WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving test organisms

  1. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  2. Comparing survival curves using rank tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    1990-01-01

    Survival times of patients can be compared using rank tests in various experimental setups, including the two-sample case and the case of paired data. Attention is focussed on two frequently occurring complications in medical applications: censoring and tail alternatives. A review is given of the

  3. Succession and survival in psychotherapy organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleelee, Olya

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  4. Making the organic food service chain work and survive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Netterstrøm, Sune; He, Chen

    2009-01-01

    and organic procurement schemes are developing as a strategic part of policymaker’s tools. However evidence has shown that the organic change agenda in public food service supply chains seems to be fragile. This is due to the fact that the organic agenda challenges the normal way that food service provision...... in the policy process that make the organic food service chain work and survive on a long-term scale.......Public food provision has received increased attention over the past decades from policymakers, consumers and citizens. As an example food at schools are increasingly coming into focus of change and innovation agendas. One of the most persistent agendas is the call for more organic foods...

  5. A test of the survival processing advantage in implicit and explicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn M; Thomas, Brandon J; Zimmerman, Corinne

    2013-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the survival processing effect (Nairne, Thompson, & Pandeirada, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33, 263-273, 2007) in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The survival effect has been well established in explicit free recall and recognition tests, but has not been evident in implicit memory tests or in cued explicit tests. In Experiment 1 of the present study, we tested implicit and explicit memory for words studied in survival, moving, or pleasantness contexts in stem completion tests. In Experiment 2, we further tested these effects in implicit and explicit category production tests. Across the two experiments, with four separate memory tasks that included a total of 525 subjects, no survival processing advantage was found, replicating the results from implicit tests reported by Tse and Altarriba (Memory & Cognition, 38, 1110-1121, 2010). Thus, although the survival effect appears to be quite robust in free recall and recognition tests, it has not been replicated in cued implicit and explicit memory tests. The similar results found for the implicit and explicit tests in the present study do not support encoding elaboration explanations of the survival processing effect.

  6. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  7. Survival analysis of patients with uveal melanoma after organ preserving and liquidation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grishina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye.Aim: To evaluate survival in patients with uveal melanoma stratified according to the type of treatment and to identify factors significantly associated with their survival.Materials and methods: The study was performed on the data extracted from medical files and follow-up forms of patients with uveal melanoma seen in the Ophthalmological Clinical Hospital of the Department of Healthcare, Moscow, from 1977 to 2012. Analysis of survival was used to assess the life longevity of patients with uveal melanoma. The analysis was censored at January 2013, when vital status (dead or alive of all patients was assessed. The factors included into the study analysis, were those taken from the follow-up forms. The incidence of uveal melanoma in Moscow (2012 was 0.9 per 100,000 of the population, whereas its prevalence was 11.1 per 100,000.Results: 698 patients with uveal melanoma were included into the study, among them 260 (37% men (aged from 19 to 87 years, median age 60 years and 438 (63% women (aged from 18 to 93 years, median age 63 years; therefore, the proportion of women under the follow-up monitoring was by 26% higher than that of men. The liquidation treatment (mostly enucleation was performed in 358 (51% of the patients, whereas the organ preserving treatment in 340 (49%. At 5, 7, and 10 years of the follow-up, the disease-specific survival of patients with uveal melanoma after the organ preserving treatment (median survival has not been reached and after the liquidation treatment (median, 88 months were 89 ± 2, 83 ± 3, and 75 ± 4% versus 63 ± 3, 52 ± 4, and 47 ± 5%, respectively (р = 0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival of the patients after the liquidation treatment were significantly lower than in the patients after the organ-preserving treatment. According to multiple regression analysis, this was associated not with the type of

  8. Data Organization for Quality Control Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2011-01-01

    Test data and results for quality control of Mo-99/ Tc-99m generator shall be organized properly. A computer program was developed using Visual Basic 6.0 to process test data, store data and results to specific folder, generate test reports and certificates. Its performance has been evaluated and tested. (author)

  9. Algae as test organisms of harmful effects of various radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes a complex biotest in which algae serve as the test organisms and where a variety of algal characteristics are employed as indicators of the effects of harmful radiations on the cultures and single organisms. Rules for a successful choice of a suitable algal organism are discussed and the preparation of the latter for the test as well as the growth and morphogenic tests and some physiological responses of algae to harmful radiation are described. The survival and lethality are related to the interpretation of the test results particularly from the physiological and genetic points of view. The complex biotest concerns not only toxic but also mutagenic effects of the factors tested. Some easily detectable mutations in algae are mentioned and their spectra are recommended. The stability of the mutations and the possibility of their delayed manifestation are considered. The possibility of occurrence of teratogenic effects is also dealt with and the negative role of phenocopies in the correct evaluation of the mutation effects is mentioned. Advice for the breeding and laboratory maintenance of suitable algal strains for the biotest is given. Practical use of the biotest is demonstrated on the results of a test using modified samples of waste water from uranium industries. It is recommended that biotests confined to the evaluation of single characteristics of the test organism be replaced by this complex biotest whose results can be interpreted more extensively and exhibit a higher reliability. (author). 268 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  10. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  11. Can the deterrence survive to nuclear tests ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, F.J. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the soundness of the nuclear tests stopping is discussed here. The safety, the durability of nuclear weapons need nuclear tests. So, unless other means able to guarantee the deterrence, it is prejudicial to stop nuclear tests and to sign a non proliferation treaty with the option of zero nuclear explosion. (N.C.)

  12. Leaching tests of cemented organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in research, medical and industrial activities generates organic liquid radioactive wastes. At Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) are produced organic liquid wastes from different sources, one of these are the solvent extraction activities, whose the waste volume is the largest one. Therefore a research was carried out to treat them. Several techniques to treat organic liquid radioactive wastes have been evaluated, among them incineration, oxidation processes, alkaline hydrolysis, distillation, absorption and cementation. Laboratory experiments were accomplished to establish the most adequate process in order to obtain qualified products for storage and disposal. Absorption followed by cementation was the procedure used in this study, i.e. absorbent substances were added to the organic liquid wastes before mixing with the cement. Initially were defined the absorbers, and evaluated the formulation in relation to the compressive strength of its products. Bentonite from different suppliers (B and G) and vermiculite in two granulometries (M - medium and F - small) were tested. In order to assess the product quality the specimens were submitted to the leaching test according the Standard ISO 6961 and its results were evaluated. Then they were compared with the values established by Standard CNEN NN 6.09 A cceptance criteria for waste products to be disposed , to verify if they meet the requirements for safely storage and disposal. Through this study the best formulations to treat the organic wastes were established. (author)

  13. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiler, W Wim; Savanovic, P Perica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an 'organization structure and design' workshop approach for collaborative multi-discipline design management. The workshops set-up, used to implement and to test the approach, are presented as well as the experiences ...

  14. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  15. Extended survival of several organisms and amino acids under simulated martian surface conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. P.; Pratt, L. M.; Vishnivetskaya, T.; Pfiffner, S.; Bryan, R. A.; Dadachova, E.; Whyte, L.; Radtke, K.; Chan, E.; Tronick, S.; Borgonie, G.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Rothschild, L. J.; Rogoff, D. A.; Horikawa, D. D.; Onstott, T. C.

    2011-02-01

    Recent orbital and landed missions have provided substantial evidence for ancient liquid water on the martian surface as well as evidence of more recent sedimentary deposits formed by water and/or ice. These observations raise serious questions regarding an independent origin and evolution of life on Mars. Future missions seek to identify signs of extinct martian biota in the form of biomarkers or morphological characteristics, but the inherent danger of spacecraft-borne terrestrial life makes the possibility of forward contamination a serious threat not only to the life detection experiments, but also to any extant martian ecosystem. A variety of cold and desiccation-tolerant organisms were exposed to 40 days of simulated martian surface conditions while embedded within several centimeters of regolith simulant in order to ascertain the plausibility of such organisms' survival as a function of environmental parameters and burial depth. Relevant amino acid biomarkers associated with terrestrial life were also analyzed in order to understand the feasibility of detecting chemical evidence for previous biological activity. Results indicate that stresses due to desiccation and oxidation were the primary deterrent to organism survival, and that the effects of UV-associated damage, diurnal temperature variations, and reactive atmospheric species were minimal. Organisms with resistance to desiccation and radiation environments showed increased levels of survival after the experiment compared to organisms characterized as psychrotolerant. Amino acid analysis indicated the presence of an oxidation mechanism that migrated downward through the samples during the course of the experiment and likely represents the formation of various oxidizing species at mineral surfaces as water vapor diffused through the regolith. Current sterilization protocols may specifically select for organisms best adapted to survival at the martian surface, namely species that show tolerance to radical

  16. Aircraft Survivability: Live Fire Test and Evaluation, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    environment. In an earlier LFT series, the LM vulnerability team conducted a wind tunnel test to evaluate F35 aerodynamic performance with partially...altitude of about 2,000 ft @ M0.92) ➤➤ 20Kft, M0.8, 4-G wind -up turn Each of the 31 common cases was judged on the basis of the following criteria...and Exhibit 22–24 March 2010 Washington, DC JASP Spring PMSG P&W 23–25 March 2010 West Palm Beach, FL Personnel Recovery Conference 29 March–1 April

  17. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  18. Effect of vessel voyage speed on survival of biofouling organisms: implications for translocation of non-indigenous marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Ashley D M; Piola, Richard F; Hewitt, Chad L; Connell, Sean D; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally determined the effect of different vessel voyage speeds (5, 10 and 18 knots = 2.6, 5.1 and 9.3 ms(-1), respectively) and morphological characteristics including growth form (solitary or colonial), profile (erect or encrusting) and structure (soft, hard or flexible) on the survival of a range of common biofouling organisms. A custom built hydrodynamic keel attached to the bottom of a 6 m aluminium powerboat was used to subject pre-fouled settlement plates for this purpose. Vessel speeds of 5 and 10 knots had little effect on the species richness of biofouling assemblages tested, however richness decreased by 50% following 18 knots treatments. Species percentage cover decreased with increasing speed across all speed treatments and this decrease was most pronounced at 10 and 18 knots, with cover reduced by 24 and 85% respectively. Survival was greatest for organisms with colonial, encrusting, hard and/or flexible morphological characteristics, and this effect increased with increasing speed. This study suggests that there is predictive power in forecasting future introductions if we can understand the extent to which such traits explain the world-wide distributions of non-indigenous species. Future introductions are a certainty and can only provide an increasing source of new information on which to test the validity of these predications.

  19. Overall Survival Benefit From Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Organ-Confined, Margin-Positive Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, Robert O.; Hafer, Russell; Cox, Craig; McClure, Stephanie E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radical prostatectomy for invasive prostate cancer is associated with positive margin rates in 10% to 50% of resected specimens. Postoperative radiation therapy may benefit patients who have organ-confined prostate cancer with positive margins. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis to examine whether adjunctive radiation therapy enhanced long-term survival for prostate cancer patients who underwent prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer but with positive margins. We used the Hoag Cancer Center database to identify patients diagnosed with invasive prostate cancer. Relative and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Among 1,474 patients diagnosed with localized invasive prostate cancer during the years 1990 to 2006 and undergoing prostatectomy, 113 (7.7%) were identified who had positive margins and did not have local extension of disease, positive lymph nodes, or distant metastases. A total of 17 patients received adjunctive radiation therapy (Group A), whereas 96 did not (Group B; 3 received hormonal therapy). Both groups had a median age of 64 years and median follow-up of 7.5 years. In Group A, no patients have died as of last follow-up, but in Group B, 18 have died. Estimated 10-year and 15-year overall survival rates were both 100% for Group A compared with 85% and 57% respectively for Group B (p 2 = 0.050, log rank). Relative 10- and 15 year survival rates were both 100% for Group A compared with 100% and 79% respectively for Group B. Conclusions: This retrospective analysis suggests that prostate cancer patients with localized disease but positive margins do derive a survival benefit from adjuvant radiation therapy.

  20. Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  1. Sexual selection and hermaphroditic organisms: Testing theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. LEONARD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is widespread if not ubiquitous in hermaphroditic organisms. Although many phenomena that have been described as sexual selection in gonochores, (e.g. harem polygamy, multiple mating, elaborate courtship, even secondary sexual characters can be found in some hermaphrodites, what is more interesting is the ways in which sexual selection in hermaphrodites may differ from dioecious taxa. In hermaphrodites, an individual’s mating success includes its success from both sexual roles. Secondly, in many simultaneously hermaphroditic taxa there is strong evidence of sexual selection and yet the ope­rational sex ratio is 1:1, by definition. Many simultaneous hermaphrodites have elaborate courtship and genital anatomy, suggesting sexual selection plays an important role in reproductive success. Sperm competition and cryptic female choice mean that the number of mates acquired is not necessarily a predictor of reproductive success. Even in simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal mating, variance in reproductive success through the male role and through the female role may differ in a population. Moreover hermaphrodites may choose to emphasize one sexual role over the other. Data suggest that the preferred role varies in hermaphrodites, which creates an opportunity to test fundamental predictions and assumptions of sexual selection theory. Hermaphrodites may vary their emphasis on one sexual role over the other either developmentally or behaviorally in response to environmental or social parameters. How they use this capability in acquiring more or higher quality mates still requires study [Current Zoology 59 (4: 579–588, 2013].

  2. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the 51 Chromium method ( 51 Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the 51 Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while 51 Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the 51 Cr method. Although 51 Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival

  3. Status after 5 Years of Survival Compliance Testing in the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Eppard, M. Brad; Hockersmith, Eric E.

    2016-06-27

    Survival studies of juvenile salmonids implanted with acoustic tags have been conducted at hydroelectric dams within the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in the Columbia and Snake rivers between 2010 and 2014 to assess compliance with dam passage survival standards stipulated in the 2008 Biological Opinion (BiOp). For juvenile salmonids migrating downstream in the spring, dam passage survival defined as survival from the upstream dam face to the tailrace mixing zone must be ≥96% and for summer migrants, ≥93%, and estimated with a standard error ≤1.5% (i.e., 95% confidence interval of ±3%). A total of 29 compliance tests have been conducted at 6 of 8 FCRPS main-stem dams, using over 109,000 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts. Of these 29 compliance studies, 23 met the survival standards and 26 met the precision requirements. Of the 6 dams evaluated to date, individual survival estimates range from 0.9597 to 0.9868 for yearling Chinook Salmon, 0.9534 to 0.9952 for steelhead, and 0.9076 to 0.9789 for subyearling Chinook Salmon. These investigations suggest the large capital investment over the last 20 years to improve juvenile salmon passage through the FCRPS dams has been beneficial.

  4. Importance of Soil Amendments: Survival of Bacterial Pathogens in Manure and Compost Used as Organic Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Reynnells, Russell

    2016-08-01

    Biological soil amendments (BSAs) such as manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to improve the physical and chemical properties of soils. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. There are numerous mechanisms by which manure may transfer pathogens to growing fruits and vegetables, and several outbreaks of infections have been linked to manure-related contamination of leafy greens. In the United States several commodity-specific guidelines and current and proposed federal rules exist to provide guidance on the application of BSAs as fertilizers to soils, some of which require an interval between the application of manure to soils and the harvest of fruits and vegetables. This review examines the survival, persistence, and regrowth/resuscitation of bacterial pathogens in manure, biosolids, and composts. Moisture, along with climate and the physicochemical properties of soil, manure, or compost, plays a significant role in the ability of pathogens to persist and resuscitate in amended soils. Adaptation of enteric bacterial pathogens to the nonhost environment of soils may also extend their persistence in manure- or compost-amended soils. The presence of antibiotic-resistance genes in soils may also be increased by manure application. Overall, BSAs applied as fertilizers to soils can support the survival and regrowth of pathogens. BSAs should be handled and applied in a manner that reduces the prevalence of pathogens in soils and the likelihood of transfer of food-borne pathogens to fruits and vegetables. This review will focus on two BSAs-raw manure and composted manure (and other feedstocks)-and predominantly on the survival of enteric bacterial pathogens in BSAs as applied to soils as organic fertilizers.

