WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving test subjects

  1. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  2. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  3. Individual survival curves comparing subjective and observed mortality risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Luc; Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2017-12-01

    We compare individual survival curves constructed from objective (actual mortality) and elicited subjective information (probability of survival to a given target age). We develop a methodology to estimate jointly subjective and objective individual survival curves accounting for rounding on subjective reports of perceived survival. We make use of the long follow-up period in the Health and Retirement Study and the high quality of mortality data to estimate individual survival curves that feature both observed and unobserved heterogeneity. This allows us to compare objective and subjective estimates of remaining life expectancy for various groups and compare welfare effects of objective and subjective mortality risk using the life cycle model of consumption. We find that subjective and objective hazards are not the same. The median welfare loss from misperceptions of mortality risk when annuities are not available is 7% of current wealth at age 65 whereas more than 25% of respondents have losses larger than 60% of wealth. When annuities are available and exogenously given, the welfare loss is substantially lower. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Coordination Motor Skills of Military Pilots Subjected to Survival Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Survival training of military pilots in the Polish Army gains significance because polish pilots have taken part in more and more military missions. Prolonged exercise of moderate intensity with restricted sleep or sleep deprivation is known to deteriorate performance. The aim of the study was thus to determine the effects of a strenuous 36-hour exercise with restricted sleep on selected motor coordination and psychomotor indices. Thirteen military pilots aged 30-56 years were examined twice: pretraining and posttraining. The following tests were applied: running motor adjustment (15-m sprint, 3 × 5-m shuttle run, 15-m slalom, and 15-m squat), divided attention, dynamic body balance, handgrip strength differentiation. Survival training resulted in significant decreases in maximum handgrip strength (from 672 to 630 N), corrected 50% max handgrip (from 427 to 367 N), error 50% max (from 26 to 17%), 15-m sprint (from 5.01 to 4.64 m·s), and 15-m squat (2.20 to 1.98 m·s). The training improvements took place in divided attention test (from 48.2 to 57.2%). The survival training applied to pilots only moderately affected some of their motor adjustment skills, the divided attention, and dynamic body balance remaining unaffected or even improved. Further studies aimed at designing a set of tests for coordination motor skills and of soldiers' capacity to fight for survival under conditions of isolation are needed.

  5. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  6. A test of the survival processing advantage in implicit and explicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn M; Thomas, Brandon J; Zimmerman, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the survival processing effect (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273, 2007) in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The survival effect has been well established in explicit free recall and recognition tests, but has not been evident in implicit memory tests or in cued explicit tests. In Experiment 1 of the present study, we tested implicit and explicit memory for words studied in survival, moving, or pleasantness contexts in stem completion tests. In Experiment 2, we further tested these effects in implicit and explicit category production tests. Across the two experiments, with four separate memory tasks that included a total of 525 subjects, no survival processing advantage was found, replicating the results from implicit tests reported by Tse and Altarriba (Memory & Cognition, 38, 1110-1121, 2010). Thus, although the survival effect appears to be quite robust in free recall and recognition tests, it has not been replicated in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The similar results found for the implicit and explicit tests in the present study do not support encoding elaboration explanations of the survival processing effect.

  7. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Ping-Ho; Wu, Pei-Fen; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chang, Po-Ya; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR)) for various prognostic factors. The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.03–1.11), males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13), older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC)/small cell carcinoma (SCC), and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3%) than females (23.6%). Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality) play important roles in determining lung cancer survival

  8. Approach to testing growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Vera

    2013-05-01

    Identification of adults with GH deficiency (GHD) is challenging because clinical features of adult GHD are not distinctive and because clinical suspicion must be confirmed by biochemical tests. Adults are selected for testing for adult GHD if they have a high pretest probability of GHD, ie, if they have hypothalamic-pituitary disease, if they have received cranial irradiation or central nervous system tumor treatment, or if they survived traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Testing should only be carried out if a decision has already been made that if deficiency is found it will be treated. There are many pharmacological GH stimulation tests for the diagnosis of GHD; however, none fulfill the requirements for an ideal test having high discriminatory power; being reproducible, safe, convenient, and economical; and not being dependent on confounding factors such as age, gender, nutritional status, and in particular obesity. In obesity, GH secretion is reduced, GH clearance is enhanced, and stimulated GH secretion is reduced, causing a false-positive result. This functional hyposomatotropism in obesity is fully reversed by weight loss. In conclusion, GH stimulation tests should be avoided in obese subjects with very low pretest probability.

  9. Survival of rats subjected to acute anemia at different levels of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arturson, G; Westman, M

    1975-12-01

    An experimental procedure was worked out in which rats were subjected to an exchange of erythrocytes, followed by acute anemia by means of hemodilution. One group of rats received erythrocytes with a high concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), and the other group was given erythrocytes with a low DPG concentration. The survival rate was equal in the two groups. Irrespective of DPG concentration, the rats whose hemoglobin concentration reached the lowest level died. The rats that died were also more acidotic than the others. The results indicate that the hemoglobin concentration and the pH value were more important determinants for survival than the DPG concentrations.

  10. Physicians' subjectivity in evaluating oxytocin challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, T M

    1980-07-01

    Five physicians subspecializing in maternal-fetal medicine individually evaluated 50 oxytocin challenge tests (OCTs), of which 33 were originally read as positive. There was considerable disagreement among the study physicians (SPs) such that 2 SPs would agree, on the average, only 52% of the time on any one OCT. The SPs were also asked to evaluate fetal heart rate (FHR) reactivity patterns, if present. Again, there was great disagreement. When the majority (3 of 5 or more) of SPs agreed on the OCT result and/or reactivity, there was reasonable correlation with neonatal outcome, indicating the validity of the physiologic premise of the test. In particular, the presence or absence of FHR accelerations with fetal motion, regardless of the OCT reading, correlated extremely well with eventual neonatal outcome. This indicates that the most significant variable in antepartum FHR monitoring is the FHR acceleration pattern.

  11. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  12. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 (Blattaria, Blattidae subject to various stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelio Peter Duarte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p103 Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P. americana couples were formed and subject to: I no water or food; II no food; III no water; and IV control group. Insects were isolated according to the groups, which were weighed at the beginning and end of the stress conditions. They remained under these conditions until all individuals in each test group were dead. Stress conditions caused reduction in survival time when compared to the control group. Adults with higher body mass survived longer when deprived only of food, while among those lacking water, weight had no influence on survival. Total weight loss was greater among individuals deprived of water than those deprived only of food.

  13. Survival in commercially insured multiple sclerosis patients and comparator subjects in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, D W; Reshef, S; Golub, H L; Peucker, M; Corwin, M J; Goodin, D S; Knappertz, V; Pleimes, D; Cutter, G

    2014-05-01

    Compare survival in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from a U.S. commercial health insurance database with a matched cohort of non-MS subjects. 30,402 MS patients and 89,818 non-MS subjects (comparators) in the OptumInsight Research (OIR) database from 1996 to 2009 were included. An MS diagnosis required at least 3 consecutive months of database reporting, with two or more ICD-9 codes of 340 at least 30 days apart, or the combination of 1 ICD-9-340 code and at least 1 MS disease-modifying treatment (DMT) code. Comparators required the absence of ICD-9-340 and DMT codes throughout database reporting. Up to three comparators were matched to each patient for: age in the year of the first relevant code (index year - at least 3 months of reporting in that year were required); sex; region of residence in the index year. Deaths were ascertained from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Subjects not identified as deceased were assumed to be alive through the end of 2009. Annual mortality rates were 899/100,000 among MS patients and 446/100,000 among comparators. Standardized mortality ratios compared to the U.S. population were 1.70 and 0.80, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis yielded a median survival from birth that was 6 years lower among MS patients than among comparators. The results show, for the first time in a U.S. population, a survival disadvantage for contemporary MS patients compared to non-MS subjects from the same healthcare system. The 6-year decrement in lifespan parallels a recent report from British Columbia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flexible Modeling of Survival Data with Covariates Subject to Detection Limits via Multiple Imputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul W; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhang, Daowen

    2014-01-01

    Models for survival data generally assume that covariates are fully observed. However, in medical studies it is not uncommon for biomarkers to be censored at known detection limits. A computationally-efficient multiple imputation procedure for modeling survival data with covariates subject to detection limits is proposed. This procedure is developed in the context of an accelerated failure time model with a flexible seminonparametric error distribution. The consistency and asymptotic normality of the multiple imputation estimator are established and a consistent variance estimator is provided. An iterative version of the proposed multiple imputation algorithm that approximates the EM algorithm for maximum likelihood is also suggested. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed multiple imputation methods work well while alternative methods lead to estimates that are either biased or more variable. The proposed methods are applied to analyze the dataset from a recently-conducted GenIMS study.

  15. Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables

  16. Subjective knowledge of AIDS and use of HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A

    1993-10-01

    Increasing knowledge is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, although increased knowledge may not be associated with increased preventive behaviors. This study examines the association of (1) objective and subjective acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and (2) both objective and subjective AIDS knowledge with HIV testing use. Data are from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey. Objective and subjective knowledge were only moderately correlated. In regression analyses, higher subjective knowledge was significantly associated with higher testing use, but objective knowledge was not. The results are relevant to other preventive behaviors for which knowledge is an important factor.

  17. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  18. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  19. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  20. Clinical evaluation of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems

  1. Computer-Adaptive Testing: Implications for Students' Achievement, Motivation, Engagement, and Subjective Test Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Lazendic, Goran

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the implications of computer-adaptive testing (operationalized by way of multistage adaptive testing; MAT) and "conventional" fixed order computer testing for various test-relevant outcomes in numeracy, including achievement, test-relevant motivation and engagement, and subjective test experience. It did so…

  2. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  3. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  4. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  5. Diversity of Survival Patterns among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Genotypes Subjected to Food-Related Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidy, Mohamed; Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance patterns to food-related stresses of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains belonging to specific genotypes. A total of 33 E. coli O157:H7 strains were exposed to seven different stress conditions acting as potential selective pressures affecting the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to humans through the food chain. These stress conditions included cold, oxidative, osmotic, acid, heat, freeze-thaw, and starvation stresses. The genotypes used for comparison included lineage-specific polymorphism, Shiga-toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites, clade type, tir (A255T) polymorphism, Shiga toxin 2 subtype, and antiterminator Q gene allele. Bacterial resistance to different stressors was calculated by determining D-values (times required for inactivation of 90% of the bacterial population), which were then subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. In addition, a relative stress resistance value, integrating resistance values to all tested stressors, was calculated for each bacterial strain and allowed for a ranking-type classification of E. coli O157:H7 strains according to their environmental robustness. Lineage I/II strains were found to be significantly more resistant to acid, cold, and starvation stress than lineage II strains. Similarly, tir (255T) and clade 8 encoding strains were significantly more resistant to acid, heat, cold, and starvation stress than tir (255A) and non-clade 8 strains. Principal component analysis, which allows grouping of strains with similar stress survival characteristics, separated strains of lineage I and I/II from strains of lineage II, which in general showed reduced survival abilities. Results obtained suggest that lineage I/II, tir (255T), and clade 8 strains, which have been previously reported to be more frequently associated with human disease cases, have greater multiple stress resistance than strains of other genotypes. The results from this

  6. Subjective Symptomology and Postural Control During Simulation of a Survival Environmemt Aboard a Disabled Submarine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cymerman, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and postural control were assessed in 7 submariners during 5 days exposure to a simulated disabled submarine environment (DISSUB) (4C, 2.5% carbon dioxide, 16.75% oxygen, 85% humidity...

  7. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  8. Can the deterrence survive to nuclear tests ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, F.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the soundness of the nuclear tests stopping is discussed here. The safety, the durability of nuclear weapons need nuclear tests. So, unless other means able to guarantee the deterrence, it is prejudicial to stop nuclear tests and to sign a non proliferation treaty with the option of zero nuclear explosion. (N.C.)

  9. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female...

  10. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  11. Heart Rate Recovery After 6-Min Walk Test Predicts Survival in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Swick, Jeff; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Sprunger, David; du Bois, Roland; Fischer, Aryeh; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Kervitsky, Dolly; Brown, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), our objectives were to identify predictors of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 min after completion of a 6-min walk test (6MWT) [HRR1] and 2 min after completion of a 6MWT (HRR2), and to determine whether abnormal HRR predicts mortality. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we identified IPF patients who had been evaluated at our center (n = 76) with a pulmonary physiologic examination and the 6MWT. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of abnormal HRR, the product-limit method to compare survival in the sample stratified on HRR, and Cox proportional hazards analysis to estimate the prognostic capability of abnormal HRR. Results: Cutoff values were 13 beats for abnormal HRR1 and 22 beats for HRR2. In a multivariable model, predictors of abnormal HRR1 were diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (odds ratio [OR], 0.4 per 10% predicted; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 0.7; p = 0.003), change in heart rate from baseline to maximum (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8 to 0.97; p = 0.01), and having a right ventricular systolic pressure > 35 mm Hg as determined by transthoracic echocardiogram (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 79.7; p = 0.01). Subjects with an abnormal HRR had significantly worse survival than subjects with a normal HRR (for HRR1, p = 0.0007 [log-rank test]; for HRR2, p = 0.03 [log-rank test]); these results held for the subgroup of 30 subjects without resting pulmonary hypertension (HRR1, p = 0.04 [log-rank test]). Among several candidate variables, abnormal HRR1 appeared to be the most potent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.2; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Abnormal HRR after 6MWT predicts mortality in IPF patients. Research is needed to confirm these findings prospectively and to examine the mechanisms of HRR in IPF patients. PMID:19395579

  12. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data for Evaluating Orthostatic Tilt Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Koslovsky, Matthew D.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2018-01-01

    Head-up tilt (HUT) tests often are used in research to measure orthostatic intolerance (OI) (inability to appropriately control blood pressure while upright) in clinical populations and otherwise healthy individuals after interventions. Post-space flight orthostatic intolerance is a well-known phenomenon, and countermeasures to its development has been an active area of research at NASA. In the NASA HUT protocol, subjects lie horizontally on an automatic tilt table for baseline measurements before being raised to 80deg head-up tilt for a defined period of time or until signs or symptoms of presyncope ensues (light-headedness, nausea, dizziness, sweating, weakness or fainting). Multiple measures are collected to evaluate the cardiovascular system's ability to respond appropriately to the orthostatic challenge. However if the intended duration of the HUT is short, the ability to detect changes in OI due to an intervention or its prevention by a countermeasure may be limited by a small number of failures to permit comparisons based on survival time alone. Thus, the time-trajectory of the cardiovascular data becomes an important additional source of information. In particular, we will show how various measures of trajectory variability can effectively augment survival analysis for the assessment of OI in a joint model when high censoring rates are present.

  13. Prognostic factors in patients with advanced cancer: use of the patient-generated subjective global assessment in survival prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa; Watanabe, Sharon; Fainsinger, Robin; Lau, Francis; Ghosh, Sunita; Quan, Hue; Atkins, Marlis; Fassbender, Konrad; Downing, G Michael; Baracos, Vickie

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether elements of a standard nutritional screening assessment are independently prognostic of survival in patients with advanced cancer. A prospective nested cohort of patients with metastatic cancer were accrued from different units of a Regional Palliative Care Program. Patients completed a nutritional screen on admission. Data included age, sex, cancer site, height, weight history, dietary intake, 13 nutrition impact symptoms, and patient- and physician-reported performance status (PS). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were conducted. Concordance statistics (c-statistics) were used to test the predictive accuracy of models based on training and validation sets; a c-statistic of 0.5 indicates the model predicts the outcome as well as chance; perfect prediction has a c-statistic of 1.0. A training set of patients in palliative home care (n = 1,164) was used to identify prognostic variables. Primary disease site, PS, short-term weight change (either gain or loss), dietary intake, and dysphagia predicted survival in multivariate analysis (P statistics between predicted and observed responses for survival in the training set (0.90) and validation set (0.88; n = 603). The addition of weight change, dietary intake, and dysphagia did not further improve the c-statistic of the model. The c-statistic was also not altered by substituting physician-rated palliative PS for patient-reported PS. We demonstrate a high probability of concordance between predicted and observed survival for patients in distinct palliative care settings (home care, tertiary inpatient, ambulatory outpatient) based on patient-reported information.

  14. Message survival and decision dynamics in a class of reactive complex systems subject to external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lucatero, C.; Schaum, A.; Alarcon Ramos, L.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the dynamics of decisions in complex networks subject to external fields are studied within a Markov process framework using nonlinear dynamical systems theory. A mathematical discrete-time model is derived using a set of basic assumptions regarding the convincement mechanisms associated with two competing opinions. The model is analyzed with respect to the multiplicity of critical points and the stability of extinction states. Sufficient conditions for extinction are derived in terms of the convincement probabilities and the maximum eigenvalues of the associated connectivity matrices. The influences of exogenous (e.g., mass media-based) effects on decision behavior are analyzed qualitatively. The current analysis predicts: (i) the presence of fixed-point multiplicity (with a maximum number of four different fixed points), multi-stability, and sensitivity with respect to the process parameters; and (ii) the bounded but significant impact of exogenous perturbations on the decision behavior. These predictions were verified using a set of numerical simulations based on a scale-free network topology.

  15. Objective and Subjective Knowledge and HIV Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the knowledge domain specifically related to HIV testing among college students. Students (age 18-24) were recruited from a major university in the southeastern United States to participate in a Web-based survey during spring 2003 (N=440). About 21% of the students reported previous voluntary HIV tests.…

  16. Aircraft Survivability: Live Fire Test and Evaluation, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    environment. In an earlier LFT series, the LM vulnerability team conducted a wind tunnel test to evaluate F35 aerodynamic performance with partially...altitude of about 2,000 ft @ M0.92) ➤➤ 20Kft, M0.8, 4-G wind -up turn Each of the 31 common cases was judged on the basis of the following criteria...and Exhibit 22–24 March 2010 Washington, DC JASP Spring PMSG P&W 23–25 March 2010 West Palm Beach, FL Personnel Recovery Conference 29 March–1 April

  17. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  18. Test-retest reliability and task order effects of emotional cognitive tests in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas; Pounder, Zoe; Preston, Sally; Hanson, Andy; Gallagher, Peter; Harmer, Catherine J; McAllister-Williams, R Hamish

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the retest reliability of emotional cognitive tasks or the impact of using different tasks employing similar emotional stimuli within a battery. We investigated this in healthy subjects. We found improved overall performance in an emotional attentional blink task (EABT) with repeat testing at one hour and one week compared to baseline, but the impact of an emotional stimulus on performance was unchanged. Similarly, performance on a facial expression recognition task (FERT) was better one week after a baseline test, though the relative effect of specific emotions was unaltered. There was no effect of repeat testing on an emotional word categorising, recall and recognition task. We found no difference in performance in the FERT and EABT irrespective of task order. We concluded that it is possible to use emotional cognitive tasks in longitudinal studies and combine tasks using emotional facial stimuli in a single battery.

  19. Diagnostic value of postprandial triglyceride testing in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihas, Constantinos; Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Triglycerides (TGs) are measured in studies evaluating changes in non-fasting lipid profiles after a fat tolerance test (FTT); however, the optimal timing for TG measurements after the oral fat load is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate how non-fasting TG levels vary after an oral FTT...

  20. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  1. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  2. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  3. Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  4. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the 51 Chromium method ( 51 Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the 51 Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while 51 Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the 51 Cr method. Although 51 Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival

  5. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  6. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  7. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  8. Prolonged minor allograft survival in intravenously primed mice--a test of the veto hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that veto cells are responsible for the prolonged survival of minor allografts of skin that is observed in recipients primed intravenously with spleen cells from mice syngeneic with the skin donors. This prolonged survival was observed for each of several minor histocompatibility (H) antigens and is antigen-specific. Gamma radiation (3300 rads) abolished the ability of male spleen cells infused i.v. to delay the rejection of male skin grafts (H-Y antigen) on female recipients. However, depletion of Thy-1+ cells from the i.v. infusion failed to abolish the ability to prolong male skin graft survival. Furthermore, the prolonged survival accorded to B6 (H-2b) male skin grafts on CB6F1 (H-2b/H-2d) female recipients given i.v. infusions of B6 male spleen cells extended to BALB/c (H-2d) male skin grafts as well, indicating a lack of MHC restriction. Thus, prolongation of minor allograft survival by i.v. infusion of minor H antigen-bearing spleen cells appears not to depend on veto T cells that others have found to be responsible for the suppression of CTL generation

  9. Reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in subjects with myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Tollbäck, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The objective was to describe test-retest reliability and feasibility of the six minute walk test in adult subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Twelve subjects (28-68 years, mean 44) performed three six minute walk tests on two occasions, one week apart. Relative reliability was high (ICC(2.1)=0.99) and absolute reliability values were low (standard error of measurement 12 m, repeatability 33 m). Feasibility was investigated in a sample of 64 subjects (19-70 years, mean 43). Fifty-two subjects were able to perform two tests on the same day. Subjects with severe proximal weakness had difficulties performing repeated tests. A practice trial followed by a second test on the same day can be recommended for most subjects, and the best test should be used for evaluations. In conclusion, even though the study sample was small, the present study indicates that the six minute walk test is reliable and feasible in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

  10. Asset stripping and firm survival in mass privatization: testing the Hoff-Stiglitz and Campos-Giovannoni models in Montenegro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koman, M.; Lakićević, M.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2015), s. 274-289 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : asset stripping * mass privatization * firm survival Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  11. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  12. Effects of Subject Self-Esteem, Test Performance Feedback, and Counselor Attractiveness on Influence in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, John M.

    1974-01-01

    Counselor attractiveness, subject self-esteem, and subject receipt of test performance feedback were manipulated in a counseling analogue experiment. The results demonstrated no relationship between the independent variables and counselor influence, although the experimental induction of attractiveness was successful. Implications for a theory of…

  13. Correlation between subjective and objective hearing tests after unilateral and bilateral cochlear implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Geerte G.J.; Smulders, Yvette E.; Van Zon, Alice; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko; Stegeman, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are many methods for assessing hearing performance after cochlear implantation. Standard evaluations often encompass objective hearing tests only, while patients' subjective experiences gain importance in today's healthcare. The aim of the current study was to analyze the

  14. appraisal of the efficacy of tactile subjective test for anaesthesia of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    efficacy. In conducting subjective test after inferior dental and lingual nerves block anaesthesia, the patient was often asked .... procedures. It should ... computerised injection system for local pain control. ... antecedents of dental anxiety. JADA ...

  15. Transoral endoscopic esophageal myotomy based on esophageal function testing in a survival porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, Silvana; Dallemagne, Bernard; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Diemunsch, Pierre; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The most effective treatment of achalasia is Heller myotomy. To explore a submucosal endoscopic myotomy technique tailored on esophageal physiology testing and to compare it with the open technique. Prospective acute and survival comparative study in pigs (n = 12; 35 kg). University animal research center. Eight acute-4 open and 4 endoscopic-myotomies followed by 4 survival endoscopic procedures. Preoperative and postoperative manometry; esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility before and after selective division of muscular fibers at the EGJ and after the myotomy was prolonged to a standard length by using the EndoFLIP Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (Crospon, Galway, Ireland). All procedures were successful, with no intraoperative and postoperative complications. In the survival group, the animals recovered promptly from surgery. Postoperative manometry demonstrated a 50% drop in mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESp) in the endoscopic group (mean preoperative LESp, 22.2 ± 3.3 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 11.34 ± 2.7 mm Hg; P open procedure group (mean preoperative LESp, 24.2 ± 3.2 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 7.4 ± 4 mm Hg; P myotomy is feasible and safe. The lack of a significant difference in EGJ distensibility between the open and endoscopic procedure is very appealing. Were it to be perfected in a human population, this endoscopic approach could suggest a new strategy in the treatment of selected achalasia patients. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  17. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data from Orthostatic Tilt Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. M.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic Intolerance (OI) is the propensity to develop symptoms of fainting during upright standing. OI is associated with changes in heart rate, blood pressure and other measures of cardiac function. Problem: NASA astronauts have shown increased susceptibility to OI on return from space missions. Current methods for counteracting OI in astronauts include fluid loading and the use of compression garments. Multivariate trajectory spread is greater as OI increases. Pairwise comparisons at the same time within subjects allows incorporation of pass/fail outcomes. Path length, convex hull area, and covariance matrix determinant do well as statistics to summarize this spread Missing data problems Time series analysis need many more time points per OTT session treatment of trend? how incorporate survival information?

  19. Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) White-Painted Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Radome Survivability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Kwack, Eug; Stegman, Matthew; Dawson, Douglas; Hoffman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    NASA's SMAP Mission launched in January 2015 into a 685 km near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and radiometer which share a common feedhorn and mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within three days. The radiometer and its associated electronics have tight thermal stability requirements in order to meet the required surface emittance measurement precision from space. Maintaining the thermal stabilities is quite challenging because the radiometer is located on a spinning platform that can either be in full sunlight or eclipse, and thus exposed to a highly transient environment. Stability requirements were met by integrating a light-weight Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) radome into the design to prevent solar illumination of the feed horn interior. The radome was painted white since the thermo-optical properties of bare sunlit EPS degrade rapidly over the three-year mission. Milling of the EPS and solvent within the white paint created cavities on the EPS surface which may introduce localized hot spots possibly violating the EPS glass transition temperature of 96degC and leading to structural integrity concerns. A three-day thermal test was conducted in a vacuum chamber to verify survivability of the radome during a simulated non-spin fault condition at end of mission. A portable solar simulator illuminated the test article and the beam irradiance was kept nearly constant during the entire 50 hour test, except during the first hour which simulated the expected 79degC on-orbit surface temperature of the radome. The test article survived based on the established pass criteria for three separate metrics: dimensional, optical property, and color. If any hot spots exist locally, they did not cause any observable permanent deformation when compared to pre- and

  20. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  1. HIV testing in the maternity ward and the start of breastfeeding: a survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia T. Possolli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence of the time between birth and the beginning of breastfeeding, especially at the moment of the rapid HIV test results at hospital admission for delivery.METHODS: Cohort study of 932 pregnant women who underwent rapid HIV test admitted in the hospital for delivery in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. The survival curves of time from birth to the first feeding were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the joint effect of independent variables by the Cox model with a hierarchical analysis. As the survival curves were not homogeneous among the five hospitals, hindering the principle of proportionality of risks, the data were divided into two groups according to the median time of onset of breastfeeding at birth in women undergoing rapid HIV testing.RESULTS: Hospitals with median time to breastfeeding onset at birth of up to 60 min were considered as early breastfeeding onset and those with higher medians were considered as late breastfeeding onset at birth. Risk factors common to hospitals considered to be with early and late breastfeeding onset at birth were: cesarean section (RR = 1.75 [95% CI: 1.38-2.22]; RR = 3.83 [95% CI: 3.03-4.85] and rapid test result after birth (RR = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.12-1.89]; RR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.35-2.02], respectively; and hospitals with late onset: starting prenatal care in the third trimester (RR = 1.86 [95% CI: 1.16-2.97].CONCLUSIONS: The onset of breastfeeding is postponed, even in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, when the results of the rapid HIV test requested in the maternity are not available at the time of delivery.

  2. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  3. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a simple computerized torsion test to quantify subjective ocular torsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y D; Yang, H K; Hwang, J-M

    2017-11-01

    PurposeThe double Maddox-rod test (DMRT) and Lancaster red-green test (LRGT) are the most widely used tests worldwide to assess subjective ocular torsion. However, these tests require equipment and the quantified results of ocular torsion are only provided in rough values. Here we developed a novel computerized torsion test (CTT) for individual assessment of subjective ocular torsion and validated the reliability and accuracy of the test compared with those of the DMRT and LRGT.MethodsA total of 30 patients with cyclovertical strabismus and 30 controls were recruited. The CTT was designed using Microsoft Office PowerPoint. Subjects wore red-green filter spectacles and viewed gradually tilted red and cyan lines on an LCD monitor and pressed the keyboard to go through the slides, until both lines seemed parallel. All subjects underwent the CTT, DMRT, and LRGT. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were analyzed to assess the acceptability of the CTT compared with that of the DMRT.ResultsBoth the DMRT and CTT showed no significant test-retest differences in the strabismus and control groups. The DMRT and CTT results demonstrated an acceptable agreement. The reliability of the CTT was better than that of the DMRT. The LRGT showed low sensitivity for the detection of ocular torsion compared with the DMRT (40.0%) and CTT (39.1%).ConclusionOur results suggest that the assessment of subjective ocular torsion using the CTT based on PowerPoint software is simple, reproducible, and accurate and can be applied in clinical practice.

  5. Testing to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) nuclear containment vessels subject to loads well beyond their design basis - the so-called severe accident. Scale model tests of containments with the major penetrations represented have been carried to functional failure by internal pressurization. Also, combined pressure and elevated temperature tests of typical compression seals and gaskets, a full size personnel airlock, and of typical electrical penetration assemblies (EPAs), have been conducted in order to better understand the leakage behavior of containment penetrations. Because inflatable seals are also a part of the pressure boundary of some containments, it is important to understand their leakage behavior as well. This paper discusses the results of tests that were performed to better define the leakage behavior of inflatable seals when subjected to loads well beyond their design basis

  6. Reliability of the Handgrip Strength Test in Elderly Subjects With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge H; Valdes, Kristin; Buraschi, Riccardo; Martinelli, Marco; Bissolotti, Luciano; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The handgrip strength test is widely used by clinicians; however, little has been investigated about its reliability when used in subjects with Parkinson disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of the handgrip strength test for subjects with PD. The PD group consisted of 15 patients, and the control group consisted of 15 healthy subjects. Each patient performed 3 pain-free maximal isometric contractions on each hand on 2 occasions, 1 week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated. The 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine the differences between sides and groups. Test-retest reliability of measurements of grip strength was excellent for dominant (ICC = 0.97; P = .001) and non-dominant (ICC = 0.98; P = .001) hand of participant with PD and (ICC = 0.99; P = .001) and (ICC = 0.99; P = .001) respectively, of healthy group. The Jamar hand dynamometer had fair to excellent test-retest reliability to test grip strength in participants with PD.

  7. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  8. Output Only Modal Testing of a Car Body Subject to Engine Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a car body subject to engine excitation is presented. The response data were analyzed using two different techniques: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working...

  9. Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, Jonna; Johansson, Amanda; Kalezic, Nebojsa; Lyskov, Eugene; Sandström, Monica

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  11. An Experimental Evolution Test of the Relationship between Melanism and Desiccation Survival in Insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Rajpurohit

    Full Text Available We used experimental evolution to test the 'melanism-desiccation' hypothesis, which proposes that dark cuticle in several Drosophila species is an adaptation for increased desiccation tolerance. We selected for dark and light body pigmentation in replicated populations of D. melanogaster and assayed several traits related to water balance. We also scored pigmentation and desiccation tolerance in populations selected for desiccation survival. Populations in both selection regimes showed large differences in the traits directly under selection. However, after over 40 generations of pigmentation selection, dark-selected populations were not more desiccation-tolerant than light-selected and control populations, nor did we find significant changes in mass or carbohydrate amounts that could affect desiccation resistance. Body pigmentation of desiccation-selected populations did not differ from control populations after over 140 generations of selection, although selected populations lost water less rapidly. Our results do not support an important role for melanization in Drosophila water balance.

  12. Comparative thermal cyclic test of different beryllium grades previously subjected to simulated disruption loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervash, A.; Giniyatulin, R.; Mazul, I.

    1999-01-01

    Considering beryllium as plasma facing armour this paper presents recent results obtained in Russia. A special process of joining beryllium to a Cu-alloy material structure is described and recent results of thermal cycling tests of such joints are presented. Summarizing the results, the authors show that a Cu-alloy heat sink structure armoured with beryllium can survive high heat fluxes (≥10 MW/m 2 ) during 1000 heating/cooling cycles without serious damage to the armour material and its joint. The principal feasibility of thermal cycling of beryllium grades and their joints directly in the core of a nuclear reactor is demonstrated and the main results of this test are presented. The paper also describes the thermal cycling of different beryllium grades having cracks initiated by previously applied high heat loads simulating plasma disruptions. (orig.)

  13. Asset stripping and firm survival in mass privatization: testing the Hoff-Stiglitz and Campos-Giovannoni models in Montenegro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koman, M.; Lakićević, M.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2015), s. 274-289 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : asset stripping * mass privatization * firm survival Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  14. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  15. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  16. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5x1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2x103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125μm in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center

  17. Finite element analysis of an underground protective test station subjected to severe ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, S.N.; Milloy, J.A.; Von Riesemann, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    A recoverable test station, to be used at a location very close to the detonation point of an underground nuclear test, was designed and tested. The design required that the station survive the very severe free-field stress and that the acceleration of the station be limited to a tolerable level. The predicted magnitude and time history of the free-field stress and acceleration indicated that the volcanic tuff medium and the materials of the proposed structure would exhibit nonlinear behavior, so that a transient dynamic analysis of a composite type structure involving nonlinear materials and large deformations was necessary. Parameter studies using a linear elastic dynamic finite element technique were first done to gain an understanding of the effect of the material properties and to study the response of various configurations of the protective structure to the transient loading. Based upon the results of these parameter studies and upon fielding considerations, a tentative design was chosen. This design was then evaluated using a newly developed finite element computer program. The results obtained from this analysis are compared to the field test results. (U.S.)

  18. Strength Prediction and Failure Modes of Concrete Specimens Subjected to the Split Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Linh Cao; Andersen, M.E.; Hansen, N.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with modelling and test of concrete specimens subjected to the Brazilian split test. Based on the fictitious crack concept, a simple model for the crack propagation process in the splitting plane is developed. From the model, it is possible to determine the distribution of residual...... tensile strength as crack propagation take place. The residual tensile strength is thereafter used in a rigid plastic analysis of the splitting failure. Based on this combined approach, the ultimate load may either be governed by crack propagation or by a plastic failure, which then terminates the crack...

  19. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  20. [Tachistoscope and dichotic listening test of the subject after the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Tasaki, H; Hojo, K; Yoshimura, I; Sato, T; Nakaoka, T; Iwabuchi, T

    1982-06-01

    The authors made neuropsychological studies by the tachistoscope and the dichotic listening test on a subject who had undergone the transection of the posterior part of the corpus callosum. As to the tachistoscopic recognition, stimulus material was composed with the various Japanese letters (Katakana, Hiragana, Kanji), various faces (variations of the eyebrow form and the mouth form) and various slopes of line. Table 1 shows results of the cases (the subject was the present case, subjects 1 and subject 2 were past cases). It was seen that the performance of the subject on Japanese letters tasks showed greater right visual field superiority than the one of subject 1 and subject 2. As to the auditory recognition, the tasks used for the dichotic listening test were the following (Table 2, 3, 4). Different digits (three pairs) of the subject showed greater right ear superiority (right ear: 61.1, left ear 5.9) than the ones of subject 1 and subject 2.

  1. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Differentiation of schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects by mismatch negativity and neuropsychological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder with diverse presentations. The current and the proposed DSM-V diagnostic system remains phenomenologically based, despite the fact that several neurobiological and neuropsychological markers have been identified. A multivariate approach has better diagnostic utility than a single marker method. In this study, the mismatch negativity (MMN deficit of schizophrenia was first replicated in a Han Chinese population, and then the MMN was combined with several neuropsychological measurements to differentiate schizophrenia patients from healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 120 schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy controls were recruited. Each subject received examinations for duration MMN, Continuous Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Third Edition (WAIS-III. The MMN was compared between cases and controls, and important covariates were investigated. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced MMN amplitudes, and MMN decreased with increasing age in both patient and control groups. None of the neuropsychological indices correlated with MMN. Predictive multivariate logistic regression models using the MMN and neuropsychological measurements as predictors were developed. Four predictors, including MMN at electrode FCz and three scores from the WAIS-III (Arithmetic, Block Design, and Performance IQ were retained in the final predictive model. The model performed well in differentiating patients from healthy subjects (percentage of concordant pairs: 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MMN deficits were found in Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The multivariate approach combining biomarkers from different modalities such as electrophysiology and neuropsychology had a better diagnostic utility.

  3. Demographic and psychological variables affecting test subject evaluations of ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N. C.; Conley, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    Ride-quality experiments similar in objectives, design, and procedure were conducted, one using the U.S. Air Force Total In-Flight Simulator and the other using the Langley Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus to provide the motion environments. Large samples (80 or more per experiment) of test subjects were recruited from the Tidewater Virginia area and asked to rate the comfort (on a 7-point scale) of random aircraft motion typical of that encountered during STOL flights. Test subject characteristics of age, sex, and previous flying history (number of previous airplane flights) were studied in a two by three by three factorial design. Correlations were computed between one dependent measure, the subject's mean comfort rating, and various demographic characteristics, attitudinal variables, and the scores on Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. An effect of sex was found in one of the studies. Males made higher (more uncomfortable) ratings of the ride than females. Age and number of previous flights were not significantly related to comfort ratings. No significant interactions between the variables of age, sex, or previous number of flights were observed.

