively investigate the corrosion property for both joints, because it depended strongly on the surface condition (preparation) of the specimen before the test. In a long term dipping test, however, the type of the corrosion was mainly found intergranular corrosion in SUS304L base metal for all of the joints, moreover this developed the falling off the crystal grain of SUS304L base metal. In this corrosion process, a possibility that galvanic potential difference between dissimilar metals accelerated corrosion was pointed out, then local potential gradient was investigated using a measuring system, in which a sharp vibrating probe was scanned across the joint interface. SUS304L base metal showed a positive local potential gradient which indicated on acceleration of corrosion in SUS304L. But it was not so large and corrosion rates of SUS304L for the both solid state joining were nearly same value as that without Zr or Ta base metals. The acceleration of the corrosion at dissimilar metal joints were not observed from the results of the dipping test and the measurement of the local potential gradient, it is considered that there is no problem of the corrosion resistance in these joints. (author)

  19. Difference in cold-working effect on the irradiation-induced deformation between SUS 316L and SUS 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakawa, Johsei; Murase, Yoshiharu; Yamamoto, Norikazu; Ueno, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    SUS 304 stainless steel has been used for internal components of the light-water reactors constructed in earlier days, in which irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking has drawn attention. SUS 316L was regarded as less susceptible to the stress corrosion cracking and adopted in the newer reactors, although it was recently found not completely so in some Japanese reactors. Tensile residual stress introduced during manufacturing is believed to be one of the major factors in the initiation of cracking. It is, therefore, essential to assess the stress relaxation behavior under irradiation, which can be evaluated from the irradiation creep data, in conjunction with the effect of cold work. In the present study, creep experiments under 17MeV proton irradiation (2x10 -7 dpa/s) at 288degC were conducted for both SUS 316L and SUS 304 stainless steels with 5% or 25% cold work. Stress dependence of the irradiation creep was quite different between the two stainless steels, almost linear in SUS 316L while nearly quadratic in SUS 304 for both levels of cold-working. Stress relaxation under irradiation was evaluated to be different between the two stainless steels, reflecting their difference in stress dependence. (author)

  20. Desenvolvimento do sus e racionamento de serviços hospitalares SUS evolution and hospital services rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mendes Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos o sistema de saúde brasileiro em perspectiva comparada. A migração de clientelas de renda média para operadoras pré-pagas privadas aproxima o caso brasileiro do norte-americano. A produção de serviços hospitalares no SUS demonstra importante redução da oferta agravada pelo crescimento demográfico e por expectativas definidas por disposições constitucionais. A redução é seletiva e concentrada em serviços obstétricos e de clínica médica e nos serviços privados lucrativos. Para se garantir acesso equitativo é necessário: ampliação de gastos públicos; redução dos gastos por desembolso direto; reformas organizacionais; ampliação da capacidade de governo.We analyze Brazilian health system in comparative perspective. Middle income beneficiaries migration to pre-paid private insurance makes Brazilian case similar to United States. Public hospital services delivery shows an important retrenchment enhanced by demographic growth and new expectations due to constitutional definitions. Retrenchment is selective and concentrates on obstetric and clinic services and private for-profit services. To ensure equal access it is necessary to improve public spending; diminish out-of-pocket spending; develop organizational reforms; improve government capacity.

  1. Fungos associados à Musca Domestica capturadas através de armadilhas com isca química e busca direta

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes,E.G.; Borges,M.A.Z.; Valério,H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho avaliou o isolamento de fungos em Musca domestica através da busca direta e por meio de iscas químicas e também a influência desta isca química para o crescimento de fungos encontrados nessas moscas. Foram realizadas coletas usando armadilhas com iscas químicas, compostas do inseticida Imidacloprid e outra por busca direta. Verificou-se que em 71,73% das moscas coletadas por busca direta apresentaram crescimento fúngico, enquanto as moscas capturadas usando iscas químicas aprese...

  2. microRNAs and Their Targets in Apple (Malus domestica cv. “Fuji”) Involved in Response to Infection of Pathogen Valsa mali

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Hao; Xu, Ming; Zheng, Xiang; Zhu, Tongyi; Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    miRNAs are important regulators involving in plant-pathogen interactions. However, their roles in apple tree response to Valsa canker pathogen (Valsa mali, Vm) infection were poorly understood. In this study, we constructed two miRNA libraries using the twig bark tissues of apple tree (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. “Fuji”) inoculated with Vm (IVm) and PDA medium (control, BMd). Among all detected miRNAs, 23 miRNAs were specifically isolated from BMd and 39 miRNAs were specifically isolated from ...

  3. Activity and relative abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on confined pig and cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H; Jespersen, J B

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 84 pig and cattle farms in Denmark between August and October 1996 and 1997. The aim was to describe the activity and relative abundance of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Ichneumonidae) that attack puparia of Musca domestica Linnaeus and Stomoxys calcitrans...... calcitrans puparia. The overall rate of parasitism per farm was low: 12.9% of the total number of fly puparia collected. Direct ordination, used to assess the habitat distribution of the parasitoids, showed that Muscidifurax raptor mainly seeks fly puparia in outdoor manure heaps and especially in manure...

  4. The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.

    2014-01-01

    jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained....../g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log(10) (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak...

  5. Isolation of fungi in Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae captured at two natural breeding grounds in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Márcia de Senna Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify fungal species found in natural association with adults of Musca domestica. The adult insects were collected from two natural breeding grounds: hog pens and an urban sanitary landfill. The isolated fungi were identified as: Aspergillus flavus (23.8%, A. niger var. niger (14.4%, Penicillium corylophilum (21.4%, P. fellutanum (11.9%, Cladosporium cladosporoides (4.7%, Fusarium sp. (4.7%, Alternaria alternata (11.9%, Curvularia brachyspora (2.4%, Mycelia sterilia (2.4% and the Mucorales order (2.4%.

  6. Influência da temperatura e do tipo de substrato na produção de larvas de Musca domestica linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera, Muscidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Cruz Weigert; Mario Roberto Chim Figueiredo; Daniel Loebmann; José Augusto Reis Nunes; Antonio Luís Garcia dos Santos

    2002-01-01

    Em sala climatizada no Ranário Experimental da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (REURG), quatro moscários foram preparados, colocando-se em cada um cerca de 5000 pupas de Musca domestica. Após o nascimento das moscas, cada moscário recebeu, além das bandejas com alimento (açúcar e leite), uma bandeja com substrato para postura, constituído de farelo de trigo umedecido. Diariamente os substratos para postura foram homogeneizados e distribuídos entre 15 bandejas pequenas, acondiciona...

  7. Produção de patulina em maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen, cultivares Gala e Fuji inoculadas com Penicillium spp. Production of patulin in apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen Gala and Fuji cultivars inoculated with Penicillium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.U. ROSS

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A maçã (Malus domestica Borkhausen é uma excelente fonte nutricional e de interesse econômico, sendo que a Região Sul do Brasil contribue com 90% da produção Nacional deste fruto com destaque aos cultivares Gala e Fuji. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de patulina nestes cultivares inoculados com Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 e Penicillium variabile toxigênico, isolado de maçãs regionais. As frutas contaminadas foram mantidas em condições de tempo de armazenamento e temperatura que variaram respectivamente de 15 a 90 dias e de 0 a 25°C. A produção de patulina ocorreu em todas as combinações de armazenagem e temperaturas empregadas para o ensaio, independentemente dos cultivares. A produção de patulina foi negativa no 30º dia nas maçãs estocadas a 0°C inoculadas com P.expansum, mas o aumento de temperatura para 4°C restringiu a margem de segurança, causando positividade na produção da toxina para ambos os cultivares inoculados com as duas linhagens fúngicas, no mesmo período. Nas maçãs inoculadas com P. variabile ocorreu maior concentração de patulina (F=68,05 do que as contaminadas com P. expansum NRRL 1172 (F=26,0. O risco freqüente de produção de patulina nas temperaturas de refrigeração, indicaram a necessidade de melhor controle nos estágios de colheita e armazenagem de maçãs, a fim de evitar constante ingestão de toxina.The apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen is an excellent nutritional source of economical interest, with emphasis to the Brazilian Southern Region which comprises 90% of national apple production, mainly Gala and Fuji cultivars.The aim of this research was to evaluate patulin production in both cultivars, inoculated with Penicillium expansum NRRL 1172 and a toxigenic P. variabile strain isolated from commercialized apples. Samples for analysis were taken from apples stored under combined conditions of time and temperature, which ranged from 15 to 90 days period and 0 to

  8. La Corona Española y sus Leyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, Mayo 27 de 1994

    Señor Académico
    Zoilo Cuéllar Montoya
    Secretario
    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    E. S. D.