  5. Correlation Between Ki-67 Index, World Health Organization Grade and Patient Survival in Glial Tumors With Astrocytic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhenkov, Deyan L; Kitanova, Martina; Donev, Ivan S; Ghenev, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a class IV astrocytic tumor, the most malignant of the four groups of World Health Organization (WHO) tumors with astrocytic differentiation. Aim The aim of this study was to estab­lish whether a correlation exists between the Ki-67 index of tumors with astrocytic differentiation, WHO grade, and patient survival. Materials and methods A retrospective non-clinical approach to patient selection was chosen for the aim of the study. A total of 47 patients diagnosed and treated for CNS tumors with astrocytic differentiation in the St. Marina University Hospital, Varna, Bulgaria, from September 2012 to July 2016 were retrospectively included into the study cohort. The cases were tested for their immunohistochemistry (IHC) reaction with Ki-67 after their original Hematoxylin and Eosin and IHC slides were reviewed by a single author and blind coded. The Ki-67 positivity index of the nuclei was estimated after digitalization of the slides and calculated by the ImmunoRatio automated count­ing tool. The individual Ki-67 index and patient survival of each case were statistically compared. Results The histopathological groups, after the blind Ki-67 index automated calculation was carried out, revealed no WHO grade I, two WHO grade II samples, four WHO grade III samples and 41 WHO grade IV cases, and these were included in the analysis. The two samples of WHO grade II astrocytic tumors had a mean Ki-67 index of 25%; however, they comprised tumors with an individual index of 43% and 7%, both individual values with a highly unlikely index for this group. The four samples of WHO grade III had a mean Ki-67 index of 4%, standard deviation ±2.16 (p>0.05), with the lowest index being 1% and the highest one being 6%. Both WHO grade II and III did not include enough samples to allow for a proper statistical analysis of patient survival. The 41 GBM cases had a mean Ki-67 index of 17.34%, standard deviation ±10.79 (p>0

  6. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, Richard F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method

  7. Biostatistics with emphasis on life table survival rate calculations (including Kaplan Meier) and the logrank test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mould, Richard F

    1995-07-01

    Purpose/Objective: To explain some of the most useful statistical calculation procedures which are relevant to radiation oncologists and to provide insights on what tests and procedures should be used in various situations such as when survival rates and their associated standard errors have to be determined. To describe some of the problems and pitfalls in clinical trial designs which have to be overcome if a trial is to have the possibility of reaching a successful conclusion. To review methods of computing criteria to quantitatively describe criteria of success (eg. quality of life, long-term survival, cure) of radiation oncology and to suggest possible future statistical improvements in this area. Chi-Squared Test: The chi-squared test is probably the most useful of the tests of statistical significance for the radiation oncologist. Applications will be described, including goodness of fit tests and 2x2 contingency tables which are the simplest of the generalized nxm contingency tables. Degrees of Freedom and P<0.05 for Significance Testing: An Introduction will be given to the meaning of P<0.05 in relation to significance testing and the use of tables of critical values of a test statistic (eg. chi-squared) which are given as a function of degrees of freedom and P-values. Survival Rate Calculations for Grouped and Ungrouped Data: The life-table method (sometimes termed the actuarial method) will be explained for both grouped data (eg. survival times grouped in annual intervals for patients who have died and for those who are still alive or lost to follow-up) and for ungrouped data (when individual survival times are used). The method for ungrouped data is variously termed the Kaplan-Meier or Product Limit method. Logrank Test: This is the most useful test for comparison of the survival experience of two groups of patients and its use will be explained. In part the computation is similar to that for the Kaplan-Meier/Product Limit method.

  8. Survival, reproduction, growth, and parasite resistance of aquatic organisms exposed on-site to wastewater treated by advanced treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter-Vorberg, Lisa; Knopp, Gregor; Cornel, Peter; Ternes, Thomas; Coors, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Advanced wastewater treatment technologies are generally known to be an effective tool for reducing micropollutant discharge into the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, some processes such as ozonation result in stable transformation products with often unknown toxicity. In the present study, whole effluents originating from nine different steps of advanced treatment combinations were compared for their aquatic toxicity. Assessed endpoints were survival, growth and reproduction of Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna and Lemna minor chronically exposed in on-site flow-through tests based on standard guidelines. The treatment combinations were activated sludge treatment followed by ozonation with subsequent filtration by granular activated carbon or biofilters and membrane bioreactor treatment of raw wastewater followed by ozonation. Additionally, the impact of treated wastewater on the immune response of invertebrates was investigated by challenging D. magna with a bacterial endoparasite. Conventionally treated wastewater reduced reproduction of L. variegatus by up to 46%, but did not affect D. magna and L. minor with regard to survival, growth, reproduction and parasite resistance. Instead, parasite susceptibility was significantly reduced in D. magna exposed to conventionally treated as well as ozonated wastewater in comparison to D. magna exposed to the medium control. None of the three test organisms provided clear evidence that wastewater ozonation leads to increased aquatic toxicity. Rather than to the presence of toxic transformation products, the affected performance of L. variegatus could be linked to elevated concentrations of ammonium and nitrite that likely resulted from treatment failures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of organic solvents in mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondandolo, A; Bonatti, S; Corsi, C; Corti, G; Fiorio, R; Leporini, C; Mazzaccaro, A; Nieri, R; Barale, R; Loprieno, N

    1980-10-01

    13 organic substances (dimethylsulfoxide, methanol, ethanol, n-propyl alcohol, sec-butyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, dl-sec-amyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were considered from the standpoint of their use as solvents for water-insoluble chemicals to be tested for mutagenicity. First, the effect of these solvents on cell survival was studied in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in V79 Chinese hamster cells. 8 solvents showing relatively low toxicity on either cell system (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, acetone, methyl acetate and formamide) were tested for their effect on aminopyrine demethylase. 4 solvents (ethanol, 1,4-diethylene dioxide, methyl acetate and formamide) showed a more or less pronounced adverse effect on the microsomal enzymic activity. The remaining 4 and methanol (whose effect on aminopyrine demethylase was not testable) were assayed for mutagenicity in S. pombe. They all gave negative results both with and without the post-mitochondrial fraction from mouse liver.

  10. Prolonged minor allograft survival in intravenously primed mice--a test of the veto hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that veto cells are responsible for the prolonged survival of minor allografts of skin that is observed in recipients primed intravenously with spleen cells from mice syngeneic with the skin donors. This prolonged survival was observed for each of several minor histocompatibility (H) antigens and is antigen-specific. Gamma radiation (3300 rads) abolished the ability of male spleen cells infused i.v. to delay the rejection of male skin grafts (H-Y antigen) on female recipients. However, depletion of Thy-1+ cells from the i.v. infusion failed to abolish the ability to prolong male skin graft survival. Furthermore, the prolonged survival accorded to B6 (H-2b) male skin grafts on CB6F1 (H-2b/H-2d) female recipients given i.v. infusions of B6 male spleen cells extended to BALB/c (H-2d) male skin grafts as well, indicating a lack of MHC restriction. Thus, prolongation of minor allograft survival by i.v. infusion of minor H antigen-bearing spleen cells appears not to depend on veto T cells that others have found to be responsible for the suppression of CTL generation

  11. Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Zubillaga, Oihana; de Seoane, José María Vega

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of poor intercomparability of measurements of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices among different laboratories. We present a round robin performance testing of novel OPV devices among 16 laboratories, organized within the framework of European Research Infrastructure...

  12. Integration and test planning patterns in different organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.S.M.; Boumen, R.; Mortel - Fronczak, van de J.M.; Rooda, J.E.; Tretmans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning an integration and test phase is often done by experts in the visited organizations. These experts have a thorough knowledge about the system, integration and testing and the business drivers of an organization. An integration and test plan developedfor an airplane is different than the

  13. The Impact and Oxidation Survival of Selected Meteoritic Compounds: Signatures of Asteroid Organic Material on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Fred; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    Polar, non-volatile organic compounds may be present on the surfaces (or near surfaces) of multiple Solar System bodies. If found, by current or future missions, it would be desirable to determine the origin(s) of such compounds, e.g., asteroidal or in situ. To test the possible survival of meteoritic compounds both during impacts with planetary surfaces and under subsequent (possibly) harsh ambient conditions, we subjected known meteoritic compounds to relatively high impact-shock pressures and/or to varying oxidizing/corrosive conditions. Tested compounds include sulfonic and phosphonic acids (S&P), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) amino acids, keto acids, dicarboxylic acids, deoxy sugar acids, and hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (Table 1). Meteoritic sulfonic acids were found to be relatively abundant in the Murchison meteorite and to possess unusual S-33 isotope anomalies (non mass-dependent isotope fractionations). Combined with distinctive C-S and C-P bonds, the S&P are potential signatures of asteroidal organic material.

  14. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Savanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an ‘organization

  15. Testing of genetically modified organisms in foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed, Farid E

    2004-01-01

    ... their background knowledge on the effectiveness of tests, and of course, laboratory personnel of all levels who are involved in carrying out tests. The chapters on molecular and immunological methods are authoritative and detailed in their scope and application. They are ably supported for the less-experienced reader by the basic inTeam struction provided ...

  16. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  17. Test the Artifact - Develop the Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

    perspective is applied to data acquired by the qualitative methodsof participant observation and semi-structured open-ended interviews. Conclusions: The achievement of fit between IT technology and work processes in healthcare involves the establishment of new organizational structures that cut across...... the existingdivisionalized hospital organization and a detailed alignment of artefact, functionalityand work process. This process can be furthered by supporting ‘communities of practice',i.e. informal groups of engaged clinicians. A sociotechnical perspective is beneficial to theanalysis of such processes....

  18. Survival of indicator organisms, e.g. E. coli in drinking water pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Silhan, J.; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of E. coli was investigated in used drinking water pipes from households. The investigation showed that E. coli survived longer in plastic pipes than in cupper pipes and galvanized steel pipes. The investigation also showed longer survival at cold water temperatures (15?C) than at hot...

  19. 76 FR 23914 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... NOP. Residue testing plays an important role in organic certification by providing a means for... OFPA (7 U.S.C. 6503 through 6507) from creating certification programs to certify organic farms or... State organic certification program may contain additional requirements for the production and handling...

  20. Clinical evaluation of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems

  1. Transoral endoscopic esophageal myotomy based on esophageal function testing in a survival porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perretta, Silvana; Dallemagne, Bernard; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Diemunsch, Pierre; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The most effective treatment of achalasia is Heller myotomy. To explore a submucosal endoscopic myotomy technique tailored on esophageal physiology testing and to compare it with the open technique. Prospective acute and survival comparative study in pigs (n = 12; 35 kg). University animal research center. Eight acute-4 open and 4 endoscopic-myotomies followed by 4 survival endoscopic procedures. Preoperative and postoperative manometry; esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility before and after selective division of muscular fibers at the EGJ and after the myotomy was prolonged to a standard length by using the EndoFLIP Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (Crospon, Galway, Ireland). All procedures were successful, with no intraoperative and postoperative complications. In the survival group, the animals recovered promptly from surgery. Postoperative manometry demonstrated a 50% drop in mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESp) in the endoscopic group (mean preoperative LESp, 22.2 ± 3.3 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 11.34 ± 2.7 mm Hg; P open procedure group (mean preoperative LESp, 24.2 ± 3.2 mm Hg; mean postoperative LESp, 7.4 ± 4 mm Hg; P myotomy is feasible and safe. The lack of a significant difference in EGJ distensibility between the open and endoscopic procedure is very appealing. Were it to be perfected in a human population, this endoscopic approach could suggest a new strategy in the treatment of selected achalasia patients. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) White-Painted Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Radome Survivability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, Rebecca; Kwack, Eug; Stegman, Matthew; Dawson, Douglas; Hoffman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    NASA's SMAP Mission launched in January 2015 into a 685 km near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The SMAP instrument architecture incorporates an L-band radar and radiometer which share a common feedhorn and mesh reflector. The instrument rotates about the nadir axis at approximately 15 rpm, thereby providing a conically scanning wide swath antenna beam that is capable of achieving global coverage within three days. The radiometer and its associated electronics have tight thermal stability requirements in order to meet the required surface emittance measurement precision from space. Maintaining the thermal stabilities is quite challenging because the radiometer is located on a spinning platform that can either be in full sunlight or eclipse, and thus exposed to a highly transient environment. Stability requirements were met by integrating a light-weight Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) radome into the design to prevent solar illumination of the feed horn interior. The radome was painted white since the thermo-optical properties of bare sunlit EPS degrade rapidly over the three-year mission. Milling of the EPS and solvent within the white paint created cavities on the EPS surface which may introduce localized hot spots possibly violating the EPS glass transition temperature of 96degC and leading to structural integrity concerns. A three-day thermal test was conducted in a vacuum chamber to verify survivability of the radome during a simulated non-spin fault condition at end of mission. A portable solar simulator illuminated the test article and the beam irradiance was kept nearly constant during the entire 50 hour test, except during the first hour which simulated the expected 79degC on-orbit surface temperature of the radome. The test article survived based on the established pass criteria for three separate metrics: dimensional, optical property, and color. If any hot spots exist locally, they did not cause any observable permanent deformation when compared to pre- and

  3. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  4. HIV testing in the maternity ward and the start of breastfeeding: a survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia T. Possolli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence of the time between birth and the beginning of breastfeeding, especially at the moment of the rapid HIV test results at hospital admission for delivery.METHODS: Cohort study of 932 pregnant women who underwent rapid HIV test admitted in the hospital for delivery in Baby-Friendly Hospitals. The survival curves of time from birth to the first feeding were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the joint effect of independent variables by the Cox model with a hierarchical analysis. As the survival curves were not homogeneous among the five hospitals, hindering the principle of proportionality of risks, the data were divided into two groups according to the median time of onset of breastfeeding at birth in women undergoing rapid HIV testing.RESULTS: Hospitals with median time to breastfeeding onset at birth of up to 60 min were considered as early breastfeeding onset and those with higher medians were considered as late breastfeeding onset at birth. Risk factors common to hospitals considered to be with early and late breastfeeding onset at birth were: cesarean section (RR = 1.75 [95% CI: 1.38-2.22]; RR = 3.83 [95% CI: 3.03-4.85] and rapid test result after birth (RR = 1.45 [95% CI: 1.12-1.89]; RR = 1.65 [95% CI: 1.35-2.02], respectively; and hospitals with late onset: starting prenatal care in the third trimester (RR = 1.86 [95% CI: 1.16-2.97].CONCLUSIONS: The onset of breastfeeding is postponed, even in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, when the results of the rapid HIV test requested in the maternity are not available at the time of delivery.

  5. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 67239 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... genetically modified organisms (GMOs). AMS does not intend for the testing conducted under section 205.670 to..., but not limited to, pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, and GMOs. AMS notes that, under section 205.671...

  7. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant recycling... procedures are appropriate for that purpose. (2) That the organization has no conflict of interest and will...

  8. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data for Evaluating Orthostatic Tilt Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Koslovsky, Matthew D.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2018-01-01

    Head-up tilt (HUT) tests often are used in research to measure orthostatic intolerance (OI) (inability to appropriately control blood pressure while upright) in clinical populations and otherwise healthy individuals after interventions. Post-space flight orthostatic intolerance is a well-known phenomenon, and countermeasures to its development has been an active area of research at NASA. In the NASA HUT protocol, subjects lie horizontally on an automatic tilt table for baseline measurements before being raised to 80deg head-up tilt for a defined period of time or until signs or symptoms of presyncope ensues (light-headedness, nausea, dizziness, sweating, weakness or fainting). Multiple measures are collected to evaluate the cardiovascular system's ability to respond appropriately to the orthostatic challenge. However if the intended duration of the HUT is short, the ability to detect changes in OI due to an intervention or its prevention by a countermeasure may be limited by a small number of failures to permit comparisons based on survival time alone. Thus, the time-trajectory of the cardiovascular data becomes an important additional source of information. In particular, we will show how various measures of trajectory variability can effectively augment survival analysis for the assessment of OI in a joint model when high censoring rates are present.