  4. Tests and calculations of reinforced concrete beams subject to dynamic reversed loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livolant, M.; Hoffmann, A.; Gauvain, J.

    1978-01-01

    This study presents the tests of a reinforced concrete beam conducted by the Department of Mechanical and Thermal Studies at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, France. The actual behavior of nuclear power plant buildings submitted to seismic loads is generally non linear even for moderate seismic levels. The non linearity is specially important for reinforced concrete beams type buildings. To estimate the safety factors when the building is designed by standard methods, accurate non linear calculations are necessary. For such calculations one of the most difficult point is to define a correct model for the behavior of a reinforced beam subject to reversed loads. For that purpose, static and dynamic experimental tests on a shaking table have been carried out and a model reasonably accurate has been established and checked on the tests results

  5. A versatile test for equality of two survival functions based on weighted differences of Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Tian, Lu; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2015-12-10

    With censored event time observations, the logrank test is the most popular tool for testing the equality of two underlying survival distributions. Although this test is asymptotically distribution free, it may not be powerful when the proportional hazards assumption is violated. Various other novel testing procedures have been proposed, which generally are derived by assuming a class of specific alternative hypotheses with respect to the hazard functions. The test considered by Pepe and Fleming (1989) is based on a linear combination of weighted differences of the two Kaplan-Meier curves over time and is a natural tool to assess the difference of two survival functions directly. In this article, we take a similar approach but choose weights that are proportional to the observed standardized difference of the estimated survival curves at each time point. The new proposal automatically makes weighting adjustments empirically. The new test statistic is aimed at a one-sided general alternative hypothesis and is distributed with a short right tail under the null hypothesis but with a heavy tail under the alternative. The results from extensive numerical studies demonstrate that the new procedure performs well under various general alternatives with a caution of a minor inflation of the type I error rate when the sample size is small or the number of observed events is small. The survival data from a recent cancer comparative study are utilized for illustrating the implementation of the process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Population genetic study of Russian cosmonauts and test subjects: genetic demographic parameters and immunogenetic markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatova, O L; Pobedonostseva, E Iu; Prokhorovskaia, V D; Kholod, O N; Evsiukov, A N; Bogomolov, V V; Voronkov, Iu I; Filatova, L M; Larina, O N; Sidorenko, L A; Morgun, V V; Kasparanskiĭ, R R; Altukhov, Iu P

    2006-10-01

    Genetic demographic characteristics and immunogenetic markers (blood groups ABO, Rhesus, MNSs, P, Duffy, Kidd, and Kell) have been studied in a group of 132 Russian cosmonauts and test subjects (CTSG). Analysis of pedigrees has shown a high exogamy in the preceding generations: almost half of the subjects have mixed ethnic background. According to the results of genetic demographic analysis, a sample from the Moscow population was used as control group (CG). Comparison between the CTSG and CG has demonstrated significant differences in genotype frequencies for several blood group systems. The CTSG is characterized by a decreased proportion of rare interlocus genotypic combinations and an increased man heterozygosity. Analysis of the distributions of individual heterozygosity for loci with codominant expression of alleles has shown that highly heterozygous loci are more frequent in the CTSG. Taking into account that the CTSG has been thoroughly selected from the general population, it is concluded that heterozygosity is related to successful adaptation to a space flight.

  7. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of valerian on subjective sedation, field sobriety testing and driving simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelan; Canedo, Joanne; Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Lopes, Ingrid; Chuang, Hannah Mae; Bohnert, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    The availability of herbal medicines over-the-counter (OTC) has increased the use of natural products for self-treatment. Valerian has been used to effectively treat generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia. Studies suggest that valerenic acid may increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation in the brain. Benzodiazepines have a similar mechanism of action and have been linked to an increased risk of hospitalizations due to traffic accidents. Despite the risk of somnolence, the safety of driving while under the influence of valerian remains unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a one-time valerian 1600mg dose on subjective sedation effects, standardized field sobriety testing (SFST) and driving simulator performance parameters. The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. For each session, participants received either a dose of valerian or placebo. The outcome measures included a simple visual reaction test (SVRT), subjective sleepiness scales, SFST performance scores, and driving simulator performance parameters. There were no significant differences in the SVRT or sleepiness scales between placebo and valerian exposures, but the study may have been underpowered. SFST total and individual test failure rates were not significantly different between the two exposures. The driving simulator performance parameters were equivalent between the two exposure conditions. A one-time valerian 1600mg dose, often used to treat insomnia, does not appear to impair driving simulator performance after acute ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding of BRCA1/2 genetic tests results: the importance of objective and subjective numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rolison, Jonathan J; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    The majority of women (71%) who undergo BRCA1/2 testing-designed to identify genetic mutations associated with increased risk of cancer-receive results that are termed 'ambiguous' or 'uninformative negative'. How women interpret these results and the association with numerical ability was examined. In this study, 477 women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer were recruited via the Cancer Genetics Network. They were presented with information about the four different possible BRCA1/2 test results-positive, true negative, ambiguous and uninformative negative-and asked to indicate which of six options represents the best response. Participants were then asked which treatment options they thought a woman receiving the results should discuss with her doctor. Finally, participants completed measures of objective and subjective numeracy. Almost all of the participants correctly interpreted the positive and negative BRCA1/2 genetic test results. However, they encountered difficulties interpreting the uninformative and ambiguous BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Participants were almost equally likely to think either that the woman had learned nothing from the test result or that she was as likely to develop cancer as the average woman. Highly numerate participants were more likely to correctly interpret inconclusive test results (ambiguous, OR = 1.62; 95% CI [1.28, 2.07]; p psychological ramifications of genetic testing, healthcare professionals should consider devoting extra effort to ensuring proper comprehension of ambiguous and uninformative negative test results by women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  11. The Correlation between Subjective and Objective Visual Function Test in Optic Neuropathy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungsoo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the correlation between visual acuity and quantitative measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and visual field test (VF in optic neuropathy patients. Methods: We evaluated 28 patients with optic neuropathy. Patients who had pale disc, visual acuity of less than 0.5 and abnormal visual field defect were included. At the first visit, we performed visual acuity and VF as subjective methods and OCT and VEP as objective methods. In the spectral domain OCT, rim volume, average and temporal quadrant retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness were measured. And pattern VEP (N75, P100, N135 latency, and P100 amplitude and Humphrey 24-2 visual field test (mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were obtained. Using Spearman's correlation coefficient, the correlation between visual acuity and various techniques were assessed. Results: Visual acuity was most correlated with the mean deviation of Humphrey perimetry.

  12. Comparison of performance coatings thermally sprayed subject to testing adhesive wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, G.F.; Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R. da

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the microstructural changes and wear resistance adhesive coatings obtained from powders thermally sprayed by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) were evaluated. Based coatings chrome-nickel and tungsten-cobalt are applied in conditions subject to intense wear especially abrasive. With the aim of evaluate the performance of these coatings under conditions of adhesive wear, these coatings samples were tested by the standard ASTM G99. As test parameters were used: Tungsten carbide pin (SAE 52100) with 6 mm diameter, normal load of 50N and a tangential velocity of 0.5 m / s. The worn surfaces of the coatings were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results indicate that the performance front wear is related to the conditions of adhesion and uniformity of the coating applied. (author)

  13. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  14. Effect of laryngeal anesthesia on pulmonary function testing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, S T; Woodson, G E; Sant'Ambrogio, G

    1988-03-01

    Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed on 11 normal subjects before and after topical anesthesia of the larynx. The PFT consisted of flow volume loops and body box determinations of functional residual capacity and airway resistance, each performed in triplicate. After the first set of tests, cotton pledgets soaked in 4% lidocaine were held in the pyriform sinuses for 2 min to block the superior laryngeal nerves. In addition, 1.5 ml of 10% cocaine was dropped on the vocal cords via indirect laryngoscopy. PFT were repeated 5 min after anesthesia. Besides routine analysis of the flow volume loops, areas under the inspiratory (Area I) and expiratory (Area E) portions of the loops were calculated by planimetry. Area I, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), as well as forced inspiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% forced vital capacity (FVC), decreased after anesthesia. Peak expiratory flow decreased after anesthesia, but Area E and forced expiratory flow at 25, 50, and 75% FVC were unchanged. This protocol also was performed in 12 normal subjects with isotonic saline being substituted for the lidocaine and cocaine. In this group, no significant differences were observed when flow volume loop parameters were compared before and after topical application of saline. In 5 spontaneously breathing anesthetized dogs, posterior cricoarytenoid muscle and afferent superior laryngeal nerve activity were recorded before and after laryngeal anesthesia performed with the same procedure used in the human subjects. Laryngeal anesthesia resulted in a substantial decrease or a complete disappearance of afferent SLN activity recorded during unobstructed and obstructed respiration. The data suggest that laryngeal receptors help modulate upper airway patency in man.

  15. Cyclic fatigue resistance of ProTaper Universal instruments when subjected to static and dynamic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Britto, Izabelle M O; Elias, Carlos N; Machado de Oliveira, Julio C; Neves, Mônica A S; Moreira, Edson J L; Siqueira, José F

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the number of cycles to fracture of ProTaper Universal S2 instruments when subjected to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests. ProTaper Universal S2 instruments were used until fracture in an artificial curved canal under rotational speed of 300 rpm in either a static or a dynamic test model. Afterward, the length of the fractured segments was measured and fractured surfaces and helical shafts analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of cycles to fracture was significantly increased when instruments were tested in the dynamic model (Pductile mode. Plastic deformation was not observed in the helical shaft of fractured instruments. The number of cycles to fracture ProTaper Universal S2 instruments significantly increased with the use of instruments in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test compared with a static model. These findings reinforce the need for performing continuous pecking motions during rotary instrumentation of curved root canals. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The COPD assessment test and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire: are they equivalent in subjects with COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishita-Katsu M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Morishita-Katsu,1,2 Koichi Nishimura,3 Hiroyuki Taniguchi,1 Tomoki Kimura,1 Yasuhiro Kondoh,1 Kensuke Kataoka,1 Tomoya Ogawa,4 Fumiko Watanabe,4 Shinichi Arizono,5 Osamu Nishiyama,6 Kazuhito Nakayasu,7 Kazuyoshi Imaizumi,8 Yoshinori Hasegawa2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan; 2Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Japan; 5School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Seirei Christopher University, Hamamatsu, Japan; 6Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Japan; 7Data Research Section, Kondo P.P. Inc., Osaka, Japan; 8Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan Background: The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD assessment test (CAT is a short questionnaire that has facilitated health status measurements in subjects with COPD. However, it remains controversial as to whether the CAT can be used as a suitable substitute for the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. This study investigated the reliability and score distributions of the CAT and SGRQ and evaluated which factors contributed to health status for each questionnaire.Methods: A total of 109 consecutive subjects with stable COPD from a single center were enrolled in this study. Each subject completed pulmonary function tests, exercise tests, and the following self-administered questionnaires: the Baseline Dyspnea Index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the CAT, and SGRQ.Results: Internal consistencies of CAT and SGRQ total scores were both excellent (Cronbach’s α coefficients =0.890 and 0.933. Statistically significant correlations were observed between CAT and SGRQ total scores (R=0

  17. Intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamvand S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairment of cervicocephalic and head joint position sense has an important role in the recurrent and chronic of cervicocephalic pain. The various tools are suggested for evaluating the cervicocephalic joint position sense. Although reconstruction of cervical angle is a clinical criterion for measuring the cervicocephalic proprioception, the reliability of this method has not been completely accepted. The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-rater reliability of cervical sensory motor function and cervical reconstruction test in healthy subjects. twenty four healthy subjects (25.70±6.08 y through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeatedmeasures reliability study. Participants were asked to relocate the neck, as accurately as possible, after full active cervical flexion, extension and rotation to the left and right sides. Five trials were performed for each movement. Laser pointer was used in head of patient. The distance between zero spot and joint position which patient had been reconstructed, was measured by centimeter. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs and Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values with 95% confidence interval (CI and the standard error of the measurement (SEM were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. Intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs values were obtained for flexion movement (ICCs:0.75, good, extension movement (ICCs:0.81, very good, right rotation (ICCs:0.64, good and left rotation (ICCs:0.64, good. The cervicocephalic relocation test to neutral head position by laser pointer is a reliable method to measure cervical sensory motor function. Therefore, it can be used for evaluating cervicocephalic proprioception of patient with cervicocephalic pain.

  18. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  19. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  20. INQUIRE: a case study in evaluating the potential of online MCQ tests in a discursive subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Clarke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a wealth of investigation into the use of online multiple-choice questions as a means of summative assessment, however the research into the use of formative MCQs by the same mode of delivery still remains patchy. Similarly, research and implementation has been largely concentrated within the Sciences and Medicine rather than the more discursive subjects within the Humanities and Social Sciences. The INQUIRE (Interactive Questions Reinforcing Education Evaluation Project was jointly conducted by two groups at the University of Oxford–the Saïd Business School and the Academic Computing Development Team to evaluate the use of online MCQs as a mechanism to reinforce and extend student learning. This initial study used a small set of highly focused MCQ tests that were designed to complement an introductory series of first-year undergraduate management lectures. MCQ is a simple and well-established technology, and hence the emphasis was very much on situating the tests within the student experience. The paper will cover how the online MCQs are intended to fit into the Oxford Undergraduate study agenda, and how a simple evaluation was executed and planned to investigate their usage and impact. The chosen method of evaluation was to combine focus groups with automated online methods of tracking, and the paper discusses the findings of both of these.

  1. Vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in the suppression head impulse test of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Izaskun; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Trinidad-Ruiz, Gabriel; Matiño-Soler, Eusebi; Perez-Fernandez, Nicolas

    2018-02-15

    To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected. Differences between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were statistically evaluated. Head impulse maximum velocity, gender, age, direction of impulse, and hospital center were considered as possible influential factors. A small significant statistical difference between HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values was found on repeated measures analysis of variance (-0.05 ± 0.006, P gain values and did not find influence between gain values differences and maximum head impulse velocity. Both HIMP and SHIMP VOR gain values were significant lower (-0.09, P gain values not adequately explained by known gain modification factors. The persistence of this slight but significant difference indicates that there are more factors causing lower SHIMP VOR gain values. This difference must to be considered in further studies as well as in the clinical SHIMP testing protocols. We hypothesized that VOR phasic response inhibition could be the underlying cause of this difference. IIb. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Physiological Requirements to Perform the Glittre Activities of Daily Living Test by Subjects With Mild-to-Severe COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gérson F; Moreira, Graciane L; Tufanin, Andréa; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Castro, Antonio A; Jardim, José R; Nascimento, Oliver A

    2017-08-01

    The Glittre activities of daily living (ADL) test is supposed to evaluate the functional capacity of COPD patients. The physiological requirements of the test and the time taken to perform it by COPD patients in different disease stages are not well known. The objective of this work was to compare the metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements and the time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test by COPD subjects with mild, moderate, and severe disease. Spirometry, Medical Research Council questionnaire, cardiopulmonary exercise test, and 2 Glittre ADL tests were evaluated in 62 COPD subjects. Oxygen uptake (V̇ O 2 ), carbon dioxide production, pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency, heart rate, S pO 2 , and dyspnea were analyzed before and at the end of the tests. Maximum voluntary ventilation, Glittre peak V̇ O 2 /cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) peak V̇ O 2 , Glittre V̇ E /maximum voluntary ventilation, and Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate ratios were calculated to analyze their reserves. Subjects carried out the Glittre ADL test with similar absolute metabolic, ventilatory, and cardiac requirements. Ventilatory reserve decreased progressively from mild to severe COPD subjects ( P reserve than the mild and moderate subjects ( P = .006 and P = .043, respectively) and significantly lower Glittre peak heart rate/CPET peak heart rate than mild subjects ( P = .01). Time taken to carry out the Glittre ADL test was similar among the groups ( P = .82 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 2, P = .19 for GOLD 1 vs GOLD 3, and P = .45 for GOLD 2 vs GOLD 3). As the degree of air-flow obstruction progresses, the COPD subjects present significant lower ventilatory reserve to perform the Glittre ADL test. In addition, metabolic and cardiac reserves may differentiate the severe subjects. These variables may be better measures to differentiate functional performance than Glittre ADL time. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Shuttle Walking Test as Predictor of Survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Enrolled in a Rehabilitation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Brøndum, Eva

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) is used to assess exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is employed as an outcome measure for pulmonary rehabilitation. We studied the value of this test in predicting survival in COPD patients enrolled...... in a rehabilitation program. METHODS: A total of 416 patients performed an ISWT before entering a 7-week outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Their survival was observed over a mean period of 4.5 years (range = 1.2-7.2 years). RESULTS: During the observation period, 169 (40.6%) patients died. Univariate...... analyses showed that the ISWT as well as age, gender, present and previous tobacco smoking, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, body mass index, oxygen saturation at rest, long-term oxygen therapy, Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and treatment with oral corticosteroids were significantly...

  4. Energy development and avian nest survival in Wyoming, USA: A test of a common disturbance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Global energy demands continue to result in new and emerging sources of anthropogenic disturbance to populations and systems. Here, we assessed the influence of natural gas development on a critical component of fitness (nest survival) for Brewer’s sparrow (Spizella breweri), sagebrush sparrow (Artemisiospiza nevadensis), and sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus), three species of sagebrush-obligate songbirds that are of conservation concern, and assessed the efficacy of a commonly used index of oil and gas development intensity (well density) for estimating habitat transformation and predicting species’ responses. During 2008–2009 and 2011–2012 we monitored 926 nests within two natural gas fields in western Wyoming, USA. We calculated landscape metrics (habitat loss, amount of edge, patch shape complexity, and mean patch size) to identify the aspect of landscape transformation most captured by well density. Well density was most positively associated with the amount of sagebrush habitat loss within 1 square kilometer. Nest survival was relatively invariant with respect to well density for all three species. In contrast, nest survival rates of all three species generally decreased with surrounding habitat loss due to energy development. Thus, although well density and habitat loss were strongly correlated, well density resulted in overly conservative estimates of nest survival probability. Our results emphasize the importance of careful evaluation of the appropriateness of particular indices for quantifying the effects of human-induced habitat change. For managers concerned about the effects of natural gas development or similar forms of human land use to co-occurring breeding birds, we recommend minimizing the amount of associated habitat conversion.

  5. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Competency test result of vocational school teacher's majoring light vehicles subject in East Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudung, Agus

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study of Teacher Competency Test (UKG) is to know about (a) the description of the vocational school teachers' competency test result majoring light vehicle subject in eastern Jakarta, (b) the effect between those certified teachers, non-certified teachers, civil servant teachers and non-civil servant teachers to Teacher Competency Test (UKG) result. The UKG result indicates that (1) certified teachers hold the highest score, however non-certified teachers obtain at the average of 55, in terms of UKG technicality preparation; (2) there are 43 teachers (48.9%) mention that the room facility for conducting UKG is good, while 45 teachers (51.1%) mention the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG room is relatively good enough. Meanwhile, in terms of youth facilities availability, (3) there are 86 teachers (97.7%) agree that the facilities are good while 2 teachers (2.3%) say the opposite opinion. This shows that the average UKG preparation is relatively very good. About the implementation of UKG, (4) there are 65 teachers (73,9%) give good impression, while 23 teachers (26,1%) give poor quality impression. This shows that the average UKG implementation is relatively good. About the way UKG is managed, (5) there are 87 teachers (98,9%) identify satisfactory comments, while there is only 1 teacher (1,1%) gives unsatisfactory comment. This shows that the average UKG management is relatively very good. ANNOVA analysis is used in this study to estimate the effect of UKG on certified and non-certified teachers. The ANNOVA test result shows that (6) H_0 is accepted because α = 0,05 facilities such as (a) test Room, (b) UKG readiness, (c) UKG implementation (d) UKG management including UKG materials. (2) The grid in the given test should (a) represent the content of the syllabus/curriculum or materials that teachers teach appropriately and proportionately (b) represent the components which are clearly and easily understood by the teachers as

  7. Objective QbTest and subjective evaluation of stimulant treatment in adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Jasperse, M; Gehlhaar, S K; Sandra Kooij, J J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the QbTest as an objective measure versus self-reported ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) before and during stimulant treatment in adults with ADHD. We used the subjective ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and the objective computerized QbTest, which is a 20-minute unconditional identical pairs test that measures attention, impulsivity, and also hyperactivity using a motion-tracking system. Patients were assessed before (baseline) and during medical treatment with stimulants (follow-up) in an observational study design. Data of n=145 patients at baseline and n=82 patients at follow-up were analyzed. There were significant symptom reductions on all symptom domains, but correlations between the tests were weak. Improvement on the QbTest was independent of the patient's age, gender, educational level, ADHD subtype, co-morbid disorders, and use of other medications. Patients with worst QbTest results at baseline showed most improvement at follow-up. The QbTest was more sensitive to medication effects than the ADHD-RS. QbTest objectified clinical significant medication effect in 54% of patients who subjectively did not report any clinical effects. Symptoms dimensions of objective and subjective tests refer to different psychological constructs. The QbTest is a valuable addition to existing subjective measures to assess medication effects in ADHD patients who have difficulties reporting treatment effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Phillip G; Silla, Aimee J

    2017-03-01

    The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chloromethylisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (CMI/MI) use test with a shampoo on patch-test-positive subjects. Results of a multicentre double-blind crossover trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Lahti, A; Hannuksela, M

    1995-01-01

    A randomized, multicentre, double-blind, 2-period crossover study with 2 shampoos was performed on subjects patch-test-positive to 100 ppm CMI/MI. One shampoo was preserved with 15 ppm a.i. CMI/MI, the other with 0.3% imidazolidinyl urea (IU). 27 subjects from 5 European dermatology clinics...... participated. 1 subject discontinued use after severe adverse reactions to the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and did not evaluate the other shampoo. Another 2 subjects developed moderate symptoms with the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and discontinued its use, but tolerated the IU-preserved shampoo for the full 2-week...... period. 2 subjects discontinued use after 1 or 2 washes after severe adverse reactions to the IU-preserved shampoo. 1 of these subjects tolerated the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo for 2 weeks without any untoward effects. However, the majority of subjects had negative findings on the scalp, face, neck...

  10. Following international trends while subject to past traditions: neuropsychological test use in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Jens; Løvstad, Marianne; Norup, Anne; Nybo, Taina; Persson, Bengt A; Rivera, Diego Fernando; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Historically, the neuropsychological test traditions of the four Nordic countries have spanned from the flexible and qualitative tradition of Luria-Christensen to the quantitative large battery approach of Halstead and Kløve-Matthews. This study reports current test use and discusses whether these traditions still influence attitudes toward test use and choice of tests. The study is based on survey data from 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The average participant used 9 tests in a standard assessment, and 25 tests overall in their practice. Test use was moderated by nationality, competence level, practice profile, and by attitude toward test selection. Participants who chose their tests flexibly used fewer tests than those adhering to the flexible battery approach, but had fewer tests from which to choose. Testing patients with psychiatric disorders was associated with using more tests. IQ, memory, attention, and executive function were the domains with the largest utilization rate, while tests of motor, visual/spatial, and language were used by few. There is a lack of academic achievement tests. Screening tests played a minor role in specialized assessments, and symptom validity tests were seldom applied on a standard basis. Most tests were of Anglo-American origin. New test methods are implemented rapidly in the Nordic countries, but test selection is also characterized by the dominating position of established and much researched tests. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria traditions are currently weak, but national differences in size of test batteries seem to be influenced by these longstanding traditions.

  11. Increased Circulating Level of the Survival Factor GP88 (Progranulin in the Serum of Breast Cancer Patients When Compared to Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rak Tkaczuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction GP88 (PC-Cell Derived Growth Factor, progranulin is a glycoprotein overexpressed in breast tumors and involved in their proliferation and survival. Since GP88 is secreted, an exploratory study was established to compare serum GP88 level between breast cancer patients (BC and healthy volunteers (HV. Methods An IRB approved prospective study enrolled 189 stage 1–4 BC patients and 18 HV. GP88 serum concentration was determined by immunoassay. Results Serum GP88 level was 28.7+ 5.8 ng/ml in HV and increased to 40.7+ 16.0 ng/ml ( P = 0.007 for stage 1-3 and 45.3 +23.3 ng/ml ( P = 0.0007 for stage 4 BC patients. There was no correlation between the GP88 level and BC characteristics such as age, race, tumor grade, ER, PR and HER-2 expression. Conclusion These data suggest that serial testing of serum GP88 levels may have value as a circulating biomarker for detection, monitoring and follow up of BC.

  12. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  13. Subjective socioeconomic status causes aggression: A test of the theory of social deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Sagioglou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Seven studies (overall N = 3690) addressed the relation between people's subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and their aggression levels. Based on relative deprivation theory, we proposed that people low in subjective SES would feel at a disadvantage, which in turn would elicit aggressive responses. In 3 correlational studies, subjective SES was negatively related to trait aggression. Importantly, this relation held when controlling for measures that are related to 1 or both subjective SES and trait aggression, such as the dark tetrad and the Big Five. Four experimental studies then demonstrated that participants in a low status condition were more aggressive than were participants in a high status condition. Compared with a medium-SES condition, participants of low subjective SES were more aggressive rather than participants of high subjective SES being less aggressive. Moreover, low SES increased aggressive behavior toward targets that were the source for participants' experience of disadvantage but also toward neutral targets. Sequential mediation analyses suggest that the experience of disadvantage underlies the effect of subjective SES on aggressive affect, whereas aggressive affect was the proximal determinant of aggressive behavior. Taken together, the present research found comprehensive support for key predictions derived from the theory of relative deprivation of how the perception of low SES is related to the person's judgments, emotional reactions, and actions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Test of Direct and Indirect Effects of Agrochemicals on the Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R.; Rohr, Jason R.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff. PMID:22003017

  15. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...... of a monopile in sand subjected to a long-term cyclic lateral loading is investigated by means of small scale tests. The tests are conducted with a mechanical loading rig capable of applying the cyclic loading as a sine signal with varying amplitude, mean loading level, and loading period for more than 60 000...... cycles. The tests are conducted in dense saturated sand. The maximum moment applied in the cyclic tests is varied from 18% to 36% of the ultimate lateral resistance found in a static loading test. The tests reveal that the accumulated rotation can be expressed by use of a power function. Further, static...

  16. A Classroom Demonstration of Potential Biases in the Subjective Interpretation of Projective Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederman, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that instructors teaching psychological assessment can use a demonstration to illustrate potential biases when subjectively interpreting response to projective stimuli. Outlines the classroom procedure, notes styles of learning involved, and presents a summary of student evaluations. (DSK)

  17. Rank-based testing of equal survivorship based on cross-sectional survival data with or without prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Qin, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Existing linear rank statistics cannot be applied to cross-sectional survival data without follow-up since all subjects are essentially censored. However, partial survival information are available from backward recurrence times and are frequently collected from health surveys without prospective follow-up. Under length-biased sampling, a class of linear rank statistics is proposed based only on backward recurrence times without any prospective follow-up. When follow-up data are available, the proposed rank statistic and a conventional rank statistic that utilizes follow-up information from the same sample are shown to be asymptotically independent. We discuss four ways to combine these two statistics when follow-up is present. Simulations show that all combined statistics have substantially improved power compared with conventional rank statistics, and a Mantel-Haenszel test performed the best among the proposal statistics. The method is applied to a cross-sectional health survey without follow-up and a study of Alzheimer's disease with prospective follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, D; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides...... studied 17 nonpalpable testes in 10 patients 1 year and 7 months to 13(1/2) years old. Results of testicular biopsies of 13 intra-abdominal testes taken at stages 1 and 2 of surgery were available for histological comparison. RESULTS: Median number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section...... of the biopsies taken at stage 2 was slightly lower (0.03) compared to the median number at stage 1 (0.06) of the operation but this difference was not significant (p = 0.2031). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the spermatogonia may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels, although the number...

  19. Reliability, construct and discriminative validity of clinical testing in subjects with and without chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, René; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    -retest reliability in people with and without chronic neck pain. Moreover, construct and between-group discriminative validity of the tests were examined. METHODS: Twenty-one participants with chronic neck pain and 21 asymptomatic participants were included. Intra- and inter-reliability were evaluated for the Cranio-Cervical...... Flexion Test (CCFT), Range of Movement (ROM), Joint Position Error (JPE), Gaze Stability (GS), Smooth Pursuit Neck Torsion Test (SPNTT), and neuromuscular control of the Deep Cervical Extensors (DCE). Test-retest reliability was assessed for Postural Control (SWAY) and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) over......BACKGROUND: The reliability of clinical tests for the cervical spine has not been adequately evaluated. Six cervical clinical tests, which are low cost and easy to perform in clinical settings, were tested for intra- and inter-examiner reliability, and two performance tests were assessed for test...

  20. Cognitive reserve in young and old healthy subjects: differences and similarities in a testing-the-limits paradigm with DSST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Zihl

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is understood as capacity to cope with challenging conditions, e.g. after brain injury or in states of brain dysfunction, or age-related cognitive decline. CR in elderly subjects has attracted much research interest, but differences between healthy older and younger subjects have not been addressed in detail hitherto. Usually, one-time standard individual assessments are used to characterise CR. Here we observe CR as individual improvement in cognitive performance (gain in a complex testing-the-limits paradigm, the digit symbol substitution test (DSST, with 10 repeated measurements, in 140 younger (20-30 yrs and 140 older (57-74 yrs healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed attention, memory and executive function, and mood and personality traits as potential influence factors for CR. We found that both, younger and older subjects showed significant gains, which were significantly correlated with speed of information processing, verbal short-term memory and visual problem solving in the older group only. Gender, personality traits and mood did not significantly influence gains in either group. Surprisingly about half of the older subjects performed at the level of the younger group, suggesting that interindividual differences in CR are possibly age-independent. We propose that these findings may also be understood as indication that one-time standard individual measurements do not allow assessment of CR, and that the use of DSST in a testing-the-limits paradigm is a valuable assessment method for CR in young and elderly subjects.

  1. Fracture strength and probability of survival of narrow and extra-narrow dental implants after fatigue testing: In vitro and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Fardin, Vinicius P; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the probability of survival (reliability) and failure modes of narrow implants with different diameters. For fatigue testing, 42 implants with the same macrogeometry and internal conical connection were divided, according to diameter, as follows: narrow (Ø3.3×10mm) and extra-narrow (Ø2.9×10mm) (21 per group). Identical abutments were torqued to the implants and standardized maxillary incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing (SSALT) in water. The use-level probability Weibull curves, and reliability for a mission of 50,000 and 100,000 cycles at 50N, 100, 150 and 180N were calculated. For the finite element analysis (FEA), two virtual models, simulating the samples tested in fatigue, were constructed. Loading at 50N and 100N were applied 30° off-axis at the crown. The von-Mises stress was calculated for implant and abutment. The beta (β) values were: 0.67 for narrow and 1.32 for extra-narrow implants, indicating that failure rates did not increase with fatigue in the former, but more likely were associated with damage accumulation and wear-out failures in the latter. Both groups showed high reliability (up to 97.5%) at 50 and 100N. A decreased reliability was observed for both groups at 150 and 180N (ranging from 0 to 82.3%), but no significant difference was observed between groups. Failure predominantly involved abutment fracture for both groups. FEA at 50N-load, Ø3.3mm showed higher von-Mises stress for abutment (7.75%) and implant (2%) when compared to the Ø2.9mm. There was no significant difference between narrow and extra-narrow implants regarding probability of survival. The failure mode was similar for both groups, restricted to abutment fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance in normal subjects on a novel battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Carrie R H; Jones, Richard D; Anderson, Tim J; Hollobon, Susan G; Dalrymple-Alford, John C

    2009-05-01

    Currently, there is no international standard for the assessment of fitness to drive for cognitively or physically impaired persons. A computerized battery of driving-related sensory-motor and cognitive tests (SMCTests) has been developed, comprising tests of visuoperception, visuomotor ability, complex attention, visual search, decision making, impulse control, planning, and divided attention. Construct validity analysis was conducted in 60 normal, healthy subjects and showed that, overall, the novel cognitive tests assessed cognitive functions similar to a set of standard neuropsychological tests. The novel tests were found to have greater perceived face validity for predicting on-road driving ability than was found in the equivalent standard tests. Test-retest stability and reliability of SMCTests measures, as well as correlations between SMCTests and on-road driving, were determined in a subset of 12 subjects. The majority of test measures were stable and reliable across two sessions, and significant correlations were found between on-road driving scores and measures from ballistic movement, footbrake reaction, hand-control reaction, and complex attention. The substantial face validity, construct validity, stability, and reliability of SMCTests, together with the battery's level of correlation with on-road driving in normal subjects, strengthen our confidence in the ability of SMCTests to detect and identify sensory-motor and cognitive deficits related to unsafe driving and increased risk of accidents.

  3. Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well-Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. BIOMEX Experiment: Ultrastructural Alterations, Molecular Damage and Survival of the Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus after the Experiment Verification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; De Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; de la Torre, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano

    2017-06-01

    The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1.5 years. Along with a number of other extremophilic microorganisms, the Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 has been included in the experiment. Before launch, dried colonies grown on Lunar and Martian regolith analogues were exposed to vacuum, irradiation and temperature cycles in ground based experiments (EVT1 and EVT2). Cultural and molecular tests revealed that the fungus survived on rock analogues under space and simulated Martian conditions, showing only slight ultra-structural and molecular damage.

  5. Cancer Mortality in Populations in Kazakhstan Subjected to Irradiation from Nuclear Weapons Testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Districts of Semipalatinsk Province, located 900-1,100 km away from the Chinese Test Site . The contamination levels varied within very wide ranges. The...Figure 1 presents a map showing the locations of the Lop Nor and Semipalatinsk Test Sites as well as the three population points of Makanchy... Semipalatinsk Test Site with the direct participation of employees of the Kazakhstan NRIRME (National Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology

  6. Pregnant woman and road safety: experimental crash test with post mortem human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delotte, Jerome; Behr, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean; Baque, Patrick; Bongain, Andre; Brunet, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Trauma affect between 3 and 7% of all pregnancies in industrialized countries, and the leading cause of these traumas is car crashes. The difficulty to appreciate physiologic and anatomic changes occurring during pregnancy explain that majority of studies were not based on anatomical data. We present a protocol to create a realistic anatomical model of pregnant woman using a post mortem human subject (PMHS). We inserted a physical model of the gravid uterus into the pelvis of a PMHS. 3D acceleration sensors were placed on the subject to measure the acceleration on different body segments. We simulated three frontal impact situations at 20 km/h between two average European cars. Two main kinematics events were identified as possible causes of injuries: lap belt loading and backrest impact. Cadaver experiments provide one interesting complementary approach to study injury mechanisms related to road accidents involving pregnant women. This anatomical accuracy makes it possible to progress in the field of safety devices.

  7. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  9. Development of a low cost test rig for standalone WECS subject to electrical faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himani; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a contribution to the development of low-cost wind turbine (WT) test rig for stator fault diagnosis of wind turbine generator is proposed. The test rig is developed using a 2.5kW, 1750 RPM DC motor coupled to a 1.5kW, 1500 RPM self-excited induction generator interfaced with a WT mathematical model in LabVIEW. The performance of the test rig is benchmarked with already proven wind turbine test rigs. In order to detect the stator faults using non-stationary signals in self-excited induction generator, an online fault diagnostic technique of DWT-based multi-resolution analysis is proposed. It has been experimentally proven that for varying wind conditions wavelet decomposition allows good differentiation between faulty and healthy conditions leading to an effective diagnostic procedure for wind turbine condition monitoring. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J

    2014-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  11. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carter Loftus

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments.

  12. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, J. Carter; Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L) without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L) with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments. PMID:26968000

  13. Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, H; Raoul, P; Lieury, A; LeCoz, F; Gandon, J M; d'Arbigny, P

    1993-01-01

    The subjects of this double-blind study were 18 elderly men and women (mean age, 69.3 years) with slight age-related memory impairment. In a crossover-study design, each subject received placebo or an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) (320 mg or 600 mg) 1 hour before performing a dual-coding test that measures the speed of information processing; the test consists of several coding series of drawings and words presented at decreasing times of 1920, 960, 480, 240, and 120 ms. The dual-coding phenomenon (a break point between coding verbal material and images) was demonstrated in all the tests. After placebo, the break point was observed at 960 ms and dual coding beginning at 1920 ms. After each dose of the ginkgo extract, the break point (at 480 ms) and dual coding (at 960 ms) were significantly shifted toward a shorter presentation time, indicating an improvement in the speed of information processing.