    Muy estimado doctor Cuéllar:

    En la última reunión de la Academia, el académico De Zubiría, mencionó que el consumo de coca ya estaba penalizado desde la época de la Colonia. Me permito enviarle una copia de lo referente a la coca que se encuentra en las Leyes dictadas por la Corona Española en relación con este tema. Está tomado de la tercera edición de la recopilación que se hizo de dichas leyes en el año de 1774, por orden del Rey don Carlos Ir, del 7 de febrero de dicho año.

    Como es una fiel copia del original, he respetado la ortografía usada en él.

    Atentamente,
    Jaime Herrera Pontón

    Recopilación de leyes de los reynos de las Indias
    Año de 1774, tercera edición, Madrid.

    TÍTULO CATORCE
    Del servicio en Coca y Añir

    – Ley primera. Que los Indios, que trabajan, en la Coca sean bien tratados, y no usen de ella en supersticiones y hechicerías.

    D. Felipe Segundo en Madrid a 18 de Octubre de 1569

    Somos informados que de la costumbre de los Indios del Perú tienen en el uso de la Coca, y su
    grangería, se siguen grandes inconvenientes, por ser mucha parte para sus idolatrías, ceremonias, y hechicerías, y fingen, que trayéndola en la boca les da más fuerza y vigor para el trabajo, que según afirman los experimentados es ilusión de el Demonio, y en su beneficio perecen infinidad de Indios, que por ser cálida, y enferma la parte donde se cría, e ir a ella de tierra fría, de que mueren muchos, y otros salen tan enfermos, y débiles, que no se pueden reparar.

    Y aunque nos fue suplicado, que la mandássemos, porque desamas no quitar a los Indios este genero de alivio para el trabajo, aunque solo consista en la imaginación: Ordenamos a los Virreyes, que probean como los Indios, que se emplean en el

  9. Maltrato infantil y sus consecuencias a largo plazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Carolina Alarcón Forero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia intrafamiliar constituye una de las formas más frecuentes de violencia encontradas tanto a nivel nacional como internacional y dentro de estas el maltrato infantil presenta cifras alarmantes, y es el objeto de nuestra revisión. Los efectos de este problema repercuten notablemente en aquellos que sobreviven, ya que las consecuencias a largo plazo del maltrato infantil son más perjudiciales para lasvíctimas y sus familias, y más costoso para la sociedad, que las lesiones agudas inmediatas que puedan producir. Las consecuencias a largo plazo para estos niños varían desde efectos nocivos en su desarrollo hasta trastornos psicológicos, psiquiátricos y orgánicos. Es importante resaltar que aún con muy buenas intervenciones no todas tienen el éxito esperado si no se hacen de manera correcta. Esindispensable contar con estrategias de prevención que incluyan personal bien entrenado, una supervisión adecuada, los recursos necesarios, y un tiempo mínimo óptimo para enfrentar el problema y obtener los mejores resultados. ______________________________________________________________________Domestic violence is one of the most common forms of violence found both domestically and internationally. Within these, child abuse has alarming figures. This is the subject of this review. The effects of this problem significantly impact on those who survive; their long-term consequences are most severe and expensive for victimized child and his/her family than associated primary physical injuries. Thelong-term consequences for these children range from adverse effects on its psycholigical development to psychological, psychiatric organic disoders. It is important to note that good speeches are not enough to achieve success if any intervention are not done correctly. All prevention strategies include well-trained staff, appropriate supervision, resources, and a optimal time for addressing this problem to get the best results.

  10. Characterization of a SUPERMAN-like Gene, MdSUP11, in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Wang, LiMin; Liu, Na; Xie, Xuan; Zhu, YuanDi

    2017-12-06

    Arabidopsis SUPERMAN and its family members of its family play important roles in plant growth and floral organ development; yet much less is known about their functions expanding in apple tree development. Previous work has identified 12 SUP-like genes in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, and the MdSUP11 which is expressed in both vegetative and reproductive organs of apple. However, the function of MdSUP11 remains obscure. In this study, the β-glucuronidase expression driven by the MdSUP11 native promoter was detected in roots, young leaves, and floral organs of transgenic Arabidopsis. In transgenic tobacco, overexpression of MdSUP11 lead to dwarfism, aberrant leaf shapes, and morphological changes of floral organs. Endogenous concentrations of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid), abscisic acid, isopentenyl adenosine and zeatin riboside were significantly higher in young MdSUP11-transformed tobacco plants than in non-transformed plants. Gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative PCR showed up-regulation of NtDFR2 and NtANS1 expression in unopened transgenic flowers, whereas NtCHS expression was not changed significantly. Together, these results suggest that MdSUP11 is associated with apple's vegetative and reproductive development. Its overexpression in tobacco affects leaf and flower organ development and plant height; potentially by changing NtDFR2 and NtANS1 expression and endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid, cytokinins and abscisic acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. A PR-4 gene identified from Malus domestica is involved in the defense responses against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Li, Baohua; Dai, Hongyi

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related protein-4 (PR-4) family is a group of proteins with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and generally thought to be involved in plant defense responses. However, their detailed roles are poorly understood in defense of apple plant against pathogenic infection. In the present study, a new PR-4 gene (designated as MdPR-4) was identified from Malus domestica, and its roles in defense responses of apple were investigated. The open reading frame of MdPR-4 gene is of 447 bp encoding a protein of 148 amino acids with a Barwin domain in C-terminus and a signal peptide of 26 amino acids in N-terminus. Sequence and structural analysis indicated that MdPR-4 protein belongs to class II of PR-4 family. The high-level expression of MdPR-4 was observed in flowers and leaves as revealed by quantitative real time PCR. The temporal expression analysis demonstrated that MdPR-4 expression could be up-regulated by Botryosphaeria dothidea infection and salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, but suppressed by diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA). In vitro assays, recombinant MdPR-4 protein exhibited ribonuclease activity specific for single strand RNA and significant inhibition to hyphal growth of three apple pathogenic fungi B. dothidea, Valsa ceratosperma and Glomerella cingulata. Moreover, the inhibition was reduced by the presence of 5'-ADP. Taken all together, the results indicate that MdPR-4 protein is involved in the defense responses of apple against pathogenic attack by directly inhibiting hyphal growth, and the inhibition is correlated with its ribonuclease activity, where as MdPR-4 expression is regulated by both SA and JA signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollen tube access to the ovule is mediated by glycoprotein secretion on the obturator of apple (Malus × domestica, Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Juan M; Herrero, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Within the ovary, the obturator bridges the pathway of the pollen tube from the style to the ovule. Despite its widespread presence among flowering plants, its function has only been studied in a handful of species, and the molecules involved in pollen tube-obturator cross-talk have not been explored hitherto. This work evaluates the involvement of glucans and glycoproteins on pollen tube growth in the obturator of apple flowers ( Malus × domestica) . Pollen tube kinetics were sequentially examined in the pistil and related to changes occurring on the obturator using histochemistry and inmunocytochemistry. To discriminate between changes in the obturator induced by pollen tubes from those developmentally regulated, both pollinated and unpollinated pistils were examined. Pollen tube growth rates were slow in the stigma, faster in the style and slow again in the ovary. The arrival of pollen tubes at the obturator was concomitant with the secretion of proteins, saccharides and glycoprotein epitopes belonging to extensins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). While some of these secretions - extensins and AGPs labelled by JIM13 - were developmentally regulated, others - AGPs labelled by JIM8 - were elicited by the presence of pollen tubes. Following pollen tube passage, all these glycoproteins were depleted. The results show a timely secretion of glycoproteins on the obturator surface concomitant with pollen tube arrival at this structure. The fact that their secretion is depleted following pollen tube passage strongly suggests their role in regulating pollen tube access to the ovule. Remarkably, both the regulation of the secretion of the different glycoproteins, as well as their association with the performance of pollen tubes exhibit similarities with those observed in the stigma, in line with their common developmental origin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  13. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control.