  9. Survival and transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in an outdoor organic pig farming environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Dalsgaard, Anders; Stockmarr, Anders

    2006-01-01

    It was investigated how organic rearing conditions influence the Salmonella enterica infection dynamics in pigs and whether Salmonella persists in the paddock environment. Pigs inoculated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were grouped with Salmonella-negative tracer pigs. Bacteriological...... the seroprevalence. Salmonella persisted in the paddock environment, as Salmonella was isolated from 46% of soil and water samples (n = 294). After removal of pigs, Salmonella was found in soil samples for up to. 5 weeks and in shelter huts during the entire test period (7 weeks). Subsequent introduction...... of Salmonella-negative pigs into four naturally Salmonella-contaminated paddocks caused Salmonella infections of pigs in two paddocks. In one of these paddocks, all tracer pigs (n = 10) became infected, coinciding with a previous high Salmonella infection rate and high Salmonella excretion level. Our results...

  10. Volatile organic carbon/air separation test using gas membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.V.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1993-08-01

    An estimated 900 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to soil columns during the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operations at the Hanford Site. The largest percentage of this volatile organic compound was found in the vadose region of the 200 West Area. Using a Vacuum Extraction System, the volatile organic compound was drawn from the soil in an air mixture at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million. The volatile organic compounds were absorbed from the air stream using granulated activated carbon canisters. A gas membrane separation system, developed by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., was tested at the Vacuum Extraction System site to determine if the volatile organic compound load on the granulated activated carbon could be reduced. The Vacuum Extraction System condensed most of the volatile organic compound into liquid carbon tetrachloride and vented the residual gas stream into the granulated activated carbon. This system reduced the cost of operation about $5/kilogram of volatile organic compound removed

  11. An Experimental Evolution Test of the Relationship between Melanism and Desiccation Survival in Insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Rajpurohit

    Full Text Available We used experimental evolution to test the 'melanism-desiccation' hypothesis, which proposes that dark cuticle in several Drosophila species is an adaptation for increased desiccation tolerance. We selected for dark and light body pigmentation in replicated populations of D. melanogaster and assayed several traits related to water balance. We also scored pigmentation and desiccation tolerance in populations selected for desiccation survival. Populations in both selection regimes showed large differences in the traits directly under selection. However, after over 40 generations of pigmentation selection, dark-selected populations were not more desiccation-tolerant than light-selected and control populations, nor did we find significant changes in mass or carbohydrate amounts that could affect desiccation resistance. Body pigmentation of desiccation-selected populations did not differ from control populations after over 140 generations of selection, although selected populations lost water less rapidly. Our results do not support an important role for melanization in Drosophila water balance.

  12. Heart Rate Recovery After 6-Min Walk Test Predicts Survival in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Swick, Jeff; Wamboldt, Frederick S.; Sprunger, David; du Bois, Roland; Fischer, Aryeh; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Frankel, Stephen K.; Fernandez-Perez, Evans R.; Kervitsky, Dolly; Brown, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), our objectives were to identify predictors of abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) at 1 min after completion of a 6-min walk test (6MWT) [HRR1] and 2 min after completion of a 6MWT (HRR2), and to determine whether abnormal HRR predicts mortality. Methods: From 2003 to 2008, we identified IPF patients who had been evaluated at our center (n = 76) with a pulmonary physiologic examination and the 6MWT. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of abnormal HRR, the product-limit method to compare survival in the sample stratified on HRR, and Cox proportional hazards analysis to estimate the prognostic capability of abnormal HRR. Results: Cutoff values were 13 beats for abnormal HRR1 and 22 beats for HRR2. In a multivariable model, predictors of abnormal HRR1 were diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (odds ratio [OR], 0.4 per 10% predicted; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 0.7; p = 0.003), change in heart rate from baseline to maximum (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.8 to 0.97; p = 0.01), and having a right ventricular systolic pressure > 35 mm Hg as determined by transthoracic echocardiogram (OR, 12.7; 95% CI, 2.0 to 79.7; p = 0.01). Subjects with an abnormal HRR had significantly worse survival than subjects with a normal HRR (for HRR1, p = 0.0007 [log-rank test]; for HRR2, p = 0.03 [log-rank test]); these results held for the subgroup of 30 subjects without resting pulmonary hypertension (HRR1, p = 0.04 [log-rank test]). Among several candidate variables, abnormal HRR1 appeared to be the most potent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.8 to 15.2; p = 0.004). Conclusion: Abnormal HRR after 6MWT predicts mortality in IPF patients. Research is needed to confirm these findings prospectively and to examine the mechanisms of HRR in IPF patients. PMID:19395579

  13. Prospective Clinical Testing of Regulatory Dendritic Cells in Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Angus W; Zahorchak, Alan F; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B; Butterfield, Lisa H; Lakkis, Fadi G; Metes, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients' dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail.

  14. Survival and growth of eucalypts clones seedlings in response to organic fertilizer application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sula Janaína de Oliveira Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Fert-Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones propagated by minicutting technique. The experiment was conducted over a period of 28 days using a randomized block design and three replicates in an 6 x 2 factorial arrangement, with six Fert-Bokashi® concentrations (0.0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.9% and two clones. Seedlings survival, height growth and shoot, root and total dry matter were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated no significant effect of Fert- Bokashi® on survival and seedlings growth of two Eucalyptus urophylla clones.

  15. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5x1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2x103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125μm in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center

  16. Consensus stability testing protocols for organic photovoltaic materials and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reese, Matthew O.; Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS). The proced......Procedures for testing organic solar cell devices and modules with respect to stability and operational lifetime are described. The descriptions represent a consensus of the discussion and conclusions reached during the first 3 years of the international summit on OPV stability (ISOS...

  17. Effects of temperature, nutrients, organic matter and coral mucus on the survival of the coral pathogen, Serratia marcescens PDL100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Erin E; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Lipp, Erin K

    2010-09-01

    Serratia marcescens is an enteric bacterium that causes white pox disease in elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata; however, it remains unclear if the pathogenic strain has adapted to seawater or if it requires a host or reservoir for survival. To begin to address this fundamental issue, the persistence of strain PDL100 was compared among seawater and coral mucus microcosms. Median survival time across all conditions ranged from a low of 15 h in natural seawater [with a first-order decay constant (k) = -0.173] at 30°C to a maximum of 120 h in glucose-amended A. palmata mucus (k = -0.029) at 30°C. Among seawater and mucus microcosms, median survival time was significantly greater within Siderastrea siderea mucus compared with seawater or mucus of Montastraea faveolata or A. palmata (P palmata mucus (P < 0.0001). Increasing the temperature of seawater to 35°C resulted in a significantly slower decay than that observed at 30°C (P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate that PDL100 is not well-adapted to marine water; however, survival can be improved by increasing temperature, the availability of coral mucus from S. siderea and most notably the presence of dissolved organic carbon. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Hydroxyurea-Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Is Associated with Less Organ Damage and Longer Survival in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Hsieh, Matthew M; Allen, Darlene; Coles, Wynona A; Seamon, Cassie; Ring, Michael; Zhao, Xiongce; Minniti, Caterina P; Rodgers, Griffin P; Schechter, Alan N; Tisdale, John F; Taylor, James G

    2015-01-01

    Adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) are inconsistently treated with hydroxyurea. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of elevating fetal hemoglobin with hydroxyurea on organ damage and survival in patients enrolled in our screening study between 2001 and 2010. An electronic medical record facilitated development of a database for comparison of study parameters based on hydroxyurea exposure and dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00011648. Three hundred eighty-three adults with homozygous sickle cell disease were analyzed with 59 deaths during study follow-up. Cox regression analysis revealed deceased subjects had more hepatic dysfunction (elevated alkaline phosphatase, Hazard Ratio = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.006, phydroxyurea, although only 66% of those received a dose within the recommended therapeutic range. Hydroxyurea use was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.97, p = 0.040). This effect was most pronounced in those taking the recommended dose of 15-35 mg/kg/day (Hazard Ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73, p = 0.0050). Hydroxyurea use was not associated with changes in organ function over time. Further, subjects with higher fetal hemoglobin responses to hydroxyurea were more likely to survive (p = 0.0004). While alkaline phosphatase was lowest in patients with the best fetal hemoglobin response (95.4 versus 123.6, p = 0.0065 and 96.1 versus 113.6U/L, p = 0.041 at first and last visits, respectively), other markers of organ damage were not consistently improved over time in patients with the highest fetal hemoglobin levels. Our data suggest that adults should be treated with the maximum tolerated hydroxyurea dose, ideally before organ damage occurs. Prospective studies are indicated to validate these findings.

  20. Algal growth inhibition test results of 425 organic chemical substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Christensen, Anne Munch; Nyholm, Niels

    2018-01-01

    The toxicity towards the algal species Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata of 425 organic chemical substances was tested in a growth inhibition test. Precautions were taken to prevent loss of the compounds from the water phase and the test system (closed test system, low biomass, shorter test duration......, silanized glass) and to keep pH constant by applying a higher alkalinity. Chemical phase distribution was modelled taking ionization, volatilisation, and adsorption to glass and biomass into consideration. If the modelled water concentration was below 90% of the nominal concentration the calculated EC...... values were corrected accordingly. The model helped to identify substances, where the calculated water concentration was too uncertain. Substances covering a wide range of physical-chemical properties and different modes of action were tested. Median effect concentrations (EC50) lower than 1000 mg/L were...

  1. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  2. A versatile test for equality of two survival functions based on weighted differences of Kaplan-Meier curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Tian, Lu; Claggett, Brian; Wei, L J

    2015-12-10

    With censored event time observations, the logrank test is the most popular tool for testing the equality of two underlying survival distributions. Although this test is asymptotically distribution free, it may not be powerful when the proportional hazards assumption is violated. Various other novel testing procedures have been proposed, which generally are derived by assuming a class of specific alternative hypotheses with respect to the hazard functions. The test considered by Pepe and Fleming (1989) is based on a linear combination of weighted differences of the two Kaplan-Meier curves over time and is a natural tool to assess the difference of two survival functions directly. In this article, we take a similar approach but choose weights that are proportional to the observed standardized difference of the estimated survival curves at each time point. The new proposal automatically makes weighting adjustments empirically. The new test statistic is aimed at a one-sided general alternative hypothesis and is distributed with a short right tail under the null hypothesis but with a heavy tail under the alternative. The results from extensive numerical studies demonstrate that the new procedure performs well under various general alternatives with a caution of a minor inflation of the type I error rate when the sample size is small or the number of observed events is small. The survival data from a recent cancer comparative study are utilized for illustrating the implementation of the process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Survival of organic materials in hypervelocity impacts of ice on sand, ice, and water in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, Mark J; Bowden, Stephen A; Cole, Michael; Price, Mark C; Parnell, John

    2014-06-01

    The survival of organic molecules in shock impact events has been investigated in the laboratory. A frozen mixture of anthracene and stearic acid, solvated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), was fired in a two-stage light gas gun at speeds of ~2 and ~4 km s(-1) at targets that included water ice, water, and sand. This involved shock pressures in the range of 2-12 GPa. It was found that the projectile materials were present in elevated quantities in the targets after impact and in some cases in the crater ejecta as well. For DMSO impacting water at 1.9 km s(-1) and 45° incidence, we quantify the surviving fraction after impact as 0.44±0.05. This demonstrates successful transfer of organic compounds from projectile to target in high-speed impacts. The range of impact speeds used covers that involved in impacts of terrestrial meteorites on the Moon, as well as impacts in the outer Solar System on icy bodies such as Pluto. The results provide laboratory evidence that suggests that exogenous delivery of complex organic molecules from icy impactors is a viable source of such material on target bodies.

  4. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer: clinicopathological significance and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, Dmitriy Sergeevich; Avdalyan, Ashot Merudzhanovich; Lazarev, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Lushnikova, Elena Leonidovna; Nepomnyashchikh, Lev Moiseevich

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC

  5. On the Effect of Planetary Stable Isotope Compositions on Growth and Survival of Terrestrial Organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueshu Xie

    Full Text Available Isotopic compositions of reactants affect the rates of chemical and biochemical reactions. Usually it is assumed that heavy stable isotope enrichment leads to progressively slower reactions. Yet the effect of stable isotopes may be nonlinear, as exemplified by the "isotopic resonance" phenomenon. Since the isotopic compositions of other planets of Solar system, including Mars and Venus, are markedly different from terrestrial (e.g., deuterium content is ≈5 and ≈100 times higher, respectively, it is far from certain that terrestrial life will thrive in these isotopic conditions. Here we found that Martian deuterium content negatively affected survival of shrimp in semi-closed biosphere on a year-long time scale. Moreover, the bacterium Escherichia coli grows slower at Martian isotopic compositions and even slower at Venus's compositions. Thus, the biological impact of varying stable isotope compositions needs to be taken into account when planning interplanetary missions.

  6. Survival of Organic Materials in Ancient Cryovolcanically-Produced Halite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Bodnar, R.; Burton, A.; Callahan, M.; Steele, A.; Sandford, S.

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopic evidence supports the presence of Mg-Na-K salts derived from cryovolcanism on the surface of Europa. Halite (NaCl) is effective at very long-term preservation of organic phases and structures. Collection of salt crystals from Europan plumes would provide solid inclusions of organics, potentially also biomaterials, all suitable for analysis. Two thermally-metamorphosed ordinary chondrite regolith breccias (Monahans 1998 (H5) and Zag (H3-6)) contain fluid and solid inclusion-bearing halite crystals, dated to approximately 4.5 billion years, and thus the trapped aqueous fluids and solids are at least as old. Heating/freezing studies of the aqueous fluid inclusions in these halites demonstrated that they were trapped near 25 degrees Centigrade, and their continued presence in the halite grains requires that their incorporation into the H chondrite asteroid occurred after that body's metamorphism ended, since heating would have dessicated the halite. O and H isotopes of the trapped fluids are consistent with mixing of asteroidal and cometary water. Cryovolcanic Origin of the Halite: We hypothesize that these meteoritic halites derive from ancient cryovolcanism based on the following points. (1) Salts crystals are observed as products of current cryovolcanism on Enceladus. (2) In-situ spacecraft analysis of some of the icy grains associated with the Enceladus salt found minor organic or siliceous components, including methane, also found in the Monahans halite. (3) Cryovolcanic fluids are observed to be in chemical disequilibrium, reflecting incomplete reactions between interior volatiles and rocky materials. The coexistence of N2 and HCN in Enceladus' cryovolcanic fluids requires that the plume consists of a mixture of materials whose sources experienced different degrees of aqueous processing, including primordial material trapped in ice that has not been in contact with liquid water. The observed mineral assemblage within the Monahans and Zag halites is

  7. Hydroxyurea-Increased Fetal Hemoglobin Is Associated with Less Organ Damage and Longer Survival in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D Fitzhugh

    Full Text Available Adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS are inconsistently treated with hydroxyurea.We retrospectively evaluated the effects of elevating fetal hemoglobin with hydroxyurea on organ damage and survival in patients enrolled in our screening study between 2001 and 2010.An electronic medical record facilitated development of a database for comparison of study parameters based on hydroxyurea exposure and dose. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00011648.Three hundred eighty-three adults with homozygous sickle cell disease were analyzed with 59 deaths during study follow-up. Cox regression analysis revealed deceased subjects had more hepatic dysfunction (elevated alkaline phosphatase, Hazard Ratio = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003-1.006, p<0.0.0001, kidney dysfunction (elevated creatinine, Hazard Ratio = 1.13, 95% CI 1.00-1.27, p = 0.043, and cardiopulmonary dysfunction (elevated tricuspid jet velocity on echocardiogram, Hazard Ratio = 2.22, 1.23-4.02, p = 0.0082. Sixty-six percent of subjects were treated with hydroxyurea, although only 66% of those received a dose within the recommended therapeutic range. Hydroxyurea use was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio = 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.97, p = 0.040. This effect was most pronounced in those taking the recommended dose of 15-35 mg/kg/day (Hazard Ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.73, p = 0.0050. Hydroxyurea use was not associated with changes in organ function over time. Further, subjects with higher fetal hemoglobin responses to hydroxyurea were more likely to survive (p = 0.0004. While alkaline phosphatase was lowest in patients with the best fetal hemoglobin response (95.4 versus 123.6, p = 0.0065 and 96.1 versus 113.6U/L, p = 0.041 at first and last visits, respectively, other markers of organ damage were not consistently improved over time in patients with the highest fetal hemoglobin levels.Our data suggest that adults should be treated with the maximum tolerated hydroxyurea dose

  8. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaen, Judith T M L; Danesin, Catherine; Elas, Abu Tufayal; van de Water, Sandra; Houart, Corinne; Zivkovic, Danica

    2009-07-15

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1 zygotic-effect mutation on late brain development in zebrafish. Apc1 is required for maintenance of established brain subdivisions and control of local organizers such as the isthmic organizer (IsO). Caudal expansion of Fgf8 from IsO into the cerebellum is accompanied by hyperproliferation and abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis. Loss of apc1 results in reduced proliferation and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. Mosaic analysis shows that Apc is required cell-autonomously for maintenance of dorsal midbrain cell fate. The tectal phenotype occurs independently of Fgf8-mediated IsO function and is predominantly caused by stabilization of beta-catenin and subsequent hyperactivation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which is mainly mediated through LEF1 activity. Chemical activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin in wild-type embryos during late brain maintenance stages phenocopies the IsO and tectal phenotypes of the apc mutants. These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity.