  14. The effect of study-test modalities on the remembrance of subjective duration from long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian

    2002-07-31

    It was examined whether stimulus modality (auditory vs. visual) affects the retrieval of subjective duration from memory. In two experiments the temporal generalization paradigm was used. Participants had to decide whether the previously learned standard duration (400 ms) occurred in the context of comparison stimuli. Two major results were found. (1) Discrimination was more accurate if the training and testing stimuli were of the same modality than if they were of opposite modalities. (2) If both modality of learning and modality of testing were different, subjects systematically underestimated the test durations, i.e. temporal generalization gradients (the proportion of identifications of a stimulus as the standard, plotted against stimulus duration) shifted to the right. The observed shift is interpreted as a result of a delayed timing process.

  15. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  16. Experimental tests on buckling of ellipsoidal vessel heads subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.; Alix, M.

    1980-05-01

    Tests were performed on 17 ellipsoidal vessel heads of three different materials and different geometries. The results include the following: 1) Accurate definition of the geometry and particularly a direct measurement of the thickness along the meridian. 2) The properties of the material of each head, obtained from test specimens cut from the head itself after the test. 3) The recording of deflection/pressure curves with indication of the pressure at which buckling occurred. These results can be used for validation and qualification of methods for calculating the buckling load when plasticity occurs before buckling. It was possible to develop an empirical equation representing the experimental results obtained with satisfactory accuracy. This equation may be useful in pressure vessel design

  17. Reliability and validity of videotaped functional performance tests in ACL-injured subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Porat, Anette; Holmström, Eva; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In clinical practice, visual observation is often used to determine functional impairment and to evaluate treatment following a knee injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of observational assessments of knee movement pattern quality......, crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop. The videos were observed by four physiotherapists, and the knee movement pattern quality, a feature of the loading strategy of the lower extremity, was scored on an 11-point rating scale. To assess the criterion validity, the observational rating was correlated...... obtained between the observers' assessment and knee flexion angle, r = 0.37-0.61. The crossover hop test or one-leg hop test was ranked as the most useful test in 172 of 192 occasions (90%) when assessing knee function. CONCLUSION: The moderate to good inter-observer reliability and the moderate criterion...

  18. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions: Results from bellows tested in corroded conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1995-10-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of nineteen bellows have been tested. Thirteen bellows were tested in ''like-new'' condition (results reported in Volume 1), and six were tested in a corroded condition. The tests showed that bellows in ''like-new'' condition are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage, while those in a corroded condition did not perform as well, depending on the amount of corrosion. The corroded bellows test program and results are presented in this report

  19. Results of faecal immunochemical test for colorectal cancer screening, in average risk population, in a cohort of 1389 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miuţescu, Bogdan; Sporea, Ioan; Popescu, Alina; Bota, Simona; Iovănescu, Dana; Burlea, Amelia; Mos, Liana; Miuţescu, Eftimie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening, detection of precancerous lesions and early colorectal cancer. The study evaluated asymptomatic patients with average risk (no personal or family antecedents of polyps or colorectal cancer), aged between 50 and 74 years. The presence of the occult haemorrhage was tested with the immunochemical faecal test Hem Check 1 (Veda Lab, France). The subjects were not requested to have any dietary or drug restrictions. Colonoscopy was recommended in all subjects that tested positive. In our study, we had a total of 1389 participants who met the inclusion criteria, with a mean age of 61.2 ± 12.8 years, 565 (40.7%) men and 824 (59.3%) women. FIT was positive in 87 individuals (6.3%). In 57/87 subjects (65.5%) with positive FIT, colonoscopy was performed, while the rest of the subjects refused or delayed the investigation. A number of 5 (8.8%) patients were not able to have a complete colonoscopy, due to neoplastic stenosis. The colonoscopies revealed in 10 cases (0.7%) cancer, in 29 cases (2.1%) advanced adenomas and in 15 cases (1.1%) non advanced adenomas from the total participants in the study. The colonoscopies performed revealed a greater percentage of advanced adenomas in the left colon compared to the right colon, 74.1% vs. 28.6% (p<0.001). In our study, FIT had a positivity rate of 6.3%. The detection rate for advanced neoplasia was 2.8% (0.7% for cancer, 2.1% for advanced adenomas) in our study group. Adherence to colonoscopy for FIT-positive subjects was 65.5%.

  20. Inter- and intrarater reliability of two proprioception tests using clinical applicable measurement tools in subjects with and without knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Lluch, Enrique; Struyf, Thomas; Peeters, Greta; Van Oosterwijck, Sophie; Tuynman, Joanna; Rufai, Salim; Struyf, Filip

    2018-06-01

    The therapeutic value of proprioceptive-based exercises in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) management warrants investigation of proprioceptive testing methods easily accessible in clinical practice. To estimate inter- and intrarater reliability of the knee joint position sense (KJPS) test and knee force sense (KFS) test in subjects with and without KOA. Cross-sectional test-retest design. Two blinded raters performed independently repeated measures of the KJPS and KFS test, using an analogue inclinometer and handheld dynamometer, respectively, in eight KOA patients (12 symptomatic knees) and 26 healthy controls (52 asymptomatic knees). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; model 2,1), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change with 95% confidence bounds (MDC 95 ) were calculated. For KJPS, results showed good to excellent test-retest agreement (ICCs 0.70-0.95 in KOA patients; ICCs 0.65-0.85 in healthy controls). A 2° measurement error (SEM 1°) was reported when measuring KJPS in multiple test positions and calculating mean repositioning error. Testing KOA patients pre and post therapy a repositioning error larger than 4° (MDC 95 ) is needed to consider true change. Measuring KFS using handheld dynamometry showed poor to fair interrater and poor to excellent intrarater reliability in subjects with and without KOA. Measuring KJPS in multiple test positions using an analogue inclinometer and calculating mean repositioning error is reliable and can be used in clinical practice. We do not recommend the use of the KFS test to clinicians. Further research is required to establish diagnostic accuracy and validity of our KJPS test in larger knee pain populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Low diagnostic value of fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine tests. A study in Dutch subjects with homocysteine test indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; van Doormaal, J J; Reijngoud, D J; Muskiet, F A J

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. We investigated, both in subjects with past plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) test indications and healthy adults, the diagnostic value of a fasting (tHcy) (f-tHcy) and the added value of a post-methionine-load tHcy (postload-tHcy).

  2. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  3. 40 CFR 799.5055 - Hazardous waste constituents subject to testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Health effects testing—(1) Subchronic toxicity—(i) Required test. (A) An oral gavage subchronic toxicity... substance. Suggested determinations are: Calcium, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, fasting glucose (with the period of fasting appropriate to the species), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (now...

  4. Test-retest reliability of joint position and kinesthetic sense in the elbow of healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, Hans Aage; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Proprioception is an important effect measure in neuromuscular function training in physiotherapy. Reliability studies of methods for measuring proprioception are few on joint position sense (JPS) and threshold to detection of a passive movement (TDPM) on the elbow. The aim was to study test-rete...

  5. Maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with BioOss (R) mixed with a bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bone : test of principle on implant survival and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Vissink, A.; Slot, Jan; Sauerbier, S.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    The purpose of this study was to assess implant survival and 1-year clinical performance of implants placed in the posterior maxilla that had been subjected to maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone marrow concentrate or autogenous

  6. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of 3 commonly used neurodynamic tests (slump test, straight-leg raise [SLR] test, femoral neurodynamic test) and 2 clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (radiculopathy I, 1 neurologic sign; radiculopathy II, 2 neurologic signs corresponding to 1 specific nerve root) in detecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression, and foraminal nerve root compression). Validity study. Secondary care. We included subjects (N=99; mean age, 58y; 54% women) referred for epidural steroid injection because of lumbar radicular symptoms who had positive clinical and MRI findings. Positive clinical findings included the slump test (n=67), SLR test (n=50), femoral neurodynamic test (n=7), radiculopathy I (n=70), and radiculopathy II (n=33). Positive MRI findings included extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (n=14), and foraminal nerve compression (n=25). Not applicable. Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics analysis with area under the curve (AUC). The slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (.78) and subarticular nerve compression (1.00), but the respective specificity was low (.36 and .38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting foraminal nerve compression (.80) but with low specificity (.34). Only 1 assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity (ie, radiculopathy II) in detecting subarticular nerve compression (.71 and .73, respectively). The AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, subarticular nerve compression, and foraminal nerve compression showed ranges of .48 to .60, .63 to .82, and .33 to .57, respectively. In general, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was the most sensitive test, while radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no

  7. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  8. Translation and testing of measurement properties of the Swedish version of the IKDC subjective knee form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigerstrand Grevnerts, H; Grävare Silbernagel, K; Sonesson, S; Ardern, C; Österberg, A; Gauffin, H; Kvist, J

    2017-05-01

    To translate to Swedish language and cross-culturally adapt the IKDC-SKF and to test the measurement properties of the Swedish version of IKDC-SKF in ACL-injured patients undergoing reconstruction surgery.The translation and cross-cultural adaption was performed according to guidelines. Seventy-six patients with an ACL injury filled out the IKDC-SKF and other questionnaires before ACL reconstruction and at 4, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A total of 203 patients from the Swedish ACL Registry participated at 8 months post-operative. Measurement properties were tested according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines.The Swedish IKDC-SKF had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (ICC 2,1 =0.92, CI 95%: 0.81-0.97, Pmeasurement properties and can be recommended for use in a population of ACL-deficient patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bradykinin or acetylcholine as vasodilators to test endothelial venous function in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida R. Rabelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of endothelial function has been performed in the arterial bed, but recently evaluation within the venous system has also been explored. Endothelial function studies employ different drugs that act as endothelium-dependent vasodilatory response inductors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the endothelium-dependent venous vasodilator response mediated by either acetylcholine or bradykinin in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in vein diameter after phenylephrine-induced venoconstriction were measured to compare venodilation induced by acetylcholine or bradykinin (linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique. We studied 23 healthy volunteers; 31% were male, and the subject had a mean age of 33 ± 8 years and a mean body mass index of 23 ± 2 kg/m². The maximum endothelium-dependent venodilation was similar for both drugs (p = 0.13, as well as the mean responses for each dose of both drugs (r = 0.96. The maximum responses to acetylcholine and bradykinin also had good agreement. CONCLUSION: There were no differences between acetylcholine and bradykinin as venodilators in this endothelial venous function investigation.

  10. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  11. Emotional profiles to the Rorschach test in subjects affected by Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Gioffrè

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychological variables could be related to disorders of vision with particular interest of depressive feautures, but with little attention to dimensions such as stress and anxiety. Psychological stress associated with hyperactivation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system, is considered the most important risk factor of a rare disorder of vision, the Central Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC, whose etiology has not yet been clarified. This study to examine the psychological literature regarding to CSC and explore in a preliminary the projective methods of the Rorschach test, any correlations between personality variables and predisposition to CSC.

  12. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the role of subjective assessment using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests. METHODS: There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using McMonnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time (TBUT of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease (≥grade 1. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between McMonnies score (MS and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability (P value using Chi-square test of RESULTS: Dry eye prevalence with symptoms (questionnaire, Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%, 15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms (MS>20, 75.86% had a low TBUT (CONCLUSION: Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation between MS and Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining in normal as well as marginal and pathological dry eye.

  13. A screening approach for classroom acoustics using web-based listening tests and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, Kerstin; Magnusson, Lennart; Fredriksson, Sofie; Croy, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Perception of speech is crucial in school where speech is the main mode of communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a web based approach including listening tests and questionnaires could be used as a screening tool for poor classroom acoustics. The prime focus was the relation between pupils' comprehension of speech, the classroom acoustics and their description of the acoustic qualities of the classroom. In total, 1106 pupils aged 13-19, from 59 classes and 38 schools in Sweden participated in a listening study using Hagerman's sentences administered via Internet. Four listening conditions were applied: high and low background noise level and positions close and far away from the loudspeaker. The pupils described the acoustic quality of the classroom and teachers provided information on the physical features of the classroom using questionnaires. In 69% of the classes, at least three pupils described the sound environment as adverse and in 88% of the classes one or more pupil reported often having difficulties concentrating due to noise. The pupils' comprehension of speech was strongly influenced by the background noise level (pcomprehension. Of the pupils' descriptions of acoustic qualities, clattery significantly (pcomprehension. Clattery was furthermore associated to difficulties understanding each other, while the description noisy was associated to concentration difficulties. The majority of classrooms do not seem to have an optimal sound environment. The pupil's descriptions of acoustic qualities and listening tests can be one way of predicting sound conditions in the classroom.

  14. [Basic mechanisms of QRS voltage changes on ECG of healthy subjects during the exercise test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykova, M M

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiography is the most commonly used technique for detection stress-induced myocardial ischemia. However, the sensitivity of ECG-criteria is not high. One of the major problem is the difficulty in differentiating ECG changes caused by various factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of the QRS voltage changes during exercise on parameters of central hemodynamics, gender particularities and to reveal mechanisms causing these changes. To eliminate the effect of changes in cardiomyocytes transmembrane potentials under the influence of the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system during stepwise increasing exercises and/or due to a lack of ATP results from inadequate myocardial blood flow only healthy subjects not older than 35 years were included in the study (7 men and 7 women) and only periods of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex on the ECG) were included in the analysis. We compared the changes of QRS waves during exercise sessions with two upper and one lower limbs in both men and women. The exercise load was twice bigger in exercise with one leg relative to exercise with two arms. Responses of heart rate and systolic arterial pressure were similar. Amplitude of S-wave in left chest leads significantly increased in both sessions without significant difference between augmentations in the sessions and in groups of men and women. Significant relationship between the S wave augmentation and the peak systolic arterial pressure were revealed. Furthermore, the QRS changes during the exercise with vertical and a horizontal torso position were compared to assess the impact of diastolic arterial pressure and displacement of the diaphragm and heart rotation due to increase of abdominal pressure during the last steps of exercise. The obtained results allow us to exclude the impact of the heart position and size changes, as well as the exercise load on S-wave changes and make a conclusion about the dependence of this parameter on

  15. Elevated-temperature tests of simply-supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.

    1975-01-01

    The measured elastic-plastic and elastic-plastic-creep responses of a number of simply-supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates are presented. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple. In beams, the stress fields are largely uniaxial, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens were laterally loaded at the center, and the tests were performed by subjecting the specimens to either a prescribed load or center-deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common, well-characterized heat of material, and all of the tests were performed at a temperature of 1100 F. The elastic-plastic tests consisted of short-time cycling of the center load, or deflection, between fixed limits. In the elastic-plastic-creep tests the center load, or deflection, was held constant for periods of time, but was periodically subjected to a step increase or decrease, including reversals. The test results are presented in terms of the load and center-deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. (U.S.)

  16. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 ± 8.8 (SD) plants/m 2 . Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots

  18. Performance of reproductive system of Dichelops melacanthus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae subjected to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen: morphological analysis of ovarioles and testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gimenez Cremonez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of insecticides known as insect growth regulators, which are considered more selective to natural enemies, may be an alternative to integrated pest management of stink bugs of the main crops in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate histological changes in the reproductive system of Dichelops melacanthus as well as female fecundity and egg fertility after use of growth-regulating insecticides. The insecticides used were buprofezin (a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor at a sublethal concentration (LC30 of 2.99 g L-1 and pyriproxyfen (a juvenile hormone analog at a sublethal concentration (LC30 of 8.35 mL L-1. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with 10 repetitions and 10 insects per experimental unit. Two bioassays were performed: in the first bioassay, fecundity (eggs/female and fertility (nymph eclosion of the insects that survived the insecticides were evaluated; in the second bioassay, morphological alterations of the ovarioles of adult females and of the testes of adult male insects that survived the insecticides were evaluated. Buprofezin and pyriproxyfen did not affect the adult sex ratio or female fecundity. Pyriproxyfen reduced the percentage of ecloded nymphs (71.6% compared with that of the control and buprofezin (96.4 and 90.6%, respectively treatments and had an ovicidal effect, with direct and indirect action on embryogenesis. Morphological changes were observed in both treatments with buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. The alterations observed in female and male reproductive systems may occur by the action of buprofezin and pyriproxyfen on the morphology of both ovarioles and testes.

  19. Elevated-temperature benchmark tests of simply supported beams and circular plates subjected to time-varying loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Richardson, M.; Clinard, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the measured elastic-plastic-creep responses of eight simply supported type 304 stainless steel beams and circular plates that were subjected to time-varying loadings at elevated temperature. The tests were performed to provide experimental benchmark problem data suitable for assessing inelastic analysis methods and for validating computer programs. Beams and plates exhibit the essential features of inelastic structural behavior; yet they are relatively simple and the experimental results are generally easy to interpret. The stress fields are largely uniaxial in beams, while multiaxial effects are introduced in plates. The specimens tested were laterally loaded at the center and subjected to either a prescribed load or a center deflection history. The specimens were machined from a common well-characterized heat of material, and all the tests were performed at a temperature of 593 0 C (1100 0 F). Test results are presented in terms of the load and center deflection behaviors, which typify the overall structural behavior. Additional deflection data, as well as strain gage results and mechanical properties data for the beam and plate material, are provided in the appendices

  20. Application of the variational dynamic of nucleic acids with a prognosis of survival in hematological patients subjected to whole-body irradiation for a bone-marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morera, Lourdes; Garcia, Omar; Proenza, Emma; Carnot, Jose

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study the variational dynamics of nuclei acids in patients either subjected or not of abortive peaks and its prospective application as a prognostic indicator which might contribute to the therapeutic decision making in cases of BMT and irradiation related acute syndromes

  1. Effect profile of paracetamol, Δ9-THC and promethazine using an evoked pain test battery in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, G; Siebenga, P; de Kam, M L; Hay, J L; Groeneveld, G J

    2018-04-10

    A battery of evoked pain tasks (PainCart) was developed to investigate the pharmacodynamic properties of novel analgesics in early-phase clinical research. As part of its clinical validation, compounds with different pharmacological mechanisms of actions are investigated. The aim was to investigate the analgesic effects of classic and nonclassic analgesics compared to a sedating negative control in a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study in 24 healthy volunteers using the PainCart. The PainCart consisted of pain tasks eliciting electrical, pressure, heat, cold and inflammatory pain. Subjective scales for cognitive functioning and psychotomimetic effects were included. Subjects were administered each of the following oral treatments: paracetamol (1000 mg), Δ9-THC (10 mg), promethazine (50 mg) or matching placebo. Pharmacodynamic measurements were performed at baseline and repeated up to 10 h postdose. Paracetamol did not show a significant reduction in pain sensation or subjective cognitive functioning compared to placebo. Promethazine induced a statistically significant reduction in PTT for cold pressor and pressure stimulation. Furthermore, reduced subjective alertness was observed. Δ9-THC showed a statistically significant decrease in PTT for electrical and pressure stimulation. Δ9-THC also demonstrated subjective effects, including changes in alertness and calmness, as well as feeling high and psychotomimetic effects. This study found a decreased pain tolerance due to Δ9-THC and promethazine, or lack thereof, using an evoked pain task battery. Pain thresholds following paracetamol administration remained unchanged, which may be due to insufficient statistical power. We showed that pain thresholds determined using this pain test battery are not driven by sedation. The multimodal battery of evoked pain tasks utilized in this study may play an important role in early-phase clinical drug development. This battery of pain tasks is not sensitive to the

  2. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A comparative study of two food model systems to test the survival of Campylobacter jejuni at -18 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Rosenquist, Hanne; Brondsted, L.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 was tested at freezing conditions (-18 degrees C) over a period of 32 days in two food models that simulated either (i) the chicken skin surface (skin model) or (ii) the chicken juice in and around a broiler carcass (liquid model). In the skin model...... NCTC 11168 cells was slower when suspended in chicken juice than in BHIB. After freezing for 32 days, the reductions in the cell counts were 1.5 log CFU/ml in chicken juice and 3.5 log CFU/ml in BHIB. After the same time of freezing but when inoculated onto chicken skin, C. jejuni NCTC 11168...... was reduced by 2.2 log units when inoculated in chicken juice and 3.2 log units when inoculated into BHIB. For both models, the major decrease occurred within the first 24 h of freezing. The results obtained in the liquid model with chicken juice were comparable to the reductions of Campylobacter observed...

  4. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. [Neural activity related to emotional and empathic deficits in subjects with post-traumatic stress disorder who survived the L'Aquila (Central Italy) 2009 earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Pino, Maria Chiara; Tempesta, Daniela; Catalucci, Alessia; Masciocchi, Carlo; Ferrara, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a chronic anxiety disorder. The continued efforts to control the distressing memories by traumatized individuals, together with the reduction of responsiveness to the outside world, are called Emotional Numbing (EN). The EN is one of the central symptoms in PTSD and it plays an integral role not only in the development and maintenance of post-traumatic symptomatology, but also in the disability of emotional regulation. This disorder shows an abnormal response of cortical and limbic regions which are normally involved in understanding emotions since the very earliest stages of the development of processing ability. Patients with PTSD exhibit exaggerated brain responses to emotionally negative stimuli. Identifying the neural correlates of emotion regulation in these subjects is important for elucidating the neural circuitry involved in emotional and empathic dysfunction. We showed that PTSD patients, all survivors of the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake, have a higher sensitivity to negative emotion and lower empathy levels. These emotional and empathic deficits are accompanied by neural brain functional correlates. Indeed PTSD subjects exhibit functional abnormalities in brain regions that are involved in stress regulation and emotional responses. The reduced activation of the frontal areas and a stronger activation of the limbic areas when responding to emotional stimuli could lead the subjects to enact coping strategies aimed at protecting themselves from the re-experience of pain related to traumatic events. This would result in a dysfunctional hyperactivation of subcortical areas, which may cause emotional distress and, consequently, impaired social relationships often reported by PTSD patients.

  6. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  7. Micro-fractures produced in the Cadalso de los Vidrios granite (Madrid) subjected to Freeze-Thaw Durability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Lista, D. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    A specific leucogranite (fine to medium grain sized) from Cadalso de los Vidrios, Madrid, Spain, from where it takes the name of the stone variety, which is a traditional heritage building material used in Central Spain, was subjected to freezing-thaw durability tests or accelerated artificial ageing tests (according to Spanish standard EN 12371:2001) to assess its durability by means of ultrasonic velocity measurements (a non-destructive technique), and optical and fluorescence petrography using a polarized optical microscope (destructive technique), both techniques used before, during and after laboratory ageing tests, or in other words, what is determined is the improvement or deterioration in some properties. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity in the leucogranite cubic test specimens along the freezing-thaw cycles shown that the velocity diminishes with the number of cycles, in relation to the decay that the stones were experiencing. This deterioration can be observed by the loss of crystalline minerals in the surface of the analyzed samples and by the micro-fractures appearance up to one centimeter deep, which have been detected by the petrographic techniques previously mentioned. The images taken by means of the fluorescence microscope clearly show the micro-fractures generated during the durability test. These images have been processed and analyzed by the UTHSCSA Image Tool program with the purpose of being able to quantify the degree of decay that this type of crystalline materials undergone, when subjected to a number of freezing-thaw test cycles. It is therefore an effective, reliable and complementary technique to that of the petrography analysis, both optical and fluorescence ones. In the first cycles of the ageing test, the micro-fractures propagate along crystals edges and during the last cycles of the test, intracrystalline micro-fractures are generated, which are developed in different ways depending on the mineralogy of the crystals. Thus

  8. Improving of the teaching methods of chemical subjects by using of teaching tests in high educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzahira Turebekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the information technologies may cause great pedagogical effect: using of computer opens the opportunity for organization of problem teaching developing the creative thinking, forming research, practical skills of students, creation of the steady positive motivation of the students. Technical facilities of the computer technology allow solving the teaching and research tasks in the chemistry come as original catalyst of creation of different types of information technology systems and projection on their basis the novel ways and methods of their application. Use of computer technology in education helps to support necessary educational level of students and pay attention to their independent work. The article represents that the computer testing can be widely used for control of knowledge and for teaching. Teaching testing arouses interest in subject and develops ability of self-preparation and self – education, provides in-door and out- door work.

  9. NEUROMUSCULAR FATIGUE DURING A MODIFIED BIERING-SØRENSEN TEST IN SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Pitcher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies employing modified Biering-Sørenson tests have reported that low back endurance is related to the potential for developing low back pain. Understanding the manner in which spinal musculature fatigues in people with and without LBP is necessary to gain insight into the sensitivity of the modified Biering-Sørenson test to differentiate back health. Twenty male volunteers were divided into a LBP group of subjects with current subacute or a history of LBP that limited their activity (n = 10 and a control group (n = 10. The median frequency of the fast Fourier transform was calculated from bilateral surface electromyography (EMG of the upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES, lower lumbar erector spinae (LLES and biceps femoris while maintaining a prescribed modified Biering-Sørensen test position and exerting isometric forces equivalent to 100, 120, 140 and 160% of the estimated mass of the head-arms-trunk (HAT segment. Time to failure was also investigated across the percentages of HAT. Fatigue time decreased with increasing load and differences between groups increased as load increased, however these differences were not significant. Significant differences in the EMG median frequency between groups occurred in the right biceps femoris (p < 0.05 with significant pairwise differences occurring at 140% for the left biceps femoris and at 160% for the right biceps femoris. There were significant pairwise differences at 120% for average EMG of the right biceps femoris and at 140% for the right ULES, and right and left biceps femoris (p < 0.05. The modified Biering-Sørensen test as usually performed at 100% HAT is not sufficient to demonstrate significant differences between controls and subjects with varying degrees of mild back disability based on the Oswestry classification

  10. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  11. Effect of co-administration of fluoxetine and amantadine on immunoendocrine parameters in rats subjected to a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóz, Zofia; Kubera, Marta; Rogóz, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2009-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to a possible role of immunological dysregulation in the pathogenesis of depression. It has been reported that combined administration of antidepressant drugs and the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine reduces immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, preliminary clinical data show that such a combination of drugs has a beneficial effect on treatment-resistant depressed patients. Since immune activation and a pro-inflammatory response are clearly evident in treatment-resistant depression, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a combination of the antidepressant fluoxetine and amantadine on immunoendocrine parameters in rats subjected to the forced swimming test. The obtained results revealed synergistic antidepressant effects of the combined administration of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and amantadine (10 mg/kg) - drugs otherwise ineffective when given separately in the above doses. Antidepressant activity was accompanied with a significant decrease in the capacity of splenocytes to proliferate in response to concanavalin A. Moerover, fluoxetine and the combination of amantadine and fluoxetine reduced relative spleen weight in rats subjected to the FST, compared to rats treated with the vehicle. The combination of amantadine and fluoxetine enhanced the production of the negative immunoregulator interleukin-10 (but not interferon-gamma) in rats subjected to the FST. The exposure to the FST produced an increase in plasma corticosterone levels, which was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with fluoxetine and amantadine. In summary, the antidepressive efficacy of a combination of fluoxetine and amantadine given in suboptimal doses may be related to the negative immunoendocrine effects of these drugs.

  12. Investigation of survival time and disability characteristics in 5 subjects with bilateral thalamus infarction near median line%双侧中线旁丘脑梗死5例致残特点及生存期调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟明; 刘江; 钟静玫; 林岚

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Bilateral thalamus infarction near median line is uncommon in clinic.Reports concerned with this conditions were more less.It is characterized by conscious disorder and Korsakoff syndrome.The main caused may be the injury of intralaminar nuclei,dorsomedial nuclei,and injury of cortical matter,mammalillary bodies,fasciculus thalamicus around cerebral chamer III.Comprehensing the disability characteristics in pateints with bilateral thalamus infarction near median line is important for direction of rehabilitation.While study of survival time will improve evaluation of prognosis. Design:Patients recruited from June 1997~ October 2000 were analyzed. Unit:Intraneural Department of First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province. Subjects:55 subjects with MRI proved bilateral thalamus infarction near median line entered study.These patients included 3 women,2 men(age ranging from 50 to 77 years old,mean age:68.6 years).The period from onset to admission ranged from 5 hours to 2 days.All subejcts experienced acute bilateral thalamus infarction near median line.All had hypertension previously,1 had diabetes,2 had auricular fibrillation. Intervention:All patients received management which was conducted according to protocol for treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. Patients clinical characteristics were summari-zed and analyzed.Follow up was conducted to determine the survival period. Main evaluation indexes:Survival time and conscious disorder were evaluated. Result:All patients showed different level of conscious disorder.3 cases developed thalamic dementia,2 developed vision numb,In 1 case,condition progressively deteriorated manifesting as moderate coma progressed to deep coma,and bilateral mydriasis.Finally,this patients died of central respiratory and circulatory failure after 8 days.4 cases with favorable prognosis discharged,3 out of them died within 1 year after discharge.Survival subject suffered from reduced memory was followed up till now

  13. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  14. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  16. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  17. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid.

  18. Accelerated reliability testing of highly aligned single-walled carbon nanotube networks subjected to DC electrical stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strus, Mark C; Chiaramonti, Ann N; Kim, Young Lae; Jung, Yung Joon; Keller, Robert R

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the electrical reliability of nanoscale lines of highly aligned, networked, metallic/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated through a template-based fluidic assembly process. We find that these SWCNT networks can withstand DC current densities larger than 10 MA cm(-2) for several hours and, in some cases, several days. We develop test methods that show that the degradation rate, failure predictability and total device lifetime can be linked to the initial resistance. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy suggest that fabrication variability plays a critical role in the rate of degradation, and we offer an empirical method of quickly determining the long-term performance of a network. We find that well-fabricated lines subject to constant electrical stress show a linear accumulation of damage reminiscent of electromigration in metallic interconnects, and we explore the underlying physical mechanisms that could cause such behavior.

  19. Validity indices of the Rorschach test and Personality Assessment Inventory: a comparison in pathological and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Di Nuovo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the validity of the Rorschach test, compared with psychometric inventories, is particularly relevant in the forensic evaluation. The aim of the study is to present an overview on the control indices proposed in Rorschach (e.g. R,  F%, Lambda Index and in a personality inventory (Personality Assessment Inventory: e.g., openness, desirability, inconsistency, infrequency, negative and positive impression, malingering and defensiveness, treatment rejection and to cross-correlate these indices. The sample consisted of 50 adult inpatients with diagnosis of severe depression or psychosis, and a control group of healthy subjects, matched by gender, age and educational level. The results show that the analytic style, as opposed to the global one, is related to greater openness to psychological assessment, less social desirability and defensive tendency. The Rorschach Lambda index demonstrates good validity in detecting tendency to defensiveness, social desirability and dissimulation, both in normal and pathological protocols.

  20. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John; Pintar, Frank; Rhule, Heather; Moorhouse, Kevin; Suntay, Brian; Stricklin, Jim; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2017-05-29

    This study compares the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the U.S. Side Impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats. Pole tests were performed with the male surrogate in the left front seat. Three-point belt restraints were used. Sedan-type vehicles were used from the same manufacturer with side airbags. The PMHS head was instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-axis accelerometer package, with angular velocity transducers on the head. Accelerometers and angular velocity transducers were secured to T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes and sacrum. Three chest bands were secured around the upper, middle, and lower thoraces. Dummy instrumentation included five infrared telescoping rods for assessment of chest compression (IR-TRACC) and a chest band at the first abdomen rib, head angular velocity transducer, and head, T1, T4, T12, and pelvis accelerometers. Morphological responses of the kinematics of the head, thoracic spine, and pelvis matched in both surrogates for each pair. The peak magnitudes of the torso accelerations were lower for the dummy than for the biological surrogate. The brain rotational injury criterion (BrIC) response was the highest in the male dummy for the MDB test and PMHS. The probability of AIS3+ injuries, based on the head injury criterion, ranged from 3% to 13% for the PMHS and from 3% to 21% for the dummy from all tests. The BrIC-based metrics ranged from 0 to 21% for the biological and 0 to 48% for the dummy surrogates. The deflection profiles from the IR-TRACC sensors were unimodal. The maximum deflections from the chest band placed on the first abdominal rib were 31.7 mm and 25.4 mm for the male and female

  2. A flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival times for censored time-to-event data in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Miki; Cronin, Angel M; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Hajime

    2018-04-22

    In randomized clinical trials where time-to-event is the primary outcome, almost routinely, the logrank test is prespecified as the primary test and the hazard ratio is used to quantify treatment effect. If the ratio of 2 hazard functions is not constant, the logrank test is not optimal and the interpretation of hazard ratio is not obvious. When such a nonproportional hazards case is expected at the design stage, the conventional practice is to prespecify another member of weighted logrank tests, eg, Peto-Prentice-Wilcoxon test. Alternatively, one may specify a robust test as the primary test, which can capture various patterns of difference between 2 event time distributions. However, most of those tests do not have companion procedures to quantify the treatment difference, and investigators have fallen back on reporting treatment effect estimates not associated with the primary test. Such incoherence in the "test/estimation" procedure may potentially mislead clinicians/patients who have to balance risk-benefit for treatment decision. To address this, we propose a flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival time, where the truncation time τ is selected data dependently. The proposed procedure is composed of a prespecified test and an estimation of corresponding robust and interpretable quantitative treatment effect. The utility of the new procedure is demonstrated by numerical studies based on 2 randomized cancer clinical trials; the test is dramatically more powerful than the logrank, Wilcoxon tests, and the restricted mean survival time-based test with a fixed τ, for the patterns of difference seen in these cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The evaluation of the neck torsion test in subjective examinations of patients with vertigo and/or hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomski, Piotr; Zielińska-Bliźniewskaw, Hanna; Miloński, Jarosław; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Olszewski, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the neck torsion test in VNG, Doppler ultrasonography and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in patients with vertigo and/or hearing loss due to intracranial vascular malformations. The study covered 47 patients, 30 female and 17 male (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 19-74 years) with vertigo and/or hearing disorders and the asymmetry of vertebral arteries. Each patient underwent a subjective examination, an otolaryngological examination, otoneurological diagnostics, VNG with gaze tracking in the straight ahead position and in the 600 left and right neck torsion, the neck torsion test, audiological diagnostics including I-, III- and V-wave latency of the brainstem evoked potentials in the straight ahead position and the right ear stimulation in the 600 right neck torsion and the left ear stimulation in the neck torsion to the left, Doppler ultrasonography with measuring the diameter of vertebral arteries and the velocity of the blood flow in these vessels with the use of the neck torsion test. In own study, in VNG, the positive neck torsion test was observed in 76.5% of the study patients, while square waves in both directions were found in 46.5% and in one direction in 10.6%. Cervical nystagmus was noticed in 19.1% of these patients. In the auditory evoked potentials test, the differences in I-, III- and V-wave latency time were not statistically significant, either at rest or in the neck torsion. In the Doppler ultrasound examination, the asymmetry of vertebral arteries were present (below 25%) in 7 women (14.9%) and 4 men (8.5%), whereas large asymmetries (above 25%) were observed in 23 women (48.9%) and 13 (27.7%) men (range, 25% - 215%) and was statistically insignificant. The resting blood flow velocity in vertebral arteries of large asymmetries, both in systole and diastole heart phases, was significantly higher in the artery with larger asymmetry. The neck torsion test can be diagnostically useful

  4. Fission product retention in TRISO coated UO2 particle fuels subjected to HTR simulated core heating tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.A.; Kania, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the examination and analysis of 25,730 individual microspheres from spherical fuel elements HFR-K3/1 and HFR-K3/3 are reported. The parent spheres were irradiated in excess of end-of-life exposure and subsequently subjected to simulated core heating tests in a special high-temperature furnace at Forschungszentrum, Juelich, GmbH (KFA). Following the heating tests, the spheres were electrolytically deconsolidated to obtain unbounded fuel particles for Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) analysis. For sphere HFR-K3/1, which was heated for 500 h at 1600 deg. C, only four particles were identified as having released fission products. The remaining particles from the sphere showed no statistical evidence of fission product release. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination showed that three of the defect particles had large sections of the TRISO coating missing, while the fourth appeared normal. For sphere HFR-K3/3, which was heated for 100 h at 1800 deg. C, the IMGA data revealed that fission product release (cesium) from individual particles was significant and that there was large particle-to-particle variation in retention capabilities. Individual particle release (cesium) averaged ten times the KFA-measured integral spherical fuel element release value. In addition, the bimodal distribution of the individual particle data indicated that two distinct modes of failure at fuel temperatures of 1800 deg. C and above may exist. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Early smoking-induced lung lesions in asymptomatic subjects. Correlations between high resolution dynamic CT and pulmonary function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaggiari, Enrica; Zompadori, Maurizio; Bna', Claudio; Ormitti, Francesca; Svaerzellati, Nicola; Rabaiotti, Enrico; Verduri, Alessia; Chetta, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and significance of the pathological effects of cigarette smoking on the lung and the sensitivity of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the recognition of early smoking-induced lesions in asymptomatic former of current smokers. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective and consecutive analysis of 36 volunteers (16 males, 20 females), 10 non-smokers (3 males, 7 females) and 26 smokers (13 males, 13 females / 17 current smokers; 9 former smokers), all asymptomatic and with normal respiratory flows. These subjects underwent lung function testing and HRCT, after providing written informed consent for the study. The HRCT scans were obtained at three pre-selected levels (aortic arch, tracheal carina and venous hilum). The same scans were obtained in post-expiration phase. At the level of the apical segmental bronchus of the right upper lobe, we measured on the monitor wall thickening, and the total and internal diameters using the techniques reported in literature. Each study was independently evaluated by two radiologists that were blinded to all clinical and functional data: they also evaluated the presence, prevalence and type of emphysema, areas of patchy hyperlucency and oligoemia in the inspiration phase and areas of expiratory air trapping. The extension was evaluated with the visual score method. The data obtained were analysed with the Windows SPSS package for statistical analysis. Results: The two groups (non smokers and smokers) showed significant differences in some functional tests such as FEV1 (p [it

  6. Fission product retention in TRISCO coated UO2 particle fuels subjected to HTR simulated core heating tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, C.A.; Kania, M.J.