  14. Weight-bearing locomotion in the developing opossum, Monodelphis domestica following spinal transection: remodeling of neuronal circuits caudal to lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Complete spinal transection in the mature nervous system is typically followed by minimal axonal repair, extensive motor paralysis and loss of sensory functions caudal to the injury. In contrast, the immature nervous system has greater capacity for repair, a phenomenon sometimes called the infant lesion effect. This study investigates spinal injuries early in development using the marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica whose young are born very immature, allowing access to developmental stages only accessible in utero in eutherian mammals. Spinal cords of Monodelphis pups were completely transected in the lower thoracic region, T10, on postnatal-day (P7 or P28 and the animals grew to adulthood. In P7-injured animals regrown supraspinal and propriospinal axons through the injury site were demonstrated using retrograde axonal labelling. These animals recovered near-normal coordinated overground locomotion, but with altered gait characteristics including foot placement phase lags. In P28-injured animals no axonal regrowth through the injury site could be demonstrated yet they were able to perform weight-supporting hindlimb stepping overground and on the treadmill. When placed in an environment of reduced sensory feedback (swimming P7-injured animals swam using their hindlimbs, suggesting that the axons that grew across the lesion made functional connections; P28-injured animals swam using their forelimbs only, suggesting that their overground hindlimb movements were reflex-dependent and thus likely to be generated locally in the lumbar spinal cord. Modifications to propriospinal circuitry in P7- and P28-injured opossums were demonstrated by changes in the number of fluorescently labelled neurons detected in the lumbar cord following tracer studies and changes in the balance of excitatory, inhibitory and neuromodulatory neurotransmitter receptors' gene expression shown by qRT-PCR. These results are discussed in the context of studies indicating

  15. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica: racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  16. Putative adult neurogenesis in two domestic pigeon breeds (Columba livia domestica): racing homer versus utility carneau pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Nkomozepi, Pilani; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2017-07-01

    Generation of neurons in the brains of adult birds has been studied extensively in the telencephalon of song birds and few studies are reported on the distribution of PCNA and DCX in the telencephalon of adult non-song learning birds. We report here on adult neurogenesis throughout the brains of two breeds of adult domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), the racing homer and utility carneau using endogenous immunohistochemical markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for proliferating cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature and migrating neurons. The distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was very similar in both pigeon breeds with only a few minor differences. In both pigeons, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, walls of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and cerebellum. Generally, the olfactory bulbs and telencephalon had more PCNA and DCX cells than other regions. Two proliferative hotspots were evident in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricles. PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells migrated radially from the walls of the lateral ventricle into the parenchyma. In most telencephalic regions, the density of PCNA- and DCX-immunoreactive cells increased from rostral to caudal, except in the mesopallium where the density decreased from rostral to middle levels and then increased caudally. DCX immunoreactivity was more intense in fibres than in cell bodies and DCX-immunoreactive cells included small granular cells, fusiform bipolar cells, large round and or polygonal multipolar cells. The similarity in the distribution of proliferating cells and new neurons in the telencephalon of the two breeds of pigeons may suggest that adult neurogenesis is a conserved trait as an ecological adaptation irrespective of body size.

  17. Parasite distribution and early-stage encephalitis in Sarcocystis calchasi infections in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Kristina; Olias, Philipp; Enderlein, Dirk; Klopfleisch, Robert; Mayr, Sylvia L; Gruber, Achim D; Lierz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pigeon protozoal encephalitis is a biphasic, neurologic disease of domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) caused by the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis calchasi. Despite severe inflammatory lesions of the brain, associated parasitic stages have only rarely been identified and the cause of the lesions is still unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the tissue distribution of S. calchasi within pigeons between the two clinical phases and during the occurrence of neurological signs. For this purpose, a semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed. Forty-five domestic pigeons were infected orally (via a cannula into the crop) with 200 S. calchasi sporocysts and euthanized in groups of three pigeons at intervals of 2 to 10 days over a period of 61 days. Tissue samples including brain and skeletal muscle were examined by histology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Schizonts were detected in the liver of one pigeon at day 10 post infection. A mild encephalitis was detected at day 20 post infection, around 4 weeks before the onset of neurological signs. At the same time, immature sarcocysts were present in the skeletal muscle. In seven pigeons a few sarcocysts were identified in the brain, but not associated with any lesion. These results suggest that the encephalitis is induced at a very early stage of the S. calchasi lifecycle rather than in the chronic phase of pigeon protozoal encephalitis. Despite the increasing severity of lesions in the central nervous system, the amount of sarcocysts did not increase. This supports the hypothesis of a delayed-type hypersensitivity response as the cause of the encephalitis. The study also demonstrated that S. calchasi DNA is detectable in tissues negative by histological methods, indicating a higher sensitivity of the real-time PCR.

  18. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a blue light receptor gene MdCRY2 from apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Ke; Zhao, Cheng; Zhao, Xian-Yan; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Hua-Lei; Shu, Huai-Rui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-04-01

    MdCRY2 was isolated from apple fruit skin, and its function was analyzed in MdCRY2 transgenic Arabidopsis. The interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 was found by yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays. Cryptochromes are blue/ultraviolet-A (UV-A) light receptors involved in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development. Investigations of the structure and functions of cryptochromes in plants have largely focused on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pea (Pisum sativum), and rice (Oryza sativa). However, no data on the function of CRY2 are available in woody plants. In this study, we isolated a cryptochrome gene, MdCRY2, from apple (Malus domestica). The deduced amino acid sequences of MdCRY2 contain the conserved N-terminal photolyase-related domain and the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain, as well as the C-terminal DQXVP-acidic-STAES (DAS) domain. Relationship analysis indicates that MdCRY2 shows the highest similarity to the strawberry FvCRY protein. The expression of MdCRY2 is induced by blue/UV-A light, which represents a 48-h circadian rhythm. To investigate the function of MdCRY2, we overexpressed the MdCRY2 gene in a cry2 mutant and wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, assessed the phenotypes of the resulting transgenic plants, and found that MdCRY2 functions to regulate hypocotyl elongation, root growth, flower initiation, and anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. These data provide functional evidence for a role of blue/UV-A light-induced MdCRY2 in controlling photomorphogenesis in apple.

  20. Shoot bending promotes flower bud formation by miRNA-mediated regulation in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2016-02-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and development, as well as in the response to shoot bending. Of the 195 miRNAs identified, 137 were novel miRNAs. The miRNA expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of 68 and 27 known miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in response to shoot bending, and that the 31 differentially expressed novel miRNAs between them formed five major clusters. Additionally, a complex regulatory network associated with auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) plays important roles in cell division, bud growth and flower induction, in which related miRNAs and targets mediated regulation. Among them, miR396, 160, 393, and their targets associated with AUX, miR159, 319, 164, and their targets associated with ABA and GA, and flowering-related miRNAs and genes, regulate bud growth and flower bud formation in response to shoot bending. Meanwhile, the flowering genes had significantly higher expression levels during shoot bending, suggesting that they are involved in this regulatory process. This study provides a framework for the future analysis of miRNAs associated with multiple hormones and their roles in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and formation in response to shoot bending in apple trees. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqin; Guo, Rongrong; Li, Jun; Singer, Stacy D; Zhang, Yucheng; Yin, Xiangjing; Zheng, Yi; Fan, Chonghui; Wang, Xiping

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) represent a protein superfamily encoding NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes and play a role in the response to environmental stress. In this study, a total of 39 ALDH genes from ten families were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome. Synteny analysis of the apple ALDH (MdALDH) genes indicated that segmental and tandem duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of these gene families in apple. Moreover, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several MdALDH genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes appeared before the divergence of lineages that led to apple and Arabidopsis. In addition, phylogenetic analysis, as well as comparisons of exon-intron and protein structures, provided further insight into both their evolutionary relationships and their putative functions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the MdALDH genes demonstrated diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns, while their expression profiles under abiotic stress and various hormone treatments indicated that many MdALDH genes were responsive to high salinity and drought, as well as different plant hormones. This genome-wide identification, as well as characterization of evolutionary relationships and expression profiles, of the apple MdALDH genes will not only be useful for the further analysis of ALDH genes and their roles in stress response, but may also aid in the future improvement of apple stress tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Chilling-related cell damage of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit cortical tissue impacts antioxidant, lipid and phenolic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisso, Rachel S; Buchanan, David A; Lee, Jinwook; Mattheis, James P; Sater, Chris; Hanrahan, Ines; Watkins, Christopher B; Gapper, Nigel; Johnston, Jason W; Schaffer, Robert J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Rudell, David R