  9. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  10. Influence of inorganic and organic amendments in the soil properties and the growth and survival of Olea Europaea var. Sylvestris in the semiarid Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Raúl; Miralles, Isabel; Anguita-Maeso, Manuel; Domene, Miguel; Soriano, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Selecting the most appropriate types of plants adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of restoring drylands is essential to success in landscape restoration. Besides improving soil quality is a key factor to consider when designing the restoration procedures. The use of organic and inorganic amendments can help with this task. On this study, we evaluated the influence of different mineral (clays) and organic (compost and poultry) amendments on the properties of a bare soil and how this influenced on the growth and survival of the Olea europaea var. sylvestrys, a perennial bush plant adapted to the Mediterranean semi-arid zone. Tests were designed and carried out in a greenhouse at the "Experimental Station of Cajamar foundation "Las Palmerillas" in El Ejido (Almería, Spain). Plants were grown in 250L pots and their substrate was bare soil and mineral and/or organic amendments. The experimental design consisted of three replicas for five treatments: 1. compost, 2. "ZeoPro", a cliptonolite commercial clay, 3. mordenite clay from local quarries plus compost, 4. cliptonolite clay from Turkey plus compost, 5. cliptonolite from Turquey plus poultry; with four levels each one: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% volume of amendment. Including three control samples without amendment total plants accounted for 63. Climatic sensors inside and outside the greenhouse permitted to establish the same meteorological conditions for the plants and only emergency watering was supplied when necessary for the survival of the plants when arid conditions were extreme. The physico-chemical soil properties of each treatment and level were analyzed before planting and the biovolume and the survival rates of the plants were measured regularly along eleven months. Statistically the best treatment for the growing of the plants was number 3 (mordenite and compost) with no deaths recorded. According to the growing rates the best level was soil with 20% of amendment. Besides we analyzed the evolution of the

  11. Point-of-care testing in an organ procurement organization donor management setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, K A; Markham, L E; Flaigle, S P; Nelson, P W; Shield, C F; Muruve, N A; Aeder, M I; Murillo, D; Bryan, C F

    2003-01-01

    Our organ procurement organization (OPO) evaluated the clinical and financial efficacy of point-of-care testing (POCT) in management of our deceased organ donors. Before we implemented point-of care testing with the i-STAT into routine clinical donor management, we compared the i-STAT result with the result from the respective donor hospital lab (DHL) for certain analytes on 15 consecutive donors in our OPO from 26 March to 14 May 2001. The financial impact was studied by reviewing 77 donors from July 2001 to March 2002. There was a strong correlation for each analyte between the POC and DHL test results with r-values as follows: pH 0.86; PCO2 = 0.96; PO2 = 0.98; sodium = 0.98; potassium = 0.95; chloride = 0.94; BUN = 0.98; glucose = 0.92; haematocrit = 0.87 and creatinine = 0.95. Since our OPO coordinators began using i-STAT in their routine clinical management of organ donors, they can now more quickly maximize oxygenation and fluid management of the donor and make extra-renal placement calls sooner. Finally, since we are no longer being billed for the testing performed on the i-STAT, average financial savings to our OPO are US dollars 733 per case. Point-of-care testing in management of our OPO donors provides a result that is equivalent to that of the donor hospital lab, has quicker turn-around time than the donor hospital laboratory, allowing more immediate clinical management decisions to be made so that extra-renal offers may begin sooner.

  12. Shuttle Walking Test as Predictor of Survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients Enrolled in a Rehabilitation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Brøndum, Eva

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Incremental Shuttle Walking Test (ISWT) is used to assess exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is employed as an outcome measure for pulmonary rehabilitation. We studied the value of this test in predicting survival in COPD patients enrolled...... in a rehabilitation program. METHODS: A total of 416 patients performed an ISWT before entering a 7-week outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Their survival was observed over a mean period of 4.5 years (range = 1.2-7.2 years). RESULTS: During the observation period, 169 (40.6%) patients died. Univariate...... analyses showed that the ISWT as well as age, gender, present and previous tobacco smoking, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, body mass index, oxygen saturation at rest, long-term oxygen therapy, Medical Research Council dyspnea score, and treatment with oral corticosteroids were significantly...

  13. Energy development and avian nest survival in Wyoming, USA: A test of a common disturbance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Global energy demands continue to result in new and emerging sources of anthropogenic disturbance to populations and systems. Here, we assessed the influence of natural gas development on a critical component of fitness (nest survival) for Brewer’s sparrow (Spizella breweri), sagebrush sparrow (Artemisiospiza nevadensis), and sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus), three species of sagebrush-obligate songbirds that are of conservation concern, and assessed the efficacy of a commonly used index of oil and gas development intensity (well density) for estimating habitat transformation and predicting species’ responses. During 2008–2009 and 2011–2012 we monitored 926 nests within two natural gas fields in western Wyoming, USA. We calculated landscape metrics (habitat loss, amount of edge, patch shape complexity, and mean patch size) to identify the aspect of landscape transformation most captured by well density. Well density was most positively associated with the amount of sagebrush habitat loss within 1 square kilometer. Nest survival was relatively invariant with respect to well density for all three species. In contrast, nest survival rates of all three species generally decreased with surrounding habitat loss due to energy development. Thus, although well density and habitat loss were strongly correlated, well density resulted in overly conservative estimates of nest survival probability. Our results emphasize the importance of careful evaluation of the appropriateness of particular indices for quantifying the effects of human-induced habitat change. For managers concerned about the effects of natural gas development or similar forms of human land use to co-occurring breeding birds, we recommend minimizing the amount of associated habitat conversion.

  14. Aging as an evolvability-increasing program which can be switched off by organism to mobilize additional resources for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, Maxim V; Severin, Fedor F; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several pieces of convincing evidence were published indicating that aging of living organisms is programmed, being a particular case of programmed death of organism (phenoptosis). Among them, the following observations can be mentioned. (1) Species were described that show negligible aging. In mammals, the naked mole rat is the most impressive example. This is a rodent of mouse size living at least 10-fold longer than a mouse and having fecundity higher than a mouse and no agerelated diseases. (2) In some species with high aging rate, genes responsible for active organization of aging by poisoning of the organism with endogenous metabolites have been identified. (3) In women, standard deviations divided by the mean are the same for age of menarche (an event controlled by the ontogenetic program) and for age of menopause (an aging-related event). (4) Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) retard and in certain cases even reverse the development of age-dependent pathologies. (5) In aging species, the rate of aging is regulated by the individual which responds by changes in this rate to changes in the environmental conditions. In this review, we consider point (5) in detail. Data are summarized suggesting that inhibition of aging rate by moderate food restriction can be explained assuming that such restriction is perceived by the organism as a signal of future starvation. In response to this dramatic signal, the organism switches off such an optional program as aging, mobilizing in such a way additional reserves for survival. A similar explanation is postulated for geroprotective effects of heavy muscle work, a lowering or a rise in the external temperature, small amounts of metabolic poisons (hormesis), low doses of radiation, and other deleterious events. On the contrary, sometimes certain positive signals can prolong life by inhibiting the aging program in individuals who are useful for the community (e

  15. Growth and Extended Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soil Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali NandaKafle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as serotype O157:H7, are a leading cause of food-associated outbreaks. While the primary reservoir is associated with cattle, plant foods have been associated as sources of human infection. E. coli is able to grow in the tissue of food plants such as spinach. While fecal contamination is the primary suspect, soil has been underestimated as a potential reservoir. Persistence of bacterial populations in open systems is the product of growth, death, predation, and competition. Here we report that E. coli O157:H7 can grow using the soluble compounds in soil, and characterize the effect of soil growth on the stationary phase proteome. E. coli 933D (stxII− was cultured in Soil Extracted Soluble Organic Matter (SESOM and the culturable count determined for 24d. The proteomes of exponential and stationary phase populations were characterized by 2D gel electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. While LB controls displayed a death phase, SESOM grown population remained culturable for 24d, indicating an altered physiological state with superior longevity. This was not due to decreased cell density on entry to stationary phase as 24 h SESOM populations concentrated 10-fold retained their longevity. Principal component analysis showed that stationary phase proteomes from SESOM and LB were different. Differences included proteins involved in stress response, motility, membrane and wall composition, nutrient uptake, translation and protein turnover, and anabolic and catabolic pathways, indicating an altered physiological state of soil-grown cells entering stationary phase. The results suggest that E. coli may be a soil commensal that, in absence of predation and competition, maintains stable populations in soil.

  16. Testing the effect of dietary carotenoids on larval survival, growth and development in the critically endangered southern corroboree frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Phillip G; Silla, Aimee J

    2017-03-01

    The success of captive breeding programs (CBPs) for threatened species is often limited due to a lack of knowledge of the nutritional conditions required for optimal growth and survival. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants known to accelerate vertebrate growth and reduce mortality. However, the effect of carotenoids on amphibian life-history traits remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to use a manipulative laboratory experiment to test the effect of dietary-carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage on the survival, growth and development of the critically endangered southern corroboree frog (Pseudophryne corroboree). Larvae were fed either a carotenoid supplemented diet or an unsupplemented diet and the survival, growth and development of individuals was monitored and compared. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment on larval survival, growth rate, time taken to reach metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. Our findings provide no evidence that carotenoid supplementation during the larval life stage improves the growth and development of southern corroboree frogs. However, because the carotenoid dose used in our study did not have any detrimental effects on P. corroboree larvae, but has previously been shown to improve adult coloration, immunity, and exercise performance, carotenoid supplementation should be considered when evaluating the nutritional requirements of P. corroboree in captivity. Carotenoid supplementation studies are now required for a diversity of anuran species to determine the effects of carotenoids on amphibian survival, growth and development. Understanding the effects of dietary carotenoids on different life-history traits may assist with amphibian captive breeding and conservation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Accreditation of qualification testing organizations: the industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roby, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the industry viewpoint on the program for the Accreditation of Qualification Testing Organizations, which has been proposed for rulemaking by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The IEEE has agreed to establish the program content, and would administer its requirements in accordance with an agreement between the NRC and IEEE of September 30th, 1981. Presented in this paper is the industry perspective, developed and prepared through the AIF, identifying the serious concerns which the accreditation program has raised. Discussed are the disadvantages of the program and those present benefits which would be lost if the program was adopted. The value of greater emphasis on current regulation to improve the qualification process is presented and the paper details areas where the NRC proposals do not provide adequate justification for the accreditation program

  18. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  19. A critical test of organic P-N photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G.R. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We present an urgent view of the field of organic solid state photovoltaic cells. This is a proper time to select the most promising materials from the Electrophotographic Industry, materials long tried in terms of stability, high quantum yield of charge carriers, but set apart by unusually high quantum yields at low applied fields. Our experience with the candidate dyes has covered new tests for identifiable impurities and removal of these impurities by verifiable methods. A new method of purification, reactive train sublimation, has been developed for DNT, one of the simplest of the outstanding perylene dyes, and the method seems applicable to some of the other promising perylene derivatives. It removes the offending impurity by converting it into the desired pure product. The role of water of hydration in the {open_quotes}wine cellar effect{close_quotes}, the slowly rising performance of newly made phthalocyanine containing cells has been analyzed. Under the concept of feasibility testing before a final refinement for practicality of materials and production methods, the hydration can be controlled for high level testing. At the same time, efforts go forward to eliminate the need. At least one of the best phthalocyanine components, X-H{sub 2}Pc, does not require water for peak performance. Finally, we have attacked BBIP (bis-benzimidazole perylene) one of the best and most enigmatic of the near infrared sensors. It has long been known and used as a mixture of synthetic isomers, and we hypothesize that either of these would be better than the uncontrolled mixture. A partial success in the form of isolating highly enriched crystals for an X-ray structure of the trans-molecule, is first presented here. A simple optical analysis method has been developed to follow enrichment procedures. For all of its difficult history, this material seems closest to a state of readiness for critical feasibility testing.

  20. Free cholesterol and cholesterol esters in bovine oocytes: Implications in survival and membrane raft organization after cryopreservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Buschiazzo

    Full Text Available Part of the damage caused by cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes occurs at the plasma membrane. The addition of cholesterol to cell membranes as a strategy to make it more tolerant to cryopreservation has been little addressed in oocytes. In order to increase the survival of bovine oocytes after cryopreservation, we proposed not only to increase cholesterol level of oocyte membranes before vitrification but also to remove the added cholesterol after warming, thus recovering its original level. Results from our study showed that modulation of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD did not affect the apoptotic status of oocytes and improved viability after vitrification yielding levels of apoptosis closer to those of fresh oocytes. Fluorometric measurements based on an enzyme-coupled reaction that detects both free cholesterol (membrane and cholesteryl esters (stored in lipid droplets, revealed that oocytes and cumulus cells present different levels of cholesterol depending on the seasonal period. Variations at membrane cholesterol level of oocytes were enough to account for the differences found in total cholesterol. Differences found in total cholesterol of cumulus cells were explained by the differences found in both the content of membrane cholesterol and of cholesterol esters. Cholesterol was incorporated into the oocyte plasma membrane as evidenced by comparative labeling of a fluorescent cholesterol. Oocytes and cumulus cells increased membrane cholesterol after incubation with MβCD/cholesterol and recovered their original level after cholesterol removal, regardless of the season. Finally, we evaluated the effect of vitrification on the putative raft molecule GM1. Cholesterol modulation also preserved membrane organization by maintaining ganglioside level at the plasma membrane. Results suggest a distinctive cholesterol metabolic status of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs among seasons and a dynamic organizational structure

  1. Using Concurrent Cardiovascular Information to Augment Survival Time Data from Orthostatic Tilt Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Fiedler, James; Lee, Stuart M. M.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic Intolerance (OI) is the propensity to develop symptoms of fainting during upright standing. OI is associated with changes in heart rate, blood pressure and other measures of cardiac function. Problem: NASA astronauts have shown increased susceptibility to OI on return from space missions. Current methods for counteracting OI in astronauts include fluid loading and the use of compression garments. Multivariate trajectory spread is greater as OI increases. Pairwise comparisons at the same time within subjects allows incorporation of pass/fail outcomes. Path length, convex hull area, and covariance matrix determinant do well as statistics to summarize this spread Missing data problems Time series analysis need many more time points per OTT session treatment of trend? how incorporate survival information?

  2. Test of Direct and Indirect Effects of Agrochemicals on the Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R.; Rohr, Jason R.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff. PMID:22003017

  3. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, D; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides...... studied 17 nonpalpable testes in 10 patients 1 year and 7 months to 13(1/2) years old. Results of testicular biopsies of 13 intra-abdominal testes taken at stages 1 and 2 of surgery were available for histological comparison. RESULTS: Median number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section...... of the biopsies taken at stage 2 was slightly lower (0.03) compared to the median number at stage 1 (0.06) of the operation but this difference was not significant (p = 0.2031). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the spermatogonia may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels, although the number...