    1990-11-01

    Results of the examination and analysis of 25,730 individual microspheres from spherical fuel elements HFR-K3/1 and HFR-K3/3 are reported. The parent spheres were irradiated in excess of end-of-life exposure and subsequently subjected to simulated core heating tests in a special high-temperature furnace at Forschungszentrum, Juelich, GmbH (KFA). Following the heating tests, the spheres were electrolytically deconsolidated to obtain unbonded fuel particles for Irradiated Microsphere Gamma Analyzer (IMGA) analysis. For sphere HFR-K3/1, which was heated for 500 h at 1600 degree C, only four particles were identified as having released fission products. The remaining particles from the sphere showed no statistical evidence of fission product release. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) examination showed that three of the defect particles had large sections of the TRISO coating missing, while the fourth appeared normal. For sphere HFR-K3/3, which was heated for 100 h at 1800 degree C, the IMGA data revealed that fission product release (cesium) from individual particles was significant and that there was large particle-to-particle variation in retention capabilities. Individual particle release (cesium) averaged ten times the KFA-measured integral spherical fuel element release value. In addition, the bimodal distribution of the individual particle data indicated that two distinct modes of failure at fuel temperatures of 1800 degree C and above may exist. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Kircher, Tilo; Schulz, Eberhard; Clement, Hans-Willi; Heiser, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts such as Hypericum perforatum and Pycnogenol have been tested as alternatives to the classical ADHD drugs. It has been possible to describe neuroprotective effects of such plant extracts. A reduction of ADHD symptoms could be shown in clinical studies after the application of Pycnogenol, which is a pine bark extract. The impacts of the standardized herbal extracts Hypericum perforatum, Pycnogenol and Enzogenol up to a concentration of 5000 ng/mL on cell survival and energy metabolism in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells has been investigated in the present examination. Hypericum perforatum significantly decreased the survival of cells after treatment with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL, whereas lower concentrations exerted no significant effects. Pycnogenol( induced a significant increase of cell survival after incubation with a concentration of 32.25 ng/mL and a concentration of 250 ng/mL. Other applied concentrations of Pycnogenol failed to exert significant effects. Treatment with Enzogenol did not lead to significant changes in cell survival.Concerning energy metabolism, the treatment of cells with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL Hypericum perforatum led to a significant increase of ATP levels, whereas treatment with a concentration of 500 ng/mL had no significant effect. Incubation of cells with Pycnogenol and Enzogenol exerted no significant effects.None of the tested substances caused any cytotoxic effect when used in therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The RID2 biofidelic rear impact dummy: a pilot study using human subjects in low speed rear impact full scale crash tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Philippens, Mathieu M G M

    2007-03-01

    Human subjects and the recently developed RID2 rear impact crash test dummy were exposed to a series of full scale, vehicle-to-vehicle crash tests. To evaluate the biofidelity of the RID2 anthropometric test dummy on the basis of calculated neck injury criterion (NIC) values by comparing these values to those obtained from human subjects exposed in the very same crashes. The widely used and familiar hybrid III dummy has been said to lack biofidelity in the special application of low speed rear impact crashes. Several attempts have been made to modify this dummy with only marginal success. Two completely new dummies have been developed; the BioRID and the RID2. Neither have been tested under real world crash boundary conditions in side-by-side comparisons with live human subjects. Volunteer subjects, including a 50th percentile male, a 95th percentile male, and a 50th percentile female, were placed in the driver's seat of a vehicle and subjected to a series of three low speed rear impact crashes each. The RID2 dummy, which is modeled after a 50th percentile male, was placed in the passenger seat in each case. Both subjects and dummy were fully instrumented and acceleration-time histories were recorded. From this data, velocities of the heads and torsos were determined and both were used to calculate the NIC values for both crash test subjects and the RID2. The RID2 demonstrated generally higher head accelerations and NIC values than those of the human subjects. Most of the observed variations might be explained on the basis of differing head restraint geometry, posture, and body size. The RID2 NIC values compared most favorably with those of the 50th percentile male subject. For the whole group, the correlations between RID2 and human subjects did not reach statistical significance. The small number of test subjects and crash tests limited the statistical power of this pilot study, and the correlation between the RID2 and human subject NIC values were not

  9. A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Lebarbé, Mathieu; Baudrit, Pascal; Potier, Pascal; Compigne, Sabine; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Yamaoka, Akira; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Douard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy/Mx peak values were 4500 N/50 Nm, 2400 N/130 Nm, and 5300 N/150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s. The shape and the orientation of the impacting face of the probe were selected to match the WorldSID pubic Fy and sacroiliac Fy/Mx loads of the three vehicle test configurations. Three PMHS were tested in each of the three configurations (nine PMHS in total). In the first PMHS configuration, one specimen sustained an AIS 3 injury and one sustained an AIS 4 injury (an unstable pelvis with complete disruption of the posterior arch, a sacroiliac joint disruption associated with an iliac fracture, and a pubic symphysis separation). In the second configuration, all specimens sustained a fracture of the superior lateral iliac wing (AIS 2). In the third configuration, one specimen sustained a partial disruption of the anterior arch (AIS 2). Based on the data from strain gauges located on the pubic rami and near the sacroiliac joint, the pubic rami fractures were identified as occurring prior to the sacroiliac fractures. Out of nine impactor tests performed, the PMHS S-I joint injuries were observed to consistently be associated with pelvic anterior arch fractures. In addition, from the injury

  10. Detecting small-study effects and funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analysis of survival data: A comparison of new and existing tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Thomas P A; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2018-03-01

    Small-study effects are a common threat in systematic reviews and may indicate publication bias. Their existence is often verified by visual inspection of the funnel plot. Formal tests to assess the presence of funnel plot asymmetry typically estimate the association between the reported effect size and their standard error, the total sample size, or the inverse of the total sample size. In this paper, we demonstrate that the application of these tests may be less appropriate in meta-analysis of survival data, where censoring influences statistical significance of the hazard ratio. We subsequently propose 2 new tests that are based on the total number of observed events and adopt a multiplicative variance component. We compare the performance of the various funnel plot asymmetry tests in an extensive simulation study where we varied the true hazard ratio (0.5 to 1), the number of published trials (N=10 to 100), the degree of censoring within trials (0% to 90%), and the mechanism leading to participant dropout (noninformative versus informative). Results demonstrate that previous well-known tests for detecting funnel plot asymmetry suffer from low power or excessive type-I error rates in meta-analysis of survival data, particularly when trials are affected by participant dropout. Because our novel test (adopting estimates of the asymptotic precision as study weights) yields reasonable power and maintains appropriate type-I error rates, we recommend its use to evaluate funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analysis of survival data. The use of funnel plot asymmetry tests should, however, be avoided when there are few trials available for any meta-analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  12. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  13. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: sergio.todesco@usp.br, E-mail: csmucsi@ipen.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  14. Design of a test device for subjecting materials to high strain rates: with application in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todesco, Sergio R.; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a device to gather characteristic data of materials subjected to high strain rates, this device named after the eminent English engineer Sir Bertram Hopkinson 'Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar', from here will be designated SHPB. More specifically, this work is inseparably linked to the development of packing for transportation of highly radioactive substances as a part to the general scope of a CAPES project in partnership with the CCTM Materials Department of IPEN, Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research, linked to the University of Sao Paulo. The development of the device is part of a scope, and collection of data necessary for the design and construction of this packing. The SHPB device can be divided into two parts, the first part concerning the mechanical design. The second, data collection that is indeed the challenging part of the device, and proper tests. The present paper, specifically, will only deals with the mechanical design of the device, importantly, divided into two parts, the size of the bars, which are the impact bar, the input bar, and the output bar, and the size of the impact device. The sizing of the bars involve knowledge of the concept of elastic waves in solid media for the length of the bars to serve as a wave-guide, which will cause a deformation of the specimen, and enables recording of these waves for data analysis. The impact device must be robust enough to produce the stress wave to deform the specimen, but not to plastically deform the bars, which have to continue throughout the test within the elastic range. (author)

  15. Classical test theory and Rasch analysis validation of the Upper Limb Functional Index in subjects with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravini, Elisabetta; Franchignoni, Franco; Giordano, Andrea; Sartorio, Francesco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano; Foti, Calogero

    2015-01-01

    To perform a comprehensive analysis of the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the Upper Limb Functional Index (ULFI) using both classical test theory and Rasch analysis (RA). Prospective, single-group observational design. Freestanding rehabilitation center. Convenience sample of Italian-speaking subjects with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (N=174). Not applicable. The Italian version of the ULFI. Data were analyzed using parallel analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and RA for evaluating dimensionality, functioning of rating scale categories, item fit, hierarchy of item difficulties, and reliability indices. Parallel analysis revealed 2 factors explaining 32.5% and 10.7% of the response variance. RA confirmed the failure of the unidimensionality assumption, and 6 items out of the 25 misfitted the Rasch model. When the analysis was rerun excluding the misfitting items, the scale showed acceptable fit values, loading meaningfully to a single factor. Item separation reliability and person separation reliability were .98 and .89, respectively. Cronbach alpha was .92. RA revealed weakness of the scale concerning dimensionality and internal construct validity. However, a set of 19 ULFI items defined through the statistical process demonstrated a unidimensional structure, good psychometric properties, and clinical meaningfulness. These findings represent a useful starting point for further analyses of the tool (based on modern psychometric approaches and confirmatory factor analysis) in larger samples, including different patient populations and nationalities. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Concomitant administration of fluoxetine and amantadine modulates the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats subjected to a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adam; Rogóz, Zofia; Kubera, Marta; Nawrat, Dominika; Nalepa, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies show that administration of a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, amantadine (AMA), potentiates the action of antidepressant drugs. Since antidepressants may modulate functioning of the immune system and activation of a pro-inflammatory response in depressive disorders is frequently reported, the aim of the present study was to examine whether a combined administration of AMA and the antidepressant, fluoxetine (FLU), to rats subsequently subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) modifies the parameters of macrophage activity, directly related to their immunomodulatory functions, i.e., arginase (ARG) activity and synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). We found that 10 mg/kg AMA and 10 mg/kg FLU, ineffective in FST for antidepressant-like activity when administered alone, increased the ARG/NO ratio in macrophages when administered concomitantly. This effect was accompanied by a decrease of cellular adherence. Concurrently, the basal metabolic activity of the cells measured with reduction of resazurin, and intracellular host defense as assessed by a synthesis of superoxide anion, were not affected by such antidepressive treatment. Our data indicate that co-administration of AMA and FLU decreases the pro-inflammatory properties of macrophages and causes a redirection of immune response toward anti-inflammatory activity, as one can anticipate in the case of an effective antidepressive treatment.

  17. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, PBread (PBread (PBread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, PBread respectively, Pbreads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  19. Biostatistics series module 9: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is concerned with “time to event“ data. Conventionally, it dealt with cancer death as the event in question, but it can handle any event occurring over a time frame, and this need not be always adverse in nature. When the outcome of a study is the time to an event, it is often not possible to wait until the event in question has happened to all the subjects, for example, until all are dead. In addition, subjects may leave the study prematurely. Such situations lead to what is called censored observations as complete information is not available for these subjects. The data set is thus an assemblage of times to the event in question and times after which no more information on the individual is available. Survival analysis methods are the only techniques capable of handling censored observations without treating them as missing data. They also make no assumption regarding normal distribution of time to event data. Descriptive methods for exploring survival times in a sample include life table and Kaplan–Meier techniques as well as various kinds of distribution fitting as advanced modeling techniques. The Kaplan–Meier cumulative survival probability over time plot has become the signature plot for biomedical survival analysis. Several techniques are available for comparing the survival experience in two or more groups – the log-rank test is popularly used. This test can also be used to produce an odds ratio as an estimate of risk of the event in the test group; this is called hazard ratio (HR. Limitations of the traditional log-rank test have led to various modifications and enhancements. Finally, survival analysis offers different regression models for estimating the impact of multiple predictors on survival. Cox's proportional hazard model is the most general of the regression methods that allows the hazard function to be modeled on a set of explanatory variables without making restrictive assumptions concerning the

  20. Effect of foot placements during sit to stand transition on timed up and go test in stroke subjects: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; Karnad, Shreekanth D; Nayak, Akshatha; Suresh, B V; Mithra, Prasanna; Unnikrishnan, B

    2017-01-01

    Timed up and go (TUG) test is been used as a screening tool for the assessment of risk of falling in individuals following stroke. Though TUG test is a quick test, it has fair sensitivity compared to other tests. This study was carried out to obtain and compare test scores for different types of foot placements during sit to stand transition in stroke subjects. A Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling included 28 post stroke subjects who were able to walk 6 meter with or without assistance. Timed Up and Go test was carried out with four different types of foot placements and scores were recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis One way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. There were comparable differences between asymmetric 1 test strategy which involved affected extremity to be placed behind the unaffected and other test strategies (Z = -4.457,-3.848,-4.458; p = 0.000). The initial foot placements during sit to stand transition influenced the time taken to complete the test which was significantly higher in asymmetric 1 strategy, Incorporation of the initial foot placement mainly asymmetric 1 strategy into conventional TUG test would help in identifying accurately the subject's functional mobility and postural stability.

  1. Full-scale tank car rollover tests - survivability of top fittings and top fittings protective structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Full-scale rollover crash tests were performed on three non-pressure tank carbodies to validate previous analytical work and : determine the effectiveness of two different types of protective structures in protecting the top fittings. The tests were ...

  2. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  3. The Utility of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in Differential Diagnosis of Cognitive Disorders in Iranian Psychiatric Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Hashemi, MA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Wisconsin Test Card Sorting Test (WCST is a neuropsychological test that has been suggested as a more specific test for frontal lobes dysfunctions. This study was designed to determine whether WCST is able to differentiate between Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders and normal subjects, and whether WCST scores are related to severity of symptoms in depressive and schizophrenic patients.Method: Participants were four groups: schizophrenics with positive symptoms (n=25; schizophrenics with negative symptoms (n=25; major depressives (n=25; and normal subjects (n=25. All subjects were tested individually using WCST. To analyze the data, various descriptive statistics, ANOVA, t-test and multiple regression analysis were used.Results: Regarding the number of categories (P<0.001 and the rate of perseverative errors (P<0.01, according to the results, the normal subjects performed significantly better than patient groups on WCST, although the differences between patient groups were not significant. Our results also showed that greater positive or depressive symptoms were not associated with poorer scores on WCST performance. Only the level of severity of negative symptoms predicted scores on perseverative errors.Conclusion: It is concluded that WCST can differentiate Iranian psychiatric patients with cognitive disorders from normal subjects, but it is not able to clearly differentiate schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms from those with positive symptoms and depressives. Only severity of negative symptoms affects WCST performance

  4. An Evaluation of Kernel Equating: Parallel Equating with Classical Methods in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] Program. Research Report. ETS RR-09-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Mary C.; Zhang, Lilly; Damiano, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated kernel equating methods by comparing these methods to operational equatings for two tests in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] program. GENASYS (ETS, 2007) was used for all equating methods and scaled score kernel equating results were compared to Tucker, Levine observed score, chained linear, and chained equipercentile equating…

  5. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  6. [Effect of air-electric fields on driving and reaction patterns. Test subjects in the car driving simulator (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselm, D; Danner, M; Kirmaier, N; König, H L; Müller-Limmroth, W; Reis, A; Schauerte, W

    1977-06-10

    In the relevant frequency range of about 10 Hertz cars can be considered very largely as Faraday cages and consequently as screens against air-electric fields. This may have a negative influence on driving and reaction patterns as a result. In an extensive investigation 48 subjects in a driving simulator were exposed to definite artificially produced air-electric fields. The self-rating of the performance and concentration of the subjects, reaction times and driving errors were determined. While the reaction times remained practically constant, the driving behavior of the subjects improved.

  7. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Dickerson, Bryan [Luna Innovations, Inc. (United States)

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and

  8. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to High Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica'@@s optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and

  9. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  11. The influence of prototype fidelity and aesthetics of design in usability tests: effects on user behaviour, subjective evaluation and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Sonderegger, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    An empirical study examined the impact of prototype fidelity on user behaviour, subjective user evaluation and emotion. The independent factors of prototype fidelity (paper prototype, computer prototype, fully operational appliance) and aesthetics of design (high vs. moderate) were varied in a between-subjects design. The 60 participants of the experiment were asked to complete two typical tasks of mobile phone usage: sending a text message and suppressing a phone number. Both performance data and a number of subjective measures were recorded. The results suggested that task completion time may be overestimated when a computer prototype is being used. Furthermore, users appeared to compensate for deficiencies in aesthetic design by overrating the aesthetic qualities of reduced fidelity prototypes. Finally, user emotions were more positively affected by the operation of the more attractive mobile phone than by the less appealing one.

  12. Human occupants in low-speed frontal sled tests: effects of pre-impact bracing on chest compression, reaction forces, and subject acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Andrew R; Beeman, Stephanie M; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-impact bracing on the chest compression, reaction forces, and accelerations experienced by human occupants during low-speed frontal sled tests. A total of twenty low-speed frontal sled tests, ten low severity (∼2.5g, Δv=5 kph) and ten medium severity (∼5g, Δv=10 kph), were performed on five 50th-percentile male human volunteers. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and the other braced prior to the impulse. A 59-channel chestband, aligned at the nipple line, was used to quantify the chest contour and anterior-posterior sternum deflection. Three-axis accelerometer cubes were attached to the sternum, 7th cervical vertebra, and sacrum of each subject. In addition, three linear accelerometers and a three-axis angular rate sensor were mounted to a metal mouthpiece worn by each subject. Seatbelt tension load cells were attached to the retractor, shoulder, and lap portions of the standard three-point driver-side seatbelt. In addition, multi-axis load cells were mounted to each interface between the subject and the test buck to quantify reaction forces. For relaxed tests, the higher test severity resulted in significantly larger peak values for all resultant accelerations, all belt forces, and three resultant reaction forces (right foot, seatpan, and seatback). For braced tests, the higher test severity resulted in significantly larger peak values for all resultant accelerations, and two resultant reaction forces (right foot and seatpan). Bracing did not have a significant effect on the occupant accelerations during the low severity tests, but did result in a significant decrease in peak resultant sacrum linear acceleration during the medium severity tests. Bracing was also found to significantly reduce peak shoulder and retractor belt forces for both test severities, and peak lap belt force for the medium test severity. In contrast, bracing resulted in a significant

  13. Functional Capacity Evaluation in Subjects with Early Osteoarthritis of Hip and/or Knee; is Two-Day Testing Needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M. W.; Bieleman, H. J.; Reneman, M. F.; Oosterveld, F. G. J.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Introduction The Work Well Functional Capacity Evaluation (WW FCE) is a two-day performance based test consisting of several work-related activities. Three lifting and carrying test items may be performed on both days. The objective of this study was to assess the need for repeated testing of these

  14. Functional capacity evaluation in subjects with early osteoarthritis of hip and/or knee; is two-day testing needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, M W; Bieleman, H J; Reneman, M F; Oosterveld, F G J; Groothoff, J W; van der Schans, C.P.

    INTRODUCTION: The Work Well Functional Capacity Evaluation (WW FCE) is a two-day performance based test consisting of several work-related activities. Three lifting and carrying test items may be performed on both days. The objective of this study was to assess the need for repeated testing of these

  15. A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft[R] Office Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Konrad, Moira

    2007-01-01

    Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested…

  16. Intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests in subjects with and without self-reported shoulder problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshoj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Kjaer, Birgitte Hougs; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2018-03-03

    First, to investigate the intertester reliability of clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests, and second, to describe the mutual dependency of each test evaluated by each tester for identifying self-reported shoulder instability and laxity. A standardised protocol for conducting reliability studies was used to test the intertester reliability of the six clinical shoulder instability and laxity tests: apprehension, relocation, surprise, load-and-shift, sulcus sign and Gagey. Cohen's kappa (κ) with 95% CIs besides prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK), accounting for insufficient prevalence and bias, were computed to establish the intertester reliability and mutual dependency. Forty individuals (13 with self-reported shoulder instability and laxity-related shoulder problems and 27 normal shoulder individuals) aged 18-60 were included. Fair (relocation), moderate (load-and-shift, sulcus sign) and substantial (apprehension, surprise, Gagey) intertester reliability were observed across tests (κ 0.39-0.73; 95% CI 0.00 to 1.00). PABAK improved reliability across tests, resulting in substantial to almost perfect intertester reliability for the apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey tests (κ 0.65-0.90). Mutual dependencies between each test and self-reported shoulder problem showed apprehension, relocation and surprise to be the most often used tests to characterise self-reported shoulder instability and laxity conditions. Four tests (apprehension, surprise, load-and-shift and Gagey) out of six were considered intertester reliable for clinical use, while relocation and sulcus sign tests need further standardisation before acceptable evidence. Furthermore, the validity of the tests for shoulder instability and laxity needs to be studied. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides adequate...

  18. Human Analogue of the Morris Water Maze for Testing Subjects at Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laczó, J.; Andel, R.; Vyhnálek, M.; Vlček, Kamil; Magerová, H.; Varjassyova, A.; Tolar, M.; Hort, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, 1-3 (2010), s. 148-152 ISSN 1660-2854 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/0286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mild cognitive impairment * spatial navigation * Alzheimer’s Disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.791, year: 2010

  19. Experimental results from containment piping bellows subjected to severe accident conditions. Volume 1, Results from bellows tested in 'like-new' conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1994-09-01

    Bellows are an integral part of the containment pressure boundary in nuclear power plants. They are used at piping penetrations to allow relative movement between piping and the containment wall, while minimizing the load imposed on the piping and wall. Piping bellows are primarily used in steel containments; however, they have received limited use in some concrete (reinforced and prestressed) containments. In a severe accident they may be subjected to pressure and temperature conditions that exceed the design values, along with a combination of axial and lateral deflections. A test program to determine the leak-tight capacity of containment penetration bellows is being conducted under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Sandia National Laboratories. Several different bellows geometries, representative of actual containment bellows, have been subjected to extreme deflections along with pressure and temperature loads. The bellows geometries and loading conditions are described along with the testing apparatus and procedures. A total of thirteen bellows have been tested, all in the 'like-new' condition. (Additional tests are planned of bellows that have been subjected to corrosion.) The tests showed that bellows are capable of withstanding relatively large deformations, up to, or near, the point of full compression or elongation, before developing leakage. The test data is presented and discussed

  20. An attempt for a unified description of mechanical testing on Zircaloy-4 cladding subjected to simulated LOCA transient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desquines Jean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA, an important safety requirement is that the reflooding of the core by the emergency core cooling system should not lead to a complete rupture of the fuel rods. Several types of mechanical tests are usually performed in the industry to determine the degree of cladding embrittlement, such as ring compression tests or four-point bending of rodlets. Many other tests can be found in the open literature. However, there is presently no real intrinsic understanding of the failure conditions in these tests which would allow translation of the results from one kind of mechanical testing to another. The present study is an attempt to provide a unified description of the failure not directly depending on the tested geometry. This effort aims at providing a better understanding of the link between several existing safety criteria relying on very different mechanical testing. To achieve this objective, the failure mechanisms of pre-oxidized and pre-hydrided cladding samples are characterized by comparing the behavior of two different mechanical tests: Axial Tensile (AT test and “C”-shaped Ring Compression Test (CCT. The failure of samples in both cases can be described by usual linear elastic fracture mechanics theory. Using interrupted mechanical tests, metallographic examinations have evidenced that a set of parallel cracks are nucleated at the inner and outer surface of the samples just before failure, crossing both the oxide layer and the oxygen rich alpha layer. The stress intensity factors for multiple crack geometry are determined for both AT and CCT samples using finite element calculations. After each mechanical test performed on high temperature steam oxidized samples, metallography is then used to individually determine the crack depth and crack spacing. Using these two important parameters and considering the applied load at fracture, the stress intensity factor at failure is derived for each tested

  1. Estimation of macular pigment optical density in the elderly: test-retest variability and effect of optical blur in pseudophakic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallaher, Kevin T.; Mura, Marco; Todd, Wm Andrew; Harris, Tarsha L.; Kenyon, Emily; Harris, Tamara; Johnson, Karen C.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Iannaccone, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The reproducibility of macular pigment optical density (MPOD) estimates in the elderly was assessed in 40 subjects (age: 79.1+/-3.5). Test-retest variability was good (Pearson's r coefficient: 0.734), with an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 18.4% and an intraclass correlation coefficient

  2. Talinum triangulare Whole wheat meal fortified with soy flour consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup glycemic index and the test human subjects' lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaleku, Sunday Adeola; Omueti, Olusola D; Emaleku, Godsent Oluwakemi

    2017-08-24

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are some of the leading causes of death in the world, and diet has roles in their etiology. This research study therefore investigates the glycemic index (GI) of soy flour fortified whole wheat meal (SFFWWM) consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup and the effects of the meal on the lipid profiles of the test human subjects. The control human subjects and test human subjects were fed D-glucose (DG) and whole wheat meal (WWM) with Talinum triangulare soup respectively on the first day of the experiment, and SFFWWM with the same soup the next day (for test subjects only) after 10-12h overnight fasting. Blood glucose levels of the subjects were taken before and 2h after meals' consumption at 30min interval and blood samples collected for lipid profiles evaluations. The result of the study showed that; SFFWWM consumed with Talinum trianguilare soup has a non-significant lower GI than WWM consumed with the same soup, but a significant lower GI than DG at (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in lipid profiles of the test human subjects between when they consumed WWM and SFFWWM with the soup however, SFFWWM reduced TC, TG, LDL-C and VDL-C and increased HDL-C and TP than WMM at (P<0.05). In addition, GI is positively correlated with TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, but is negatively correlated with TP and HDL-C. It can therefore be concluded that; fortifying WWM with soy flour would reduce the risk factors of CVDs and DM, the diseases recently claiming thousands of today. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bo; Dan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13 C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13 CO 2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t 1/2 ) and lag phase (t lag ) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t 1/2 and t lag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t 1/2 , 19.4% for t lag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t 1/2 , 28.2% for t lag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t 1/2 and t lag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13 C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  4. Moderate wine consumption is associated with better cognitive test results: a 7 year follow up of 5033 subjects in the Tromsø Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, K A; Schirmer, H; Wilsgaard, T; Mathiesen, E B

    2010-01-01

    The impact of moderate alcohol consumption on cognitive function and dementia is unclear. We examined the relationship between consumption of different alcoholic beverages and cognitive function in a large population-based study. Subjects were 5033 stroke-free men and women who participated in a longitudinal population-based study in Tromsø, Norway. Alcohol consumption and other cardiovascular risk factors were measured at baseline and cognitive function was assessed after 7 years follow up with verbal memory test, digit-symbol coding test and tapping test. Moderate wine consumption was independently associated with better performance on all cognitive tests in both men and women. There was no consistent association between consumption of beer and spirits and cognitive test results. Alcohol abstention was associated with lower cognitive performance in women. Light-to-moderate wine consumption was associated with better performance on cognitive tests after 7 years follow up.

  5. Abilities of Oropharyngeal pH Tests and Salivary Pepsin Analysis to Discriminate Between Asymptomatic Volunteers and Subjects With Symptoms of Laryngeal Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Rena; Adkins, Christopher; Jaiyeola, Diana-Marie; Lidder, Alcina K; Gawron, Andrew J; Tan, Bruce K; Shabeeb, Nadine; Price, Caroline P E; Agrawal, Neelima; Ellenbogen, Michael; Smith, Stephanie S; Bove, Michiel; Pandolfino, John E

    2016-04-01

    It has been a challenge to confirm the association between laryngeal symptoms and physiological reflux disease. We examined the ability of oropharyngeal pH tests (with the Restech Dx-pH system) and salivary pepsin tests (with Peptest) to discriminate between asymptomatic volunteers (controls) and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms (laryngeal ± reflux). We performed a physician-blinded prospective cohort study of 59 subjects at a single academic institution. Adult volunteers were recruited and separated into 3 groups on the basis of GerdQ and Reflux Symptom Index scores: controls (n = 20), laryngeal symptoms (n = 20), or laryngeal + reflux symptoms (n = 19). Subjects underwent laryngoscopy and oropharyngeal pH tests and submitted saliva samples for analysis of pepsin concentration. Primary outcomes included abnormal acid exposure and composite (RYAN) score for oropharyngeal pH tests and abnormal mean salivary pepsin concentration that was based on normative data. Complete oropharyngeal pH data were available from 53 subjects and complete salivary pepsin data from 35 subjects. We did not observe any significant differences between groups in percent of time spent below pH 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, or RYAN scores or percent of subjects with positive results from tests for salivary pepsin (53% vs 40% vs 75%; P = .50, respectively). The laryngeal + reflux group had a significantly higher estimated mean concentration of salivary pepsin (117.9 ± 147.4 ng/mL) than the control group (32.4 ± 41.9 ng/mL) or laryngeal symptom group (7.5 ± 11.2 ng/mL) (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). By using current normative thresholds, oropharyngeal pH testing and salivary pepsin analysis are not able to distinguish between healthy volunteers and subjects with a combination of laryngeal and reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Socio-cultural adaptation and standardization of Dubois' five words testing in a population of normal subject in Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinto, Cheick O; Coulibaly, Toumany; Koné, Zeinab; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Maiga, Boubacar; Dembélé, Kekouta; Cissé, Lassana; Konaté, Mamadou; Coulibaly, Thomas; Sissoko, Adama S; Karambé, Mamadou; Burnett, Barrington; Landouré, Guida; Traoré, Moussa

    2016-06-01

    Dubois' five words testing (5WT) is a verbal memory test that depends on many parameters. The aim of this study is to adapt Dubois' 5WT to the Malian socio-cultural conditions to (i) determine performances of normal subjects to the 5WT and (ii) provide reference scores of the 5WT. A sample of 276 normal subjects aged ≥ 50 years (154 males and 122 females; 144 literates and 132 illiterates) were enrolled from February 2008 to January 2009. Subjects with a history of symptoms likely to modify cognitive functions and those who were found disabled under Lawton's four simplified item test were excluded. The learning score in illiterates was 1.51 in Dubois' 5WT and 4.90 in the modified 5WT. The mean value of the modified 5WT total score was 9.71. Majority (90.22%) of the subjects scored the maximum (10). The modified 5WT reduced with both the age (p culture and the socio-educative level in French. Its adaptation to the socio-cultural context could prove useful and efficient in countries with a low literacy rate and a diverse cultural background.

  7. Analysis of psycho-physiological features of a subject in simple tests with the registration of electroencephalograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnova, Anastasiya; Zhuravlev, Maxim; Kulanin, Roman; Protasov, Pavel; Efremova, Tatiana

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we found a correlation between the characteristics of a person revealed in classical psychological testing on the basis of Schulte tables, and its neurophysiological features of the functioning of the brain obtained from the time-frequency analysis of EEG. The results obtained are interesting from the point of view of the choice of training strategies for a particular individual. We believe that the obtained results are of interest for fundamental science and applied works of psychological testing and diagnostics. The study of such forming strategies on EEG data can be automated and do not require the work of highly skilled psychologists.

  8. Influence of sustained submaximal clenching fatigue test on electromyographic activity and maximum voluntary bite forces in healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Fan, S; Cai, B; Fang, Z; Jiang, X

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the fatigue induced by sustained motor task in the jaw elevator muscles differed between healthy subjects and patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Fifteen patients with TMD and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls performed a fatigue test consisting of sustained clenching contractions at 30% maximal voluntary clenching intensity until test failure (the criterion for terminating the fatigue test was when the biting force decreased by 10% or more from the target force consecutively for >3 s). The pre- and post-maximal bite forces (MBFs) were measured. Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from the superficial masseter muscles and anterior temporal muscles bilaterally, and the median frequency at the beginning, middle and end of the fatigue test was calculated. The duration of the fatigue test was also quantified. Both pre- and post-MBFs were lower in patients with TMD than in controls (P fatigue test in TMD patients was significantly shorter than that of the controls (P fatigued, but the electromyographic activation process during the fatigue test is similar between healthy subjects and patients with TMD. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear, and further research is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Test-retest reproducibility of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding to TSPO in healthy control subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collste, K.; Forsberg, A.; Varrone, A.; Amini, N.; Halldin, C.; Farde, L.; Cervenka, S. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Aeinehband, S. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neuroimmunology Unit, Stockholm (Sweden); Yakushev, I. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Munich (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The PET radioligand [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binds to the translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of brain immune activation. We examined the reproducibility of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding in healthy subjects with quantification on a regional and voxel-by-voxel basis. In addition, we performed a preliminary analysis of diurnal changes in TSPO availability. Twelve subjects were examined using a high-resolution research tomograph and [{sup 11}C]PBR28, six in the morning and afternoon of the same day, and six in the morning on two separate days. Regional volumes of distribution (V{sub T}) were derived using a region-of-interest based two-tissue compartmental analysis (2TCM), as well as a parametric approach. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma was used as input function. For the whole sample, the mean absolute variability in V{sub T} in the grey matter (GM) was 18.3 ± 12.7 %. Intraclass correlation coefficients in GM regions ranged from 0.90 to 0.94. Reducing the time of analysis from 91 to 63 min yielded a variability of 16.9 ± 14.9 %. There was a strong correlation between the parametric and 2TCM-derived GM values (r = 0.99). A significant increase in GM V{sub T} was observed between the morning and afternoon examinations when using secondary methods of quantification (p = 0.028). In the subjects examined at the same time of the day, the absolute variability was 15.9 ± 12.2 % for the 91-min 2TCM data. V{sub T} of [{sup 11}C]PBR28 binding showed medium reproducibility and high reliability in GM regions. Our findings support the use of parametric approaches for determining [{sup 11}C]PBR28 V{sub T} values, and indicate that the acquisition time could be shortened. Diurnal changes in TSPO binding in the brain may be a potential confounder in clinical studies and should be investigated further. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative sensory testing and pain tolerance in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease compared to healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) report pain less frequently than their cognitively intact peers. It has been hypothesized that pain processing is altered in AD. The aim of this study was to investigate agreement and reliability of 3 pain sensitivity tests and to examine pain threshold...

  11. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  12. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, Caroline J.; Hodson, Mark E.; Arnold, Rebecca E.; Black, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg -1 . After 28 days LC50 -95%confidencelimit +95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824 -361 +898 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus2867 -193 +145 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa2747 -304 +239 mg Pb kg -1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841 -68 +150 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus1303 -201 +240 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa1208 -206 +212 mg Pb kg -1 . At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  13. Testing of Sapphire Optical Fiber and Sensors in Intense Radiation Fields When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Thomas [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Windl, Wolfgang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The primary objective of this project was to determine the optical attenuation and signal degradation of sapphire optical fibers & sensors (temperature & strain), in-situ, operating at temperatures up to 1500°C during reactor irradiation through experiments and modeling. The results will determine the feasibility of extending sapphire optical fiber-based instrumentation to extremely high temperature radiation environments. This research will pave the way for future testing of sapphire optical fibers and fiber-based sensors under conditions expected in advanced high temperature reactors.

  14. Research into material behaviour of the polymeric samples obtained after 3D-printing and subjected to compression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Mikhail A.; Kosatchyov, Nikolay V.; Petrov, Pavel A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper represents the results of the study concerning the investigation of the influence of the filling grade (material density) on the force characteristic during the uniaxial compression test of the cylindrical polymer probes produced by additive technology based on FDM. The authors have shown that increasing of the filling grate follows to the increase of the deformation forces. However, the dependency is not a linear function and characterized by soft-elastic model of material behaviour, which is typical for polymers partly crystallized structure.