    2015-02-01

    'Soggy breakdown' (SB) is an internal flesh disorder of 'Honeycrisp' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit that occurs during low temperature storage. The disorder is a chilling injury (CI) in which visible symptoms typically appear after several weeks of storage, but information about the underlying metabolism associated with its induction and development is lacking. The metabolic profile of flesh tissue from wholly healthy fruit and brown and healthy tissues from fruit with SB was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and correlation networks revealed correlation among ester volatile compounds by composition and differences in phytosterol, phenolic and putative triacylglycerides (TAGs) metabolism among the tissues. anova-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) was used to test the significance of metabolic changes linked with tissue health status. ASCA-significant components included antioxidant compounds, TAGs, and phytosterol conjugates. Relative to entirely healthy tissues, elevated metabolite levels in symptomatic tissue included γ-amino butyric acid, glycerol, sitosteryl (6'-O-palmitoyl) β-d-glucoside and sitosteryl (6'-O-stearate) β-d-glucoside, and TAGs containing combinations of 16:0, 18:3, 18:2 and 18:1 fatty acids. Reduced metabolite levels in SB tissue included 5-caffeoyl quinate, β-carotene, catechin, epicatechin, α-tocopherol, violaxanthin and sitosteryl β-d glucoside. Pathway analysis indicated aspects of primary metabolism differed according to tissue condition, although differences in metabolites involved were more subtle than those of some secondary metabolites. The results implicate oxidative stress and membrane disruption processes in SB development and constitute a diagnostic metabolic profile for the disorder. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Heat-shock-mediated elimination of the nptII marker gene in transgenic apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Katja; Flachowsky, Henryk; Deising, Holger B; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-04-25

    Production of marker-free genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the major challenges of molecular fruit breeding. Employing clean vector technologies, allowing the removal of undesired DNA sequences from GM plants, this goal can be achieved. The present study describes the establishment of a clean vector system in apple Malus×domestica Borkh., which is based on the use of the neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (nptII) as selectable marker gene and kanamycin/paramomycin as selective agent. The nptII gene can be removed after selection of GM shoots via site-specific excision mediated by heat-shock-inducible expression of the budding yeast FLP recombinase driven by the soybean Gmhsp17.5-E promoter. We created a monitoring vector containing the nptII and the flp gene as a box flanked by two direct repeats of the flp recognition target (FRT) sites. The FRT-flanked box separates the gusA reporter gene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (CaMV 35S) promoter. Consequently, GUS expression does only occur after elimination of the FRT-flanked box. Transformation experiments using the monitoring vector resulted in a total of nine transgenic lines. These lines were investigated for transgenicity by PCR, RT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Among different temperature regimes tested, exposure to 42 °C for 3.5 to 4h led to efficient induction of FLP-mediated recombination and removal of the nptII marker gene. A second round of shoot regeneration from leaf explants led to GM apple plants completely free of the nptII gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Addition of Phenylboronic Acid to Malus domestica Pollen Tubes Alters Calcium Dynamics, Disrupts Actin Filaments and Affects Cell Wall Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng Fang

    Full Text Available A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities. Fluorescent labeling, coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique, revealed that PBA induced an increase in extracellular Ca2+ influx, thereby elevating the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]c and disrupting the [Ca2+]c gradient, which is critical for pollen tube growth. Moreover the organization of actin filaments was severely perturbed by the PBA treatment. Immunolocalization studies and fluorescent labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR suggested that PBA caused an increase in the abundance of callose, de-esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs at the tip. However, it had no effect on the deposition of the wall polymers cellulose. These effects are similar to those of boron deficiency in roots and other organs, indicating that PBA can induce boron deficiency symptoms. The results provide new insights into the roles of boron in pollen tube development, which likely include regulating [Ca2+]c and the formation of the actin cytoskeleton, in addition to the synthesis and assembly of cell wall components.

  5. Spontaneous development of full weight-supported stepping after complete spinal cord transection in the neonatal opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Wheaton

    Full Text Available Spinal cord trauma in the adult nervous system usually results in permanent loss of function below the injury level. The immature spinal cord has greater capacity for repair and can develop considerable functionality by adulthood. This study used the marsupial laboratory opossum Monodelphis domestica, which is born at a very early stage of neural development. Complete spinal cord transection was made in the lower-thoracic region of pups at postnatal-day 7 (P7 or P28, and the animals grew to adulthood. Injury at P7 resulted in a dense neuronal tissue bridge that connected the two ends of the cord; retrograde neuronal labelling indicated that supraspinal and propriospinal innervation spanned the injury site. This repair was associated with pronounced behavioural recovery, coordinated gait and an ability to use hindlimbs when swimming. Injury at P28 resulted in a cyst-like cavity encased in scar tissue forming at the injury site. Using retrograde labelling, no labelled brainstem or propriospinal neurons were found above the lesion, indicating that detectable neuronal connectivity had not spanned the injury site. However, these animals could use their hindlimbs to take weight-supporting steps but could not use their hindlimbs when swimming. White matter, demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining, was present in the injury site of P7- but not P28-injured animals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that provided spinal injury occurs early in development, regrowth of supraspinal innervation is possible. This repair appears to lead to improved functional outcomes. At older ages, even without detectable axonal growth spanning the injury site, substantial development of locomotion was still possible. This outcome is discussed in conjunction with preliminary findings of differences in the local propriospinal circuits following spinal cord injury (demonstrated with fluororuby labelling, which may underlie the weight bearing locomotion observed in the

  6. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SBP-box family genes in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hou, Hongmin; Li, Xiaoqin; Xiang, Jiang; Yin, Xiangjing; Gao, Hua; Zheng, Yi; Bassett, Carole L; Wang, Xiping

    2013-09-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors and play many crucial roles in plant development. In this study, 27 SBP-box gene family members were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, 15 of which were suggested to be putative targets of MdmiR156. Plant SBPs were classified into eight groups according to the phylogenetic analysis of SBP-domain proteins. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location and synteny analyses of MdSBP genes within the apple genome demonstrated that tandem and segmental duplications, as well as whole genome duplications, have likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the SBP-box gene family in apple. Additionally, synteny analysis between apple and Arabidopsis indicated that several paired homologs of MdSBP and AtSPL genes were located in syntenic genomic regions. Tissue-specific expression analysis of MdSBP genes in apple demonstrated their diversified spatiotemporal expression patterns. Most MdmiR156-targeted MdSBP genes, which had relatively high transcript levels in stems, leaves, apical buds and some floral organs, exhibited a more differential expression pattern than most MdmiR156-nontargeted MdSBP genes. Finally, expression analysis of MdSBP genes in leaves upon various plant hormone treatments showed that many MdSBP genes were responsive to different plant hormones, indicating that MdSBP genes may be involved in responses to hormone signaling during stress or in apple development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Dormancy alleviation by NO or HCN leading to decline of protein carbonylation levels in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasuska, Urszula; Ciacka, Katarzyna; Dębska, Karolina; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2014-08-15