  4. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. Peculiarities of genom organization and the shape of survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The basic biological mechanisms realized on molecular, cellular and population levels and stipulating the shape of dependence of the cell suriival (S) on the dose (D) are considered. One of possible causes of nonlinear S(D) dependence are the peculiarities of DNA degradation in E. coli cells. The mechanisms of genetic control of different types of degradation are discussed. Some regularities of the genetic recombination and replication of DNA in E. coli are considered. The conclusion is made that one of the basic stipulating for the shoulder on the survival curves in E. coli are the peculiarities of the chromosome replication

  5. Organic lining materials test in flue gas ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raveh, R.; Sfez, D.; Johannsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protection solutions are being widely used in electric power plants equipped with Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) systems. Organic lining materials are one of many solutions available on the market for corrosion protection. This market segment is found in a continuous development in order to fulfill the severe demands of these materials. The main goal of this test is to obtain information about the high temperature resistance of the materials as occurs when the FGD system is by-passed. Aster initial investigation of this market segment only a few lining materials were found compatible according to their manufacturer data. Seven of these materials were installed in the outlet flue gas duct of the Israeli power station M.D. B. This power station is not equipped with a FGD system, thus it gives a real simulation of the environmental conditions into which the lining material is subjected when the FGD system is by-passed. The materials installation was observed carefully and performed by representatives from the manufacturers in order to avoid material failure due to a non-adequate application. The power station was shut down and the lining materials were inspected three and a half months after the lining materials were applied. The inspection results were good and besides changes in the lining color, most materials did not show any damages. During that time the flue gas temperature at the duct was 134?C except some temperature fluctuations

  6. Predictive modelling of survival and length of stay in critically ill patients using sequential organ failure scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houthooft, Rein; Ruyssinck, Joeri; van der Herten, Joachim; Stijven, Sean; Couckuyt, Ivo; Gadeyne, Bram; Ongenae, Femke; Colpaert, Kirsten; Decruyenaere, Johan; Dhaene, Tom; De Turck, Filip

    2015-03-01

    The length of stay of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is an indication of patient ICU resource usage and varies considerably. Planning of postoperative ICU admissions is important as ICUs often have no nonoccupied beds available. Estimation of the ICU bed availability for the next coming days is entirely based on clinical judgement by intensivists and therefore too inaccurate. For this reason, predictive models have much potential for improving planning for ICU patient admission. Our goal is to develop and optimize models for patient survival and ICU length of stay (LOS) based on monitored ICU patient data. Furthermore, these models are compared on their use of sequential organ failure (SOFA) scores as well as underlying raw data as input features. Different machine learning techniques are trained, using a 14,480 patient dataset, both on SOFA scores as well as their underlying raw data values from the first five days after admission, in order to predict (i) the patient LOS, and (ii) the patient mortality. Furthermore, to help physicians in assessing the prediction credibility, a probabilistic model is tailored to the output of our best-performing model, assigning a belief to each patient status prediction. A two-by-two grid is built, using the classification outputs of the mortality and prolonged stay predictors to improve the patient LOS regression models. For predicting patient mortality and a prolonged stay, the best performing model is a support vector machine (SVM) with GA,D=65.9% (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77) and GS,L=73.2% (AUC of 0.82). In terms of LOS regression, the best performing model is support vector regression, achieving a mean absolute error of 1.79 days and a median absolute error of 1.22 days for those patients surviving a nonprolonged stay. Using a classification grid based on the predicted patient mortality and prolonged stay, allows more accurate modeling of the patient LOS. The detailed models allow to support

  7. BIOMEX Experiment: Ultrastructural Alterations, Molecular Damage and Survival of the Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus after the Experiment Verification Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; De Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; de la Torre, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano

    2017-06-01

    The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1.5 years. Along with a number of other extremophilic microorganisms, the Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 has been included in the experiment. Before launch, dried colonies grown on Lunar and Martian regolith analogues were exposed to vacuum, irradiation and temperature cycles in ground based experiments (EVT1 and EVT2). Cultural and molecular tests revealed that the fungus survived on rock analogues under space and simulated Martian conditions, showing only slight ultra-structural and molecular damage.

  8. Decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients of donors with positive blood cultures: a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A; Vilchez, Valery; Mei, Xiaonan; Shah, Malay B; Daily, Michael F; Berger, Jonathan; Gedaly, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Liver transplantation using blood culture positive donors (BCPD) has allowed a significant expansion of the donor pool. We aimed to characterize BCPD and assess the outcomes of BCPD liver transplant recipients. We retrieved data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry on all adults who underwent primary, single-organ deceased-donor liver transplantation in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Patients were classified into two cohorts: the BCPD cohort and the non-BCPD cohort. One-year graft and patient survival were compared between cohorts using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. A total of 28 961 patients were included. There were 2316 (8.0%) recipients of BCPD. BCPD were more likely to be older, female, black, diabetic, hypertensive, and obese compared to non-BCPD. Graft survival was significantly lower in BCPD recipients compared to non-BCPD recipients (Kaplan-Meier, 0.85 vs. 0.87; P = 0.009). Results remained significant in propensity-matched analysis (P = 0.038). BCPD was independently associated with decreased graft survival (adjusted HR; 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20; P = 0.04). There were no significant differences in patient survival between study groups. BCPD was associated with decreased graft survival in liver transplant recipients. Studies are needed to identify subgroups of BCPD with the highest risk of graft failure and characterize the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  9. Organization of Concepts Relevant to Emotions and Their Regulation during Test Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Paul A.; Davis, Heather A.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2002-01-01

    Studied college students' organization of concepts related to emotions and their regulation during test taking and whether students with test anxiety have a different conceptual organization about test taking. Results with 78 and 76 students show that for students with low and moderate test anxiety, the organizational scheme for the selected…

  10. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carter Loftus

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments.

  11. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, J. Carter; Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L) without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L) with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments. PMID:26968000

  12. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  13. Accelerated stability testing of organic photovoltaics using concentrated sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Eugene A.; Manor, Assaf; Mescheloff, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported.......We suggest to use concentrated sunlight for accelerated studies of light-induced mechanisms in the degradation of organic photovoltaics (OPV) based on the polymer (P3HT)/fullerene (PCBM) bulk heterojunctions. Two particular cases of the degradation are reported....

  14. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  15. Prospective Clinical Testing of Regulatory Dendritic Cells in Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Angus W.; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Metes, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering...

  16. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  17. The Design Dimensions of the Just Organization: An Empirical Test of the Relation Between Organization Design and Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerde, Virginia Woods

    1998-01-01

    Although organization design to bring about corporate social performance (CSP) is a critical issue in the business and society field, little research has been conducted. This study is an empirical test of the general model of the just organization presented by Stephens and colleagues (1991; Stephens, et al., 1997). The theoretical development describes organizational design principles from John Rawls' (1971) Theory of Justice, chosen for its emphasis on economic organizations and structure, i...

  18. Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Larvae Fed by Daphnia magna Cultured With Organic Fertilizer Resulted From Probiotic Bacteria Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Endar Herawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a potential feed for fish. The aim of this research was to find the best treatment and effect of D. magna culture addition from fermented organic fertilizer, to growth and survival rate of Oreochromis niloticus larvae. There were five treatments, each with three repetitions used in the study. All treatments used chicken dung, and different combinations of rice bran, coconut oilcake waste and tilapia larvae. Feeding on tilapia was given by ad libitum method for five times a day until 14 days. Water quality during the research was maintained at temperature 28–29°C, DO 0.3 ppm and pH 8.1–8.2. Observed variables include relative growth rate, survival rate, food consumption rate and water quality. Our results showed that D. magna cultured by fermented organic fertilizer for tilapia larvae (O. niloticus had high significant effect (p < 0.01 on the relative growth rate and survival rate. Treatment of D. magna cultured by 1.2 g/L chicken manure, 0.9 g/L rice bran and 0.3 g/L coconut oilcake showed the highest value on the relative growth rate (10.86%; survival rate (98.46% and food consumption at first week (106.43% and second week (152.76%.

  19. Computer-assisted organization of the weld seam test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, H.; Richter, I.; Hansen, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes the task set and the solution found for an EDP program to be used for assisting in non-destructive tests. It covers the activities of test planning, disposition, calculation, test instructions, documentation and quality statistics. The phases of development and implementation have been essentially concluded. The program is not expected to reduce actual test work. Its advantages rather result from complete planning and execution, from early sensing of deviations, easier documentation and fast as well as easily surveyed informations. When the program has been fully integrated into the flow schedule of order handling, it is expected that 'additional work' will be reduced to an extent close to abt. 15 percent of the total work invested. By transferring the invested work from the test and documentation phase to the planning phase, the target of the program system meets the principle of modern quality assurance, namely to intensify measures for preventing errors. (orig.) [de

  20. Stress Testing of Organic Light- Emitting Diode Panels and Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Davis, Kelley Rountree, Karmann Mills

    2018-01-31

    This report builds on previous DOE efforts with OLED technology by updating information on a previously benchmarked OLED product (the Chalina luminaire from Acuity Brands) and provides new benchmarks on the performance of Brite 2 and Brite Amber OLED panels from OLEDWorks. During the tests described here, samples of these devices were subjected to continuous operation in stress tests at elevated ambient temperature environments of 35°C or 45°C. In addition, samples were also operated continuously at room temperature in a room temperature operational life test (RTOL). One goal of this study was to investigate whether these test conditions can accelerate failure of OLED panels, either through panel shorting or an open circuit in the panel. These stress tests are shown to provide meaningful acceleration of OLED failure modes, and an acceleration factor of 2.6 was calculated at 45°C for some test conditions. In addition, changes in the photometric properties of the emitted light (e.g., luminous flux and chromaticity maintenance) was also evaluated for insights into the long-term stability of these products compared to earlier generations. Because OLEDs are a lighting system, electrical testing was also performed on the panel-driver pairs to provide insights into the impact of the driver on long-term panel performance.

  1. Effects of soil quality and depth on seed germination and seedling survival at the Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, K.W.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended in 1987, directs the US Department of Energy (DOE) to study Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, as a potential site for long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste. DOE policy mandates the restoration of all lands disturbed by site characterization activities and DOE has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization activities at Yucca.Mountain. DOE is currently conducting reclamation feasibility trials as part of this environmental program. No topsoil was saved on disturbances during early site investigation and minimal soil remains at existing disturbances on Yucca Mountain. A study was developed to test the effects of soil quality and depth on seedling emergence and survival. A series of plots was established and two treatments were tested. The first treatment compared native topsoil to subsoil imported from a borrow pit. The second treatment compared four different depth ranges of both soil types. All plots received identical seeding treatments. Seedling density was measured after emergence. Overall seedling densities were low, averaging 10.3 ± 8.8 (SD) plants/m 2 . Statistical analysis revealed a significant interaction between the two treatment factors. The subsoil had increasing densities from the deep soil depths to the shallow depths while the topsoil had increasing densities from the shallow soil depths to the deep depths. The cause of this interaction may have resulted from the bedrock being close to the soil surface of the shallow plots

  2. Test Methods for Effects on Organisms:Springtails

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    NORD-UTTE er Nordisk koordineringsgrupp för utvekling av testmetoder inom toxicologi och ekotoxicology. The Nordic Co-ordination Group for the Development of Test Methods for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

  3. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  4. Evaluation of diagnostic tests of the otolith organs and their application in various vestibular pathologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Current vestibular testing is limited. The general function of the vestibular system on both sides of the head can be tested, and one part of the peripheral vestibular organ, the horizontal semicircular canal, can be tested unilaterally. However, recently a test for the function of the otolith

  5. A comparative study of two food model systems to test the survival of Campylobacter jejuni at -18 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Rosenquist, Hanne; Brondsted, L.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 was tested at freezing conditions (-18 degrees C) over a period of 32 days in two food models that simulated either (i) the chicken skin surface (skin model) or (ii) the chicken juice in and around a broiler carcass (liquid model). In the skin model...... NCTC 11168 cells was slower when suspended in chicken juice than in BHIB. After freezing for 32 days, the reductions in the cell counts were 1.5 log CFU/ml in chicken juice and 3.5 log CFU/ml in BHIB. After the same time of freezing but when inoculated onto chicken skin, C. jejuni NCTC 11168...... was reduced by 2.2 log units when inoculated in chicken juice and 3.2 log units when inoculated into BHIB. For both models, the major decrease occurred within the first 24 h of freezing. The results obtained in the liquid model with chicken juice were comparable to the reductions of Campylobacter observed...

  6. Using ISOS consensus test protocols for development of quantitative life test models in ageing of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Stoichkov, V.; Kumar, D.

    2017-01-01

    As Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) development matures, the demand grows for rapid characterisation of degradation and application of Quantitative Accelerated Life Tests (QALT) models to predict and improve reliability. To date, most accelerated testing on OPVs has been conducted using ISOS consensus...

  7. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poštulková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG. The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHMG on zebrafish (Danio rerio and green algae (Desmodesmus communis. We determined the acute toxicity in fish according to ČSN EN ISO 7346-1, and conducted the freshwater algae growth inhibition test according to ČSN ISO 8692 methodology. For inhibition tests with green algae we chose Guanicid and PHMG concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 ml/L. For fish short-term acute toxicity tests we chose Guanicid concentrations of 0.010, 0.050, 0.150, 0.200, 0.250, and 0.300 ml/L and PHMG concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.125 ml/L. In case of zebrafish (Danio rerio, the LC50 value for Guanicid is 0.086 ml/L, while the LC50 value for PHMG is 0.043 ml/L. Effects of Guanicid on inhibition of green algae (Desmodesmus communis appear highly significant (p < 0.010 at a concentration of 0.010 ml/L. For PHMG, these effects are highly significant (p < 0.001 at concentrations of 0.005 and 0.010 ml/L in 48 hours.

  8. Industrial testing of modified clay powders by the ''Permneft''' organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matytsyn, V I; Kosivchenko, A M; Ryabchenko, V I; Shishov, V A

    1980-01-01

    VNIIKRneft' has developed a modified clay powder based on Cherkask bentonite with one ton of solution resulting in 20-28 cubic meters of powder per TU 39-08-123-77 formula. The modification stems from the type of bentonite treatment used. Bentonite is used in the amount of 3-5% of the total mass and the treatment involves the use of 0.3% calcium soda, copolymer methacrylic acid with M-14VV methacrylate. These reagents induce processes of change within the clay. The carbonate-nitrate activity serves to penthiatize the clay particles and the reagent solution which accompany the process of coagulation in the polymer structure, and in turn, increases the incidence of viscosity in the newly emerging systems. Tests indicate that the use of modified clay powder enhances drill bit pass-through. The large quantity of drilling solution resulting from one ton of modified clay powder further enhances the practical aspects of this system and reduces overall expenditures for solution treatment and clay powder while permitting the reduction of expenditures for other chemical reagents. Such economic benefits have been confirmed by industrial testing.

  9. Duration of senescent cell survival in vitro as a characteristic of organism longevity, an additional to the proliferative potential of fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorov, Yegor E; Zelenin, Alexander V

    2003-04-24

    More than 40 years have passed since the original publication by Hayflick and Moorhead led to the concept of the 'Hayflick limit' of the maximum number of divisions which somatic cells undergo in vitro. This concept is still regarded as a fundamental characteristic of species longevity. Here we want to emphasize another characteristic of somatic cells, namely, the duration of their survival in vitro in the non-dividing state after cessation of proliferation. This is suggested on the basis of results of recent experiments with so-called Japanese accelerated senescent mice. Results of these experiments reveal a good correlation between the longevity of the mice, the number of duplications of their fibroblasts in vitro, and the survival time of these cells in the non-dividing state. In routine culture conditions, cell survival time may be very long, as much as a few years. However, when the cells are grown under conditions of oxidative stress, cellular longevity is markedly shortened. This new test may serve as an additional marker of organismic longevity. The comparative value of both tests, the classical 'Hayflick limit' and the new test, is discussed.

  10. Asset stripping and firm survival in mass privatization: testing the Hoff-Stiglitz and Campos-Giovannoni models in Montenegro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koman, M.; Lakićević, M.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2015), s. 274-289 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : asset stripping * mass privatization * firm survival Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  11. Commercial versus in-situ usability testing of healthcare information systems: towards "public" usability testing in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kannry, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The need for improved usability in healthcare IT has been widely recognized. In addition, methods from usability engineering, including usability testing and usability inspection have received greater attention. Many vendors of healthcare software are now employing usability testing methods in the design and development of their products. However, despite this, the usability of healthcare IT is still considered to be problematic and many healthcare organizations that have purchased systems that have been tested at vendor testing sites are still reporting a range of usability and safety issues. In this paper we explore the distinction between commercial usability testing (conducted at centralized vendor usability laboratories and limited beta test sites) and usability testing that is carried out locally within healthcare organizations that have purchased vendor systems and products (i.e. public "in-situ" usability testing). In this paper it will be argued that both types of testing (i.e. commercial vendor-based testing) and in-situ testing are needed to ensure system usability and safety.