  15. The sensitivity and specificity of subjective memory complaints and the subjective memory rating scale, deterioration cognitive observee, mini-mental state examination, six-item screener and clock drawing test in dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, S; Chipps, J; Bhigjee, A I; Pillay, B J

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of dementia screening depends on the availability of suitable screening tools with good sensitivity and specificity to confidently distinguish normal age-related cognitive decline from dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of 7 screening measures for dementia. A sample of 140 participants aged ≥60 years living in a residential facility for the aged were assessed clinically and assigned caseness for dementia using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revised diagnostic criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of a selection of the following screening measures were tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for individual and combined tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Six-Item Screener (SIS), Subjective Memory Complaint, Subjective Memory Complaint Clinical (SMCC), Subjective Memory Rating Scale (SMRS), Deterioration Cognitive Observee (DECO) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Using ROC analyses, the SMCC, MMSE and CDT were found to be 'moderately accurate' in screening for dementia with an area under the curve (AUC) >0.70. The AUCs for the SIS (0.526), SMRS (0.661) and DECO (0.687) classified these measures as being 'less accurate'. At recommended cutoff scores, the SMCC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 45.7%; the MMSE had a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 76.0%, and the CDT had a sensitivity of 44.4% and a specificity of 88.9%. Combining the SMCC and MMSE did not improve their predictive power except for a modest increase when using the sequential rule. The SMCC is composed of valid screening questions that have high sensitivity, are simple to administer and ideal for administration at the community or primary health care level as a first level of 'rule-out' screening. The MMSE can be included at a second stage of screening at the general hospital level and the CDT in specialist clinical settings. Sequential use of the

  16. A visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances: study in subjects after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Ortiz, Carolina; Pozo, Antonio M; Anera, Rosario G; Soler, Margarita

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we propose the Halo test, a simple visual test based on a freeware software for quantifying and displaying night-vision disturbances perceived by subjects under different experimental conditions, more precisely studying the influence of the alcohol consumption on visual function. In the Halo test, viewed on a monitor, the subject's task consists of detecting luminous peripheral stimuli around a central high-luminance stimulus over a dark background. The test, performed by subjects before and after consuming alcoholic drinks, which deteriorate visual performance, evaluates the influence that alcohol consumption exerts on the visual-discrimination capacity under low illumination conditions. Measurements were made monocularly and binocularly. Pupil size was also measured in both conditions (pre/post). Additionally, we used a double-pass device to measure objectively the optical-quality of the eye and corroborate the results from the Halo test. We found a significant deterioration of the discrimination capacity after alcohol consumption, indicating that the higher the breath-alcohol content, the greater the deterioration of the visual-discrimination capacity. After alcohol intake, the graphical results showed a greater area of undetected peripheral stimuli around the central high-luminance stimulus. An enlargement of the pupil was also observed and the optical quality of the eye was deteriorated after alcohol consumption. A greater influence of halos and other night-vision disturbances were reported with the Halo test after alcohol consumption. The Halo freeware software constitutes a positive contribution for evaluating nighttime visual performance in clinical applications, such as reported here, but also in patients after refractive surgery (where halos are present) or for monitoring (time course) some ocular pathologies under pharmacological treatment.

  17. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  18. Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, E.; Thomas, E; Pal, B; Hajeer, A.; Chambers, H; Silman, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.
METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth. Antibodies (anti-Ro [SS-A], anti-La [SS-B], rheumatoid fa...

  19. Test-Retest Reproducibility of the Microperimeter MP3 With Fundus Image Tracking in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Macular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Stefan; Hirnschall, Nino; Georgiev, Stefan; Leisser, Christoph; Findl, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reproducibility of a novel microperimeter with fundus image tracking (MP3, Nidek Co, Japan) in healthy subjects and patients with macular disease. Ten healthy subjects and 20 patients suffering from range of macular diseases were included. After training measurements, two additional microperimetry measurements were scheduled. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed for mean retinal sensitivity, pointwise sensitivity, and deep scotoma size using the coefficient of repeatability and Bland-Altman diagrams. In addition, in a subgroup of patients microperimetry was compared with conventional perimetry. Average differences in mean retinal sensitivity between the two study measurements were 0.26 ± 1.7 dB (median 0 dB; interquartile range [IQR] -1 to 1) for the healthy and 0.36 ± 2.5 dB (median 0 dB; IQR -1 to 2) for the macular patient group. Coefficients of repeatability for mean retinal sensitivity and pointwise retinal sensitivity were 1.2 and 3.3 dB for the healthy subjects and 1.6 and 5.0 dB for the macular disease patients, respectively. Absolute agreement in deep scotoma size between both study days was found in 79.9% of the test loci. The microperimeter MP3 shows an adequate test-retest reproducibility for mean retinal sensitivity, pointwise retinal sensitivity, and deep scotoma size in healthy subjects and patients suffering from macular disease. Furthermore, reproducibility of microperimetry is higher than conventional perimetry. Reproducibility is an important measure for each diagnostic device. Especially in a clinical setting high reproducibility set the basis to achieve reliable results using the specific device. Therefore, assessment of the reproducibility is of eminent importance to interpret the findings of future studies.

  20. The Evaluation of the Effect of Strain Limits on the Physical Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomers Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Cyclic Testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Dave; Murphy, Niall; Ekins, Ray; Jerrams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetorheological Elastomers (MREs) are “smart” materials whose physical properties are altered by the application of magnetic fields. In a previous study by the authors [1], variations in the physical properties of MREs have been evaluated when subjected to a range of magnetic field strengths for both uniaxial and biaxial cyclic tests. By applying the same magnetic field to similar samples, this paper investigates the effect of both the upper strain limit and the strain amplitude on the pro...

  1. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  2. The performance test of a modified miniature rotary compressor in upright and inverted modes subjected to microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Rui; Wu, Yu-ting; Du, Chun-xu; Chen, Xia; Zhang, De-lou; Ma, Chong-fang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A miniature rotary compressor by ASPEN company was modified. • The modified compressor can be employed in microgravity. • Performance of upright compressor is superior to inverted mode in most cases. • Performance curves of system with inverted compressor are obtained. • Experimental results of compressor inverted and upright are compared. - Abstract: Vapor compression heat pump is a new concept of thermal control system and refrigerator for future space use. Compressor is a key component in the vapor compression heat pump. Development of compressor capable of operating in both microgravity (10 E-6 g) and lunar (1/6 g) environments is urgently needed for space thermal control systems based on heat pump technique. In this paper, a miniature rotary compressor by ASPEN company was modified to realize acceptable compressor lubrication and oil circulation in microgravity environments. An experimental system was built up to check the performance of the modified compressor subjected to microgravity. A performances comparison of inverted compressor with upright one was made. The influences of operating parameters such as refrigerant charge, cooling water temperature as well as compressor speed on the performances of vapor compression heat pump were investigated. The results show that the modified miniature rotary compressor in inverted mode can operate stably in a long period, which indicates that the modified compressor can be employed in microgravity environments. Compressor discharge temperature increased or decreased while COP changed more obviously with cooling water temperature and speed in microgravity. In most cases, performance of the upright compressor is superior to that of the inverted one. But when the compressor speed is from 1500 rpm to 2500 rpm or the coolant temperature is between 20 and 25 degrees, the performance of inverted compressor is better. The highest discharge temperature of the inverted compressor can be as high

  3. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  4. The impact of socioeconomic status on stage specific prostate cancer survival and mortality before and after introduction of PSA test in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula, Heikki A; Kaipia, Antti J; Ryynänen, Heidi; Seppä, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne M; Malila, Nea K; Boström, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Men with high SES have higher incidence and lower mortality of PCa versus lower SES males. PCa cases diagnosed in Finland in 1985-2014 (N = 95,076) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on education level (EL) was obtained from Statistics Finland. EL was assessed with three-tiered scale: basic, upper secondary and higher education. PCa stage at diagnosis was defined as localized, metastatic or unknown. Years of diagnosis 1985-1994 were defined as pre-PSA period and thereafter as post-PSA period. We report PCa-specific survival (PCSS) and relative risks (RR) for PCa specific mortality (PCSM) among cancer cases in Finland, where healthcare is 100% publicly reimbursed and inequality in healthcare services low. Men with higher EL had markedly better 10-year PCSS: 68 versus 63% in 1985-1994 and 90 versus 85% in 1995-2004 compared to basic EL in localized PCa. The RR for PCSM among men with localized PCa and higher EL compared to basic EL was 0.76(95%confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.88) in 1985-1994 and 0.61(95%CI 0.53-0.70) in 1995-2004. Variation in PCSS and PCSM between EL categories was evident in metastatic PCa, too. The difference in PCSM between EL categories was larger in the first 10-year post-PSA period than before that but decreased thereafter in localized PCa, suggesting PSA testing became earlier popular among men with high EL. In summary, higher SES/EL benefit PCa survival both in local and disseminated disease and the effect of EL was more pronounced in early post-PSA period. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Safety assessment by Euro NCAP - objective test procedures instead of subjective inspection; Die Sicherheitsbewertung durch Euro NCAP - objektive Testverfahren statt subjektiver Fahrzeuginspektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeck, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Strassenwesen, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Klanner, W. [ADAC Technik Zentrum Landsberg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Development of objective testing procedures which may be able to replace subjective inspection of a vehicle following a crash test ist being pursued by Euro NCAP to an increasing degree. Three examples were given to show the capabilities as well as the difficulties connected with description of objective criteria and test procedures. Airbag bottoming-out was described pragmatically and clearly with the aid of criteria based on acceleration measurements in the head of the dummy. These criteria could therefore already be taken into consideration in development and layout of airbags. Practical testing at Euro NCAP has shown that head side airbags can provide considerably different protective effects in terms of accident reality during pole side impact and that these effects cannot always be recorded and differentiated using the evaluation criteria defined to date. For this reason extended and new evaluation criteria have been defined which allow differentiation of such systems. However, it was also found that marginal situations can occur which are difficult to evaluate. However, since such marginal situations can be described, it should be possible for automobile manufacturers in the future to design a system which is no longer devaluated by a modifier in cases of doubt. Evaluation of the knee impact area on the dashboard has probably caused the greatest criticism from the automotive industry to date regarding subjective inspection within the scope of Euro NCAP evaluation. A new committee from Euro NCAP is presently making efforts to define an objective test procedure with which modifiers resulting from the inspection can be refuted subsequently where applicable. However, since the knee mapping situation is very complex, it will probably not be possible to find an absolutely correct test procedure. On the contrary, a pragmatic procedure will probably be found which can then supply objective and comparable readings. This would then provide a testing method which would

  6. Axonal electrovisiogram as an electrophysiological test to evaluate optic nerve and inner retina electrical potentials: findings in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wener Passarinho Cella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To standardize and validate the technique of axonal electrovisiogram (AxEvg, defining its normative values and parameters and characterizing its findings in normal individuals. METHODS: We enrolled 140 normal individuals (280 eyes divided into seven groups according to age, each one with 10 males and 10 females. The technique was based on monocular visual stimulation by a 0 dB intensity bright flash on Ganzfeld bowl at a presentation rate of 1.4 Hz. Golden cup electrodes were used and electrical waves were acquired after artifact rejection. For each amplitude and implicit time peak we calculated the mean, median, pattern deviation, minimum and maximum values and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Monocular visual stimulation with bright flash under mesopic conditions was the standard technical procedure established. The normal AxEvg waveform consists of an initial positive wave (named P1, with mean amplitude of 2.0 mV and mean implicit time peak of 23.1 ms followed by a negative wave (named N1, with mean amplitude of -3.9 mV and mean implicit time peak of 41.4 ms. No significant differences were observed between males and females or between right and left eyes, but there was an increased P1 and N1 implicit time peaks according to age. Implicit time characteristics suggest that P1 wave represents an optic nerve electrical potential and N1 wave represents an inner retinal layers potential. CONCLUSIONS: AxEvg can be considered a pre-chiasmatic visual evoked potential capable to reliably record the electrical activity of optic nerve and inner retina. The findings suggest that AxEvg may be useful as an electrophysiological test in the diagnosis of neuroretinal diseases.

  7. Shaking Table Tests on the Seismic Behavior of Steel Frame Structures Subjected to Various Earthquake Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2004-05-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. Recent large earthquakes occurred in near-fault zone have done significant damage and loss of life to earthquake area. A survey on some of the Quaternary fault segments near the Korean nuclear power plants is ongoing. If the faults are confirmed as active ones, it will be necessary to reevaluate the seismic safety of the nuclear power plants located near the fault. In this study, the shaking table tests of three steel frame structures were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean nuclear power plant site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at Chi-Chi earthquake, were used as input motions. The acceleration and displacement responses of the structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. It seems that the design earthquake for the Korean nuclear power plants is conservative, and that the near-fault earthquake and scenario earthquake are not so damageable for the nuclear power plant structures, because the fundamental frequencies of the nuclear power plant structures are generally greater than 5 Hz. The high frequency ground motions that appeared in the scenario earthquake can be more damageable for the equipment installed on the high floors in a building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipment

  8. Influence of the geometry of curved artificial canals on the fracture of rotary nickel-titanium instruments subjected to cyclic fatigue tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Vieira, Márcia V B; Elias, Carlos N; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Siqueira, José F; Moreira, Edson J L; Vieira, Victor T L; Souza, Letícia C

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different features of canal curvature geometry on the number of cycles to fracture of a rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instrument subjected to a cyclic fatigue test. BioRaCe BR4C instruments (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de Fonds, Switzerland) were tested in 4 grooves simulating curved metallic artificial canals, each one measuring 1.5 mm in width, 20 mm in total length, and 3.5 mm in depth with a U-shaped bottom. The parameters of curvature including the radius and arc lengths and the position of the arc differed in the 4 canal designs. Fractured surfaces and helical shafts of the separated instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The Student's t test showed that a significantly lower number of cycles to fracture values were observed for instruments tested in canals with the smallest radius, the longest arc, and the arc located in the middle portion of the canal. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed morphologic characteristics of ductile fracture. Plastic deformation was not observed in the helical shaft of the fractured instruments. Curvature geometry including the radius and arc lengths and the position of the arc along the root canal influence the number of cycles to fracture of rotary nickel-titanium instruments subjected to flexural load. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  10. High variability of the subjective visual vertical test of vertical perception, in some people with neck pain - Should this be a standard measure of cervical proprioception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleaven, Julia; Takasaki, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Subjective visual vertical (SVV) assesses visual dependence for spacial orientation, via vertical perception testing. Using the computerized rod-and-frame test (CRFT), SVV is thought to be an important measure of cervical proprioception and might be greater in those with whiplash associated disorder (WAD), but to date research findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the most sensitive SVV error measurement to detect group differences between no neck pain control, idiopathic neck pain (INP) and WAD subjects. Cross sectional study. Neck Disability Index (NDI), Dizziness Handicap Inventory short form (DHIsf) and the average constant error (CE), absolute error (AE), root mean square error (RMSE), and variable error (VE) of the SVV were obtained from 142 subjects (48 asymptomatic, 36 INP, 42 WAD). The INP group had significantly (p pain or dizziness handicap. These findings are inconsistent with other measures of cervical proprioception in neck pain and more research is required before the SVV can be considered an important measure and utilized clinically. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  12. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jeannine; Kis, Zoltán; Josupeit, Rafael; Schlund, Franziska; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Leuchs, Barbara; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane

    2018-06-03

    About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS) patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  13. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Lacroix

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  15. Modified sphygmomanometer test for the assessment of strength of the trunk, upper and lower limbs muscles in subjects with subacute stroke: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Larissa T; Lara, Eliza M; Martins, Julia C; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; Quintino, Ludmylla F; Christo, Paulo P; DE Morais Fairaa, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Limitations in activities have been related to weakness of the upper limbs (UL), lower limbs (LL) and trunk muscles after stroke. Therefore, the measurement of strength after stroke becomes essential. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST) is an alternative method for the measurement of strength, since it is cheap and provides objective values. However, no studies have investigated the measurement properties of the MST in sub-acute stroke. To investigate the test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and criterion-related validity of the MST for the measurement of strength of the UL, LL, and trunk muscles in subjects with sub-acute stroke, and verify whether the number of trials would affect the results. Diagnostic accuracy. Local community, out-patient clinics, and university laboratory. Sixty- five subjects with sub-acute stroke (62±14 years) participated of the present study. The strength of 36 muscular groups was measured with the MST and dynamometers (criterion standard). To investigate whether the number of trials would affect the results, analysis of variance was applied. For the test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and criterion-related validity of the MST, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlation coefficients, and coefficients of determination were calculated. Similar results were found for all muscular groups and number of trials (0.01≤F≤0.14; 0.87≤p≤0.99) with significant and adequate values of test-retest (0.57≤ICC≥0.98) (exception: first trial of the non-paretic ankle dorsiflexors) and inter-rater (0.50≤ICC≥0.99) (exception: non-paretic ankle plantar flexors) reliabilities and validity (0.70≤r≥0.95; p≤0.001). The values obtained with the MST were good predictors of those obtained with the dynamometers (0.54≤r2≤0.90). In general, the MST showed adequate reliabilities and criterion-related validity for measuring strength of subjects with sub-acute stroke, and only one trial, after familiarization

  16. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  17. Comparison of the peripheral blood eosinophil count using near-patient testing and standard automated laboratory measurement in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambleton K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsty Hambleton, Clare M Connolly, Catherine Borg, Joanne H Davies, Helen P Jeffers, Richard EK Russell, Mona Bafadhel Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Near-patient testing (NPT allows clinical decisions to be made in a rapid and convenient manner and is often cost effective. In COPD the peripheral blood eosinophil count has been demonstrated to have utility in providing prognostic information and predicting response to treatment during an acute exacerbation. For this potential to be achieved having a reliable NPT of blood eosinophil count would be extremely useful. Therefore, we investigated the use of the HemoCue® WBC Diff System and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity in healthy, asthmatic and COPD subjects. This method requires a simple skin prick of blood and was compared to standard venepuncture laboratory analysis. The HemoCue® WBC Diff System measured the peripheral blood eosinophil count in healthy, asthma and COPD subjects with very close correlation to the eosinophil count as measured by standard venepuncture. The correlations were unaffected by disease status. This method for the measurement of the peripheral blood eosinophil count has the potential to provide rapid near-patient results and thus influence the speed of management decisions in the treatment of airway diseases. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophils, near-patient testing

  18. Evaluating spatial memory function in mice: a within-subjects comparison between the water maze test and its adaptation to dry land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano Lopez, L; Hauser, J; Feldon, J; Gargiulo, P A; Yee, B K

    2010-05-01

    The Morris water maze (WM) is a common spatial memory test in rats. It has been adapted for evaluating genetic manipulations in mice. One major acknowledged problem of this cross-species translation is floating. We investigated here in mice the feasibility and practicality of an alternative paradigm-the cheeseboard (CB), which is a dry version of the WM, in a within-subject design allowing direct comparison with the conventional WM. Under identical task demands (reference or working memory), mice learned in the CB as efficiently as in the WM. Furthermore, individual differences in learning rate correlated between the two reference memory tests conducted separately in the two mazes. However, no such correlation was found with respect to reference memory retention or working memory performance. This study demonstrated that the CB is an effective alternative to the WM as spatial cognition test. Additional tests in the CB confirmed that the mice relied on extra maze cues in their spatial search. We would recommend the CB as a valuable addition to, rather than a replacement of the WM in phenotyping transgenic mice, because the two apparatus might diverge in the ability to detect individual differences in various domains of mnemonic functions.

  19. Reliability and minimal detectable change of a modified passive neck flexion test in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Acuyo-Osorio, Mario; Prieto-Aldana, María; La Touche, Roy

    2017-04-01

    The Passive Neck Flexion Test (PNFT) can diagnose meningitis and potential spinal disorders. Little evidence is available concerning the use of a modified version of the PNFT (mPNFT) in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP). To assess the reliability of the mPNFT in subjects with and without CNSNP. The secondary objective was to assess the differences in the symptoms provoked by the mPNFT between these two populations. We used repeated measures concordance design for the main objective and cross-sectional design for the secondary objective. A total of 30 asymptomatic subjects and 34 patients with CNSNP were recruited. The following measures were recorded: the range of motion at the onset of symptoms (OS-mPNFT), the range of motion at the submaximal pain (SP-mPNFT), and evoked pain intensity on the mPNFT (VAS-mPNFT). Good to excellent reliability was observed for OS-mPNFT and SP-mPNFT in the asymptomatic group (intra-examiner reliability: 0.95-0.97; inter-examiner reliability: 0.86-0.90; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.84-0.87). In the CNSNP group, a good to excellent reliability was obtained for the OS-mPNFT (intra-examiner reliability: 0.89-0.96; inter-examiner reliability: 0.83-0.86; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.83-0.85) and the SP-PNFT (intra-examiner reliability: 0.94-0.98; inter-examiner reliability: 0.80-0.82; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.88-0.91). The CNSNP group showed statistically significant differences in OS-mPNFT (t = 4.92; P reliable tool regardless of the examiner and the time factor. Patients with CNSNP have a decrease range of motion and more pain than asymptomatic subjects in the mPNFT. This exceeds the minimal detectable changes for OS-mPNFT and VAS-mPNFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanis Barnard

    Full Text Available A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli, potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  1. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  2. Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin; Sadaj, Witold; Rachwalska, Paulina; Gądek-Michalska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST). The obtained results showed that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not change the active behavior of rats in the FST. However, co-treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an antidepressant-like effect in that test because it significantly increased the swimming time and decreased the immobility time, while combined treatment with mirtazapine at 5 and 10 mg/kg and risperidone at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg evoked a significant increase in the swimming time and also climbing, and decreased the immobility time. WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST (but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats), and that 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in these effects.

  3. Does Subjective Rating Reflect Behavioural Coding? Personality in 2 Month-Old Dog Puppies: An Open-Field Test and Adjective-Based Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Shanis; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Beghelli, Valentina; Capra, Alexa; Normando, Simona; Pelosi, Annalisa; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have recently investigated personality traits in non-human species, with the dog gaining popularity as a subject species for research in this area. Recent research has shown the consistency of personality traits across both context and time for adult dogs, both when using questionnaire based methods of investigation and behavioural analyses of the dogs' behaviour. However, only a few studies have assessed the correspondence between these two methods, with results varying considerably across studies. Furthermore, most studies have focused on adult dogs, despite the fact that an understanding of personality traits in young puppies may be important for research focusing on the genetic basis of personality traits. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the correspondence between a questionnaire based method and the in depth analyses of the behaviour of 2-month old puppies in an open-field test in which a number of both social and non-social stimuli were presented to the subjects. We further evaluated consistency of traits over time by re-testing a subset of puppies. The correspondence between methods was high and test- retest consistency (for the main trait) was also good using both evaluation methods. Results showed clear factors referring to the two main personality traits 'extroversion,' (i.e. the enthusiastic, exuberant approach to the stimuli) and 'neuroticism,' (i.e. the more cautious and fearful approach to the stimuli), potentially similar to the shyness-boldness dimension found in previous studies. Furthermore, both methods identified an 'amicability' dimension, expressing the positive interactions the pups directed at the humans stranger, and a 'reservedness' dimension which identified pups who largely chose not to interact with the stimuli, and were defined as quiet and not nosey in the questionnaire.

  4. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2008-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.

  5. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  6. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in overweight/obese and non-obese subjects and its relation to pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Tarig H; Alawad, Azza O; Ibrahim, Rihab M; Abdelmoniem, Asim M

    2015-08-15

    Few studies investigated the association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and indicators of pulmonary function. This study was conducted to estimate BMR in overweight/obese and non-obese healthy subjects using four commonly used predictive equations and to investigate its relation to the indicators of lung function tests (LFT). A cross sectional study was conducted in Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A total of 201 students (98 males and 103 females) participated in the study. Four different values of BMR were calculated for each participant using four different predictive equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry-Rees). A portable All-flow spirometer (Clement Clarke International, Harlow, UK) was used for measurements of LFT. Significantly higher values of spirometric indicators (p BMR values predicted with the four equations were significantly higher in the males compared to the females and among the overweight/obese compared to the non-obese subjects (p BMR values and the indicators of LFT was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Mean values of LFT indicators are not related to the estimated values of BMR. A practical calculation of BMR based on direct measurement of oxygen consumption is recommended to confirm the absence of this association.

  7. Two-Sample Statistics for Testing the Equality of Survival Functions Against Improper Semi-parametric Accelerated Failure Time Alternatives: An Application to the Analysis of a Breast Cancer Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROËT, PHILIPPE; TSODIKOV, ALEXANDER; DE RYCKE, YANN; MOREAU, THIERRY

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two-sample statistics suited for testing equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives. These tests are designed for comparing either the short- or the long-term effect of a prognostic factor, or both. These statistics are obtained as partial likelihood score statistics from a time-dependent Cox model. As a consequence, the proposed tests can be very easily implemented using widely available software. A breast cancer clinical trial is presented as an example to demonstrate the utility of the proposed tests. PMID:15293627

  8. Two-sample statistics for testing the equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives: an application to the analysis of a breast cancer clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broët, Philippe; Tsodikov, Alexander; De Rycke, Yann; Moreau, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents two-sample statistics suited for testing equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives. These tests are designed for comparing either the short- or the long-term effect of a prognostic factor, or both. These statistics are obtained as partial likelihood score statistics from a time-dependent Cox model. As a consequence, the proposed tests can be very easily implemented using widely available software. A breast cancer clinical trial is presented as an example to demonstrate the utility of the proposed tests.

  9. Access to Point-of-Care Tests Reduces the Prescription of Antibiotics Among Antibiotic-Requesting Subjects With Respiratory Tract Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars; Munck, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) often feel uncomfortable when patients request an antibiotic when there is likely little benefit. This study evaluates the effect of access to point-of-care tests on decreasing the prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections in subjects who...... explicitly requested an antibiotic prescription. METHODS: Spanish GPs registered all cases of respiratory tract infections over a 3-week period before and after an intervention undertaken in 2008 and 2009. Patients with acute sinusitis, pneumonia, and exacerbations of COPD were excluded. Two types...... requesting antibiotics received a prescription before and 60% after the intervention, without statistical differences being observed. In the group of GPs assigned to the full intervention group, the percentages were 55.1% and 36.2%, respectively, with a difference of 18.9% (95% CI: 6.4%-30.6%, P

  10. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  11. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a new methodology to simulate damage and wear of polyethylene hip replacements subjected to edge loading in hip simulator testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Susan; Tipper, Joanne L; Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Isaac, Graham H; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie

    2018-05-01

    Wear and fatigue of polyethylene acetabular cups have been reported to play a role in the failure of total hip replacements. Hip simulator testing under a wide range of clinically relevant loading conditions is important. Edge loading of hip replacements can occur following impingement under extreme activities and can also occur during normal gait, where there is an offset deficiency and/or joint laxity. This study evaluated a hip simulator method that assessed wear and damage in polyethylene acetabular liners that were subjected to edge loading. The liners tested to evaluate the method were a currently manufactured crosslinked polyethylene acetabular liner and an aged conventional polyethylene acetabular liner. The acetabular liners were tested for 5 million standard walking cycles and following this 5 million walking cycles with edge loading. Edge loading conditions represented a separation of the centers of rotation of the femoral head and the acetabular liner during the swing phase, leading to loading of the liner rim on heel strike. Rim damage and cracking was observed in the aged conventional polyethylene liner. Steady-state wear rates assessed gravimetrically were lower under edge loading compared to standard loading. This study supports previous clinical findings that edge loading may cause rim cracking in liners, where component positioning is suboptimal or where material degradation is present. The simulation method developed has the potential to be used in the future to test the effect of aging and different levels of severity of edge loading on a range of cross-linked polyethylene materials. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1456-1462, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The NT-ProBNP Test in Subjects with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis Presenting with Acute Dyspnea: Is Knowing Worth the Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer R. S. Mok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NT-ProBNP/BNP test has been validated as a marker for determining the etiology of acute dyspnea. In the setting of end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis (ESRD on HD, the utility of the NT-ProBNP/BNP test has not been validated. This study examines the clinical utility of the NT-ProBNP test in the setting of ESRD on HD patients presenting with acute dyspnea. Methods. A retrospective case series of 250 subjects were admitted to Cooper University Hospital, 07/2010-03/2011, with ESRD and HD presenting with dyspnea. The incidences of echocardiography, cardiology consultation, and NT-ProBNP elevated and normal were examined. Correlation coefficients were calculated for NT-ProBNP with age (years, estimated dry weight (kg, amount of fluid removed (L, and ejection fraction (EF in % among other echocardiography parameters. Results. Of the total sample 235 patients had NT-ProBNP levels performed. Cardiology consults were placed in 68.8% and 58% who underwent echocardiography. Of those for whom an echocardiography was performed estimated mean EFs of 54.6%, 50.8%, and 61.7% were observed among the NT-ProBNP elevated group, normal group, and no NT-ProBNP group, respectively. No differences were detected in all other echocardiography measurements. No correlation was observed between NT-ProBNP and age (, baseline EDW (, amount of fluid removed (, or EF (. Conclusion. In the setting of ESRD on HD, the NT-ProBNP test has no clinical utility in determining the etiology of acute dyspnea. This can be demonstrated through echocardiographic and therapeutic parameters measured in this study.

  14. Ondansetron attenuates depression co-morbid with obesity in obese mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress; an approach using behavioral battery tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhe, Yeshwant; Radhakrishnan, Mahesh; Gupta, Deepali

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of ondansetron on the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice for behavioral and biochemical alterations using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression. Animals were fed with high fat diet for 14 weeks and subjected to different stress procedures for 4 weeks. Treatment with ondansetron was started on day 15. After day 28 behavioral assays and biochemical estimations were performed. Behavioral paradigms viz. sucrose preference test, locomotor score, forced swim test (FST) and elevated plus maze (EPM), whereas biochemical parameters like plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were estimated. Results examines that in behavioral assays, ondansetron significantly (P glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and total proteins were significantly (P glucose level indicates that, it could be "altered glucose level" playing an important role in depression co-morbid with obesity. Ondansetron through allosteric modulation of serotonergic system elevates the serotonin level and thereby regulates the insulin secretion and hence, reversing the "altered glucose level", could be the possible antidepressive-like mechanism against depression co-morbid with obesity.

  15. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  16. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  17. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-10-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.

  18. High prevalence of normal tests assessing hypercortisolism in subjects with mild and episodic Cushing's syndrome suggests that the paradigm for diagnosis and exclusion of Cushing's syndrome requires multiple testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, T C; Ghods, D E; Shahinian, H K; Zachery, L; Shayesteh, N; Seasholtz, S; Zuckerbraun, E; Lee, M L; McCutcheon, I E

    2010-11-01

    Many Endocrinologists believe that a single determination of eucortisolism or a single demonstration of appropriate suppression to dexamethasone excluded Cushing's syndrome, except in what was previously thought to be the rare patient with episodic or periodic Cushing's syndrome. We hypothesize that episodic Cushing's syndrome is relatively common and a single test assessing hypercortisolism may not be sufficient to accurately rule out or diagnose Cushing's syndrome and retrospectively examined the number of normal and abnormal tests assessing hypercortisolism performed on multiple occasions in 66 patients found to have mild and/or episodic Cushing's syndrome compared to a similar group of 54 patients evaluated for, but determined not to have Cushing's syndrome. We found that 65 of the 66 patients with Cushing's syndrome had at least one normal test of cortisol status and most patients had several normal tests. The probability of having Cushing's syndrome when one test was negative was 92% for 23:00 h salivary cortisol, 88% for 24-h UFC, 86% for 24-h 17OHS, and 54% for nighttime plasma cortisol. These results demonstrated that episodic hypercortisolism is highly prevalent in subjects with mild Cushing's syndrome and no single test was effective in conclusively diagnosing or excluding the condition. Rather, the paradigm for the diagnosis should be a careful history and physical examination and in those patients in whom mild Cushing's syndrome/disease is strongly suspected, multiple tests assessing hypercortisolism should be performed on subsequent occasions, especially when the patient is experiencing signs and symptoms of short-term hypercortisolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Test-retest reliability of prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) effects on functional MRI connectivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörsching, Jana; Padberg, Frank; Helbich, Konstantin; Hasan, Alkomiet; Koch, Lena; Goerigk, Stephan; Stoecklein, Sophia; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Keeser, Daniel

    2017-07-15

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) can be used for probing functional brain connectivity and meets general interest as novel therapeutic intervention in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Along with a more extensive use, it is important to understand the interplay between neural systems and stimulation protocols requiring basic methodological work. Here, we examined the test-retest (TRT) characteristics of tDCS-induced modulations in resting-state functional-connectivity MRI (RS fcMRI). Twenty healthy subjects received 20minutes of either active or sham tDCS of the dorsolateral PFC (2mA, anode over F3 and cathode over F4, international 10-20 system), preceded and ensued by a RS fcMRI (10minutes each). All subject underwent three tDCS sessions with one-week intervals in between. Effects of tDCS on RS fcMRI were determined at an individual as well as at a group level using both ROI-based and independent-component analyses (ICA). To evaluate the TRT reliability of individual active-tDCS and sham effects on RS fcMRI, voxel-wise intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) of post-tDCS maps between testing sessions were calculated. For both approaches, results revealed low reliability of RS fcMRI after active tDCS (ICC (2,1) = -0.09 - 0.16). Reliability of RS fcMRI (baselines only) was low to moderate for ROI-derived (ICC (2,1) = 0.13 - 0.50) and low for ICA-derived connectivity (ICC (2,1) = 0.19 - 0.34). Thus, for ROI-based analyses, the distribution of voxel-wise ICC was shifted to lower TRT reliability after active, but not after sham tDCS, for which the distribution was similar to baseline. The intra-individual variation observed here resembles variability of tDCS effects in motor regions and may be one reason why in this study robust tDCS effects at a group level were missing. The data can be used for appropriately designing large scale studies investigating methodological issues such as sources of variability and

  20. Cervical flexion-rotation test and physiological range of motion - A comparative study of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorder versus healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Tzvika; Dvir, Zeevi; Reiter, Shoshana; Winocur, Ephraim

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) refer to several common clinical disorders which involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the adjacent structures. Although neck signs and symptoms are found with higher prevalence in TMD patients compared to the overall population, whether limitation of cervical mobility is an additional positive finding in this cohort is still an open question. To compare the physiological cervical range of motion (CROM) and the extent of rotation during cervical flexion (flexion-rotation test, FRT) in people with TMD (muscular origin) and healthy control subjects. The range of motion of the neck and FRT was measured in 20 women with myogenic TMD and 20 age matched healthy controls. Women with myogenic TMD had significantly lower FRT scores compared to their matched healthy women. No difference was found between groups in CROM in any of the planes of movement. The FRT was positive (less than 32°) in 90% of the TMD participants versus 5% in the healthy control but the findings were not correlated with TMD severity. The results point out a potential involvement of the upper cervical joints (c1-c2) in women with myogenic TMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on gene expression changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to an oral glucose tolerance test in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leder, Lena; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Narverud, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diet has a great impact on the risk of developing features of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We evaluated whether a long-term healthy Nordic diet (ND) can modify the expression of inflammation and lipid metabolism......-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in individuals with MetS. METHODS: A Nordic multicenter randomized dietary study included subjects (n = 213) with MetS, randomized to a ND group or a control diet (CD) group applying an isocaloric study......, and the mRNA gene expression analysis was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We analyzed the mRNA expression changes of 44 genes before and after a 2hOGTT at the beginning and the end of the intervention. RESULTS: The healthy ND significantly down-regulated the expression...

  2. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine and risperidone on properties of peritoneal and pleural macrophages in rats subjected to the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Adam; Kuśmierczyk, Justyna; Klimek, Ewa; Rogóż, Zofia; Nalepa, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Literature data show that administration of atypical antipsychotic drug, risperidone (RIS), enhances antidepressive action of fluoxetine (FLU). As antidepressive treatments also regulate immune functions, we examined whether combined administration of FLU and RIS to rats subsequently subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) modifies parameters of macrophage activity that are directly related to their immunomodulatory functions, i.e., arginase (ARG) activity and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Antidepressive action of the drugs was assessed with FST. Peritoneal and pleural cells were eluted and selected parameters of immunoreactivity were assessed colorimetrically. We found that the concomitant administration of FLU (10 mg/kg) and RIS (0.1 mg/kg) produced antidepressive-like effects in the FST,whereas the drugs were ineffective if administered separately. Stress related to the FST affected immune cell redistribution and changed some of the metabolic and immunomodulatory properties of macrophages. FLU administered to rats at a suboptimal dose for antidepressive action potently influenced macrophage immunomodulatory properties and redirected their activity toward anti-inflammatory M2 functional phenotype, as manifested by changes in the ARG/NO ratio. These effects resulted from a direct cellular influence of the drug, as well as its action via neuroendocrine pathways, as evidenced in peritoneal and pleural cells. Addition of RIS did not augment immunomodulatory action of FLU, though the combination showed antidepressant-like activity in the FST. Our results suggest that when the drugs were administered together, FLU was potent enough to redirect macrophages toward M2 activity. It is also postulated that drug-induced changes in the immune system are not so closely related to antidepressant-like effects or might be secondary to those produced in the neuroendocrine system.