    Deep dormancy of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) embryos can be overcome by short-term pre-treatment with nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Dormancy alleviation of embryos modulated by NO or HCN and the first step of germination depend on temporary increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Direct oxidative attack on some amino acid residues or secondary reactions via reactive carbohydrates and lipids can lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives. Protein carbonylation is a widely accepted covalent and irreversible modification resulting in inhibition or alteration of enzyme/protein activities. It also increases the susceptibility of proteins to proteolytic degradation. The aim of this work was to investigate protein carbonylation in germinating apple embryos, the dormancy of which was removed by pre-treatment with NO or HCN donors. It was performed using a quantitative spectrophotometric method, while patterns of carbonylated protein in embryo axes were analyzed by immunochemical techniques. The highest concentration of protein carbonyl groups was observed in dormant embryos. It declined in germinating embryos pre-treated with NO or HCN, suggesting elevated degradation of modified proteins during seedling formation. A decrease in the concentration of carbonylated proteins was accompanied by modification in proteolytic activity in germinating apple embryos. A strict correlation between the level of protein carbonyl groups and cotyledon growth and greening was detected. Moreover, direct in vitro carbonylation of BSA treated with NO or HCN donors was analyzed, showing action of both signaling molecules as protein oxidation agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Temperature on the Toxicity of Insecticides against Musca domestica L.: Implications for the Effective Management of Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is an important cause of childhood mortality in developing countries like Pakistan because of unhygienic conditions, lack of awareness, and unwise use of preventive measures. Mechanical transmission of diarrheal pathogens by house flies, Musca domestica, is believed as the most effective route of diarrhea transmission. Although the use of insecticides as a preventive measure is common worldwide for the management of house flies, success of the measure could be compromised by the prevailing environmental temperature since it significantly affects toxicity of insecticides and thus their efficacy. Peaks of the house fly density and diarrheal cases are usually coincided and season specific, yet little is known about the season specific use of insecticides. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the temperature-toxicity relationship in house flies, the effect of post-bioassays temperature (range, 20–34°C) on the toxicity of seven insecticides from organophosphate (chlorpyrifos, profenofos), pyrethroid (cypermethrin, deltamethrin) and new chemical (emamectin benzoate, fipronil, spinosad) classes was evaluated by using a feeding bioassay method. From 20–34°C, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, emamectin and fipronil increased 2.10, 2.93, 2.40 and 3.82 fold (i.e. positive temperature coefficient), respectively. Whereas, the toxicities of cypermethrin, deltamethrin and spinosad decreased 2.21, 2.42 and 3.16 fold (i.e. negative temperature coefficient), respectively. Conclusion/Significance These findings suggest that for the reduction in diarrheal cases, house flies should be controlled with insecticides according to the prevailing environmental temperature. Insecticides with a positive temperature coefficient may serve as potential candidates in controlling house flies and diarrhea epidemics in hot season and vice versa. PMID:24743188

  9. Variations of Antioxidant Characteristics and Mineral Contents in Pulp and Peel of Different Apple (Malus domestica Borkh. Cultivars from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of phenolics, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents in peel and pulp of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars from Pakistan, namely Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Kashmiri Amri, Kala Kulu and Sky Spur were appraised. The mean extract yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80:20 methanol-water (v/v, was found to be 22.1 g/100 g for peel and 14.2 g/100 g for pulp on a dry weight basis. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in peel and pulp of different cultivars of apple ranged from 1,907.5–2,587.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 1,214.3–1,816.4 mg catechin equivalent/100 g DW and 1,185.2–1,475.5 mg GAE/100 g DW and 711.8–999.3 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 71.7–84.9 and 66.6–80.8% in peel, and 43.9–52.8 and 42.9–51.1% in pulp, respectively. Reducing power of the tested fruit part extracts at concentration 12.5 mg/mL ranged from 2.54–2.89 and 1.37–1.73, respectively. With regard to minerals analysis, both fruit parts showed the amount of K to be the highest, followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Na and Zn. The results revealed that peel of the tested apple cultivars in this study had superior antioxidant capacity and mineral concentration than the pulp, indicating significant variations between the parts tested. Thus, consumption of apple fruits along with peel might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits.

  10. Variations of antioxidant characteristics and mineral contents in pulp and peel of different apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-01-04

    Variations of phenolics, antioxidant activity, and mineral contents in peel and pulp of five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars from Pakistan, namely Red Delicious, Golden Delicious, Kashmiri Amri, Kala Kulu and Sky Spur were appraised. The mean extract yield of antioxidant components obtained with 80:20 methanol-water (v/v), was found to be 22.1 g/100 g for peel and 14.2 g/100 g for pulp on a dry weight basis. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in peel and pulp of different cultivars of apple ranged from 1,907.5-2,587.9 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g DW and 1,214.3-1,816.4 mg catechin equivalent/100 g DW and 1,185.2-1,475.5 mg GAE/100 g DW and 711.8-999.3 mg CE/100 g DW, respectively. The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 71.7-84.9 and 66.6-80.8% in peel, and 43.9-52.8 and 42.9-51.1% in pulp, respectively. Reducing power of the tested fruit part extracts at concentration 12.5 mg/mL ranged from 2.54-2.89 and 1.37-1.73, respectively. With regard to minerals analysis, both fruit parts showed the amount of K to be the highest, followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Na and Zn. The results revealed that peel of the tested apple cultivars in this study had superior antioxidant capacity and mineral concentration than the pulp, indicating significant variations between the parts tested. Thus, consumption of apple fruits along with peel might be recommended to gaining better nutritive benefits.

  11. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. La neorruralidad y sus significados. El caso de Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, María Jesús

    2009-08-01

    que esta apuesta residencial tuvo para sus protagonistas.

  13. Identification of host fruit volatiles from domestic apple (Malus domestica), native black hawthorn (Crataegus douglasii) and introduced ornamental hawthorn (C. monogyna) attractive to R. pomonella flies from the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonel...

  14. Elucidation of the Honeycrisp' pedigree through haplotype analysis with a multi-family integrated SNP linkage map and a large apple (Malus×domestica) pedigree-connected SNP data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Bedford, David S.; Peace, Cameron P.; Vanderzande, Stijn; Clark, Matthew D.; Teh, Soon Li; Cai, Lichun; Luby, James J.

    2017-01-01

    The apple (Malus×domestica) cultivar Honeycrisp has become important economically and as a breeding parent. An earlier study with SSR markers indicated the original recorded pedigree of Honeycrisp' was incorrect and Keepsake' was identified as one putative parent, the other being unknown. The

  15. Species identification in meat products: A new screening method based on high resolution melting analysis of cyt b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Oceja, A; Nuñez, C; Baeta, M; Gamarra, D; de Pancorbo, M M

    2017-12-15

    Meat adulteration by substitution with lower value products and/or mislabeling involves economic, health, quality and socio-religious issues. Therefore, identification and traceability of meat species has become an important subject to detect possible fraudulent practices. In the present study the development of a high resolution melt (HRM) screening method for the identification of eight common meat species is reported. Samples from Bos taurus, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa domestica, Equus caballus, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Meleagris gallopavo and Coturnix coturnix were analyzed through the amplification of a 148 bp fragment from the cyt b gene with a universal primer pair in HRM analyses. Melting profiles from each species, as well as from several DNA mixtures of these species and blind samples, allowed a successful species differentiation. The results demonstrated that the HRM method here proposed is a fast, reliable, and low-cost screening technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of the Volatile Oil from Water Celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) against the Filariasis Vector Culex quinquefasciatus, the Housefly Musca domestica, and the African Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Pavela, Roman; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Water celery (Helosciadium nodiflorum, Apiaceae) is a common and invasive hydrophyte occurring in rivers and slow waters of Europe. In the past, it was consumed as a vegetable and spices, but currently it has mostly been abandoned. As a result, this plant produces an unexploited biomass occluding rivers and slow waters. With the aim to valorise water celery as an important biomass source for the development of botanical insecticides, in this work, we investigated the inhibitory effects of the essential oil hydrodistilled from its aerial parts against larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus, adults of the housefly Musca domestica, and larvae of the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. The essential oil, which was characterized by the insecticidal limonene (39.8%) and myristicin (35.3%), exerted important toxic effects on 3rd instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and S. littoralis and on adults of M. domestica, with LD 50 of 50.4 μl l -1 , 116.7 μg larva -1 , and 45.1 (male) and 70.1 (female) μg adult -1 , respectively. The oil did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity on the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Our findings add scientific evidences highlighting water celery as an important biomass source to be used for the control of insect pests and vectors of high economic importance. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Estimation of cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the leaf extracts of Anatolian Ficus carica var. domestica and their total phenol and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ustün, Osman; Sener, Bilge

    2011-03-01

    Ficus carica var. domestica Tsch. & Rav. (common fig) is widely grown in Turkey and exported for its edible fruits. In this study, the n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, n-butanol, and water extracts of the leaves of F. carica var. domestica were screened for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Cholinesterase inhibition against acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) was measured by the spectrophotometric method of Ellman at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 microg/mL., while antioxidant activity was tested using three in vitro methods; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the n-hexane and acetone extracts exerted a notable inhibition against both AChE (62.9 +/- 0.9% and 50.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and BChE (76.9 +/- 2.2% and 45.6 +/- 1.3%, respectively). However, they had low activity in the antioxidant tests. The chloroform extract was found to be the richest in total flavonoid content (252.5 +/- 1.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent), while the n-butanol extract had the highest total phenol amount (85.9 +/- 3.2 mg/g extract gallic acid equivalent).

  18. Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeus en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Cárdenas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%, Giardia lamblia (3,0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%, Endolimax nana (5,0% y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%. Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica.