  12. EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER, ZINC, LEAD, CADMIUM, AND ARSENIC ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF JUVENILE FISH USING LIVE FOOD ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Except for certain organometallic compounds, dietary exposures of aquatic organisms to metal/metalloids have received little regulatory attention. However, various studies have suggested that dietary exposure could be important, especially in areas where current water column conc...

  13. [The survival and development conditions of community-based organizations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men in three Chinese cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Shan, Duo; Qi, Jinlei; Ouyang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Fu, Jie; Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the survival and development conditions of community-based organizations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chinese cities including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Chongqing. This study employed both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (questionnaire survey) methods to obtain information from 15 MSM CBOs in three Chinese cities. The mean work time of the 15 CBOs for HIV/AIDS prevention and control among MSM was 6.7 years (2.1-11.3 years), and the majority of their funds was from international cooperation projects (80 447 000 RMB, 73.0%) from 2006 to 2013. The survival cost of MSM CBOs apart from expenditure of activities was 2 240-435 360 RMB per year. As it was shown in the graph, the survival and development of MSM CBOs was closely related to the development of international cooperation projects. There was a few small size MSM CBOs taking part in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS and their work content was limited before 2006. From 2006 to 2008, some international cooperation projects were launched in China, such as the China Global Fund AIDS project and the China-Gates Foundation HIV Prevention Cooperation program. As a result, the number of MSM CBOs was increased sharply, and both the scale and 2012, the performance of these programs further promote the establishment of new MSM CBOs and the development of all MSM CBOs with regard to the work places, full-time staffs, work contents, work patterns and the specific targeted population. After 2012, most international cooperation programs were completed and the local department of disease prevention and control continued to cooperate with MSM CBOs. However, the degree of support funds from the local department was different among different regions. Where the funds were below the half of program funds, the development of MSM CBOs ceased and work slowed down. Besides, there were still some constraints for the survival and development of MSM CBOs, such

  14. Argonne National Laboratory's photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig

  15. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Deletion Leads to Progressive Hypertension, Associated Organ Damage, and Reduced Survival: Novel Model for Human Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holditch, Sara J; Schreiber, Claire A; Nini, Ryan; Tonne, Jason M; Peng, Kah-Whye; Geurts, Aron; Jacob, Howard J; Burnett, John C; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Altered myocardial structure and function, secondary to chronically elevated blood pressure, are leading causes of heart failure and death. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a guanylyl cyclase A agonist, is a cardiac hormone integral to cardiovascular regulation. Studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between reduced production or impaired BNP release and the development of human hypertension. However, the consequences of BNP insufficiency on blood pressure and hypertension-associated complications remain poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create and characterize a novel model of BNP deficiency to investigate the effects of BNP absence on cardiac and renal structure, function, and survival. Genetic BNP deletion was generated in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Compared with age-matched controls, BNP knockout rats demonstrated adult-onset hypertension. Increased left ventricular mass with hypertrophy and substantially augmented hypertrophy signaling pathway genes, developed in young adult knockout rats, which preceded hypertension. Prolonged hypertension led to increased cardiac stiffness, cardiac fibrosis, and thrombi formation. Significant elongation of the QT interval was detected at 9 months in knockout rats. Progressive nephropathy was also noted with proteinuria, fibrosis, and glomerular alterations in BNP knockout rats. End-organ damage contributed to a significant decline in overall survival. Systemic BNP overexpression reversed the phenotype of genetic BNP deletion. Our results demonstrate the critical role of BNP defect in the development of systemic hypertension and associated end-organ damage in adulthood. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  18. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  19. A flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival times for censored time-to-event data in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Miki; Cronin, Angel M; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Hajime

    2018-04-22

    In randomized clinical trials where time-to-event is the primary outcome, almost routinely, the logrank test is prespecified as the primary test and the hazard ratio is used to quantify treatment effect. If the ratio of 2 hazard functions is not constant, the logrank test is not optimal and the interpretation of hazard ratio is not obvious. When such a nonproportional hazards case is expected at the design stage, the conventional practice is to prespecify another member of weighted logrank tests, eg, Peto-Prentice-Wilcoxon test. Alternatively, one may specify a robust test as the primary test, which can capture various patterns of difference between 2 event time distributions. However, most of those tests do not have companion procedures to quantify the treatment difference, and investigators have fallen back on reporting treatment effect estimates not associated with the primary test. Such incoherence in the "test/estimation" procedure may potentially mislead clinicians/patients who have to balance risk-benefit for treatment decision. To address this, we propose a flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival time, where the truncation time τ is selected data dependently. The proposed procedure is composed of a prespecified test and an estimation of corresponding robust and interpretable quantitative treatment effect. The utility of the new procedure is demonstrated by numerical studies based on 2 randomized cancer clinical trials; the test is dramatically more powerful than the logrank, Wilcoxon tests, and the restricted mean survival time-based test with a fixed τ, for the patterns of difference seen in these cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT CRISIS THE SITUATION IN ORDER TO FORM THE PROPERTIES OF THE COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF MARKET: SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Sаmоilоv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for conflict management in crisis poses questions about the decision of the leaders of emerging new challenges and dialogue in the team. Ignoring conflicts that arise in the collective unacceptable, because it can lead to wrong actions in the administration. Therefore, conflicts must be analyzed from the standpoint of the theory of organization, considering it as a set of relationships between organizational units. The experience of conflict resolution points to a sequence of actions for constructive management. The article discusses the strategy of effective interventions by the manager on the conflicts (personnel manager or psychologist for the purpose of settlement, and provides a sequence of structuring the conflict in block diagram form. In a crisis, the organization to minimize the time for conflict resolution is one of the most important requirements for its effective overcoming. In a crisis, the organization to minimize the time for conflict resolution is one of the most important requirements for its effective overcoming. Direction of action discussed above consultant on crisis management issues, refer to the table. The proposed approach of conflict resolution in crisis mode, considering the direction of formation of such an important organization in the commercial property market conditions as the survival rate. However, the manager of the proposed expansion of differentiated arsenal of interventions in the inevitable conflicts between organizational units.

  1. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Kircher, Tilo; Schulz, Eberhard; Clement, Hans-Willi; Heiser, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts such as Hypericum perforatum and Pycnogenol have been tested as alternatives to the classical ADHD drugs. It has been possible to describe neuroprotective effects of such plant extracts. A reduction of ADHD symptoms could be shown in clinical studies after the application of Pycnogenol, which is a pine bark extract. The impacts of the standardized herbal extracts Hypericum perforatum, Pycnogenol and Enzogenol up to a concentration of 5000 ng/mL on cell survival and energy metabolism in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells has been investigated in the present examination. Hypericum perforatum significantly decreased the survival of cells after treatment with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL, whereas lower concentrations exerted no significant effects. Pycnogenol( induced a significant increase of cell survival after incubation with a concentration of 32.25 ng/mL and a concentration of 250 ng/mL. Other applied concentrations of Pycnogenol failed to exert significant effects. Treatment with Enzogenol did not lead to significant changes in cell survival.Concerning energy metabolism, the treatment of cells with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL Hypericum perforatum led to a significant increase of ATP levels, whereas treatment with a concentration of 500 ng/mL had no significant effect. Incubation of cells with Pycnogenol and Enzogenol exerted no significant effects.None of the tested substances caused any cytotoxic effect when used in therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Asset stripping and firm survival in mass privatization: testing the Hoff-Stiglitz and Campos-Giovannoni models in Montenegro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koman, M.; Lakićević, M.; Prašnikar, J.; Švejnar, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2015), s. 274-289 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : asset stripping * mass privatization * firm survival Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  3. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…

  4. Detecting small-study effects and funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analysis of survival data: A comparison of new and existing tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Thomas P A; Moons, Karel G M; Riley, Richard D

    2018-03-01

    Small-study effects are a common threat in systematic reviews and may indicate publication bias. Their existence is often verified by visual inspection of the funnel plot. Formal tests to assess the presence of funnel plot asymmetry typically estimate the association between the reported effect size and their standard error, the total sample size, or the inverse of the total sample size. In this paper, we demonstrate that the application of these tests may be less appropriate in meta-analysis of survival data, where censoring influences statistical significance of the hazard ratio. We subsequently propose 2 new tests that are based on the total number of observed events and adopt a multiplicative variance component. We compare the performance of the various funnel plot asymmetry tests in an extensive simulation study where we varied the true hazard ratio (0.5 to 1), the number of published trials (N=10 to 100), the degree of censoring within trials (0% to 90%), and the mechanism leading to participant dropout (noninformative versus informative). Results demonstrate that previous well-known tests for detecting funnel plot asymmetry suffer from low power or excessive type-I error rates in meta-analysis of survival data, particularly when trials are affected by participant dropout. Because our novel test (adopting estimates of the asymptotic precision as study weights) yields reasonable power and maintains appropriate type-I error rates, we recommend its use to evaluate funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analysis of survival data. The use of funnel plot asymmetry tests should, however, be avoided when there are few trials available for any meta-analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Supervivencia de Pseudomonas fluorescens en suelos con diferente contenido de materia orgánica Pseudomonas fluorescens survival in soils with different contents of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. Perotti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens es una bacteria PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, heterótrofa, capaz de combatir fitopatógenos edáficos. Su supervivencia podría estar favorecida por el elevado contenido de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS. Para probarlo, se inocularon, en condiciones de laboratorio, tres cepas de P. fluorescens: UP61, C7R12, y P190 (nativa de Balcarce, Buenos Aires en suelos rizosféricos de tomate representativos de diferentes zonas de Argentina: suelo Argiudol (Balcarce, y Zavalla, Santa Fe y suelo Torrifluvens (Cipolletti, Río Negro (MOS %: 7,2; 4,3 y 2,6 respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la supervivencia de P. fluorescens en los suelos Argiudoles fue similar; aunque las pendientes de las curvas de supervivencia en el suelo de Zavalla fueron menores que las observadas en el suelo de Balcarce. La producción de CO2 fue superior en el suelo de Balcarce que en el suelo de Zavalla (4,3 y 2,8 mmol.g-1suelo, esta diferencia podría ser explicada por la existencia de una mayor presión competitiva por parte de la microflora nativa. La supervivencia en el suelo Torrifluvens resultó mínima, lo que sería atribuible a su elevada conductividad eléctrica más que al menor contenido de MOS. La cepa UP61 presentó en todos los casos la mejor supervivencia.Pseudomonas fluorescens are plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. The survival of this inoculated heterotrophic bacterium may be affected by soil organic matter content (SOM. To confirm this hypothesis, three strains of P. fluorescens: UP61, C7R12 y P190 (native of Balcarce, Buenos Aires were inoculated, in laboratory conditions, into three argentine rhizospheric soils: two Argiudolls (Balcarce, and Zavalla, Santa Fe and a Torrifluvens (Cipolletti, Río Negro with different SOM: 7,2; 4,3; and 2,6%, respectibily. The results indicated that the all three isolates survival in general was not different. The slopes of the regression curves in Zavalla soil were very

  6. Proficiency Test SYKE 8/2012. Volatile organic compounds in water and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen-Ylönen, Kaija; Nuutinen, Jari; Leivuori, Mirja; Ilmakunnas, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Proftest SYKE carried out the proficiency test for analysis of volatile organic compounds from water and soil in October 2012. One artificial sample and one river water sample and one soil sample were distributed. In total, 15 laboratories participated in the proficiency test. Either the calculated concentration or the robust mean value was chosen to be the assigned value for the measurement. The performance of the participants was evaluated by using z scores. In this proficiency test 72 % of...

  7. Scintigraphic test of the vitality and functional fitness of organs conserved for transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozduganov, A.; Marinov, V.

    1976-01-01

    Having reviewed critically present-day methods of testing the vitality of isolated perfused organs, the authors propose their own. It is founded in the principles of colour scintigraphy after introduction of short-lived nuclides. The method was applied in testing 57 isolated preserved organs (5 kidneys, 12 livers, 5 hearts and 4 spleens from dogs; 2 kidneys and 27 livers from rabbits; 1 kidney and 1 liver from young pigs). Moreover, compararive scintigraphic and biochemical investigations were conducted on 2 dogs and 4 young pigs (A. Bozduganov, E. Simeonov, N. Bogdanova). The techniques of isolation and perfusion of the organ have been given a detailed description. Sup(113m)In was used as tracer. Areas of radioactivity deposits were visualized more or less intensely, depending on the degree of vitality and functional fitness still present actually; else, blanks were seen. Orthotransplantation and heterotransplantation with subsequent scintigraphic examination in vivo served, in scattered instances, the purpose of confirming or of rejecting ambiguous vitality findings in preserved organs. Advantages of the method are a general and specified evaluation of the organ in all of its areas; anatomical integrity of the object under test; applicability to various organs; possibility of conducting dynamic tests; accurate reproduction of vitality and functional findings, etc

  8. Advantages of the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system for the rat colon rupture pressure test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chengdong; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Zheng, Feng; Qin, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on colorectal anastomotic leakage to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. However, how to precisely determine if the bowel can withstand the pressure of a colorectal anastomosis experiment, which is called anastomotic bursting pressure, has not been determined. A task force developed the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system to provide precise measurement of the maximum pressure that an anastomotic colon can withstand, and to compare it with the commonly used method such as the mercury and air bag pressure manometer in a rat colon rupture pressure test. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the manual ball manometry (H) group, the tracing machine manometry pressure gauge head (MP) group, and the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system (ME) group. The rats in each group were subjected to a cut colon rupture pressure test after injecting anesthesia in the tail vein. Colonic end-to-end anastomosis was performed, and the rats were rested for 1 week before anastomotic bursting pressure was determined by one of the three methods. No differences were observed between the normal colon rupture pressure and colonic anastomotic bursting pressure, which were determined using the three manometry methods. However, several advantages, such as reduction in errors, were identified in the ME group. Different types of manometry methods can be applied to the normal rat colon, but the colonic anastomotic bursting pressure test using the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system is superior to traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective clinical testing of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg in organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGUS W THOMSON

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients’ dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail.

  10. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  11. Application of organic tracers in characterizing the greater confinement disposal test at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) is a research project investigating the feasibility of augered-shaft disposal of low-level radioactive waste considered unsuitable for shallow land burial. Gaseous diffusion of radionuclides through alluvial sediments is considered the primary contaminant migration process. Volatile halocarbon tracers are released in the subsurface and their migration is monitored to determine media effective diffusion coefficients, tortuosity values, and sorption terms. Design and instrumentation of the emplacement and monitoring shafts of the disposal facility are detailed. Instrumentation includes a three-dimensional array of soil-air sample stations encircling the disposal waste. Recirculation flow lines minimize induced advection in the alluvial matrix due to tracer sample collection. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  12. Status of test results of electrochemical organic oxidation of a tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents scoping test results of an electrochemical waste pretreatment process to oxidize organic compounds contained in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks. Electrochemical oxidation was tested on laboratory scale to destroy organics that are thought to pose safety concerns, using a nonradioactive, simulated tank waste. Minimal development work has been applied to alkaline electrochemical organic destruction. Most electrochemical work has been directed towards acidic electrolysis, as in the metal purification industry, and silver catalyzed oxidation. Alkaline electrochemistry has traditionally been associated with the following: (1) inefficient power use, (2) electrode fouling, and (3) solids handling problems. Tests using a laboratory scale electrochemical cell oxidized surrogate organics by applying a DC electrical current to the simulated tank waste via anode and cathode electrodes. The analytical data suggest that alkaline electrolysis oxidizes the organics into inorganic carbonate and smaller carbon chain refractory organics. Electrolysis treats the waste without adding chemical reagents and at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Cell performance was not affected by varying operating conditions and supplemental electrolyte additions

  13. Full-scale tank car rollover tests - survivability of top fittings and top fittings protective structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Full-scale rollover crash tests were performed on three non-pressure tank carbodies to validate previous analytical work and : determine the effectiveness of two different types of protective structures in protecting the top fittings. The tests were ...