  3. Post-treatment surveillance testing of patients with colorectal cancer and the association with survival: protocol for a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Jiban, Md Jibanul Haque; Choudhury, Kanak; Loerzel, Victoria; Specogna, Adrian V; Troy, Steven P; Zhang, Shunpu

    2018-04-28

    Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing. However, due to differences in study protocols and limitations of sample size and length of follow-up, the RCT may not be the best study design to evaluate this relationship. An observational comparative effectiveness research study can overcome the sample size/follow-up limitations of RCT designs while assessing real-world variability in receipt of surveillance testing to provide much needed evidence on this important clinical issue. The gap in knowledge that this study will address concerns whether adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network CRC surveillance guidelines improves survival. Patients with colon and rectal cancer aged 66-84 years, who have been diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 and have been included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, are eligible for this retrospective cohort study. To minimise bias, patients had to survive at least 12 months following the completion of treatment. Adherence to surveillance testing up to 5 years post-treatment will be assessed in each year of follow-up and overall. Binomial regression will be used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and adherence. Survival analysis will be conducted to assess the association between adherence and 5-year survival. This study was approved by the National Cancer Institute and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Central Florida. The results of this study will be disseminated by publishing in

  4. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  5. Partner testing, linkage to care, and HIV-free survival in a program to prevent parent-to-child transmission of HIV in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmone, Andy; Bomai, Korai; Bongi, Wayaki; Frank, Tarua Dale; Dalepa, Huleve; Loifa, Betty; Kiromat, Mobumo; Das, Sarthak; Franke, Molly F.

    2014-01-01

    Background To eliminate new pediatric HIV infections, interventions that facilitate adherence, including those that minimize stigma, enhance social support, and mitigate the influence of poverty, will likely be required in addition to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined the relationship between partner testing and infant outcome in a prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV program, which included a family-centered case management approach and a supportive environment for partner disclosure and testing. Design We analyzed routinely collected data for women and infants who enrolled in the parent-to-child transmission of HIV program at Goroka Family Clinic, Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital, Papua New Guinea, from 2007 through 2011. Results Two hundred and sixty five women were included for analysis. Of these, 226 (85%) had a partner, 127 (56%) of whom had a documented HIV test. Of the 102 HIV-infected partners, 81 (79%) had been linked to care. In adjusted analyses, we found a significantly higher risk of infant death, infant HIV infection, or loss to follow-up among mother–infant pairs in which the mother reported having no partner or a partner who was not tested or had an unknown testing status. In a second multivariable analysis, infants born to women with more time on ART or who enrolled in the program in later years experienced greater HIV-free survival. Conclusions In a program with a patient-oriented and family-centered approach to prevent vertical HIV transmission, the majority of women's partners had a documented HIV test and, if positive, linkage to care. Having a tested partner was associated with program retention and HIV-free survival for infants. Programs aiming to facilitate diagnosis disclosure, partner testing, and linkage to care may contribute importantly to the elimination of pediatric HIV. PMID:25172429

  6. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  7. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  8. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  10. Prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ping-Ho; Tu, Hung-Pin; Ko, Ying-Chin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Ho, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Chu; Ko, Min-Shan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Chiang, Shang-Lun

    2007-01-01

    In Taiwan, a distinct ethnic group variation in incidence and mortality rates has been suggested for most carcinomas. Our aim is to identify the role of prognostic factors associated with the survival of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Taiwan Cancer Registry records of 9039 subjects diagnosed with oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were analyzed. The population was divided into three ethnic groups by residence, which were Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien communities. Five-year survival rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. Ethnic curves differed significantly by log-rank test; therefore separate models for Taiwanese aborigines, Hakka and Hokkien were carried out. The Cox multivariate proportional hazards model was used to examine the role of prognostic factors on ethnic survival. The five-year survival rates of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma were significantly poorer for Hokkien community (53.9%) and Taiwanese aborigines community (58.1%) compared with Hakka community (60.5%). The adjusted hazard ratio of Taiwanese aborigines versus Hakka was 1.07 (95%CI, 0.86–1.33) for oral and pharyngeal carcinoma mortality, and 1.16 (95%CI, 1.01–1.33) for Hokkien versus Hakka. Males had significantly poor prognosis than females. Subjects with tongue and/or mouth carcinoma presented the worst prognosis, whereas lip carcinoma had the best prognosis. Subjects with verrucous carcinoma had better survival than squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis was the worst in elderly subjects, and subjects who underwent surgery had the highest survival rate. Our study presented that predictive variables in oral and pharyngeal carcinoma survival have been: ethnic groups, period of diagnosis, gender, diagnostic age, anatomic site, morphologic type, and therapy

  11. Improving motor reliability in nuclear power plants: Volume 2, Functional indicator tests on a small electric motor subjected to accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Taylor, J.H.; Lofaro, R.; Sugarman, A.C.; Sheets, M.W.; Skreiner, K.M.

    1987-11-01

    A ten horsepower electric motor was artificially aged by plug reverse cycling for test purposes. The motor was manufactured in 1967 and was in service at a commercial nuclear power plant for twelve years. Various tests were performed on the motor throughout the aging process. The motor failed after 3.79 million reversals (3 seconds per reversal) over seven months of testing. Each test parameter was trended to assess its suitability in monitoring aging and service wear degradation in motors. Results and conclusions are discussed relative to the applicability of the tests performed to nuclear power plant motor maintenance programs. 15 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  12. Gifted Students' Self-Perceptions of Ability in Specific Subject Domains: Factor Structure and Relationship with Above-Level Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Current self-concept theories suggest a multi-dimensional construct, with domain-specific self-concepts hierarchically related to global self-concept. The academic domain may be comprised of subject-specific domains that are related to performance in corresponding areas. Here, gifted students' responses to questions about how they compare with…

  13. Essays on Subjective Survival Probabilities, Consumption, and Retirement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutlu Koc, Vesile

    2015-01-01

    Recent pension reforms in industrialized countries are, in part, motivated by the increased life expectancy. As individuals are expected to take more responsibility in their retirement planning and savings decisions, it is important to understand whether they are aware of improvements in life

  14. Rheumatoid factor testing in Spanish primary care: A population-based cohort study including 4.8 million subjects and almost half a million measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsley, Klara; Miller, Anne; Luqmani, Raashid; Fina-Aviles, Francesc; Javaid, Muhammad Kassim; Edwards, Christopher J; Pinedo-Villanueva, Rafael; Medina, Manuel; Calero, Sebastian; Cooper, Cyrus; Arden, Nigel; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2018-02-26

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) testing is used in primary care in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however a positive RF may occur without RA. Incorrect use of RF testing may lead to increased costs and delayed diagnoses. The aim was to assess the performance of RF as a test for RA and to estimate the costs associated with its use in a primary care setting. A retrospective cohort study using the Information System for the Development of Research in Primary Care database (contains primary care records and laboratory results of >80% of the Catalonian population, Spain). Participants were patients ≥18 years with ≥1 RF test performed between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2011, without a pre-existing diagnosis of RA. Outcome measures were an incident diagnosis of RA within 1 year of testing, and the cost of testing per case of RA. 495,434/4,796,498 (10.3%) patients were tested at least once. 107,362 (21.7%) of those tested were sero-positive of which 2768 (2.6%) were diagnosed with RA within 1 year as were 1141/388,072 (0.3%) sero-negative participants. The sensitivity of RF was 70.8% (95% CI 69.4-72.2), specificity 78.7% (78.6-78.8), and positive and negative predictive values 2.6% (2.5-2.7) and 99.7% (99.6-99.7) respectively. Approximately €3,963,472 was spent, with a cost of €1432 per true positive case. Although 10% of patients were tested for RF, most did not have RA. Limiting testing to patients with a higher pre-test probability would significantly reduce the cost of testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Postural control and risk of falling in bipodalic and monopodalic stabilometric tests of healthy subjects before, after visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation and at 3 months thereafter: role of the proprioceptive system

    OpenAIRE

    CARLI, P.; PATRIZI, M.; PEPE, L.; CAVANIGLIA, G.; RIVA, D.; D’OTTAVI, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Nine healthy volunteers (6 males, 3 females), mean age 34.5 years (SD = 11.52), underwent a vestibulo-postural rehabilitation cycle with a visuo-proprioceptive-type stimulus. All subjects in the study group were evaluated by means of stabilometric bipodalic and monopodalic tests both before and immediately after treatment, and again 3 month thereafter. The Delos Postural Proprioceptive System®, DPPS (Delos, srl, Turin, Italy), was used in performing these stabilometric tests and in th...

  16. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase s...

  17. The 13carbon urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in subjects with atrophic gastritis: evaluation in a primary care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for

  18. Correlation between morphological characteristics in spectral-domain-optical coherence tomography, different functional tests and a patient's subjective handicap in acute central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerendas, Bianca S; Kroisamer, Julia-Sophie; Buehl, Wolf; Rezar-Dreindl, Sandra M; Eibenberger, Katharina M; Pablik, Eleonore; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Sacu, Stefan

    2018-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify quantitatively measurable morphologic optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics in patients with an acute episode of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and evaluate their correlation to functional and psychological variables for their use in daily clinical practice. Retinal thickness (RT), the height, area and volume of subretinal fluid (SRF)/pigment epithelium detachments were evaluated using the standardized procedures of the Vienna Reading Center. These morphologic characteristics were compared with functional variables [best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), retinal sensitivity/microperimetry, fixation stability], and patients' subjective handicap from CSC using the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Data from 39 CSC patients were included in this analysis. Three different SRF height measures showed a high negative correlation (r = -0.7) to retinal sensitivity within the central 9°, which was also negatively correlated with SRF area and volume (r = -0.6). The CS score and fixation stability (fixation points within 2°) showed a moderate negative correlation (r = -0.4) with SRF height variables. Comparison of the subjective handicap with morphological characteristics in spectral-domain (SD)-OCT showed SRF height had the highest correlation (r = -0.4) with the subjective problems reported and overall NEI VFQ-25 score. In conclusion, SRF height measured in SD-OCT showed the best correlation with functional variables and patients' subjective handicap caused by the disease and therefore seems to be the best variable to look at in daily clinical routine. Even though area and volume also show a correlation, these cannot be so easily measured as height and are therefore not suggested for daily clinical routine. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Characteristics of Spatial Synchronization of Encephalograms in Left- and Right-Handed Subjects in Resting State and During Cognitive Testing: a Graph-Theory Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoyanov M.V.; Grechikhin I.S.; Kalyagin V.A.; Pardalos P.M.; Mukhina I.V.

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference is one of the most striking manifestations of functional brain asymmetry. However, the nature of the phenomenon, as well as its interaction with other brain functions has not been fully understood. Therefore, the study of brain peculiarities of left- and right-handed subjects by neuronal network analysis is of particular interest. The aim of the investigation was to analyze brain network structures according to electroencephalography findings in left- and right-handed subj...

  20. Discovery and validation of a colorectal cancer classifier in a new blood test with improved performance for high-risk subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croner, Lisa J; Dillon, Roslyn; Kao, Athit

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to improve upon an existing blood-based colorectal cancer (CRC) test directed to high-risk symptomatic patients, by developing a new CRC classifier to be used with a new test embodiment. The new test uses a robust assay format-electrochemiluminescence immunoassays......, the indeterminate rate of the new panel was 23.2%, sensitivity/specificity was 0.80/0.83, PPV was 36.5%, and NPV was 97.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The validated classifier serves as the basis of a new blood-based CRC test for symptomatic patients. The improved performance, resulting from robust concentration measures across......-to quantify protein concentrations. The aim was achieved by building and validating a CRC classifier using concentration measures from a large sample set representing a true intent-to-test (ITT) symptomatic population. METHODS: 4435 patient samples were drawn from the Endoscopy II sample set. Samples were...

  1. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  2. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  3. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  4. The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Carlos Henrique Silva de; Cianci, Reinaldo Giovanini; Malaguti, Carla; Dal Corso, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Os testes do degrau são utilizados para avaliar a capacidade física. Devido à diversidade desses testes, o objetivo desta revisão foi descrever os protocolos utilizados em indivíduos saudáveis e naqueles com doença pulmonar crônica. Os testes do degrau utilizados em indivíduos saudáveis tiveram várias modificações ao longo dos anos. Na maioria dos testes, a duração é variável (90 s-10 min), mas a altura do degrau (23,0-50,8 cm) e o ritmo (22,5-35,0 degraus/min) permanecem constantes durante t...

  5. ST-segment deviation during 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and exercise stress test in healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Sørum, C

    1999-01-01

    or descending ST-segment depression of >/=0.15 mV during Holter monitoring or at the exercise test, respectively. Furthermore, the specificity was 0.95 when a horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression of 0.1 mV was displayed in both the Holter and exercise electrocardiographic recording system......BACKGROUND: Although ST-segment deviation has been evaluated and used during many years both on continuous electrocardiographic Holter monitoring and during exercise stress testing, considerable controversy still remains concerning the prevalence and diagnostic significance of fortuitously...... discovered ST-segment deviation in asymptomatic healthy persons. METHODS AND RESULTS: The occurrence of ST-segment deviation was studied in a population of 63 clinically healthy male subjects 51 to 75 years of age, with the use of 24-hour Holter monitoring and exercise stress testing. The subjects were...

  6. The determinants of physician attitudes and subjective norms toward drug information sources: modification and test of the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, C A; Bagozzi, R P; Ascione, F J; Kirking, D M

    1997-10-01

    To improve upon the theory of reasoned action and apply it to pharmaceutical research, we investigated the effects of relevant appraisals attributes, and past behavior of physicians on the use of drug information sources. We also examined the moderating effects of practice characteristics. A mail questionnaire asked HMO physicians to evaluate seven common sources of drug information on general appraisals (degree of usefulness and ease of use), specific attributes (availability, quality of information on harmful effects and on drug efficacy), and past behavior when searching for information on a new, simulated H2 antagonist agent. Semantic differential scales were used to measure each appraisal, attribute and past behavior. Information was also collected on practice characteristics. Findings from 108/200 respondents indicated that appraisals and attributes were useful determinants of attitudes and subjective norms toward use. Degree of usefulness and quality of information on harmful effects were important predictors of attitudes toward use for several sources of information. Ease of use and degree of usefulness were important predictors of subjective norms toward use. In many cases, moderating effects of practice characteristics were in opposing directions. Past behavior had significant direct effects on attitudes toward the PDR. The findings suggest ways to improve the usefulness of the theory of reasoned action as a model of decision-making. We also propose practical guidelines that can be used to improve the types of drug information sources used by physicians.

  7. Albeit nocturnal, rats subjected to traumatic brain injury do not differ in neurobehavioral performance whether tested during the day or night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Peter J; Wei, Jiahui; LaPorte, Megan J; Carlson, Lauren J; Nassau, Kileigh L; Bao, Gina C; Cheng, Jeffrey P; de la Tremblaye, Patricia; Lajud, Naima; Bondi, Corina O; Kline, Anthony E

    2018-02-05

    Behavioral assessments in rats are overwhelmingly conducted during the day, albeit that is when they are least active. This incongruity may preclude optimal performance. Hence, the goal of this study was to determine if differences in neurobehavior exist in traumatic brain injured (TBI) rats when assessed during the day vs. night. The hypothesis was that the night group would perform better than the day group on all behavioral tasks. Anesthetized adult male rats received either a cortical impact or sham injury and then were randomly assigned to either Day (1:00-3:00p.m.) or Night (7:30-9:30p.m.) testing. Motor function (beam-balance/walk) was conducted on post-operative days 1-5 and cognitive performance (spatial learning) was assessed on days 14-18. Corticosterone (CORT) levels were quantified at 24h and 21days after TBI. No significant differences were revealed between the TBI rats tested during the Day vs. Night for motor or cognition (p'sNight-tested TBI and sham groups at 24h (pday 21 (p>0.05), suggesting an initial, but transient, stress response that did not affect neurobehavioral outcome. These data suggest that the time rats are tested has no noticeable impact on their performance, which does not support the hypothesis. The finding validates the interpretations from numerous studies conducted when rats were tested during the day vs. their natural active period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The reliability of physical examination tests for the clinical assessment of scapular dyskinesis in subjects with shoulder complaints: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Struyf, Filip; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research of physical examination tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. Scapular dyskinesis, defined as alteration of normal scapular kinematics, is described as a non-specific response to different shoulder pathologies. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and PEDro until March 20th, 2015. Methodological quality was assessed with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) by two independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 41 test and test variations used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating intra- as well as interrater reliability of tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. The effect of manual correction of the scapula on shoulder symptoms was evaluated in only one study, which is striking, since symptom alteration tests are used in routine care to guide further treatment. Thus, there is a strong need for further research in this area. Diagnosis, level 3a. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. US/French joint research program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation: Volume 2, Phase-2a screening tests: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckalew, W.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1987-09-01

    As part of the ongoing joint NRC/CEA cooperative test program to investigate the relative effectiveness of beta and gamma irradiation to produce damage in polymer base materials, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) specimens, in slab geometry, were exposed to Cobalt-60 gamma rays and accelerator produced electron beams. Specimens were irradiated and evaluated at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). These tests included several electron beam energies, sample thicknesses, exposure doses, and dose rates. Based on changes in the tensile properties, of the test specimens, results of these studies suggest that material damage resulting from electron and gamma irradiations can be correlated on the basis of absorbed radiation dose

  10. Autonomic response to an experimental psychological stressor in healthy subjects: measurement of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and pituitary-adrenal parameters: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L S; Christiansen, P; Raundahl, U

    1990-01-01

    A mental arithmetic test (the stressor; 15 min) significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma adrenaline by 11%, 12%, 28% and 152% respectively, with a prompt return to resting values after the test. Plasma noradrenaline and serum cortisol did not increase...... of the stressor. As a measure of parasympathetic nervous function, the beat-to-beat variation of heart rate, expressed as the mean successive square difference (MSSD), was employed. Four to 14 months later, the investigation was repeated, and resting values of all measures were found to be stable. The increments...

  11. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Fontan Patients With and Without Isomerism (Heterotaxy) as Compared to Patients With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Subjects With Structurally Normal Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loomba, Rohit S; Danduran, Michael; Nielsen, Kim G

    2017-01-01

    with and without isomerism. We have now compared these finding with those from patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia, as many patients with isomerism have ciliary dyskinesia. We identified patients having the Fontan circulation with and without isomerism who had undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing......, comparing the findings from healthy individuals undergoing exercise, and a comparable number of individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia but no congenital heart disease. We were able to include a total of 68 patients in our study, with 17 in each of the four groups. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing...

  12. Survival of the most transferable at the top of Jacob's ladder: Defining and testing the ωB97M(2) double hybrid density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2018-06-01

    A meta-generalized gradient approximation, range-separated double hybrid (DH) density functional with VV10 non-local correlation is presented. The final 14-parameter functional form is determined by screening trillions of candidate fits through a combination of best subset selection, forward stepwise selection, and random sample consensus (RANSAC) outlier detection. The MGCDB84 database of 4986 data points is employed in this work, containing a training set of 870 data points, a validation set of 2964 data points, and a test set of 1152 data points. Following an xDH approach, orbitals from the ωB97M-V density functional are used to compute the second-order perturbation theory correction. The resulting functional, ωB97M(2), is benchmarked against a variety of leading double hybrid density functionals, including B2PLYP-D3(BJ), B2GPPLYP-D3(BJ), ωB97X-2(TQZ), XYG3, PTPSS-D3(0), XYGJ-OS, DSD-PBEP86-D3(BJ), and DSD-PBEPBE-D3(BJ). Encouragingly, the overall performance of ωB97M(2) on nearly 5000 data points clearly surpasses that of all of the tested density functionals. As a Rung 5 density functional, ωB97M(2) completes our family of combinatorially optimized functionals, complementing B97M-V on Rung 3, and ωB97X-V and ωB97M-V on Rung 4. The results suggest that ωB97M(2) has the potential to serve as a powerful predictive tool for accurate and efficient electronic structure calculations of main-group chemistry.

  13. Technetium 99m SESTAMIBI myocardial perfusion imaging: Comparison between treadmill, dipyridamole and trans-oesophageal atrial pacing 'stress' tests in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeau, M.; Taillefer, R.; Lambert, R.; Essiambre, R.; Honos, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the blood clearance, myocardial uptake and heart/lung and heart/liver ratios of technetium 99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI) following 3 different types of cardiac stimulation in normal subjects: Treadmill stress (STRESS), intravenous administration of dipyridamole (DIP) and trans-oesophageal atrial pacing (TAP). Ten normal volunteers were submitted to 3 injections of 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI (10 mCi/70 kg, separated by an interval of 7 days) following STRESS (standard Bruce protocol), DIP (0.142 mg/kg.min during 4 min) and TAP procedures. Blood samples were collected from 1 to 60 min after each 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI injection. Planar imaging was performed at 5, 30 and 60 min. Blood retention (percentage of injected dose at 1 min) was 56%±4%, 24%±4% and 38%±6% for STRESS, DIP and TAP, respectively (P 99m Tc-SESTAMIBI. (orig.)

  14. Multi-parameter comparison of a standardized mixed meal tolerance test in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects: the PhenFlex challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, S.; Stroeve, J.H.M.; Stafleu, A.; Bakker, G.C.M.; Burggraaf, J.; Erk, M.J. van; Pellis, L.; Boessen, R.; Kardinaal, A.A.F.; Ommen, B. van

    2017-01-01

    Background: A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. Recently, it was shown that metabolic challenge tests in combination with the new generation biomarkers allow the simultaneous quantification of major metabolic health processes. Currently, applied

  15. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. When does poor subjective financial position hurt the elderly? Testing the interaction with educational attainment using a national representative longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Christy; Huang, Nicole; Tang, Gao-Jun; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2011-03-17

    Several studies have demonstrated that perceived financial status has a significant impact on health status among the elderly. However, little is known about whether such a subjective perception interacts with objective socioeconomic status (SES) measures such as education that affect the individual's health. This research used data from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Age and Elderly in Taiwan (SHLS) conducted by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health in Taiwan. Waves 1996, 1999 and 2003 were used. The sample consisted of 2,387 elderly persons. The interactive effects of self-rated satisfaction with financial position and educational attainment were estimated. Self-rated health (SRH), depressive symptom (measured by CES-D) and mortality were used to measure health outcomes. Significant interaction effect was found for depressive symptoms. Among those who were dissatisfied with their financial position, those who were illiterate had an odds ratio (OR) of 8.3 (95% CI 4.9 to 14.0) for having depressive symptoms compared with those who were very satisfied with their financial position. The corresponding OR for those with college or above was only 2.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 7.3). No significant interaction effect was found for SRH and mortality. Although poor financial satisfaction was found to be related to poorer health, the strongest association for this effect was observed among those with low educational attainment, and this is especially true for depressive symptoms. Subjective financial status among the elderly should be explored in conjunction with traditional measures of SES.

  17. Structural dynamics and fracture mechanics calculations of the behaviour of a DN 425 test piping system subjected to transient loading by water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Kobes, E.; Diem, H.; Schrammel, D.; Brosi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Within the scope of the German HDR safety programme, several tests were carried out to investigate transient pipe loading initiated by a simulated double-ended guillotine break event, and subsequent closure of a feedwater check valve (water hammer, blow-down). Numerical analyses by means of finite element programmes were performed in parallel to the experiments. Using water hammer tests of a DN 425 piping system with predamaged components, the procedure of such analyses will be demonstrated. The results are presented, beginning with structural dynamic calculations of the undamaged piping; followed by coupling of structural dynamics and fracture mechanics computations with simple flaw elements (line spring); and finishing with costly three-dimensional fracture mechanics analyses. A good description of the real piping behaviour can be made by the numerical methods, even in the case of high plastification processes. ((orig.))

  18. Determination of necking time in tensile test specimens, under high-temperature creep conditions, subjected to distribution of stresses over the cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokoshchenko, A.; Teraud, W.

    2018-04-01

    The work describes an experimental research of creep of cylindrical tensile test specimens made of aluminum alloy D16T at a constant temperature of 400°C. The issue to be examined was the necking at different values of initial tensile stresses. The use of a developed noncontacting measuring system allowed us to see variations in the specimen shape and to estimate the true stress in various times. Based on the obtained experimental data, several criteria were proposed for describing the point of time at which the necking occurs (necking point). Calculations were carried out at various values of the parameters in these criteria. The relative interval of deformation time in which the test specimen is uniformly stretched was also determined.

  19. The prevalence of positive reactions in the atopy patch test with aeroallergens and food allergens in subjects with atopic eczema: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsow, U; Laifaoui, J; Kerschenlohr, K; Wollenberg, A; Przybilla, B; Wüthrich, B; Borelli, S; Giusti, F; Seidenari, S; Drzimalla, K; Simon, D; Disch, R; Borelli, S; Devillers, A C A; Oranje, A P; De Raeve, L; Hachem, J-P; Dangoisse, C; Blondeel, A; Song, M; Breuer, K; Wulf, A; Werfel, T; Roul, S; Taieb, A; Bolhaar, S; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C; Brönnimann, M; Braathen, L R; Didierlaurent, A; André, C; Ring, J

    2004-12-01

    The atopy patch test (APT) was proposed to evaluate IgE-mediated sensitizations in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The prevalence and agreement with clinical history and specific IgE (sIgE) of positive APT reactions was investigated in six European countries using a standardized method. A total of 314 patients with AE in remission were tested in 12 study centers on clinically uninvolved, non-abraded back skin with 200 index of reactivity (IR)/g of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat dander, grass, and birch pollen allergen extracts with defined major allergen contents in petrolatum. Extracts of egg white, celery and wheat flour with defined protein content were also patch tested. APT values were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h according to the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis (ETFAD) guidelines. In addition, skin-prick test (SPT) and sIgE and a detailed history on allergen-induced eczema flares were obtained. Previous eczema flares, after contact with specific allergens, were reported in 1% (celery) to 34% (D. pteronyssinus) of patients. The frequency of clear-cut positive APT reactions ranged from 39% with D. pteronyssinus to 9% with celery. All ETFAD intensities occured after 48 and 72 h. Positive SPT (16-57%) and elevated sIgE (19-59%) results were more frequent. Clear-cut positive APT with all SPT and sIgE testing negative was seen in 7% of the patients, whereas a positive APT without SPT or sIgE for the respective allergen was seen in 17% of the patients. APT, SPT and sIgE results showed significant agreement with history for grass pollen and egg white (two-sided Pr > /Z/ atopic controls, no positive APT reaction was seen. Aeroallergens and food allergens are able to elicit eczematous skin reactions after epicutaneous application. As no gold standard for aeroallergen provocation in AE exists, the relevance of aeroallergens for AE flares may be evaluated by APT in addition to SPT and sIgE. The data may contribute to the international

  20. Local-scale drivers of tree survival in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xugao; Comita, Liza S; Hao, Zhanqing; Davies, Stuart J; Ye, Ji; Lin, Fei; Yuan, Zuoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Tree survival plays a central role in forest ecosystems. Although many factors such as tree size, abiotic and biotic neighborhoods have been proposed as being important in explaining patterns of tree survival, their contributions are still subject to debate. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine the relative importance of tree size, local abiotic conditions and the density and identity of neighbors on tree survival in an old-growth temperate forest in northeastern China at three levels (community, guild and species). Tree size and both abiotic and biotic neighborhood variables influenced tree survival under current forest conditions, but their relative importance varied dramatically within and among the community, guild and species levels. Of the variables tested, tree size was typically the most important predictor of tree survival, followed by biotic and then abiotic variables. The effect of tree size on survival varied from strongly positive for small trees (1-20 cm dbh) and medium trees (20-40 cm dbh), to slightly negative for large trees (>40 cm dbh). Among the biotic factors, we found strong evidence for negative density and frequency dependence in this temperate forest, as indicated by negative effects of both total basal area of neighbors and the frequency of conspecific neighbors. Among the abiotic factors tested, soil nutrients tended to be more important in affecting tree survival than topographic variables. Abiotic factors generally influenced survival for species with relatively high abundance, for individuals in smaller size classes and for shade-tolerant species. Our study demonstrates that the relative importance of variables driving patterns of tree survival differs greatly among size classes, species guilds and abundance classes in temperate forest, which can further understanding of forest dynamics and offer important insights into forest management.

  1. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  2. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  3. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO2 leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payán, M. Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R.

    2012-01-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO 2 acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied. - Highlights: ► Tier structured approach for assessment of the release of metals from sediment. ► Standard column leaching test to simulate CO 2 acidified seawater CCS leakages. ► Metal and DOC release from marine sediment in contact to CO 2 acidified seawater. ► From empirical to geochemical modeling approaches of DOC and metals release in column tests. ► Contamination line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment. - Column metal release from CO 2 acidified seawater leakages in contact with estuarine contaminated sediment in CCS sites

  4. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  5. Simultaneous 13C/14C dual isotope breath test measurement of gastric emptying of solid and liquid in normal subjects and patients: comparison with scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C. G.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.; Bellon, M.; Chatterton, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a simple method for simultaneous solid and liquid gastric emptying assessment using a dual isotope labelled breath test. 13 patients were given 100 g ground beef labelled with 25 MBq 99m Tc sulphur colloid and 74 KBq 14 C octanoic acid, and 150 ml 10% glucose drink labelled with 8 MBq 67 Ga citrate and 150 mg 13 C acetate. 10 normal volunteers were given the same test meals but labelled with 14 C and 13 C only. Breath was collected at baseline and regularly for 4 hours. The 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 activity was measured with liquid scintillation counting and mass spectroscopy. The times to maximum 14 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 , were determined. Comparison was made between times to maximum 14 CO 2 with scintigraphic retention of 99m Tc at 100 minutes and times to maximum 13 CO 2 with the scintigraphic half-clearance time of 67 Ga. For the solid meal, the times to maximum 14 CO 2 were: 60-120 minutes in the 8 patients with normal gastric emptying of 99m Tc; 75-145 minutes for the 10 healthy volunteers; 75-180 minutes for the remaining 5 patients with abnormal gastric emptying of 99m Tc. There was a weak but significant correlation (r = 0.56, p 14 CO 2 and gastric retention of 99m Tc at 100 minutes. For the liquid meal, times to maximum 13 CO 2 were: 20-35 minutes for the 4 with normal gastric emptying of 67 Ga; 15-40 minutes for the 10 healthy volunteers; 20-75 minutes for the remaining 9 patients with abnormal gastric emptying of 67 Ga. There was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.88, p 13 CO 2 and gastric half-clearance time of 67 Ga. Breath tests utilising test meals labelled with *C isotopes are valid alternatives to scintigraphic studies using 99m Tc and 67 Ga for the simultaneous assessment of gastric emptying of solids and liquids. (author)

  6. A randomized, rater-blinded, crossover study of the effects of oxymorphone extended release, fed versus fasting, on cognitive performance as tested with CANTAB in opioid-tolerant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierings, Egilius L H; Volkerts, Edmund R; Heitland, Ivo; Thomson, Heather

    2014-02-01

    The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of oxymorphone extended release (ER) 20 mg and 40 mg is approximately 50% higher in fed than in fasted subjects, with most of the difference in area-under-the-curve (AUC) occurring in the first 4 hours post-dose. Hence, the US FDA recommends in the approved labeling that oxymorphone ER is taken at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating. In order to determine the potential impact on cognitive performance of the increased absorption of oxymorphone ER, fed versus fasting, we conducted a randomized, rater-blinded, crossover study in 30 opioid-tolerant subjects, using tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The subjects randomly received 40 mg oxymorphone ER after a high-fat meal of approximately 1,010 kCal or after fasting for 8-12 hours, and were tested 1 hour and 3 hours post-dose. The CANTAB tests, Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM), showed no statistically significant differences between the fed and fasting conditions. However, sustained attention, as measured by the Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) CANTAB test, showed a statistically significant interaction of fed versus fasting and post-dose time of testing (F[1,28] = 6.88, P = 0.01), suggesting that 40 mg oxymorphone ER after a high-fat meal versus fasting mitigates the learning effect in this particular cognition domain from 1 hour to 3 hours post-dose. Oxymorphone 40 mg ER affected cognitive performance similarly within 3 hours post-dose, whether given on an empty stomach or after a high-fat meal, suggesting that the effect of food on plasma concentration may not be relevant in the medication's impact on cognition. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Uplift mechanism for a shallow-buried structure in liquefiable sand subjected to seismic load: centrifuge model test and DEM modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Wang, Zihan; Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Jiao

    2014-06-01

    Based on a centrifuge model test and distinct element method (DEM), this study provides new insights into the uplift response of a shallow-buried structure and the liquefaction mechanism for saturated sand around the structure under seismic action. In the centrifuge test, a high-speed microscopic camera was installed in the structure model, by which the movements of particles around the structure were monitored. Then, a two-dimensional digital image processing technology was used to analyze the microstructure of saturated sand during the shaking event. Herein, a numerical simulation of the centrifuge experiment was conducted using a two-phase (solid and fluid) fully coupled distinct element code. This code incorporates a particle-fluid coupling model by means of a "fixed coarse-grid" fluid scheme in PFC3D (Particle Flow Code in Three Dimensions), with the modeling parameters partially calibrated based on earlier studies. The physical and numerical models both indicate the uplifts of the shallow-buried structure and the sharp rise in excess pore pressure. The corresponding micro-scale responses and explanations are provided. Overall, the uplift response of an underground structure and the occurrence of liquefaction in saturated sand are predicted successfully by DEM modeling. However, the dynamic responses during the shaking cannot be modeled accurately due to the restricted computer power.

  8. Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Robert O'Connor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.

  9. In Vivo MRI Measurement of Spinal Cord Displacement in the Thoracolumbar Region of Asymptomatic Subjects with Unilateral and Sham Straight Leg Raise Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rade

    Full Text Available Normal displacement of the conus medullaris with unilateral and bilateral SLR has been quantified and the "principle of linear dependence" has been described.Explore whether previously recorded movements of conus medullaris with SLRs are i primarily due to transmission of tensile forces transmitted through the neural tissues during SLR or ii the result of reciprocal movements between vertebrae and nerves.Controlled radiologic study.Ten asymptomatic volunteers were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR scanner using T2 weighted spc 3D scanning sequences and a device that permits greater ranges of SLR. Displacement of the conus medullaris during the unilateral and sham SLR was quantified reliably with a randomized procedure. Conus displacement in response to unilateral and sham SLRs was quantified and the results compared.The conus displaced caudally in the spinal canal by 3.54±0.87 mm (mean±SD with unilateral (p≤.001 and proximally by 0.32±1.6 mm with sham SLR (p≤.542. Pearson correlations were higher than 0.99 for both intra- and inter-observer reliability and the observed power was 1 for unilateral SLRs and 0.054 and 0.149 for left and right sham SLR respectively.Four relevant points emerge from the presented data: i reciprocal movements between the spinal cord and the surrounding vertebrae are likely to occur during SLR in asymptomatic subjects, ii conus medullaris displacement in the vertebral canal with SLR is primarily due to transmission of tensile forces through the neural tissues, iii when tensile forces are transmitted through the neural system as in the clinical SLR, the magnitude of conus medullaris displacement prevails over the amount of bone adjustment.