  19. The effects of temperature and innate immunity on transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) between life stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrndorff, S; Gill, C; Lowenberger, C; Skovgård, H; Hald, B

    2014-05-01

    The house fly (Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure. C. jejuni was transmitted from infected larvae to pupae, but not to the adult stage. Infected larvae maintained at 25 degrees C had mean bacterial numbers of 6.5 +/- 0.2 SE log10 (colony forming units [CFU]/g) that subsequently dropped to 3.6 +/- 0.3 SE log10 (CFU/g) 8 h after infection. Pupae originating from infected larvae contained mean bacterial numbers of 5.3 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g), and these numbers dropped to 4.8 +/- 0.1 SE log10 (CFU/g) 24 h after pupation. The decline in C. jejuni numbers during pupal development coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial peptides, including cecropin, diptericin, attacin, and defensin, in the larva-pupa transition stage and a later second peak in older pupae (4 or 48 h). Conversely, there was a reduced expression of the digestive enzyme, lysozyme, in pupae and adults compared with larvae.

  20. Populational parameters of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on Pupae of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) treated with two strains of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. (Deuteromycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuona, Roberto; Crespo, Diana; La Rossa, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker is an efficient controller of Dipteran pupae, such as Musca domestica L. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil. is a regulator of insect populations, including these synanthropic pests. The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilizing both agents in a combined form for the biocontrol of the domestic fly. Recently formed M. domestica pupae were inoculated by immersion in conidia suspension (10(8) conidia/ml) with two strains of B. bassiana (Bb6 and Bb10). The inoculated pupae were offered to the female parasitoid. In one bioassay they were offered pupae inoculated a single day and in other, pupae inoculated the following day as well. In both bioassays non inoculated (control) pupae were offered to the parasitoids until their death. Thirty females of S. endius were used for each strain and bioassay. From the study of the parasitoid offspring, life tables were built and the reproduction net rate (R(0)) and intrinsic natural increase (r(m)) were obtained among other demographic parameters; the parasitism percentages and sex ratios were also analyzed. B. bassiana did not affect significantly the biodemography of the parasitoid when pupae were inoculated a single time. On the other hand the R0 and the rm were smaller than that of the control without the fungus when pupae were inoculated twice, although sporulation was not observed in the cadavers of S. endius.

  1. Les reconstructions de la vie de Jésus-Christ en aire maya

    OpenAIRE

    Colazo-Simon, Antonia; Geslin, Stéphanie; Reyes, Éric; Le Guen, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Les histoires mayas de Jésus-Christ Les recueils de tradition orale maya enregistrent au fil des terrains l’occurrence de l’histoire de Jésus-Christ dans plusieurs ethnies mayas, à différents moments du xxe siècle, et sous des formes stylistiques distinctes. L’aspect le plus frappant de ces versions est la pluralité des noms concurrents que porte Jésus-Christ selon le lieu de recueil : si Jesukristo est employé chez les Yucatèques, les Tzeltal, les Tzotzil, les K’iche’, les Mam ou encore les ...

  2. Les reconstructions de la vie de Jésus-Christ en aire maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Geslin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Les histoires mayas de Jésus-Christ Les recueils de tradition orale maya enregistrent au fil des terrains l’occurrence de l’histoire de Jésus-Christ dans plusieurs ethnies mayas, à différents moments du xxe siècle, et sous des formes stylistiques distinctes. L’aspect le plus frappant de ces versions est la pluralité des noms concurrents que porte Jésus-Christ selon le lieu de recueil : si Jesukristo est employé chez les Yucatèques, les Tzeltal, les Tzotzil, les K’iche’, les Mam ou encore les ...

  3. Saturno devora a sus hijos. Miradas críticas sobre el desarrollo y sus promesas (Víctor Bretón Solo de Zaldivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Toledo Chávarri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Saturno devora a sus hijos. Miradas críticas sobre el desarrollo y sus promesas es una compilación de artículos que actualiza el análisis antropológico sobre las prácticas y discursos del desarrollo. La participación de la antropología en el desarrollo tiene un muy largo recorrido que ha estado dominado desde la década de los noventa por una visión postestructuralista. Esta perspectiva constituye también el punto de partida de este libro.

  4. Antisense suppression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) sucrose synthase 3 (CsSUS3) reduces hypoxic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyun; Sui, Xiaolei; Guo, Jinju; Wang, Zhenyu; Cheng, Jintao; Ma, Si; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2014-03-01

    Sucrose synthase (SUS; EC 2.4.1.13) plays important roles in sugar metabolism and abiotic stress response. But the genes encoding SUS in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) have not been well studied. Here, we isolated four cucumber sucrose synthase genes (CsSUS). Among them, CsSUS3, which highly expressed in the roots, was chosen for further study. Immunolocalization and subcellular localization analysis indicated that CsSUS3 localized in the cytosol and the plasma membrane, and mainly existed in the companion cells of phloem in the roots. When suffering hypoxia stress from flooding, CsSUS3 expression and SUS activity in roots increased, especially in the lateral roots; moreover, the soluble SUS activity increased clearly, but the membrane fraction hardly changed. Compared with the wild-type cucumbers, the transgenic lines with antisense expression of CsSUS3 were more sensitive to flooding. After 6 d of flooding, the SUS activity, soluble sugar and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucose (UDPG) content and the ratio of ATP/ADP in the roots of transgenic plants were significantly lower than that in wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic lines grew more slowly with more yellow necrosis in the leaves. These findings suggested CsSUS3 participated in resisting hypoxic stress. Furthermore, the mechanism of CsSUS3 in resisting hypoxic stress was also discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Aliança da enfermagem com o usuário na defesa do SUS Alianza de la enfermería con el usuario en la defensa del SUS Nursing partnership with users in the defense of SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo com o objetivo de apresentar, na perspectiva dos direitos humanos, elementos relevantes para o cuidado de enfermagem na defesa dos sujeitos no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS brasileiro. A saúde como um direito de todos e um dever do Estado materializou-se como uma conquista da população com o SUS, com os princípios de universalidade, integralidade e equidade da atenção em saúde, ampliando a concepção de saúde para além da ausência de doença e passando a ser entendida como qualidade de vida. O enfermeiro tem grande potencial para desempenhar um papel singular na defesa do direito à saúde e do direito à vida e, por meio de alianças, fortalecer o exercício da cidadania das pessoas.Estudio reflexivo con el objetivo de presentar, en la perspectiva de los derechos humanos, elementos relevantes para el cuidado de enfermería en la defensa de los sujetos en el contexto del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS brasileño. La salud como un derecho de todos y un deber del Estado se ha consolidado como una conquista de la población con él SUS, con los principios de universalidad, integralidad y equidad de atención en salud, ampliando la concepción de salud para además de ausencia de enfermedades y que pasó a ser comprendida como calidad de vida. El enfermero tiene grande potencial para desarrollar un rol singular en la defensa del derecho a salud y del derecho a vida y, por medio de alianzas, fortalecer el ejercicio de la ciudadanía de las personas.This reflexive study aimed at presenting, based on the human rights framework, relevant elements for nursing care in the defense of the users of the Brazilian Single Health System (SUS. The assurance of health as a fundamental right and a government´s responsibility was an achievement of the population through SUS, founded on the principles of universal, integral and equitable care, expanding the conception of health beyond the idea of the lack of disease, understood

  6. Evolution of three cases of sarcomas of the sus-clavicular area after mammary radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Marchal, C.; Verhaeghe, J.L.; El Hajj, L.; Beckendorf, V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Peiffert, D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors comment the evolution observed for three cases of sarcomas in a previously irradiated sus-clavicular area. The three patients initially presented different cancers before the appearance of this sarcoma. The authors outline the exceptional characteristic of these sarcomas for their location in the sus-clavicular ganglionary area. Treatment is difficult. The authors suspect the existence of a genetic fragility. Short communication

  7. JOVENES ESTUDIANTES SECUNDARIOS Y SUS PROCESOS DE CONSTRUCCION DE (DES) CONFIANZA EN LOS OTROS

    OpenAIRE

    FARIAS OLMEDO; PABLO; FARIAS OLMEDO; PABLO

    2008-01-01

    La confianza representa el sustento lógico de toda sociedad, debido a que su presencia en las relaciones interpersonales significa su hilo conductor y el comienzo de una infinidad de redes entre individuos que sustentan sus acciones sobre la seguridad que les entregan tanto aquellos que los rodean, como las instituciones que los resguardan y socializan así como las estructuras que los gobiernan y determinan el curso de sus vidas. La globalización, materializada en nuev...