  14. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  15. Immunosuppressive effect of the anti-IL-2-receptor monoclonal antibody, AMT-13, on organ-cultured fetal pancreas allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, K.; Loughnan, M.S.; Diamantstein, T.; Mandel, T.E.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, prolongation of cardiac allograft survival in mice was reported using a rat anti-IL-2R mAb (AMT-13). However, its immunosuppressive action in vivo, alone and in combination with other immunosuppressants, and its effect on other organ transplants has not been extensively studied. We grafted cultured fetal pancreas from CBA (H-2k) donors to Balb/c (H-2d) mice. Recipients were treated with 10 consecutive daily injections each of 20 micrograms AMT-13 only, or with an additional mild immunosuppression of 350 rads irradiation. Control groups received rat immunoglobulin or 350 rads irradiation. Graft survival and the phenotype of infiltrating cells were assessed histologically and immunocytochemically on days 12, 17, and 21, and soluble IL-2R levels were measured in the serum with a quantitative ELISA in all recipients. Two of five grafts in the AMT-13-treated group had islets on day 12 posttransplantation despite lymphocytic infiltration in all grafts, while at this time all grafts of rat Ig treated control mice were completely rejected with only scar tissue and a few lymphocytes remaining. Additional immunosuppression with 350 rads irradiation had a marked additive effect with AMT-13. Soluble IL-2R levels in the serum of untreated recipients were not elevated compared with normal serum levels, but recipients injected with AMT-13 had multifold increased soluble IL-2R levels. The percentage of IL-2R+ cells in the grafts of AMT-13-treated animals was either normal (less than 5%) or increased (20%) in the additionally irradiated mice, providing strong evidence that the immunosuppressive effect of AMT-13 is not due to a depletion of activated IL-2R+ lymphocytes

  16. Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest–post-test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female : male=96 : 4) aged 18–50 years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0) years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation. PMID:24381257

  17. Effects of Organic Pesticides on Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta in Agroecosystems: Laboratory and Higher-Tier Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Römbke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida are often considered to be typical forestliving organisms, but they are regularly found in agroecosystems of the temperate regions of the world. Although less known than their larger relatives, the earthworms, these saprophagous organisms play similar roles in agricultural soils (but at a smaller scale, e.g., influencing soil structure and organic matter dynamics via microbial communities, and having a central place in soil food webs. Their diversity is rarely studied or often underestimated due to difficulties in distinguishing the species. New genetic techniques reveal that even in anthropogenically highly influenced soils, more than 10 species per site can be found. Because of their close contact with the soil pore water, a high ingestion rate and a thin cuticle, they often react very sensitively to a broad range of pesticides. Firstly we provide a short overview of the diversity and abundance of enchytraeid communities in agroecosystems. Afterwards, we explore the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward pesticides at different levels of biological organization, focusing on pesticides used in (mainly European agroecosystems. Starting with non-standardized studies on the effects of pesticides on the sub-individual level, we compile the results of standard laboratory tests performed following OECD and ISO guidelines as well as those of higher-tier studies (i.e., semi-field and field tests. The number of comparable test data is still limited, because tests with enchytraeids are not a regulatory requirement in the European Union. While focusing on the effects of pesticides, attention is also given to their interactions with environmental stressors (e.g., climate change. In conclusion, we recommend to increase the use of enchytraeids in pesticide risk assessment because of their diversity and functional importance as well as their increasingly simplified use in (mostly standardized tests at all levels

  18. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  19. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Results of radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on some selected organic materials for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlet, M.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1999-01-01

    In the near future, particle accelerators and detectors as well as fusion reactors will operate at cryogenic temperatures. At temperatures as low as 2 K, the organic materials used for the insulation of the superconducting magnets and cables will be exposed to high radiation levels. In this work, a representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations and epoxy-type-impregnated resins were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of nuclear reactors, both at ambient and cryogenic temperatures, and were subsequently mechanically tested. The results show that the radiation degradation is never worse in a cryogenic fluid than it is in usual ambient conditions. (author)

  1. Estimation of carrier mobility at organic semiconductor/insulator interface using an asymmetric capacitive test structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Agarwal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobility of carriers at the organic/insulator interface is crucial to the performance of organic thin film transistors. The present work describes estimation of mobility using admittance measurements performed on an asymmetric capacitive test structure. Besides the advantage of simplicity, it is shown that at low frequencies, the measured capacitance comes from a large area of channel making the capacitance-voltage characteristics insensitive to contact resistances. 2-D numerical simulation and experimental results obtained with Pentacene/Poly(4-vinyphenol system are presented to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique.

  2. Assessing the fate of organic micropollutants during riverbank filtration utilizing field studies and laboratory test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C. K.; Lange, F. T.; Sacher, F.; Baus, C.; Brauch, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Germany and other highly populated countries, several waterworks use riverbank filtration as a first step in the treatment of river water for water supplies. Unfortunately, industrial and municipal discharges and the influence of agriculture lead to the pollution of rivers and lakes by a number of organic chemicals. In order to assess the impact of those organic micropollutants on the quality of drinking water, it is necessary to clarify their fate during infiltration and underground passage. The fate of organic micropollutants in a river water-groundwater infiltration system is mainly determined by adsorption mechanisms and biological transformations. One possibility to simulate the microbial degradation of single compounds during riverbank filtration is the use of laboratory test filter systems, that are operated as biological fixed-bed reactors under aerobic conditions. The benefit and meaningfulness of those test filters was evaluated on the basis of selected target compounds by comparing the results derived from test filter experiments with field studies under environmental conditions at the River Rhine. Samples from the river and from groundwater of a well characterized aerobic infiltration pathway were analyzed over a time period of several years for a spectrum of organic micropollutants. Target compounds comprised several contaminants relevant for the aquatic environment, such as complexing agents, aromatic sulfonates, pharmaceuticals (including iodinated X ray contrast media), and MTBE. Furthermore, the behaviour of some target compounds during aerobic riverbank filtration was compared to their fate along a section of an anaerobic (oxygen-depleted) aquifer at the River Ruhr that is characterized by a transition state between sulfate reduction and methane production. While some organic micropollutants showed no major differences, the elimination of others turned out to be clearly dependent on the underlying redox processes in the groundwater. The

  3. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides adequate...

  4. A rapidly equilibrating, thin film, passive water sampler for organic contaminants; characterization and field testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St George, Tiffany [Department of Marine Science, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Department of Science, United States Coast Guard Academy, 27 Mohegan Ave., New London, CT 06320 (United States); Vlahos, Penny, E-mail: penny.vlahos@uconn.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, 55 Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Department of Marine Science, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Harner, Tom [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada); Helm, Paul [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, Ontario M9P 3V6 (Canada); Wilford, Bryony [Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Improving methods for assessing the spatial and temporal resolution of organic compound concentrations in marine environments is important to the sustainable management of our coastal systems. Here we evaluate the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a candidate polymer for thin-film passive sampling in waters of marine environments. Log K{sub EVA-W} partition coefficients correlate well (r{sup 2} = 0.87) with Log K{sub OW} values for selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) where Log K{sub EVA-W} = 1.04 Log K{sub OW} + 0.22. EVA is a suitable polymer for passive sampling due to both its high affinity for organic compounds and its ease of coating at sub-micron film thicknesses on various substrates. Twelve-day field deployments were effective in detecting target compounds with good precision making EVA a potential multi-media fugacity meter. - Research highlights: Calibration and field testing of a thin-film passive sampler in marine systems. Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is effective for a wide spectrum of organic compounds. EVA performs with high precision and reproducibility. EVA is effective in marine systems at environmentally relevant concentrations. EVA is recommended as a multi-media fugacity meter for environmental applications. - An ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), thin-film passive sampler for the detection of organic compounds in marine environments is calibrated and field tested.

  5. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  7. Zero risk tolerance costs lives: loss of transplantable organs due to human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acid testing of potential donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Teresa J; Schkade, David; Schkade, Lawrence; Geier, Steven S; Orlowski, Jeffrey P; Klintmalm, Goran

    2011-09-01

    Patients' deaths due to the organ donor shortage make it imperative that every suitable organ be transplanted. False-positive results of tests for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) result in lost organs. A survey of US organ procurement organizations collected the numbers of donors and ruled-out potential donors who had a positive result on an HIV test from January 1,2006, to October 31, 2008. Sixty-two percent of US organ procurement organizations participated. Of the 12397 donor/nondonor cases, 56 (0.45%) had an initial positive result on an HIV antibody or HIV nucleic acid test, and only 8 (14.3%) of those were confirmed positive. Of the false-positive results, 50% were from HIV antibody tests and 50% were from HIV nucleic acid tests. Organs are a scarce, finite, and perishable resource. Use of HIV antibody testing has produced a remarkably safe track record of avoiding HIV transmission, with 22 years of nonoccurrence between transmissions. Because false positives occur with any test, including the HIV Ab test, adding nucleic acid testing to the standard donor testing panel doubles the number of false-positive HIV test results and thus the number of medically suitable donors lost. The required HIV antibody test is 99.99% effective in preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Adding the HIV nucleic acid test to routine organ donor screening could result in as many as 761 to 1551 unnecessary deaths of patients between HIV transmission events because medically suitable organs are wasted.

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1 - Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Example 1. (i) O is an educational organization the purpose of which is to study history and immigration... toward publishing a history of that family that will document the pedigrees of family members. A major... combat community deterioration and juvenile delinquency. The fact that an organization which is organized...

  9. Fracture strength and probability of survival of narrow and extra-narrow dental implants after fatigue testing: In vitro and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Fardin, Vinicius P; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the probability of survival (reliability) and failure modes of narrow implants with different diameters. For fatigue testing, 42 implants with the same macrogeometry and internal conical connection were divided, according to diameter, as follows: narrow (Ø3.3×10mm) and extra-narrow (Ø2.9×10mm) (21 per group). Identical abutments were torqued to the implants and standardized maxillary incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing (SSALT) in water. The use-level probability Weibull curves, and reliability for a mission of 50,000 and 100,000 cycles at 50N, 100, 150 and 180N were calculated. For the finite element analysis (FEA), two virtual models, simulating the samples tested in fatigue, were constructed. Loading at 50N and 100N were applied 30° off-axis at the crown. The von-Mises stress was calculated for implant and abutment. The beta (β) values were: 0.67 for narrow and 1.32 for extra-narrow implants, indicating that failure rates did not increase with fatigue in the former, but more likely were associated with damage accumulation and wear-out failures in the latter. Both groups showed high reliability (up to 97.5%) at 50 and 100N. A decreased reliability was observed for both groups at 150 and 180N (ranging from 0 to 82.3%), but no significant difference was observed between groups. Failure predominantly involved abutment fracture for both groups. FEA at 50N-load, Ø3.3mm showed higher von-Mises stress for abutment (7.75%) and implant (2%) when compared to the Ø2.9mm. There was no significant difference between narrow and extra-narrow implants regarding probability of survival. The failure mode was similar for both groups, restricted to abutment fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  11. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid after cold and acid habituation in apple juice or trypticase soy broth acidified with hydrochloric acid or organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, H E; Ingham, S C

    1998-08-01

    Extreme acid tolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 has raised doubts about the safety of acidic foods. This study examined whether prior storage in acidic and/or cold conditions enhanced survival of E. coli O157:H7 in synthetic gastric fluid (SGF). Three E. coli O157:H7 strains were stored in trypticase soy broth (TSB; acidified with HCl, malic acid, citric acid, or lactic acid) or pH 3.5 and 6.5 (nonacidic control) apple juice at 4 and 21 degrees C for acids, suggesting that juice constituents other than organic acids protect E. coli O157:H7. Refrigeration combined with low pH best protected cells in apple juice and acidified TSB, but, compared to the nonacidic control, only acidified TSB enhanced subsequent survival in pH 2.5 SGF. Equal survival in SGF occurred after storage in pH 3.5 or 6.5 apple juice at 4 degrees C, suggesting that low temperature alone in apple juice enhanced acid tolerance. Two strains stored at 4 degrees C in TSB containing malic or citric acid subsequently survived better in SGF than cells stored in nonacidified TSB but poorer than cells stored in the presence of HCl. These differences reflect the higher pKa of these organic acids. However, subsequent survival of these strains in SGF was poorer after refrigerated storage in apple juice than in TSB containing citric or malic acids. Cells stored in lactic acid were most likely to be completely eliminated upon transfer to SGF. Differences in survival in storage media or SGF related to strain, storage conditions, or acidifier were consistent and often statistically significant (P acidic beverages may not be affected by the type of acidifier used, the subsequent survival in SGF of this pathogen may be critically dependent on this factor.

  12. Rank-based testing of equal survivorship based on cross-sectional survival data with or without prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Qin, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Existing linear rank statistics cannot be applied to cross-sectional survival data without follow-up since all subjects are essentially censored. However, partial survival information are available from backward recurrence times and are frequently collected from health surveys without prospective follow-up. Under length-biased sampling, a class of linear rank statistics is proposed based only on backward recurrence times without any prospective follow-up. When follow-up data are available, the proposed rank statistic and a conventional rank statistic that utilizes follow-up information from the same sample are shown to be asymptotically independent. We discuss four ways to combine these two statistics when follow-up is present. Simulations show that all combined statistics have substantially improved power compared with conventional rank statistics, and a Mantel-Haenszel test performed the best among the proposal statistics. The method is applied to a cross-sectional health survey without follow-up and a study of Alzheimer's disease with prospective follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  14. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-01-01

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression

  15. Predictors of survival in surgically treated patients of spinal metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Padalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spinal metastasis occurs in up to 40% of cancer patient. We compared the Tokuhashi and Tomita scoring systems, two commonly used scoring systems for prognosis in spinal metastases. We also assessed the different variables separately with respect to their value in predicting postsurgical life expectancy. Finally, we suggest criteria for selecting patients for surgery based on the postoperative survival pattern. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients who had been operated for metastatic disease of the spine. Predictive scoring was done according to the scoring systems proposed by Tokuhashi and Tomita. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Using the log rank test and Cox regression model we assessed the value of the individual components of each scoring system for predicting survival in these patients. Result: The factors that were most significantly associated with survival were the general condition score (Karnofsky Performance Scale (P=.000, log rank test, metastasis to internal organs (P=.0002 log rank test, and number of extraspinal bone metastases (P=.0058. Type of primary tumor was not found to be significantly associated with survival according to the revised Tokuhashi scoring system (P=.9131, log rank test. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that the Tomita score correlated more closely with survival than the Tokuhashi score. Conclusion: The patient′s performance status, extent of visceral metastasis, and extent of bone metastases are significant predictors of survival in patients with metastatic disease. Both revised Tokuhashi and Tomita scores were significantly correlated with survival. A revised Tokuhashi score of 7 or more and a Tomita score of 6 or less indicated >50% chance of surviving 6 months postoperatively. We recommend that the Tomita score be used for prognostication in patients who are contemplating surgery, as it is simpler to score and has a higher

  16. Radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on selected organic materials for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.; Szeless, B.; Tavlet, M.

    1997-01-01

    Future multi-TeV particle accelerators like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will use superconducting magnets in which organic materials will be exposed to high radiation levels at temperatures as low as 2 K. A representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations, epoxy resins and composites were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of a nuclear reactor. Depending on the type of materials, the integrated radiation doses varied between 180 kGy and 155 MGy. During irradiation, the samples were kept close to the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen, i.e. at 80 K, and thereafter stored in liquid nitrogen and transferred at the same temperature into the testing device for measurement of tensile and flexural strength. Tests were carried out on the same materials at similar dose rates at room temperature, and the results are compared with the ones obtained at cryogenic temperature. They show that within the selected dose range, a number of organic materials are suitable for use in radiation fields of the LHC at cryogenic temperature

  17. Results of radiation tests at cryogenic temperature on some selected organic materials for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbacher, H.; Szeless, B.; Tavlet, M.; Humer, K.; Weber, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    Future multi-TeV particle accelerators like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will use superconducting magnets where organic materials will be exposed to high radiation levels at temperatures as low as 2 K. A representative selection of organic materials comprising insulating films, cable insulations, and epoxy-type impregnated resins were exposed to neutron and gamma radiation of a nuclear reactor. Depending on the type of materials, the integrated radiation doses varied between 180 kGy and 155 MGy. During irradiation, the samples were kept close to the boiling temperature of liquid nitrogen i.e. ∼ 80 K and thereafter stored in liquid nitrogen and transferred at the same temperature into the testing device for measurement of tensile and flexural strength. Tests were carried out on the same materials at similar dose rates at room temperature, and the results were compared with those obtained at cryogenic temperature. They show that, within the selected dose range, a number of organic materials are suitable for use in the radiation field of the LHC at cryogenic temperature. (orig.)