  10. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P < .001). In-ear and especially supra-aural earphones reduced preferred listening levels the most. Safe-use recommendations were outlined, whereas selecting the lowest volume setting comfortable remained the main suggestion. High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, G; Belcaro, G; Bonanni, E; Cesarone, M R; Rotondi, V; Ledda, A; Hosoi, M; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Cornelli, U

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this registry study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® (French pine bark extract) on improving physical fitness (PF) in normal individuals using the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The study evaluated the efficacy of Pycnogenol, used as a supplement, in improving training, exercise, recovery and oxidative stress. The study was divided into 2 parts. In PART 1 (Pycnogenol 100 mg/day), the APFT was used to assess an improvement in PF during an 8-week preparation and training program. In PART 2 (Pycnogenol 150 mg/day), the study evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation in athletes in training for a triathlon. PART 1. There was a significant improvement in both males and females in the 2-mile running time within both groups, but the group using Pycnogenol (74 subjects) performed statistically better than controls (73 subjects). The number of push-ups was improved, with Pycnogenol subjects performing better. Sit-ups also improved in the Pycnogenol group. Oxidative stress decreased with exercise in all subjects; in Pycnogenol subjects the results were significantly better. PART 2. In the Pycnogenol group 32 males (37.9; SD 4.4 years) were compliant with the training plan at 4 weeks. In controls there were 22 subjects (37.2;3.5) completing the training plans. The swimming, biking and running scores in both groups improved with training. The Pycnogenol group had more benefits in comparison with controls. The total triathlon time was 89 min 44 s in Pycnogenol subjects versus 96 min 5 s in controls. Controls improved their performing time on average 4.6 minutes in comparison with an improvement of 10.8 minutes in Pycnogenol subjects. A significant decrease in cramps and running and post-running pain was seen in the Pycnogenol group; there were no significant differences in controls. There was an important, significant post-triathlon decrease of PFR one hour after the end of the triathlon with an average of -26.7, whereas PFR in controls

  12. Comparison Between Stress Obtained by Numerical Analysis and In-Situ Measurements on a Flexible Pipe Subjected to In-Plane Bending Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Lukassen, Troels; Glejbøl, Kristian; Lyckegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    to stress patterns obtained during in-situ OMS measurements carried out during an actual experimental inplane bending test. The study showed a good correlation between the stress variation predicted with the finite element model and the measured stress variation.......To predict the lifetime and long-term properties of tensile armour wires in a dynamically loaded pipe, it is essential to have a tool which allows detailed prediction of the stress variations in the tensile armour wires during global pipe loading. Furthermore, detailed understanding of the stress...... variations will allow for performance optimization of the armour layers. To study the detailed stress variations in flexible pipes during dynamic loading, a comprehensive three-dimensional implicit nonlinear finite element model has been developed. The predicted numerical stress variations will be compared...

  13. An investigation of human body model morphing for the assessment of abdomen responses to impact against a population of test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillas, Philippe; Berthet, Fabien

    2017-05-29

    Human body models have the potential to better describe the human anatomy and variability than dummies. However, data sets available to verify the human response to impact are typically limited in numbers, and they are not size or gender specific. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of model morphing methodologies within that context. In this study, a simple human model scaling methodology was developed to morph two detailed human models (Global Human Body Model Consortium models 50th male, M50, and 5th female, F05) to the dimensions of post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) used in published literature. The methodology was then successfully applied to 52 PMHS tested in 14 impact conditions loading the abdomen. The corresponding 104 simulations were compared to the responses of the PMHS and to the responses of the baseline models without scaling (28 simulations). The responses were analysed using the CORA method and peak values. The results suggest that model scaling leads to an improvement of the predicted force and deflection but has more marginal effects on the predicted abdominal compressions. M50 and F05 models scaled to the same PMHS were also found to have similar external responses, but large differences were found between the two sets of models for the strain energy densities in the liver and the spleen for mid-abdomen impact simulations. These differences, which were attributed to the anatomical differences in the abdomen of the baseline models, highlight the importance of the selection of the impact condition for simulation studies, especially if the organ location is not known in the test. While the methodology could be further improved, it shows the feasibility of using model scaling methodologies to compare human models of different sizes and to evaluate scaling approaches within the context of human model validation.

  14. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  15. Postural control and risk of falling in bipodalic and monopodalic stabilometric tests of healthy subjects before, after visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation and at 3 months thereafter: role of the proprioceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, P; Patrizi, M; Pepe, L; Cavaniglia, G; Riva, D; D'Ottavi, L R

    2010-08-01

    Nine healthy volunteers (6 males, 3 females), mean age 34.5 years (SD = 11.52), underwent a vestibulo-postural rehabilitation cycle with a visuo-proprioceptive-type stimulus. All subjects in the study group were evaluated by means of stabilometric bipodalic and monopodalic tests both before and immediately after treatment, and again 3 month thereafter. The Delos Postural Proprioceptive System®, DPPS (Delos, srl, Turin, Italy), was used in performing these stabilometric tests and in the rehabilitation exercises. The first aim of the study was to evaluate to what extent the functional level of the proprioceptive system was reliable, in healthy subjects, in the control of postural stability; the second was to demonstrate the possibility to increase this level by means of a novel visuo-proprioceptive feedback training; the last was to establish whether or not the increase achieved was permanent. The bipodalic test did not reveal any deficit in posture either before or after rehabilitation. The monopodalic test prior to treatment, with eyes closed, revealed, in 2/3 of the study group, evidence of the risk of falling, expressed as the precautional strategy (8.57 ± 6.18% SD). An increase in the proprioceptive activity, obtained in the subjects examined immediately after the visuo-proprioceptive vestibulo-postural rehabilitation, led, in the monopodalic test, with eyes closed, to a significant reduction in the risk of falling (with the precautional strategy equal to 1.09 ± 2.63% SD, p = 0.004). The monopodalic test, with eyes closed, 3 months after rehabilitation, demonstrated results not unlike those pre-treament with values, therefore, not more significant than those emerging from the pre-treatment test. Thus, from the above-mentioned data, it can be observed that, also in healthy subjects, there may be different levels of postural proprioceptive control related to a high risk of falling. These levels can be maintained constant for a certain period of time, until a

  16. Prospective validation of FibroTest in comparison with liver stiffness for predicting liver fibrosis in Asian subjects with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Kyung Kim

    Full Text Available Diagnostic values of FibroTest (FT for hepatic fibrosis have rarely been assessed in Asian chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients. We aimed to validate its diagnostic performances in comparison with liver stiffness (LS.From 2008 to 2010, 194 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies along with FT and transient elastography were prospectively enrolled. Fibrosis stage was assessed according to the Batts and Ludwig system.To predict significant fibrosis (F≥2, advanced fibrosis (F≥3, and cirrhosis (F = 4, areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs of FT were 0.903, 0.907, and 0.866, comparable to those of LS (0.873, 0.897, and 0.910, respectively. Optimized cutoffs of FT to maximize sum of sensitivity and specificity were 0.32, 0.52, and 0.68 for F≥2, F≥3, and F = 4, while those of LS were 8.8, 10.2, and 14.1 kPa, respectively. According to FT and LS cutoffs, 123 (63.4% and 124 (63.9% patients were correctly classified consistent with histological fibrosis (F1, F2, F3, and F4, respectively. Overall concordance between each fibrosis stage estimated by FT and LS was observed in 111 patients, where 88 were correctly classified with histological results. A combination formula adding LS to FT (LS+FT showed similar AUROC levels (0.885, 0.905, and 0.915, while another multiplying LS by FT (LS×FT showed the best AUROCs (0.941, 0.931, and 0.929 for F≥2, F≥3, and F4, respectively.FT provides good fibrosis prediction, with comparable outcomes to LS in Asian CHB patients. FT substantially reduces need for liver biopsy, especially when used in combination with LS.

  17. Composite driveshaft prototype design and survivability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Todd C.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed M.

    2017-01-01

    Rotorcraft drivelines typically utilize a multi-segmented metallic system to transmit power between the engine and tail rotor. The typical arrangement of metal driveshaft segments, hanger bearings, and flexible couplers contribute to a significant logistical footprint, maintenance downtime, and

  18. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  19. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  20. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  1. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  2. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  3. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  4. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting functional decline and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Lyn; Tan, Pei Fang; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2017-01-01

    Better predictors of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease course could enable smaller and more targeted clinical trials. Partially to address this aim, the Prize for Life foundation collected de-identified records from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sufferers who participated in clinical trials of investigational drugs and made them available to researchers in the PRO-ACT database. In this study, time series data from PRO-ACT subjects were fitted to exponential models. Binary classes for decline in the total score of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) (fast/slow progression) and survival (high/low death risk) were derived. Data was segregated into training and test sets via cross validation. Learning algorithms were applied to the demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters in the training set to predict ALSFRS-R decline and the derived fast/slow progression and high/low death risk categories. The performance of predictive models was assessed by cross-validation in the test set using Receiver Operator Curves and root mean squared errors. A model created using a boosting algorithm containing the decline in four parameters (weight, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and creatine kinase) post baseline, was able to predict functional decline class (fast or slow) with fair accuracy (AUC = 0.82). However similar approaches to build a predictive model for decline class by baseline subject characteristics were not successful. In contrast, baseline values of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyltransferase, urine specific gravity and ALSFRS-R item score-climbing stairs were sufficient to predict survival class. Using combinations of small numbers of variables it was possible to predict classes of functional decline and survival across the 1-2 year timeframe available in PRO-ACT. These findings may have utility for design of future ALS clinical trials.

  6. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  7. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  8. Microbial survival and odor in laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Johansen, Charlotte; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2001-01-01

    The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-were eva......The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa......-were evaluated on cotton textile. A significant survival and transfer between textiles were found for all four test strains washed in E.U. and U.S. color detergents (without bleach), whereas no survival was observed in bleach-containing detergents. Gram-negative strains generally survived in greater numbers than...... Gram-positive strains. A greater survival was observed in U.S. detergents at U.S. conditions (30 degreesC, 12 min) than in E.U. detergents at E.U. conditions (40 degreesC, 30 min). The adhesion of odorants to cotton and polyester textiles during washing and drying was studied using six previously...

  9. Protection of widows and surviving children under the intestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of widows and surviving children under the intestate succession laws of Zimbabwe: The case of estates of persons subject to customary law. ... Although in theory, the heir was supposed to administer the estate in the interests of the surviving spouse and children, this has not always been the case. This paper ...

  10. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    , leaving one large pool near the bottom of the side channel and several shallow isolated pools that may or may not go dry. In seasonally connected side channels, juvenile salmonid survival in pools less than 100 cm average depth was lower than in pools greater than 100 cm average depth (Martens and Connolly, 2014). In this report, we document our field work and analysis completed in 2013. During 2013, USGS sampling efforts were focused on resampling of three reaches in Beaver Creek, testing methodology in the Whitefish Island side channel, conducting hatchery survival estimates, and operating a screw trap on the Chewuch River (funded by Yakama Nation; fig. 1). The Beaver Creek sampling effort was a revisit of three index sites sampled continuously from 2004 to 2007 to look at the fish response to barrier removal. Methodology testing in Whitefish Island side channel was done to determine the best method for evaluating fish populations after restoration efforts in side channels (previous sampling methods were determined to be ineffective after pools were deepened). Hatchery survival estimates were completed to monitor fish survival in the Methow and Columbia Rivers, while the screw trap was operated to estimate migrating fish populations in the Chewuch River and track passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. In addition, we maintained a network of PIT-tag interrogation systems (PTIS), assisted Reclamation with fish removal events associated with stream restoration (two people for 9 days; 14 percent of summer field season), and conducted a stream metabolism study designed to help parameterize and calibrate the stream productivity model (Bellmore and others, 2014) with model validation.

  11. Effect of different heat treatments and disinfectants on the survival of Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassa, Henryka; Jagielski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Bovine mastitis caused by the yeast-like alga Prototheca zopfii represents a serious veterinary problem and may result in heavy economic losses to particular dairy farms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of 50 isolates of P. zopfii in milk subjected to different heat treatments and the survival of further 106 P. zopfii isolates after exposure to three classes of teat disinfectants: iodine (Dipal), quaternary ammonium compounds (Teat), and dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (Blu-gard). Of the 50 isolates tested for thermal tolerance, 29 (58%) survived heat treatment at 62 °C for 30 s and 13 (26% of all isolates) of those survived after heat treatment at 72 °C for 15 s. None of the 106 isolates were able to withstand the in-use concentrations of the three disinfectants tested. The highest disinfectant concentrations that permitted survival of at least one isolate were dilutions: 1:1,000 for Dipal (survival rate of 52.8-57.5%), 1:100 for Teat (88.7-90.6%), and 1:10 for Blu-gard (100%). No differences in the survival rates of P. zopfii were observed with respect to the duration of exposure to disinfectant. The results of this study support the previous findings that P. zopfii may resist high-temperature treatments, including that applied in the high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization process. The obtained data also demonstrate the efficacy of the three classes of teat disinfectants against P. zopfii, with the efficacy of iodine being most pronounced. The study emphasizes the necessity of using higher temperatures in the pasteurization of raw milk to kill the Prototheca algae, as well as the particular suitability of the iodine for the control procedures of protothecal mastitis.

  12. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone V. Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs. Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ 19% of energy from protein, based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber, pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber, or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05. Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05. Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  13. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals ( p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  14. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V.; Kristensen, Marlene D.; Klingenberg, Lars; Belza, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. PMID:29337861

  15. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  16. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  17. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  18. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  19. The Agreement between the MMSE and IQCODE Tests in a Community-Based Sample of Subjects Aged 70 Years or Older Receiving In-Home Nursing: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kirkevold

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was the aim of this study to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE and to explore the characteristics of subjects with possible dementia with only one of the two tools. Methods: We used a random sample of patients aged 70+ receiving social service or in-home nursing. The patients were tested with the MMSE, and the next of kin was interviewed using the following: the IQCODE, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, personal ADL (PADL and the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR. Results: Subjects with dementia defined only according to the MMSE showed a pattern of scores on IADL, PADL, CSDD, NPI-10 and GMHR similar to the no-dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE. Those with dementia defined only according to the IQCODE showed a pattern of scores similar to the possible dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE.

  20. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing Pattern in Malignant Mesothelioma Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Faig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival for mesothelioma has been shown to be poor, with marginal improvement over time. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of mesothelioma may impact therapy to improve survival that may not be evident from available clinical trials that are often small and not randomized. Therapies may affect survival differently based on mesothelioma location (pleural vs peritoneal. Data are conflicting regarding the effect of asbestos exposure on mesothelioma location. OBJECTIVES: We examined survival in a large cohort of mesothelioma subjects analyzed by tumor location and presence and mode of asbestos exposure. METHODS: Data were analyzed from cases (n = 380 diagnosed with mesothelioma from 1992 to 2012. Cases were either drawn from treatment referrals, independent medical evaluation for medical legal purposes, or volunteers who were diagnosed with mesothelioma. Subjects completed an occupational medical questionnaire, personal interview with the examining physician, and physician review of the medical record. RESULTS: This study reports better survival for mesothelioma than historical reports. Survival for peritoneal mesothelioma was longer than that for pleural mesothelioma (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.54, P < .001 after adjusting for gender and age at diagnosis. Non-occupational cases were more likely to be 1 diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, 2 female, 3 exposed, and 4 diagnosed at a younger age and to have a 5 shorter latency compared to occupational cases (P < .001. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal mesothelioma was more likely associated with non-occupational exposure, thus emphasizing the importance of exposure history in enhancing early diagnosis and treatment impact.

  2. The effect of retraining of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitationsuccess rate and short-term and long-term survival in patients revived

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahi M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is performed in order to restore the functioning of two most important body organs the heart and brain. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retraining of nurses on CPR success rate and short-term and long-term CPR survival. Materials and Method: The study population of the present quasi-experimental study consisted of all nurses of Taleghani Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The study subjects (n = 400 were selected using convenience and purposive sampling method. The patient survival rate during the first 24 hours (short-term survival and discharge from the hospital (long-term survival after CPR were reported. Then, the study subjects, in groups of 20, participated in CPR training courses. Short-term (24 hours and long-term (discharge from hospital in good mental status survival subsequent to CPR were reevaluated and compared with pre-training results. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and t-test and chi-square test. Results: Retraining promoted CPR success rates. This increase in the short-term success rate was not significant, but the increase in long-term success rate was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Periodic retraining of nurses may improve CPR success rate particularly long-term survival or discharge from hospital. Therefore, further studies on long-term success of CPR considering confounding factors are recommended

  3. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  4. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  5. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  6. IL-15 expression on RA synovial fibroblasts promotes B cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benito-Miguel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of RA Synovial Fibroblast (RASFib IL-15 expression on B cell survival. METHODS: Magnetically sorted peripheral blood memory B cells from 15 healthy subjects were cocultured with RASFib. RESULTS: RASFib constitutively expressed membrane IL-15. Survival of isolated B cells cultured for 6 days, below 5%, was extended in coculture with RASFib to 52+/-8% (p<0.001. IL-15 neutralizing agents but not isotype controls, reduced this rate to 31+/-6% (p<0.05. Interestingly, rhIL-15 had no effect on isolated B cells but significantly increased their survival in coculture with RASFib. In parallel, B cell IL-15R chains were upregulated in cocultures. BAFF and VCAM-1, that are expressed on RASFib, were tested as potential candidates involved in upregulating B cell IL-15R. Culture of B cells in the presence of rhBAFF or rhVCAM-1 resulted in significantly increased survival, together with upregulation of all three IL-15R chains; in parallel, rhIL-15 potentiated the anti-apoptotic effect of BAFF and VCAM-1. Both BAFF and VCAM-1 neutralizing agents downmodulated the effect of RASFib on B cell survival and IL-15R expression. In parallel, rhIL-15 had a lower effect on the survival of B cells cocultured with RASFib in the presence of BAFF or VCAM-1 neutralizing agents. Peripheral blood B cells from 15 early RA patients demonstrated an upregulated IL-15R and increased survival in cocultures. CONCLUSION: IL-15 expression on RASFib significantly contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of RASFib on B cells. IL-15 action is facilitated by BAFF and VCAM-1 expressed on RASFib, through an upregulation of IL-15R chains.

  7. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  8. Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Carles [IDI Centre Bellvitge, HU de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Hospital Duran i Reynals, IDI Centre Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Cos, Monica; Castaner, Sara [IDI Centre Bellvitge, HU de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Gil, Miguel [ICO l' Hospitalet, HU de Bellvitge, Department of Medical Onclogy, Barcelona (Spain); Plans, Gerard [HU de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, Barcelona (Spain); Lucas, Anna [ICO l' Hospitalet, HU de Bellvitge, Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Bruna, Jordi [HU de Bellvitge, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain); Aguilera, Carles [IDI Centre Bellvitge, HU de Bellvitge, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) as a prognostic tool after resection of glioblastoma. Sixty EPMR examinations were evaluated for perioperative infarct, tumour growth between diagnosis and EPMR, contrast enhancement pattern, and extent of resection (EOR). The EOR was approached with the subjective evaluation of radiologists and by quantifying volumes. These parameters were tested as predictors of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. Contrast enhancement was found in 59 patients (59/60; 98 %). Showing a thin-linear pattern of enhancement was the most favourable finding. Patients with this pattern survived longer than patients with thick-linear (median overall survival (OS) thin-linear=609 days; thick-linear=432 days; P =.023) or nodular (median OS = 318 days; P =.001) enhancements. The subjective evaluation of the EOR performed better than its quantification. Patients survived longer when resection was total (median OS total resection=609 days; subtotal=371 days; P =.001). When resection was subtotal, patients survived longer if it was superior to 95 % (median OS resection superior to 95 %=559 days; inferior to 95 %=256 days; P =.034). EPMR provides valuable prognostic information after surgical resection of glioblastomas. A thin-linear pattern of contrast enhancement is the most favourable finding. Further prognostic stratification may be obtained by assessing the EOR. (orig.)

  9. Early post-operative magnetic resonance imaging in glioblastoma: correlation among radiological findings and overall survival in 60 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majos, Carles; Cos, Monica; Castaner, Sara; Gil, Miguel; Plans, Gerard; Lucas, Anna; Bruna, Jordi; Aguilera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate early post-operative magnetic resonance (EPMR) as a prognostic tool after resection of glioblastoma. Sixty EPMR examinations were evaluated for perioperative infarct, tumour growth between diagnosis and EPMR, contrast enhancement pattern, and extent of resection (EOR). The EOR was approached with the subjective evaluation of radiologists and by quantifying volumes. These parameters were tested as predictors of survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. Contrast enhancement was found in 59 patients (59/60; 98 %). Showing a thin-linear pattern of enhancement was the most favourable finding. Patients with this pattern survived longer than patients with thick-linear (median overall survival (OS) thin-linear=609 days; thick-linear=432 days; P =.023) or nodular (median OS = 318 days; P =.001) enhancements. The subjective evaluation of the EOR performed better than its quantification. Patients survived longer when resection was total (median OS total resection=609 days; subtotal=371 days; P =.001). When resection was subtotal, patients survived longer if it was superior to 95 % (median OS resection superior to 95 %=559 days; inferior to 95 %=256 days; P =.034). EPMR provides valuable prognostic information after surgical resection of glioblastomas. A thin-linear pattern of contrast enhancement is the most favourable finding. Further prognostic stratification may be obtained by assessing the EOR. (orig.)

  10. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  11. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  12. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  13. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  14. Predicting survival in oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, J.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; De Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Measures of physical performance are regarded as useful objective clinical tools to estimate survival in elderly people. However, oldest old people, aged 85 years or more, are underrepresented in earlier studies and frequently unable to perform functional tests. We studied the association

  15. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-11-12

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  16. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  17. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Weili; Fudan Univ., Shanghai; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Yibin; Sun Su; Sun Dayu

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1- 13 C] phenylalanine breath test ( 13 C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1- 13 C] phenylalanine ( 13 C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects. Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer( The parameter percentage 13 C excretion rate 13 CERt (% 13 C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13 C-Phe application)The parameters such as maximum value of 13 C excretion rate, 13 CER max (% 13 C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C: 3.6±1.2), 13 C excretion rate at 30 min, 13 CER 30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9; Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13 C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13 C cum60 (% 13 C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7; Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13 C excretion rate, T 1 / 2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5; Child B: 102.0±17.3; Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C); T 1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure. (authors)

  18. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  19. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  20. Contribution to the study of fluids transfers within a concrete wall: application to the case of a containment wall subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to accidental situation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between the leak rate of a containment wall of nuclear power plants reactor buildings measured during periodic airtightness tests and the leak rate during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a fundamental element in the security analysis of reactor building. The aim of this work is to contribute to the study of the transfers of fluids induced by these two types of loading in the case of a concrete wall integrating inhomogeneities and singularities capable to exist within the containment wall. In a first experimental phase, the development of a test rig allowing to work with concrete specimens having the same height as the thickness of containment wall of future nuclear power plant (1.3 m) permits to develop concrete compositions representative of these high air permeability zones. Their characterization is focused on the types of gaseous flow being able to exist within these high diffuse permeability concretes and on the structuring of their porous network. This step is completed by water vapour sorption measurements and by mercury porosimetry tests in the case of a concrete qualified according a leak flow criterion. In a second experimental phase, this concrete is subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to an accidental situation of LOCA type (141 deg C, effective humid air pressure equal to 4,2 bar) always with a thickness of 1.3 m. The analysis of pressure and temperature fields and the water content distributions is performed by an appropriate instrumentation which also permits the study of kinetics of the mass flux (both gaseous and liquid) crossing to the extrados of the wall. The numerical investigation is carried out with the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanic of non-saturated porous media model, recently implemented in Code Aster (developed by EDF). This model allows to consider all the fluid phases in presence. From a interpretation work of experimental data according to hypotheses of the model, notably towards the particular aspects bound up

  1. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  2. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  4. Reliability assessment based on subjective inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    The reliability information which comes from subjective analysis is often incomplete prior. This information can be generally assumed to exist in the form of either a stated prior mean of R (reliability) or a stated prior credibility interval on R. An efficient approach is developed to determine a complete beta prior distribution from the subjective information according to the principle of maximum entropy, and the the reliability of survival/failure product is assessed via Bayes theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the methods

  5. Bone-Marrow Stem-Cell Survival in the Non-Uniformly Exposed Mammal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, V. P.; Robinson, C. V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Research Center, Upton, Long Island, NY (United States)

    1967-07-15

    For comparison of the effectiveness of non-uniform versus uniform irradiations in causing haematological death in mammals, a model of the irradiated haemopoietic system has been proposed. The essential features of this model are: (1) that different parts of the haemopoietic system have numbers of stem cells which are proportioned to the amounts of active marrow in those parts as measured by {sup 59}Fe uptake, (2) that stem cells in the different parts are subject to the, same dose-survival relationship, and (3) that survival of the animal depends on survival of a critical fraction of the total number of stem cells independent of their distribution among the parts of the total marrow mass. To apply this model one needs to know: (a) the relative {sup 59}Fe uptakes of the different parts of the haemopoietic system, (b) the doses delivered to those parts by each of the exposures to be compared, and (c) the dose-survival curve applicable to the stem cells. From these one can calculate the fraction of stem cells surviving each exposure. In a preliminary communication the applicability of the model was investigated using data obtained entirely from the literature. Additional data, particularly on bone-marrow distribution, have since been obtained and are included here. The primary object of the present paper is to test further the validity of the above 'stem-cell survival model'. Data on bilateral (essentially uniform) versus unilateral and non-uniform rotational exposures in mammals are examined with respect to the surviving fraction of stem cells at the LD{sub 50/30} day dose level. Although an adequate test is not possible at present for lack of a full set of data in any one species, a partial test indicates compatibility with data for dogs and rats. Other possible mortality determinants such as doses or exposures at entrance, midline or exit, or the gram-rads or average dose to the marrow, appear to be less useful than the critical stem-cell survival fraction.

  6. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  7. Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with 14 C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular 14 C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used

  8. Gastric Malignancy Survival in Zambia, Southern Africa: A Two Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    numbers provided at time of enrollment. Corresponding author: ... duration of symptoms, treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, ... Zambia and no studies about management survival out comes. ... evaluated risk factors associated with gastric cancer survival in ... patients because patient financial limitations precluded testing for ...

  9. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  10. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  11. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  12. Predictors of survival in surgically treated patients of spinal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Padalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spinal metastasis occurs in up to 40% of cancer patient. We compared the Tokuhashi and Tomita scoring systems, two commonly used scoring systems for prognosis in spinal metastases. We also assessed the different variables separately with respect to their value in predicting postsurgical life expectancy. Finally, we suggest criteria for selecting patients for surgery based on the postoperative survival pattern. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients who had been operated for metastatic disease of the spine. Predictive scoring was done according to the scoring systems proposed by Tokuhashi and Tomita. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Using the log rank test and Cox regression model we assessed the value of the individual components of each scoring system for predicting survival in these patients. Result: The factors that were most significantly associated with survival were the general condition score (Karnofsky Performance Scale (P=.000, log rank test, metastasis to internal organs (P=.0002 log rank test, and number of extraspinal bone metastases (P=.0058. Type of primary tumor was not found to be significantly associated with survival according to the revised Tokuhashi scoring system (P=.9131, log rank test. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that the Tomita score correlated more closely with survival than the Tokuhashi score. Conclusion: The patient′s performance status, extent of visceral metastasis, and extent of bone metastases are significant predictors of survival in patients with metastatic disease. Both revised Tokuhashi and Tomita scores were significantly correlated with survival. A revised Tokuhashi score of 7 or more and a Tomita score of 6 or less indicated >50% chance of surviving 6 months postoperatively. We recommend that the Tomita score be used for prognostication in patients who are contemplating surgery, as it is simpler to score and has a higher

  13. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  14. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  15. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  16. ABO blood type correlates with survival on prostate cancer vaccine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam M; Gulley, James L; Hodge, James W; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-13

    Immunotherapies for cancer are transforming patient care, but clinical responses vary considerably from patient to patient. Simple, inexpensive strategies to target treatment to likely responders could substantially improve efficacy while simultaneously reducing health care costs, but identification of reliable biomarkers has proven challenging. Previously, we found that pre-treatment serum IgM to blood group A (BG-A) correlated with survival for patients treated with PROSTVAC-VF, a therapeutic cancer vaccine in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of prostate cancer. These results suggested that ABO blood type might influence efficacy. Unfortunately, blood types were not available in the clinical records for all but 8 patients and insufficient amounts of sera were left for standard blood typing methods. To test the hypothesis, therefore, we developed a new glycan microarray-based method for determining ABO blood type. The method requires only 4 μL of serum, provides 97% accuracy, and allows simultaneous profiling of many other serum anti-glycan antibodies. After validation with 220 healthy subjects of known blood type, the method was then applied to 74 PROSTVAC-VF patients and 37 control patients from a phase II trial. In this retrospective study, we found that type B and O PROSTVAC-VF patients demonstrated markedly improved clinical outcomes relative to A and AB patients, including longer median survival, longer median survival relative to Halabi predicted survival, and improved overall survival via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (p = 0.006). Consequently, blood type may provide an inexpensive screen to pre-select patients likely to benefit from PROSTVAC-VF therapy.

  17. Validez de constructo, confiabilidad y punto de corte de la Prueba de Síntomas Subjetivos de Fatiga en trabajadores mexicanos Construct validity, reliability, and cutoff point of the Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test in Mexican workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la validez de constructo, la confiabilidad interna y establecer un punto de corte para la Prueba de Síntomas Subjetivos de Fatiga. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Esta prueba fue desarrollada en Japón para medir fatiga en población trabajadora, cuenta con 30 reactivos divididos en tres esferas. La validez de constructo fue explorada por diferencias entre grupos, utilizando una población de 1 399 trabajadores de ocho empresas de la Ciudad de México que fueron estudiadas en 1999. Se utilizó como red nomológica el modelo de control-demanda de Theorell y Karasek derivando con ello hipótesis de trabajo. Los trabajadores fueron clasificados en nueve grupos dependiendo de su nivel de exigencia-control, y las diferencias en la puntuación de fatiga se derivaron mediante análisis de covarianza (ANCOVA. La confiabilidad interna se obtuvo a través del alfa de Cronbach. El punto de corte se definió a partir de la relación lineal esperada entre las exigencias laborales y la fatiga. RESULTADOS: La distribución de la puntuación en la Prueba de Síntomas Subjetivos de Fatiga resultó similar a la esperada, que aumenta conforme se incrementa la exigencia o disminuye el control. Las diferencias entre grupos fueron estadísticamente significativas. El alfa de Cronbach para la prueba en general fue de 0.89, mientras que el valor por esfera fue siempre superior a 0.70. Los puntos de corte con una correlación más estrecha fueron 6 y 7 respuestas afirmativas (r= 0.9456 y 0.9479, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: La puntuación observada en los distintos grupos se comporta de la forma esperada, cumpliendo así las hipótesis de desempeño planteadas. La confiabilidad interna para la prueba en general es adecuada. El punto de corte propuesto para población general es de siete respuestas afirmativas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and the internal reliability of the Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue Test (SSFT, as well as to establish its

  18. Fingertip replantation: determinants of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Zheng; Zhu, Qingsheng; Lei, Wei; Han, Yisheng; Li, Mingquan; Wang, Zhen

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for an unsuccessful replanted fingertip. Two hundred eleven complete fingertip amputations in 211 patients who underwent replantation surgery between August of 1990 and March of 2006 were included in this study. The patients' age, gender, smoking history, digit position, dominant hand, amputation level, injury mechanism, platelet count, ischemia time, preservation method of the amputated part, anesthesia, number of arteries repaired, venous drainage, use of vein grafting, neurorrhaphy, bone shortening, and smoking after operation were tested for their impact on fingertip survival. One hundred seventy-two of 211 patients (81.5 percent) had a successful replantation. Univariate analysis showed crush or avulsion injury, high platelet count, and inappropriate preservation of the amputated part in saline solution or ethanol to be associated with a high incidence of replantation failure. Twenty-two of 54 patients (41 percent) who had a crush or avulsion trauma had failed replantation. Logistic regression analysis identified injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of the amputated part, and the use of vein grafting as statistically significant predictive factors for success or failure. Injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of amputated part, and the use of vein grafting were found to be the main predictors for the survival of the replanted fingertip. Applying external bleeding in zone 1 and venous drainage through the medullary cavity in zone 2 or venous anastomosis combined with vein grafting rather than venous anastomosis alone were strongly recommended in the fingertip replantation of crush or avulsion injury.

  19. Adaptive memory: the comparative value of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Thompson, Sarah R

    2008-02-01

    We recently proposed that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed for survival, perhaps as a result of fitness advantages accrued in the ancestral past. This proposal was supported by experiments in which participants showed superior memory when words were rated for survival relevance, at least relative to when words received other forms of deep processing. The current experiments tested the mettle of survival memory by pitting survival processing against conditions that are universally accepted as producing excellent retention, including conditions in which participants rated words for imagery, pleasantness, and self-reference; participants also generated words, studied words with the intention of learning them, or rated words for relevance to a contextually rich (but non-survival-related) scenario. Survival processing yielded the best retention, which suggests that it may be one of the best encoding procedures yet discovered in the memory field.

  20. Survival and failure modes: platform-switching for internal and external hexagon cemented fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Machado, Lucas S; Hirata, Ronaldo; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the probability of survival (reliability) of platform-switched fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) cemented on different implant-abutment connection designs. Eighty-four-three-unit FDPs (molar pontic) were cemented on abutments connected to two implants of external or internal hexagon connection. Four groups (n = 21 each) were established: external hexagon connection and regular platform (ERC); external hexagon connection and switched platform (ESC); internal hexagon and regular platform (IRC); and internal hexagon and switched platform (ISC). Prostheses were subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Weibull curves and probability of survival for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 400 N (two-sided 90% CI) were calculated. The beta values of 0.22, 0.48, 0.50, and 1.25 for groups ERC, ESC, IRC, and ISC, respectively, indicated a limited role of fatigue in damage accumulation, except for group ISC. Survival decreased for both platform-switched groups (ESC: 74%, and ISC: 59%) compared with the regular matching platform counterparts (ERC: 95%, and IRC: 98%). Characteristic strength was higher only for ERC compared with ESC, but not different between internal connections. Failures chiefly involved the abutment screw. Platform switching decreased the probability of survival of FDPs on both external and internal connections. The absence in loss of characteristic strength observed in internal hexagon connections favor their use compared with platform-switched external hexagon connections. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  1. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  2. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  3. Association between manganese superoxide dismutase promoter gene polymorphism and breast cancer survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert CG; Ahn, Jiyoung; Nowell, Susan A; Hein, David W; Doll, Mark A; Martini, Benjamin D; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2006-01-01

    Background Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) plays a critical role in the detoxification of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, constituting a major cellular defense mechanism against agents that induce oxidative stress. A genetic polymorphism in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of this gene has been associated with increased cancer risk and survival in breast cancer. This base pair transition (-9 T > C) leads to a valine to alanine amino acid change in the mitochondrial targeting sequence. A polymorphism has also been identified in the proximal region of the promoter (-102 C>T) that alters the recognition sequence of the AP-2 transcription factor, leading to a reduction in transcriptional activity. The aim of our study was to investigate possible associations of the -102 C>T polymorphism with overall and relapse-free breast cancer survival in a hospital-based case-only study. Materials and methods The relationship between the MnSOD -102 C>T polymorphism and survival was examined in a cohort of 291 women who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for incident breast cancer. The MnSOD -102 C>T genotype was determined using a TaqMan allele discrimination assay. Patient survival was evaluated according to the MnSOD genotype using Kaplan–Meier survival functions. Hazard ratios were calculated from adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In an evaluation of all women, there was a borderline significant reduction in recurrence-free survival with either one or both variant alleles (CT + TT) when compared with patients with wild-type alleles (CC) (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42–1.01). When the analysis was restricted to patients receiving radiation therapy, there was a significant reduction in relapse-free survival in women who were heterozygous for the MnSOD -102 genotype (relative risk, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.18–0.86). Similarly, when the homozygous and heterozygous variant

  4. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  5. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotti, Daria; Raffetti, Elena; Albini, Laura; Sighinolfi, Laura; Maggiolo, Franco; Di Filippo, Elisa; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Angarano, Gioacchino; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Pan, Angelo; Esposti, Anna Degli; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Focà, Emanuele; Scalzini, Alfredo; Donato, Francesco; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) diagnosis in the modern cART era. Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51%) were ADCs and 431 (49%) were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; pcancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14%) than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%), liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4%) or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%). Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  6. Survival in HIV-infected patients after a cancer diagnosis in the cART Era: results of an italian multicenter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gotti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We studied survival and associated risk factors in an Italian nationwide cohort of HIV-infected individuals after an AIDS-defining cancer (ADC or non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC diagnosis in the modern cART era. METHODS: Multi-center, retrospective, observational study of HIV patients included in the MASTER Italian Cohort with a cancer diagnosis from January 1998 to September 2012. Malignancies were divided into ADC or NADC on the basis of the Centre for Disease Control-1993 classification. Recurrence of cancer and metastases were excluded. Survivals were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method and compared according to the log-rank test. Statistically significant variables at univariate analysis were entered in a multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS: Eight hundred and sixty-six cancer diagnoses were recorded among 13,388 subjects in the MASTER Database after 1998: 435 (51% were ADCs and 431 (49% were NADCs. Survival was more favorable after an ADC diagnosis than a NADC diagnosis (10-year survival: 62.7%±2.9% vs. 46%±4.2%; p = 0.017. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma had lower survival rates than patients with Kaposi sarcoma or cervical cancer (10-year survival: 48.2%±4.3% vs. 72.8%±4.0% vs. 78.5%±9.9%; p<0.001. Regarding NADCs, breast cancer showed better survival (10-year survival: 65.1%±14% than lung cancer (1-year survival: 28%±8.7%, liver cancer (5-year survival: 31.9%±6.4% or Hodgkin lymphoma (10-year survival: 24.8%±11.2%. Lower CD4+ count and intravenous drug use were significantly associated with decreased survival after ADCs or NADCs diagnosis. Exposure to cART was found to be associated with prolonged survival only in the case of ADCs. CONCLUSIONS: cART has improved survival in patients with an ADC diagnosis, whereas the prognosis after a diagnosis of NADCs is poor. Low CD4+ counts and intravenous drug use are risk factors for survival following a diagnosis of ADCs and Hodgkin lymphoma in the NADC group.