  8. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las caídas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de las caídas, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  9. Inheritance mode and mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid in the house fly Musca domestica (Diptera:Muscidae from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Ma

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against house fly, Musca domestica L., which is a major pest with the ability to develop resistance to insecticides. In the present study, we investigated the inheritance mode, the cross-resistance pattern and the mechanisms of resistance to imidacloprid. A near-isogenic house fly line (N-IRS with 78-fold resistance to imidacloprid was used to demonstrate the mode of inheritance. The overlapping confidence limits of LC50 values and the slopes of the log concentration-probit lines between the reciprocal F1 and F1' progenies suggest that imidacloprid resistance is inherited autosomally in the house fly. There was incomplete dominant inheritance in the F1 and F1' progenies, based on dominance values of 0.77 and 0.75, respectively. A monogenic inheritance model revealed that imidacloprid resistance is governed by more than one factor. Compared to the field strain (CFD, the N-IRS strain developed more cross-resistance to chlorfenapyr and no cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos and acetamiprid, but showed negative cross-resistance to beta-cypermethrin and azamethiphos. Three synergists, diethyl malate (DEM, s,s,s-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO, showed significant synergism against to imidacloprid (4.55-, 4.46- and 3.34-fold respectively in the N-IRS strain. However, both DEM and PBO had no synergism and DEF only exhibited slight synergism in the CSS strain. The activities of carboxylesterase (CarE, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome P450 in the N-IRS strain were significantly higher than in the CSS strain. But similar synergistic potential of DEF to imidacloprid between the CSS and N-IRS strain suggested that GSTs and cytochrome P450 played much more important role than esterase for the N-IRS strain resistance to imidacloprid. These results should be helpful for developing an improved management strategy to delay the development of imidacloprid

  10. Freezing pattern and frost killing temperature of apple (Malus domestica) wood under controlled conditions and in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramsohler, Manuel; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert

    2012-07-01

    The freezing pattern and frost killing temperatures of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) xylem were determined by differential thermal analysis and infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA). Results from detached or attached twigs in controlled freezing experiments and during natural field freezing of trees were compared. Non-lethal freezing of apoplastic water in apple xylem as monitored during natural winter frosts in the field occurred at -1.9 ± 0.4 °C and did not change seasonally. The pattern of whole tree freezing was variable and specific to the environmental conditions. On detached twigs high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs) occurred 2.8 K below the temperature observed under natural frosts in the field with a seasonal mean of -4.7 ± 0.5 °C. Microporous apple xylem showed freezing without a specific pattern within a few seconds in IDTA images during HTEs, which is in contrast to macroporous xylem where a 2D freezing pattern mirrors anatomical structures. The pith tissue always remained unfrozen. Increasing twig length increased ice nucleation temperature; for increased twig diameter the effect was not significant. In attached twigs frozen in field portable freezing chambers, HTEs were recorded at a similar mean temperature (-4.6 ± 1.0 °C) to those for detached twigs. Upon lethal intracellular freezing of apple xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) low-temperature freezing exotherms (LTEs) can be recorded. Low-temperature freezing exotherms determined on detached twigs varied significantly between a winter minimum of -36.9 °C and a summer maximum -12.7 °C. Within the temperature range wherein LTEs were recorded by IDTA in summer (-12.7 ± 0.5 to -20.3 ± 1.1 °C) various tiny clearly separated discontinuous freezing events could be detected similar to that in other species with contrasting XPC anatomy. These freezing events appeared to be initially located in the primary and only later in the secondary xylem. During the LTE no

  11. Mapping in an apple (Malus x domestica) F1 segregating population based on physical clustering of differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Fazio, Gennaro; Altman, Naomi; Praul, Craig; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-04-04

    Apple tree breeding is slow and difficult due to long generation times, self-incompatibility, and complex genetics. The identification of molecular markers linked to traits of interest is a way to expedite the breeding process. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes whose steady-state transcript abundance was associated with inheritance of specific traits segregating in an apple (Malus × domestica) rootstock F1 breeding population, including resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) disease and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). Transcription profiling was performed for 48 individual F1 apple trees from a cross of two highly heterozygous parents, using RNA isolated from healthy, actively-growing shoot tips and a custom apple DNA oligonucleotide microarray representing 26,000 unique transcripts. Genome-wide expression profiles were not clear indicators of powdery mildew or woolly apple aphid resistance phenotype. However, standard differential gene expression analysis between phenotypic groups of trees revealed relatively small sets of genes with trait-associated expression levels. For example, thirty genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. Interestingly, the genes encoding twenty-four of these transcripts were physically clustered on chromosome 12. Similarly, seven genes were identified that were differentially expressed between trees resistant and susceptible to woolly apple aphid, and the genes encoding five of these transcripts were also clustered, this time on chromosome 17. In each case, the gene clusters were in the vicinity of previously identified major quantitative trait loci for the corresponding trait. Similar results were obtained for a series of molecular traits. Several of the differentially expressed genes were used to develop DNA polymorphism markers linked to powdery mildew disease and woolly apple aphid resistance. Gene expression profiling

  12. Effect of boron fertilization of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. on uptake and distribution of mineral elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effect of boron (B fertilization of 'Šampion' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. grafted on M.26 rootstock on uptake and distribution of mineral elements. The trees were planted at a distance of 4,0 x 2,5 m on sandy-loam soil with low hot-water extractable B content. The study was carried out in 1994-1996 in Dąbrowice Experimental Station located near Skierniewice. The following treatments were applied: (i soil B application at a rate of 2g B tree-1 as Bortrac fertilizer (16% B in form of boric acid; (ii three times leaf B applications before full bloom at a rate of0,67g B tree' at the stage: green and pink bud and beginning of flowering; (iii three times leaf B applications after bloom at a rate of0,67g B tree-1. First spraying was applied at petal fall and next two ones at 2-weeks interval; (iv control-trees unfer tilized with B. The measurements included: soil chemical analysis (contents of available phosphorus (P and boron (B and exchange potassium (K, magnesium (Mg, and calcium (Ca and plant analysis (concentrations of N,P,K,Mg,Ca and B in the spur leaves, the leaves from oneyear-old shoots and the apple flesh. It was shown that B fertilization had not effect on N uptake and its distribution within apple tree. It was found that soil B application stimulated P uptake which increased concentration of this element in the spur leaves, the leaves from current shoots and the apple flesh. Boron sprayings after bloom increased Ca uptake which rised Ca concentration in studied plant parts. Additionally, leaf B application after bloom reduced plant Mg uptake. As a result of B sprayings after bloom, K concentration was increased in the spur leaves and decreased in the apple flesh. Boron spraying before bloom was less effective in increasing this microelement in plant than leaf B applications after bloom and soil B application.

  13. Levels of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus Violaceous), Housefly (Musca Domestica) and dragon fly (Libellula luctosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, A.A.; Okedeyi, O.O.; Idowu, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses of cadmium, chromium and lead in dumpsites soil, earthworm (Lybrodrilus violaceous), housefly (Musca domestica) and in indigenous dragonfly (Libellula luctosa) were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry to estimate the degree of metal pollution in two Lagos dumpsites located at Iba Housing Estate (dumpsite A) and Soluos along LASU - Isheri road (dumpsite B). Soil pH and moisture content were also determined. Chromium was not detected (ND) in most of the samples except in the soil samples whose mean and standard deviation (SD) were 0.43 Plus minus 0.37 micro g/g and 0.23 plus minus 0.37 micro g/g, respectively for dumpsites A and B, and the earthworm samples harvested from dumpsite B (1.00 plus minus 1.41 micro g/g the cadmium levels were 4.00 plus minus 3.16 micro g/g and 7.50 plus minus 6.37 micro g/g for earthwarm; 2.86 plus minus 1.43 micro g/g and 4.29 plus minus 3.74 micro g/g for housefly, 0.75 plus minus 1.26 micro g/g and 1.25 plus minus 0.95 micro g/g for dragonfly, respectively for dumpsites A and B. However, the concentration of lead in the invertebrates were, 130.00 plus minus 112.58 micro g/g and 105.75 plus minus 94.44 micro g/g for earthworm; 145.71 plus minus 101.87 micro g/g and 225.71 plus minus 79.31 micro g/g for housefly; 165.00 plus minus 69.78 micro g/g and 85.00 plus minus 69.73 micro g/g for dragonfly respectively for dumpsites A and B. Cadmium and lead levels were found to be higher in the invertebrates harvested from the dumpsites than those collected from the non-dumpsites. The non-dumpsite values for cadmium were 1.24 plus minus 0,94 micro g/g, 0.45 plus minus 0.56 micro g/g and 0.38 plus minus 0.4 micro g/g for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly, respectively. Similarly, the non-dumpsite lead levels for earthworm, housefly and dragonfly were 23.12 plus minus 10.11 micro g/g, 20.75 plus minus 11.85 micro g/g and 33.62 plus minus 14.95 micro g/g, respectively.(author)