  7. O uso de testes do degrau para a avaliação da capacidade de exercício em pacientes com doenças pulmonares crônicas The use of step tests for the assessment of exercise capacity in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Silva de Andrade

    2012-02-01

    tests, the aim of this review was to describe the protocols that have been used in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic lung disease. Step tests for use in healthy subjects have undergone a number of modifications over the years. In most step tests, the duration is variable (90 s-10 min, but the step height (23.0-50.8 cm and stepping rate (22.5-35.0 steps/min remain constant throughout the test. However, the use of a fixed step height and constant stepping rate might not provide adequate work intensity for subjects with different levels of fitness, the workload therefore being above or below individual capacity. Consequently, step test protocols have been modified by introducing changes in step heights and stepping rates during the test. Step tests have been used in patients with chronic lung diseases since the late 1970s. The protocols are quite varied, with adjustments in step height (15-30 cm, pacing (self-paced or externally paced, and test duration (90 s-10 min. However, the diversity of step test protocols and the variety of outcomes studied preclude the determination of the best protocol for use in individuals with chronic lung disease. Shorter protocols with a high stepping rate would seem to be more appropriate for assessing exercise-related oxygen desaturation in chronic lung disease. Symptom-limited testing would be more appropriate for evaluating exercise tolerance. There is a need for studies comparing different step test protocols, in terms of their reliability, validity, and ability to quantify responses to interventions, especially in individuals with lung disease.

  8. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  9. Gene Expression, Bacteria Viability and Survivability Following Spray Drying of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hunter Lauten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We find that Mycobacterium smegmatis survives spray drying and retains cell viability in accelerated temperature stress (40 °C conditions with a success rate that increases with increasing thermal, osmotic, and nutrient-restriction stresses applied to the mycobacterium prior to spray drying. M.smegmatis that are spray dried during log growth phase, where they suffer little or no nutrient-reduction stress, survive for less than 7 days in the dry powder state at accelerated temperature stress conditions, whereas M. smegmatis that are spray dried during stationary phase, where cells do suffer nutrient reduction, survive for up to 14 days. M. smegmatis that are spray dried from stationary phase, subjected to accelerated temperature stress conditions, regrown to stationary phase, spray dried again, and resubmitted to this same process four consecutive times, display, on the fourth spray drying iteration, an approximate ten-fold increase in stability during accelerated temperature stress testing, surviving up to 105 days. Microarray tests revealed significant differences in genetic expression of M. smegmatis between log phase and stationary phase conditions, between naïve (non spray-dried and multiply cycled dried M. smegmatis (in log and stationary phase, and between M. smegmatis in the dry powder state following a single spray drying operation and after four consecutive spray drying operations. These differences, and other phenotypical differences, point to the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway as a probable pathway contributing to bacteria survival in the spray-dried state and suggests strategies for spray drying that may lead to significantly greater room-temperature stability of mycobacteria, including mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, the current TB vaccine.

  10. An Experimental Study of a Midbroken 2-Bay 6-Storey Reinforced Concrete Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Taskin, B.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim of the w......A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim...... of the work is to study global response to a damaging strong motion earthquake event of such buildings. Special emphasis is put on examining to what extent damage in the weak storey can be identified from global response measurements during an earthquake where the structure survives, and what level...

  11. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  12. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  13. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  15. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  16. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  18. Dying to remember, remembering to survive: mortality salience and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E; Burns, Amy D

    2014-01-01

    Processing items for their relevance to survival improves recall for those items relative to numerous other deep processing encoding techniques. Perhaps related, placing individuals in a mortality salient state has also been shown to enhance retention of items encoded after the morality salience manipulation (e.g., in a pleasantness rating task), a phenomenon we dubbed the "dying-to-remember" (DTR) effect. The experiments reported here further explored the effect and tested the possibility that the DTR effect is related to survival processing. Experiment 1 replicated the effect using different encoding tasks, demonstrating that the effect is not dependent on the pleasantness task. In Experiment 2 the DTR effect was associated with increases in item-specific processing, not relational processing, according to several indices. Experiment 3 replicated the main results of Experiment 2, and tested the effects of mortality salience and survival processing within the same experiment. The DTR effect and its associated difference in item-specific processing were completely eliminated when the encoding task required survival processing. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the mechanisms responsible for survival processing and DTR effects are overlapping.

  19. A taylor series approach to survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, J.B.; Groer, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    A method of survival analysis using hazard functions is developed. The method uses the well known mathematical theory for Taylor Series. Hypothesis tests of the adequacy of many statistical models, including proportional hazards and linear and/or quadratic dose responses, are obtained. A partial analysis of leukemia mortality in the Life Span Study cohort is used as an example. Furthermore, a relatively robust estimation procedure for the proportional hazards model is proposed. (author)

  20. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  1. Report on survey for high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. Activities to promote proliferation of the introduction to subject project related business entities; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Taisho jigyosha eno fukyu sokushin katsudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper reports the survey on high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project in fiscal 1999. The development of a high-performance industrial furnace having been performed by NEDO since fiscal 1993 has completed the fundamental development research in fiscal 1998, and the planned achievements were verified (large energy saving, reduction of NOx emission, and down-sizing). Upon the result, the introduction field test project has started in fiscal 1998 for three years until fiscal 2000. The number of research items adopted in fiscal 1998 was 58, and those in fiscal 1999 was 51, which are progressing smoothly at the present. Reduction in CO2 emission of 50,000 tons was demonstrated as the achievement in fiscal 1998, and NOx emission realized the regulation value or lower in cities wherein each operator is executing the project. Several cases of down-sizing were also reported. In the proliferation promoting project in fiscal 1998, activities were made mainly to the subject project related business entities in relation with the development achievements and general technologies for the high-performance furnace. In fiscal 1999, communication transmission was continued by using information tools on introduction of the achievements and technologies. Attempts will be made on promoting the proliferation of the field test project in the future through a number of technology lecture meetings performed by specialists. (NEDO)

  2. Working memory load eliminates the survival processing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Rummel, Jan; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In a series of experiments, Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) demonstrated that words judged for their relevance to a survival scenario are remembered better than words judged for a scenario not relevant on a survival dimension. They explained this survival-processing effect by arguing that nature "tuned" our memory systems to process and remember fitness-relevant information. Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) proposed that it may not be survival processing per se that facilitates recall but the richness and distinctiveness with which information is encoded. To further test this account, we investigated how the survival processing effect is affected by cognitive load. If the survival processing effect is due to automatic processes or, alternatively, if survival processing is routinely prioritized in dual-task contexts, we would expect this effect to persist under cognitive load conditions. If the effect relies on cognitively demanding processes like richness and distinctiveness of encoding, however, the survival processing benefit should be hampered by increased cognitive load during encoding. Results were in line with the latter prediction, that is, the survival processing effect vanished under dual-task conditions.

  3. Determinants of IPO survival on the Johannesburg securities exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownhilder Ngek Neneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the determinants of IPO survival on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE. Using the Kaplan-Meier test, this study established that firms less than five years prior to listing on the JSE have a significant smaller mean survival time; firms with a gross proceed less than the median have a significant shorter mean survival time; overpriced IPOs have a significant higher survival time; IPOs listed during the hot market period on the JSE have a significant smaller mean survival time and IPOs with return on asset, operating profit margin, and return on equity less than or equal to zero have a low mean survival time. Also, being in the internet industry significantly shortens the mean survival time of an IPO. Moreover, based on the Cox Proportional Hazard model, it was established that the determinants of IPO survivability on the JSE are the firms’ age, size, market period, return on equity and operating profit margin are. These findings provide investors and companies in the JSE with empirical evidence of the determinants of IPO survivability of the JSE. As such, investors are advised to consider these factors when selecting their portfolios

  4. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  6. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  7. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  8. Dehydration survival of crop plants and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2018-01-08

    Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur. This review briefly discusses the physiological basis of dehydration survival in resurrection plants and crop plants, and concludes that in phenotyping dehydration survival there is a need to distinguish between dehydration avoidance and dehydration tolerance (also termed desiccation tolerance) in affecting survival and recovery. Without this distinction, functional genomics studies of the trait might be biased. Survival due to dehydration avoidance is expressed by the capacity to maintain a relatively high plant water status as the plant is desiccated. Survival due to dehydration tolerance is expressed by delayed mortality (mortality at a relatively low plant water status) as affected by the resilience of plant metabolism. The common test of dehydration survival, using the relative recovery after a given number of stress days, is therefore insufficient because it is mainly driven by dehydration avoidance and so ignores a possible role for dehydration tolerance. Conceivable methods for more accurate phenotyping of the two components of dehydration survival are proposed and discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  10. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  11. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  12. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  13. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  14. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  15. Estudo da validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado em indivíduos com lombalgia Study of validity and intra and inter-observer reliability of modified-modified Schöber test in subjects with low-back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Souza Guerino Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em pacientes com lombalgia, mensura-se a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna lombar por meio da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado (MTSM, mas suas propriedades psicométricas não são comprovadas para uso clínico. Este estudo verificou a validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador do MTSM em indivíduos com lombalgia, comparando as medidas da ADM com as obtidas por meio de radiografia, método considerado padrão-ouro. Participaram 20 voluntários com lombalgia, de ambos os sexos, funcionários de um Hospital Universitário. O MTSM foi aplicado duas vezes por dois avaliadores. As medidas obtidas pelo teste e por radiografia foram comparadas usando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, obtendo-se r=0,14, ou seja, correlação fraca. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI dos MTSM intra-observador foi 0,96 (IC 95% 0,91;0,98 e interobservador 0,93 (IC 95% 0,84;0,97, indicando alta confiabilidade; o teste de Bland & Altman mostrou alta concordância intra e interobservador, com valores de -0,21 e -0,28, respectivamente. Embora tenha sido encontrada alta confiabilidade intra e interobservador na aplicação da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado, este apresentou baixa validade para medir a ADM da coluna lombar, quando comparado ao padrão-ouro.In patients with low-back pain the lumbar spine range of motion (ROM is often measured by the modified version of the modified Schöber test (MMST, but its psychometric properties have not been ascertained for clinical use. The purpose here was to verify intra and inter-observer validity and reliability of the MMST in subjects with low-back pain, and to compare obtained ROM measures to those obtained by radiography, taken as gold standard. The study involved 20 subjects with chronic low-back pain, of both sexes, employees at a university hospital. The MMST was applied twice by two examiners each. The Pearson correlation coefficient found when comparing

  16. Virally delivered, constitutively active NFκB improves survival of injured retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Pappas, Steve; Luo, Xueting; Ribeiro, Marcio; Danek, Dagmara; Pelaez, Daniel; Park, Kevin K; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2016-12-01

    As axon damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss lead to blindness, therapies that increase RGC survival and axon regrowth have direct clinical relevance. Given that NFκB signaling is critical for neuronal survival and may regulate neurite growth, we investigated the therapeutic potential of NFκB signaling in RGC survival and axon regeneration. Although both NFκB subunits (p65 and p50) are present in RGCs, p65 exists in an inactive (unphosphorylated) state when RGCs are subjected to neurotoxic conditions. In this study, we used a phosphomimetic approach to generate DNA coding for an activated (phosphorylated) p65 (p65mut), then employed an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) to deliver the DNA into RGCs. We tested whether constitutive p65mut expression prevents death and facilitates neurite outgrowth in RGCs subjected to transient retinal ischemia or optic nerve crush (ONC), two models of neurotoxicity. Our data indicate that RGCs treated with AAV2-p65mut displayed a significant increase in survival compared to controls in ONC model (77 ± 7% vs. 25 ± 3%, P-value = 0.0001). We also found protective effect of modified p65 in RGCs of ischemic retinas (55 ± 12% vs. 35 ± 6%), but not to a statistically significant degree (P-value = 0.14). We did not detect a difference in axon regeneration between experimental and control animals after ONC. These findings suggest that increased NFκB signaling in RGCs attenuates retinal damage in animal models of neurodegeneration, but insignificantly impacts axon regeneration. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Statistical study of clone survival curves after irradiation in one or two stages. Comparison and generalization of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachet, Bernard.

    1975-01-01

    A statistical study was carried out on 208 survival curves for chlorella subjected to γ or particle radiations. The computing programmes used were written in Fortran. The different experimental causes contributing to the variance of a survival rate are analyzed and consequently the experiments can be planned. Each curve was fitted to four models by the weighted least squares method applied to non-linear functions. The validity of the fits obtained can be checked by the F test. It was possible to define the confidence and prediction zones around an adjusted curve by weighting of the residual variance, in spite of error on the doses delivered; the confidence limits can them be fixed for a dose estimated from an exact or measured survival. The four models adopted were compared for the precision of their fit (by a non-parametric simultaneous comparison test) and the scattering of their adjusted parameters: Wideroe's model gives a very good fit with the experimental points in return for a scattering of its parameters, which robs them of their presumed meaning. The principal component analysis showed the statistical equivalence of the 1 and 2 hit target models. Division of the irradiation into two doses, the first fixed by the investigator, leads to families of curves for which the equation was established from that of any basic model expressing the dose survival relationship in one-stage irradiation [fr

  18. Assessing survivability to support power grid investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziolek, Anne; Avritzer, Alberto; Suresh, Sindhu; Menasché, Daniel S.; Diniz, Morganna; Souza e Silva, Edmundo de; Leão, Rosa M.; Trivedi, Kishor; Happe, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of power grids has been subject of study for the past few decades. Traditionally, detailed models are used to assess how the system behaves after failures. Such models, based on power flow analysis and detailed simulations, yield accurate characterizations of the system under study. However, they fall short on scalability. In this paper, we propose an efficient and scalable approach to assess the survivability of power systems. Our approach takes into account the phased-recovery of the system after a failure occurs. The proposed phased-recovery model yields metrics such as the expected accumulated energy not supplied between failure and full recovery. Leveraging the predictive power of the model, we use it as part of an optimization framework to assist in investment decisions. Given a budget and an initial circuit to be upgraded, we propose heuristics to sample the solution space in a principled way accounting for survivability-related metrics. We have evaluated the feasibility of this approach by applying it to the design of a benchmark distribution automation circuit. Our empirical results indicate that the combination of survivability and power flow analysis can provide meaningful investment decision support for power systems engineers. - Highlights: • We propose metrics and models for scalable survivability analysis of power systems. • The survivability model captures the system phased-recovery, from failure to repair. • The survivability model is used as a building block of an optimization framework. • Heuristics assist in investment options accounting for survivability-related metrics.

  19. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  20. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  1. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  2. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  3. Poor survival of ABG I hip prosthesis in younger patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gallo, J.; Langová, K.; Havránek, Vítězslav; Čechová, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 1 (2008), s. 152-163 ISSN 1213-8118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : total hip arthroplasty * ABG I * survival analysis * hydroxyapatie coating * osteolysis Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  4. Effect of population size on prospect of species survival

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 137-150 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : population * size * survival Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2006

  5. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    This book brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. Myths and facts about consequences of a massive nuclear attack are discussed. The main emphasis, however, is on preparations that could be made in the last few days of a worsening crisis. This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. These chapters describe the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. The design features of several types of expedient blast shelters are described in another appendix. Two others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable using inexpensive materials found in most households. The report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah, for use by untrained citizens

  6. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  7. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  8. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  9. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  10. The Survival of the Wisest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  11. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  12. One- and multistage total strain and stress-controlled fatigue tests with a steel of type 42 CrMo 4 subject to varied residual and mean stress loading. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.; Schulze, V.

    1995-01-01

    Work under this research project covered tests with the quenched and tempered steel 42 CrMo 4 to which one- and two-stage tension-compression fatigue stresses were applied with varying mean loads, under conditions of nominal stress and total strain control. Shot peening was used to induce various microstructural conditions in the material at the surface and near below. Softening in the material was observed to be a continuous process, and the steel showed no stabilised, cyclic deformation behaviour. The cyclic stress-strain curve measured with equal stress amplitudes and total strain control applied shows higher plastic strain amplitudes than that measured with nominal stresses. The fatigue behaviour under two-stage loading depends on the chosen sequence of loads applied, the testing periods, and the overall testing procedure, so that there is no way of deriving data for two-stage testing procedures from single-stage test results. (orig.) [de

  13. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  14. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  15. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  16. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  17. How do country risk and national cultural differences between partners affect the survival of international alliances in emerging countries? Longitudinal analysis of 165 international joint ventures in Brazil 1974 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Xavier Meschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at identifying the individual and joint impact of two « country-level variables », namely national distance and country risk, on the survival of international joint ventures in emerging countries. Research hypotheses predicting the negative impact of national distance and country risk on survival are formulated in this article. These research hypotheses are tested in a sample of 165 international joint ventures that were formed in Brazil between 1974 and 2003. These joint ventures were subjected to an event history analysis over a period of time ranging from 1974 to 2005. The empirical results show that the intercultural dynamics increases the instability of international joint ventures whereas the survival of these alliances does not seem to be affected by the economic and political uncertainty of Brazil. Furthermore, the national distance between local and foreign partners has effects on survival that are variable according to the life cycle of international joint ventures.

  18. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  19. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  20. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  1. Feasibility of a smartphone-based balance assessment system for subjects with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, You-Ruei; Chiu, Ya-Lan; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Chen, Hui-Ya; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2018-07-01

    Stroke is a cerebral artery disease that may lead to long-term disabilities or death. Patients that survive a stroke usually suffer balance impairments, which affect their performance in activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). In recent years, smartphones have become very popular and have many capabilities. Smartphone built-in sensors have shown their ability and potential in balance performance assessment. However, the feasibility of smartphones on subjects with chronic strokes remains to be proved. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-based balance assessment system for subjects with chronic stroke. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and thirteen healthy adults were recruited in the study. The smartphone HTC 10 (HTC Corporation, Taiwan) was used to perform the balance assessment, and its built-in accelerometer and gyroscope were used to record data from the subjects. Six postures were tested for thirty seconds each: shoulder-width stance (SWS) with eyes opened (E/O) and eyes closed (E/C), feet-together stance (FTS) with E/O and E/C, and semi-tandem stance (STS) with E/O and E/C. The smartphone was fixed to the back of subjects at the second sacral spine (S2) level. The changes registered in the accelerometer and gyroscope data were used to represent the balance performance, in which higher values indicate more instability. Data was analyzed using the independent t-test with the software SPSS 20, and the statistical significance level was set to α balance performances between healthy adults and subjects with chronic stroke. This study shows that smartphones are feasible to assess balance for subjects with chronic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Alexandrium fundyense cyst viability and germling survival in light vs. dark at a constant low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, Emil; Crespo, Bibiana G.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J.; Olli, Kalle; Anderson, Donald M.

    2014-05-01

    Both observations and models suggest that large-scale coastal blooms of Alexandrium fundyense in the Gulf of Maine are seeded by deep-bottom cyst accumulation zones (“seed beds”) where cysts germinate from the sediment surface or the overlying near-bottom nepheloid layers at water depths exceeding 100 m. The germling cells and their vegetative progeny are assumed to be subject to mortality while in complete darkness, as they swim to illuminated surface waters. To test the validity of this assumption we conducted laboratory investigations of cyst viability and the survival of the germling cells and their vegetative progeny during prolonged exposure to darkness at a temperature of 6 °C, simulating the conditions in deep Gulf of Maine waters. We isolated cysts from bottom sediments collected in the Gulf of Maine under low red light and incubated them in 96-well tissue culture-plates in culture medium under a 10:14 h light:dark cycle and under complete darkness. Cyst viability was high, with excystment frequency reaching 90% in the illuminated treatment after 30 days and in the dark treatment after 50 days. Average germination rates were 0.062 and 0.038 d-1 for light and dark treatments, respectively. The dark treatment showed an approximately 2-week time lag in maximum germination rates compared to the light treatment. Survival of germlings was considerably lower in the dark treatment. In the light treatments, 47% of germinated cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for 7 days and produce vegetative progeny, i.e., there were live cells in the well along with an empty cyst at least once during the experiment. In the dark treatments 12% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for the same length of time. When dark treatments are scaled to take into account non-darkness related mortality, approximately 28% of the cysts produced germlings that were able to survive for at least 7 days. Even though cysts are able to germinate in darkness

  3. CT findings associated with survival in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jonathan H.; Montner, Steven M.; Adegunsoye, Ayodeji; Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre; Strek, Mary E.; Oldham, Justin M.; Husain, Aliya N.

    2017-01-01

    To identify CT findings in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) associated with survival. Two thoracic radiologists assessed CT scans for specific imaging findings and patterns in 132 subjects with cHP. Survival analyses were performed. The majority of subjects had an inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis pattern on CT (55.3%,73/132). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) diagnosis on CT was less common in those with fibrosis (66.1%, 74/112) than those without fibrosis (85%,17/20). Smoking was associated with a lower prevalence of HP on CT (p=0.04). CT features of pulmonary fibrosis, especially traction bronchiectasis (HR 8.34, 95% CI 1.98-35.21) and increased pulmonary artery (PA)/aorta ratio (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27-4.89) were associated with worse survival, while ground-glass opacity (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79) was associated with improved survival. Survival association with imaging was less pronounced after adjustment for gender, age and physiology score. A substantial proportion of cHP cases have a non-HP-like appearance. Ground-glass opacity, pulmonary fibrosis features and elevated PA/aorta ratio on CT likely reflect varying degrees of disease severity in cHP and may inform future clinical prediction models. (orig.)

  4. CT findings associated with survival in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jonathan H.; Montner, Steven M. [University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Adegunsoye, Ayodeji; Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre; Strek, Mary E. [University of Chicago Medical Center, Section of Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Oldham, Justin M. [University of California at Davis, Section of Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Husain, Aliya N. [University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-12-15

    To identify CT findings in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (cHP) associated with survival. Two thoracic radiologists assessed CT scans for specific imaging findings and patterns in 132 subjects with cHP. Survival analyses were performed. The majority of subjects had an inconsistent with usual interstitial pneumonitis pattern on CT (55.3%,73/132). Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) diagnosis on CT was less common in those with fibrosis (66.1%, 74/112) than those without fibrosis (85%,17/20). Smoking was associated with a lower prevalence of HP on CT (p=0.04). CT features of pulmonary fibrosis, especially traction bronchiectasis (HR 8.34, 95% CI 1.98-35.21) and increased pulmonary artery (PA)/aorta ratio (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27-4.89) were associated with worse survival, while ground-glass opacity (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.79) was associated with improved survival. Survival association with imaging was less pronounced after adjustment for gender, age and physiology score. A substantial proportion of cHP cases have a non-HP-like appearance. Ground-glass opacity, pulmonary fibrosis features and elevated PA/aorta ratio on CT likely reflect varying degrees of disease severity in cHP and may inform future clinical prediction models. (orig.)

  5. Memory and survival after microbeam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Juurlink, Bernhard H.J.; Ataelmannan, Khalid; Laissue, Jean; Blattmann, Hans; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Minczewska, Joanna; Crosbie, Jeffrey; Taherian, Hadi; Frangou, Evan; Wysokinsky, Tomasz; Chapman, L. Dean; Griebel, Robert; Fourney, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of memory function are frequently observed in patients with malignant brain tumours and as adverse effects after radiotherapy to the brain. Experiments in small animal models of malignant brain tumour using synchrotron-based microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) have shown a promising prolongation of survival times. Materials and methods: Two animal models of malignant brain tumour were used to study survival and memory development after MRT. Thirteen days after implantation of tumour cells, animals were submitted to MRT either with or without adjuvant therapy (buthionine-SR-sulfoximine = BSO or glutamine). We used two orthogonal 1-cm wide arrays of 50 microplanar quasiparallel microbeams of 25 μm width and a center-to-center distance of about 200 μm, created by a multislit collimator, with a skin entrance dose of 350 Gy for each direction. Object recognition tests were performed at day 13 after tumour cell implantation and in monthly intervals up to 1 year after tumour cell implantation. Results: In both animal models, MRT with and without adjuvant therapy significantly increased survival times. BSO had detrimental effects on memory function early after therapy, while administration of glutamine resulted in improved memory

  6. Illness perceptions predict survival in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcot, Joseph; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Illness perceptions have been shown to be important determinants of functional and psychosocial outcomes, including quality of life and treatment adherence in end-stage renal disease patients. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether haemodialysis patients' illness perceptions impact upon survival. Haemodialysis patients from a UK renal service completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Over the study period (May 2007 to December 2010), all-cause mortality was recorded as the endpoint. 223 patients were followed up for a median of 15.9 months (min. 10 days, max. 42.7 months). The median dialysis vintage was 17.6 months (min. 4 days, max. 391.3 months). Treatment control perceptions demonstrated a significant association with mortality (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99, p = 0.03). After controlling for covariates, including age, albumin, extra renal comorbidity and depression scores, perception of treatment control remained a significant predictor of mortality (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03). Patients' perceptions of treatment control (dialysis therapy) predict survival independently of survival risk factors, including comorbidity. Studies are required to test whether psychological interventions designed to modify maladaptive illness perceptions influence clinical outcomes in this patient setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  9. Should the negativity for islet cell autoantibodies be used in a prescreening for genetic testing in maturity-onset diabetes of the young? The case of autoimmunity-associated destruction of pancreatic β-cells in a family of HNF1A-MODY subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Jana; Rypáčková, Blanka; Kučera, Petr; Anděl, Michal; Heneberg, Petr

    2013-01-01

    It was recently suggested that routine islet cell autoantibody testing should be performed to discriminate maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This is the first report ever to describe the familial manifestation of T1DM autoimmunity in nonobese HNF1A-MODY subjects and the presence of islet antigen-2 (IA-2) antibodies in MODY subjects. Three nonobese subjects in an age range of 14-35 years were diagnosed with HNF1A-MODY (p. Arg159Gln mutation). All the tested subjects had detectable (but varying) levels of islet cell autoantibodies (i.e., antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase or IA-2) in the absence of other T1DM characteristics. They displayed long-term expression of intermediate fasting C-peptide levels, ketoacidosis was absent even in periods of spontaneous insulin withdrawal, and full dependence on externally administered insulin was not detected in any of them although better glycemic control was achieved when insulin was supplemented. The course of the disease was similar to that of the autoantibody-negative HNF1A-MODY subjects. The case questions the selectivity of autoantibodies as a marker of T1DM or late-onset autoimmune diabetes of adulthood (LADA) over MODY and challenges the use of autoantibodies as a universal negative marker of MODY in an effort to decrease the cost of health care, as it may eventually lead to the wrong diagnosis and thus to the incorrect treatment. Further research should involve examination of the autoantibody titers and prevalence in large and geographically diverse cohorts of MODY subjects selected for genetic testing (regardless of their autoantibody titers) as well as determination of the islet cell autoantibody kinetics in the course of MODY onset and progression. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  11. Dopamine neurons implanted into people with Parkinson's disease survive without pathology for 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendez, Ivar; Viñuela, Angel; Astradsson, Arnar

    2008-01-01

    Postmortem analysis of five subjects with Parkinson's disease 9-14 years after transplantation of fetal midbrain cell suspensions revealed surviving grafts that included dopamine and serotonin neurons without pathology. These findings are important for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis...

  12. Automatic classification of EpCAM+, Cytokeratin+ objects versus survival in castration resistant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Sjoerd T.; Coumans, Frank A.W.; Attard, Gert; de Bono, Johann S.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and may guide therapy. CTC are morphologically heterogeneous and many research groups apply different morphological definitions. Manual assignment of CTC is therefore subjective. We

  13. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    PMSG ). Report No.: JTCG/AS-99-D-003 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Title: JTCG/AS Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports and...indicates those approved and not approved for funding by the Principal Members Steering Group ( PMSG ). Report No.: Report Classification: JTCG/AS-97-V-010...demonstrated by additional tests conducted at NWSC/Crane (up to Mach 0.8) and Rockwell International wind tunnel (up to Mach 1/9 and 30,000 feet altitude

  14. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  15. Chordoma: review of clinico radiological features and factors affecting survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, M.Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study reviews the clinico radiological features of cranial and sacrospinal chordomas and identifies factors affecting survival. Nineteen patients seen between January 1980 and December 2000 with histopathological diagnosis of chordomas were retrospectively reviewed with reference to clinical presentation, imaging features, treatment modalities and post-therapy status. Eight had tumours in the skull base while 11 patients had spinal and sacro-coccygeal lesions. Surgical resection was performed in 16 patients whose subsequent natural history was used to identify clinical indicators that may influence survival. Completeness of resection, age, gender and postoperative irradiation were subjected to analysis using the Cox proportional hazard models. Kaplan-Meir survival curves illustrate the survival distributions. Diplopia and facial pain are prime clinical presentations in cranial lesions, while extremity weakness and a sacrogluteal mass are common complaints in the sacrospinal group. Lesional calcifications are present in 40% while an osteolytic soft tissue mass is detectable by CT in all cases. Heterogeneous signals and internal septations on T 2 -weighted MRI are predominant features. In sacrospinal tumours, complete excision with adjuvant radiotherapy achieves the best results with a disease-free survival of more than 5 years. The clinical and imaging findings in this study are in accordance with those of other series. Except for complete surgical excision followed by radiotherapy in the subset of patients with sacrospinal tumours, none of the other clinical indicators show a statistical significant influence on survival. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  17. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  18. Effect of pasteurization on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, A; Mutharia, L; Chen, S; Rahn, K; Odumeru, J

    2002-12-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mptb) is the causative agent of Johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. It has been suggested that this organism is associated with Crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. A total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. Raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spiked at levels of 10(3), 10(5), and 10(7) cfu of Mptb/ml. Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains at 10(7) cfu/ml were used as controls. Pasteurization experiments were conducted using time and temperature standards specified in the Canadian National Dairy Code: regular batch pasteurization method: 63 degrees C for 30 min, and HTST method: 72 degrees C for 15 s. The death curve of this organism was assessed at 63 degrees C. No survivors were detected after 15 min. Each spiked sample was cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 culture broth and Middlebrook 7H11 agar slants. Samples selected from 15 experiments were also subjected to BACTEC culture procedure. Survival of Mptb was confirmed by IS900-based PCR of colonies recovered on slants. No survivors were detected from any of the slants or broths corresponding to the seven regular batch pasteurization trials. Mptb survivors were detected in two of the 11 HTST experiments. One was by both slant and broth culture for the sample spiked to 10(7) cfu/ml of Mptb, while the other was detected by BACTEC for the sample spiked to 10(5) cfu/ml. These results indicate that Mptb may survive HTST pasteurization when present at > or = 10(5) cfu/ml in milk. A total of 710 retail milk samples collected from retail store and dairy plants in southwest Ontario were tested by nested IS900 PCR for the presence of Mptb. Fifteen percent of these samples (n = 110) were positive. However, no survivors were isolated from the broth and agar cultures of

  19. Bernstein - Von Mises theorem and its application in survival analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Timková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2010), s. 115-122 ISSN 1210-8022. [16. letní škola JČMF Robust 2010. Králíky, 30.01.2010-05.02.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Cox model * bayesian asymptotics * survival function Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/timkova-bernstein - von mises theorem and its application in survival analysis.pdf

  20. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  1. Tamai zone I fingertip replantation: is external bleeding obligatory for survival of artery anastomosis-only replanted digits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ko-Kang; Hsieh, Tung-Ying; Chang, Kao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Distal fingertip replantation is associated with good functional and aesthetic results. Venous anastomosis is the most challenging procedure. For replantation with an artery anastomosis-only procedure (no venous anastomosis), some protocols have been designed to relieve venous congestion involve anticoagulation and the creation of wounds for persistent bleeding. This report presents the authors' experience of fingertip survival after artery anastomosis-only replantation with no persistent external bleeding. Twelve Tamai zone I fingertip total amputation patients who underwent artery anastomosis-only replantations were recruited from February 2009 to June 2012. Nerve repair was performed if identified. The patients were not subjected to conventional external bleeding methods. Both the blood color on pinprick and fingertip temperature difference between the replanted and uninjured digits were used as indicators of deteriorated venous congestion. The replanted digits of 11 patients survived. The only failed replant exhibited an average temperature difference of more than 6°C compared with the uninjured digits and consistently exhibited darker blood during the pinprick test. All other replants exhibited average temperature differences of less than 6°C. In these Tamai zone I artery anastomosis-only replantations, fingertips survived without the use of external bleeding method, indicating that external bleeding is probably not obligatory for survival of artery anastomosis-only replanted digits distal to Tamai zone I. An increasing temperature difference between the replanted and uninjured digits and darker blood on pinprick may be used as indicators of deteriorating congestion signs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  3. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  4. Clinical Survival of Rebonded Brackets with Different ARI Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ahangar Atashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bracket debonding is one of the most common events in orthodontics. The aim of the present study was to quantitatively compare clinical survival of rebonded brackets with different ARI scores with new brackets rebonding. Materials and Methods: The subjects in the present study consisted of 74 patients with 76 debonded brackets on maxillary first and second premolars. After refreshing the bracket base of the debonded brackets, they were assigned in two groups: group A with 27 brackets of ARI≥4 and group B with 28 brackets of ARI≤2. In 21 cases, new brackets were used (group C. The frequency of the debonding in each rebonded group during treatment was calculated in intervals of 6,12,18 mounths after onset of bracket rebonding . Chi-squared test was used to compare the frequency of debonded brackets. Results: The frequency of debonded brackets was significantly higher in group B (ARI≤2 than those of groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. The number of debonded brackets were not significantly different between groups A (ARI≥4 and C (new brackets. Conclusion: Rebonding strength of debonded brackets in those that the failure is presented between adhesive and enamel (ARI≥4 could be clinically acceptable with no need to use new brackets.    Key words: dental bonding; orthodontic brackets; prevalence

  5. Factors predicting survival following noninvasive ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysson, S; Vandenberghe, N; Philit, F; Vial, C; Petitjean, T; Bouhour, F; Bayle, J Y; Broussolle, E

    2008-01-01

    The involvement of respiratory muscles is a major predicting factor for survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies show that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) can relieve symptoms of alveolar hypoventilation. However, factors predicting survival in ALS patients when treated with NIV need to be clarified. We conducted a retrospective study of 33 consecutive ALS patients receiving NIV. Ten patients had bulbar onset. We determined the median survivals from onset, diagnosis and initiation of NIV and factors predicting survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier test and Cox proportional hazard models. The median initial and maximal total uses of NIV were 10 and 14 h/24h. The overall median survival from ALS onset was 34.2 months and worsened with increasing age and bulbar onset of the disease. The median survival from initiation of NIV was 8.4 months and was significantly poorer in patients with advanced age or with airway mucus accumulation. Survival from initiation of NIV was not influenced by respiratory parameters or bulbar symptoms. Advanced age at diagnosis and airway mucus accumulation represent poorer prognostic factors of ALS patients treated with NIV. NIV is a helpful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing, including patients with bulbar involvement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Picturing survival memories: enhanced memory after fitness-relevant processing occurs for verbal and visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom; van Bergen, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that processing words according to a survival scenario leads to superior retention relative to control conditions. Here, we examined whether a survival recall advantage could be elicited by using pictures. Furthermore, in Experiment 1, we were interested in whether survival processing also results in improved memory for details. Undergraduates rated the relevance of pictures in a survival, moving, or pleasantness scenario and were subsequently given a surprise free recall test. We found that survival processing yielded superior retention. We also found that distortions occurred more often in the survival condition than in the pleasantness condition. In Experiment 2, we directly compared the survival recall effect between pictures and words. A comparable survival recall advantage was found for pictures and words. The present findings support the idea that memory is enhanced by processing information in terms of fitness value, yet at the same time, the present results suggest that this may increase the risk for memory distortions.

  7. The proximate memory mechanism underlying the survival-processing effect: richness of encoding or interactive imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) argued that it is not survival processing itself that facilitates recall but rather the richness and distinctiveness of encoding that is triggered by the survival-processing task. Alternatively, however, it is also conceivable that survival processing fosters interactive imagery, a process known to improve associative learning. To test these explanations we compared relevance-rating and interactive imagery tasks for survival and control scenarios. Results show that the survival advantage replicates in the relevance-rating condition but vanishes in the interactive imagery condition. This refutes the interactive imagery explanation and corroborates the richness-of-encoding hypothesis of the survival-processing effect.

  8. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  9. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.D.; Lagasse, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quali