  14. PRODUÇÃO DE LARVAS DE CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES DENSIDADES DE ESTOCAGEM E NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA BRUTA NAS DIETAS PRODUCTION IN CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa LARVAE, EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITY AND DIFFERENT CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Dias Koberstein

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Prochilodus é amplamente distribuído pela América do Sul, incluindo várias espécies que apresenta certo grau de endemismo nas diferentes bacias. Essas espécies alimentam-se basicamente de detritos orgânicos, organismos do benton, e alimentações artificiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar três densidades de estocagem (0,5, 0,75, e 1 larva/litro e dietas contendo dois níveis diferentes de proteína bruta (35 e 40% PB nos parâmetros do crescimento e na taxa da sobrevivência do curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. As larvas foram estocadas em aquários experimentais de 100 litros, mantidos com volume de 60 litros, com o fluxo de água contínuo, proveniente de poço semi-artesiano. A maior média foi proporcionada pela ração com 40% de PB (1,66g ± 0,21. As diferenças foram significativas para os efeitos dos teores de PB sobre o ganho de peso e densidades de estocagem, na sobrevivência das larvas. Para o ganho de peso, as melhores médias foram obtidas com nível de 40% de PB (2,50g ± 0,40 e para a sobrevivência, as melhores taxas foram 94,45% ± 19,32 e 78,87% ± 19,32 nas densidades de 0,5 e 0,75 larvas/litro, respectivamente.Fish of the genus Prochilodus is widely spread in South America, showing endemic characteristics in some basins. It feeds basically on organic detritus, benton organisms, and artificial feeds. The purpose of this study was to test three stocking densities (0.5, 0.75, and 1 fry/L and diets with two different crude protein levels (35 and 40% CP on the growth parameters and survival rate of curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. Larvae were stocked in 100L aquaria containing 60L, supplied with continuous water flow coming from an artesian well. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the 40% CP diet on growth (body weight = 1.66g ± 0.21 of fish stocked at 0.5 fry/L, at the 30th experimental day. At the 68th day, fish fed the 40% CP diet achieved the highest (P < 0.05 final body weight (2.50g ± 0.40, and

  15. Estudios de impacto ambiental y sus tendencias en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Luis Alfredo

    1994-12-01

    nueva Constitución de la República y el Decreto Ley 99 de 1993 (Creación del Ministerio del

    Medio Ambiente, promulgan que los EIA incluyan lo referente a deberes y derechos ciudadanos y los Fundamentos de Política Ambiental, respectivamente. En forma general, se destaca la importancia y contenido de los EIA en cualquier acción antrópica tendiente a intervenir o modificar los componentes ambientales y sus relaciones entre sí, se incorporan los costos ambientales y se exigen a los proyectos alternativas técnicas tendientes a ejecutar aquéllos de menor efecto ambiental, así sean los más costosos. Además, permiten una ingerencia más decisiva de la administración territorial y/o corporativa en proyectos de desarrollo; se destaca el papel de la Procuraduría, Contraloría y Defensoría del pueblo en el control y reposición ambiental y, sobre todo, la participación ciudadana o gremial en la decisión del otorgamiento de licencias ambientales. Otro aspecto importante lo constituye la planificación ambiental del país, como base el ordenamiento territorial.

  16. El anisakis y sus enfermedades como enfermedad profesional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Vicente Pardo

    , elaboración o preparación del pescado contaminado. Describimos en este artículo las enfermedades por anisakis, los trabajos de riesgo, las características que debieran reunir para ser enfermedad profesional y dos casos ilustrativos cuya consideración lo fue como esta contingencia laboral. Conclusión: Las enfermedades por anisakis y su consideración como enfermedad profesional, viene sujeta a la propia definición de lo que se considera así en nuestra norma legal, es decir que sea una enfermedad contraída como consecuencia del trabajo, en las actividades que se describen en el cuadro de enfermedades profesionales y por la acción del agente o sus sustancias que se recogen en el anexo I del actual cuadro. Además para que se admita como enfermedad profesional debemos de tener un diagnóstico firme (encuadrado en el cuadro de enfermedad profesional, un agente causal (recogido en el listado y una exposición al anisakis desarrollada en el ejercicio del trabajo (actividades recogidas en el listado. El listado o cuadro de enfermedad profesional es un sistema cerrado para agentes causales y enfermedades causadas, y la adscripción no es fácil. La parasitación tendría cabida en el grupo de enfermedades por agentes biológicos, la alergia podría discutirse su adscripción pero suele recogerse también en este grupo, el asma lo recogeríamos en el grupo de enfermedades respiratorias (causadas por inhalación dice el texto legal y las manifestaciones dérmicas en el grupo de las enfermedades profesionales de la piel. La exposición laboral al anisakis, es necesaria e imprescindible para que el proceso sea calificado de enfermedad profesional, pero esta exposición no siempre estará bien delimitada, y sin embargo debe estar probada. Puede haber existido una sensibilización fuera del trabajo y una aparición o desarrollo de la enfermedad por reiterada exposición o contacto con el anisakis en el trabajo lo que dificultará su calificación ocupacional.

  17. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons in Niğde region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Karatepe, Bilge; Babür, Cahit

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons between October 2003-June 2004. Blood samples were collected from 216 pigeons, consisting of 105 (55 female, 50 male) domestic pigeons and 111 (53 female, 58 male) wild pigeons. The sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test (SFDT). One of the 105 (0.95%) domestic pigeon and one of the 111 (0.90%) wild pigeon were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies at the titer of 1:16. This is the first serological study on toxoplasmosis in the domestic and wild pigeon in the Niğde region of Turkey.

  19. Repair of Tibiotarsal Rotation in 7 Chukar Partridges (Alectoris chukar) and 12 Domestic Pigeons (Columba livia domestica) with Type-2 External Skeletal Fixator Intramedullary Pin Tie-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Didar Aydin; Özsoy, Serhat

    2017-09-01

    Rotational deformities of the long bones affect various avian species. Tibiotarsal rotation may cause the leg to deviate up to 180° from the dorsoplantar axis in a matter of days, thus preventing the birds from walking freely and leading to the inability to stand. In this study, tibiotarsal rotation observed in pigeons and partridges was managed by creating a closed fracture in the tibiotarsus and then, following reduction, stabilizing it with an intramedullary tie-in Type 2 external skeletal fixation system. Functional healing was achieved in 12 pigeons (Columba livia domestica; mean healing time, 38 days) and 7 partridges (Alectoris chukar; mean healing time, 40 days). This treatment was successful. In small bird species (<1 kg), this simple and inexpensive surgical intervention may provide a highly effective method for the treatment of rotational deformities.

  20. Effectiveness of Temulawak (Curcuma xanthoriza and Kunyit (Curcumae domestica Extracts to Enhance Productivity and as Immunostimulator of Avian Influenza in Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiriyanto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effectiveness of treating broiler with temulawak (Curcuma xanthoriza and kunyit (Curcumae domestica extracts to enhance productivity and as imunostimulator of avian influenza. Broilers were given either temulawak, kunyit or temulawak+kunyit extracts. The treatments, including a control, were arranged in a factorial design. Variables measured were production index and immune titter with haemaglutination inhibition (HI test at 35 days of age. Results showed that control, temulawak-, kunyit- and temulawak+kunyit-treated chicken have production indexes of 302.80, 382.30, 327.71, and 358.30, respectively. HI test results were all negative. It can be concluded that neither temulawak, kunyit nor temulawak+kunyit extracts is effective imunostimulator of avian influenza in broiler. Nevertheless, temulawak-treated chicken showed highest production index. (Animal Production 9(2: 178-183 (2007 Key Words: Avian influenza, haemaglutination inhibition, temulawak, kunyit