  18. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  19. Timing of RNA synthesis for sperimiogenesis in organ cultures of Drosophila melanogaster teste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould-Somero, M; Holland, L

    1974-01-01

    A method for the organ culture of Drosophila testes is described which supports the differentiation of primary spermatocytes through the meiotic divisions to elongating spermatids. Autoradiographic and inhibitor studies reveal no evidence for RNA synthesis by developing spermatids of Drosophila melanogaster; most, if not all, of the RNA required for the differentiation and elongation of sperm is synthesized earlier in the primary spermatocytes. Primary spermatocytes will differentiate into elongating spermatids in organ culture, despite severe (96 to 98%) inhibition of /sup 3/H-uridine incorporation into RNA effected by 50 ..mu..g/ml 3'-deoxyadenosine. Protein synthesis in spermatids continues to be active in the presence of 3'-deoxyadenosine, but that in growing spermatocytes is severely inhibited.

  20. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  1. Survival, Pb-uptake and behaviour of three species of earthworm in Pb treated soils determined using an OECD-style toxicity test and a soil avoidance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdon, Caroline J.; Hodson, Mark E.; Arnold, Rebecca E.; Black, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Mature (clitellate) Eisenia andrei Bouche (ultra epigeic), Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (epigeic), and Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigny) (endogeic) earthworms were placed in soils treated with Pb(NO 3 ) 2 to have concentrations in the range 1000 to 10 000 mg Pb kg -1 . After 28 days LC50 -95%confidencelimit +95%confidencelimit values were E. andrei5824 -361 +898 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus2867 -193 +145 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa2747 -304 +239 mg Pb kg -1 and EC50s for weight change were E. andrei2841 -68 +150 mg Pb kg -1 , L. rubellus1303 -201 +240 mg Pb kg -1 and A. caliginosa1208 -206 +212 mg Pb kg -1 . At any given soil Pb concentration, Pb tissue concentrations after 28 days were the same for all three earthworm species. In a soil avoidance test there was no difference between the behaviour of the different species. The lower sensitivity to Pb exhibited by E. andrei is most likely due to physiological adaptations associated with the modes of life of the earthworms, and could have serious implications for the use of this earthworm as the species of choice in standard toxicological testing.

  2. Histocompatibility Testing for Organ Transplantation Purposes in Albania: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkena Shyti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histocompatibility testing (HT which includes donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA matching, cross-match testing (XMT and anti-HLA antibody searching are crucial examinations in solid organ transplantation aiming to avoid the hyperacute graft rejection and also to predict the immunological outcome of the graft. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue typing data collected at the Laboratory of Immunology and Histocompatibility of the University Hospital Center of Tirana, Albania, in order to define those actions that should be taken for improvements in the situation of kidney transplantation in Albania. Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The donor/recipient cross-match testing was performed through a standard complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC assay using separated donor T and B cells that were tested in parallel with the recipient serum sample. All recipient sera were screened for anti-Class I and anti-Class II HLA antibodies using a bead based Luminex anti-HLA antibody screening test. In the case of detected positivity, an allele-specific anti-HLA antibody determination was conducted with the respective Luminex anti-Class I and Class II HLA antibody determination kits. Results: A total of 174 recipients and 202 donors were typed for the purpose of living donor kidney transplantation at our laboratory between January 2006 and December 2012. The mean age and female gender proportion of patients were 34.9 years and 34.5%, respectively, and 48.0 years and 65.3% for the donors, respectively. Here, 25.9% of the patients reported a positive complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test and/or a positive anti-HLA antibody testing result. Eighteen patients that were negative for the complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match test were positive for anti-HLA antibodies. Conclusion: The predominant causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD in our patient population are chronic pyelonephritis and

  3. Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X

    2014-11-01

    In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The knowledge game - motivating knowledge sharing and testing organization policies in this concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Seixas, Marcelo A., E-mail: barroso@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ageing of nuclear experts and operating personnel and the lack of attractiveness of nuclear jobs to younger generation were emphasized as two of the most important factors that could jeopardize the preservation and sustainable development of the present body of nuclear knowledge worldwide. The willingness to share knowledge is at the inner core of any process involving transfer and dissemination of knowledge. This paper deals with the development of a tool to demonstrate the advantages of a culture inductive of knowledge sharing and cooperation from both the organization's and individual's viewpoints and coins the basics of reward policies that foster the development of desirable cultures. The Knowledge Game is a software tool to: (a) show the importance of sharing knowledge to both the individual and the organization; (b) demonstrate the fact that collaborative behaviors achieve higher payoffs in the long run; (c) test organizational rewards policies. It is an agent based modeling tool in which users may play with other humans and/or built in agents with fixed strategies. Payoff rules, simulation speed, number of players and their strategies and number of cycles are set before beginning the simulation. Plots display results in real time and output files can be generated for further analysis. Tests encompassing proof of concept and application confirm the game's great potential as a demonstration and policy testing tool. To test policies more effectively future implementations of intelligent agents coupled with fitness selection of players should be a very key lever. (author)

  5. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  6. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected.

  7. Impact parameter determination for the passage of cosmic heavy ions through mesoscopic biological test organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N.

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the plant Lactuca sativa as a prototype of a mesoscopic, i.e. neither micro- nor truly macroscopic, biological test organism, were exposed during the Biocosmos 9 mission to cosmic heavy ions within stacks of visual track detectors in order to explore the not yet properly understood radiobiological effects of single heavy ions. In such an investigation, the establishment of the geometrical correlation between the ion trajectories and the location of radiation-sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. We describe how this was achieved for biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographs displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved, as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed in detail. A precision of ≅ 10μm was accomplished for the coordinates of particle trajectories, which is near the limit set by the mechanical precision and stability of the detector material. The precision of the impact parameter is limited by the uncertainty in the location of the internal structures, which at best is around 50 and at worst around 150 μm, but is still acceptable when compared with the extension of the sensitive structures. (author)

  8. Impact parameter determination for the passage of cosmic heavy ions through mesoscopic biological test organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.; Buecker, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)); Nevzgodina, L.V.; Maximova, E.N. (Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (USSR))

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the plant Lactuca sativa as a prototype of a mesoscopic, i.e. neither micro- nor truly macroscopic, biological test organism, were exposed during the Biocosmos 9 mission to cosmic heavy ions within stacks of visual track detectors in order to explore the not yet properly understood radiobiological effects of single heavy ions. In such an investigation, the establishment of the geometrical correlation between the ion trajectories and the location of radiation-sensitive biological substructures is an essential task. We describe how this was achieved for biological test organisms, whose location and orientation had to be derived from contact photographs displaying their outlines and those of the holder plates only. The overall qualitative and quantitative precision achieved, as well as the contributing sources of uncertainties are discussed in detail. A precision of {approx equal} 10{mu}m was accomplished for the coordinates of particle trajectories, which is near the limit set by the mechanical precision and stability of the detector material. The precision of the impact parameter is limited by the uncertainty in the location of the internal structures, which at best is around 50 and at worst around 150 {mu}m, but is still acceptable when compared with the extension of the sensitive structures. (author).

  9. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. The impact of socioeconomic status on stage specific prostate cancer survival and mortality before and after introduction of PSA test in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikkula, Heikki A; Kaipia, Antti J; Ryynänen, Heidi; Seppä, Karri; Pitkäniemi, Janne M; Malila, Nea K; Boström, Peter J

    2018-03-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) has an impact on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Men with high SES have higher incidence and lower mortality of PCa versus lower SES males. PCa cases diagnosed in Finland in 1985-2014 (N = 95,076) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on education level (EL) was obtained from Statistics Finland. EL was assessed with three-tiered scale: basic, upper secondary and higher education. PCa stage at diagnosis was defined as localized, metastatic or unknown. Years of diagnosis 1985-1994 were defined as pre-PSA period and thereafter as post-PSA period. We report PCa-specific survival (PCSS) and relative risks (RR) for PCa specific mortality (PCSM) among cancer cases in Finland, where healthcare is 100% publicly reimbursed and inequality in healthcare services low. Men with higher EL had markedly better 10-year PCSS: 68 versus 63% in 1985-1994 and 90 versus 85% in 1995-2004 compared to basic EL in localized PCa. The RR for PCSM among men with localized PCa and higher EL compared to basic EL was 0.76(95%confidence interval (CI) 0.66-0.88) in 1985-1994 and 0.61(95%CI 0.53-0.70) in 1995-2004. Variation in PCSS and PCSM between EL categories was evident in metastatic PCa, too. The difference in PCSM between EL categories was larger in the first 10-year post-PSA period than before that but decreased thereafter in localized PCa, suggesting PSA testing became earlier popular among men with high EL. In summary, higher SES/EL benefit PCa survival both in local and disseminated disease and the effect of EL was more pronounced in early post-PSA period. © 2017 UICC.

  12. Variations in the Contouring of Organs at Risk: Test Case From a Patient With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E., E-mail: alpha@canislupusllc.com [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, WI (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Robinson, Greg [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Wheeler, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Goshen Health System Goshen, IN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomy contouring is critical in radiation therapy. Inaccuracy and variation in defining critical volumes will affect everything downstream: treatment planning, dose-volume histogram analysis, and contour-based visual guidance used in image-guided radiation therapy. This study quantified: (1) variation in the contouring of organs at risk (OAR) in a clinical test case and (2) corresponding effects on dosimetric metrics of highly conformal plans. Methods and Materials: A common CT data set with predefined targets from a patient with oropharyngeal cancer was provided to a population of clinics, which were asked to (1) contour OARs and (2) design an intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan. Thirty-two acceptable plans were submitted as DICOM RT data sets, each generated by a different clinical team. Using those data sets, we quantified: (1) the OAR contouring variation and (2) the impact this variation has on dosimetric metrics. New technologies were employed, including a software tool to quantify three-dimensional structure comparisons. Results: There was significant interclinician variation in OAR contouring. The degree of variation is organ-dependent. We found substantial dose differences resulting strictly from contouring variation (differences ranging from -289% to 56% for mean OAR dose; -22% to 35% for maximum dose). However, there appears to be a threshold in the OAR comparison metric beyond which the dose differences stabilize. Conclusions: The effects of interclinician variation in contouring organs-at-risk in the head and neck can be large and are organ-specific. Physicians need to be aware of the effect that variation in OAR contouring can play on the final treatment plan and not restrict their focus only to the target volumes.

  13. The Survival of the Wisest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  14. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  15. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  16. Characterizing Corrosion Effects of Weak Organic Acids Using a Modified Bono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqin; Turbini, Laura J.; Ramjattan, Deepchand; Christian, Bev; Pritzker, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To meet environmental requirements and achieve benefits of cost-effective manufacturing, no-clean fluxes (NCFs) or low-solids fluxes have become popular in present electronic manufacturing processes. Weak organic acids (WOAs) as the activation ingredients in NCFs play an important role, especially in the current lead-free and halogen-free soldering technology era. However, no standard or uniform method exists to characterize the corrosion effects of WOAs on actual metallic circuits of printed wiring boards (PWBs). Hence, the development of an effective quantitative test method for evaluating the corrosion effects of WOAs on the PWB's metallic circuits is imperative. In this paper, the modified Bono test, which was developed to quantitatively examine the corrosion properties of flux residues, is used to characterize the corrosion effects of five WOAs (i.e., abietic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, and malic acid) on PWB metallic circuits. Experiments were performed under three temperature/humidity conditions (85°C/85% RH, 60°C/93% RH, and 40°C/93% RH) using two WOA solution concentrations. The different corrosion effects among the various WOAs were best reflected in the testing results at 40°C and 60°C. Optical microscopy was used to observe the morphology of the corroded copper tracks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) characterization was performed to determine the dendrite composition.

  17. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of heat recovery from engine test cell by Organic Rankine Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokati, Naser; Mohammadkhani, Farzad; Farrokhi, Navid; Ranjbar, Faramarz

    2014-12-01

    During manufacture of engines, evaluation of engine performance is essential. This is accomplished in test cells. During the test, a significant portion of heat energy released by the fuel is wasted. In this study, in order to recover these heat losses, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is recommended. The study has been conducted assuming the diesel oil to be composed of a single hydrocarbon such as C12H26. The composition of exhaust gases (products of combustion) have been computed (and not determined experimentally) from the stoichiometric equation representing the combustion reaction. The test cell heat losses are recovered in three separate heat exchangers (preheater, evaporator and superheater). These heat exchangers are separately designed, and the whole system is analyzed from energy and exergy viewpoints. Finally, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of different variables on the system performance characteristics such as the ORC net power, heat exchangers effectiveness, the first law efficiency, exergy destruction and heat transfer surfaces. The results of the study show that by utilizing ORC, heat recovery equivalent to 8.85 % of the engine power is possible. The evaporator has the highest exergy destruction rate, while the pump has the lowest among the system components. Heat transfer surfaces are calculated to be 173.6, 58.7, and 11.87 m2 for the preheater, evaporator and superheater, respectively.

  18. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jeannine; Kis, Zoltán; Josupeit, Rafael; Schlund, Franziska; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Frank-Stöhr, Monika; Leuchs, Barbara; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane

    2018-06-03

    About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS) patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  19. Preclinical Testing of an Oncolytic Parvovirus in Ewing Sarcoma: Protoparvovirus H-1 Induces Apoptosis and Lytic Infection In Vitro but Fails to Improve Survival In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannine Lacroix

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available About 70% of all Ewing sarcoma (EWS patients are diagnosed under the age of 20 years. Over the last decades little progress has been made towards finding effective treatment approaches for primarily metastasized or refractory Ewing sarcoma in young patients. Here, in the context of the search for novel therapeutic options, the potential of oncolytic protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV to treat Ewing sarcoma was evaluated, its safety having been proven previously tested in adult cancer patients and its oncolytic efficacy demonstrated on osteosarcoma cell cultures. The effects of viral infection were tested in vitro on four human Ewing sarcoma cell lines. Notably evaluated were effects of the virus on the cell cycle and its replication efficiency. Within 24 h after infection, the synthesis of viral proteins was induced. Efficient H-1PV replication was confirmed in all four Ewing sarcoma cell lines. The cytotoxicity of the virus was determined on the basis of cytopathic effects, cell viability, and cell lysis. These in vitro experiments revealed efficient killing of Ewing sarcoma cells by H-1PV at a multiplicity of infection between 0.1 and 5 plaque forming units (PFU/cell. In two of the four tested cell lines, significant induction of apoptosis by H-1PV was observed. H-1PV thus meets all the in vitro criteria for a virus to be oncolytic towards Ewing sarcoma. In the first xenograft experiments, however, although an antiproliferative effect of intratumoral H-1PV injection was observed, no significant improvement of animal survival was noted. Future projects aiming to validate parvovirotherapy for the treatment of pediatric Ewing sarcoma should focus on combinatorial treatments and will require the use of patient-derived xenografts and immunocompetent syngeneic animal models.

  20. 40 CFR Table 18 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Requirements for Performance Tests for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units 18 Table 18 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of... for Organic HAP Emissions From Catalytic Reforming Units As stated in § 63.1566(b)(2) and (3), you...

  1. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  2. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raynal C Squires

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84% countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  3. Preparedness for Zika virus testing in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Raynal C; Konings, Frank

    2016-01-01

    On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that clusters of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders occurring in Zika virus (ZIKV)-affected areas constituted a public health emergency of international concern. Increased surveillance of the virus, including the requirement for laboratory confirmation of infection, was recommended. The WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific therefore initiated a rapid survey among national-level public health laboratories in 19 countries and areas to determine regional capacity for ZIKV detection. The survey indicated that 16/19 (84%) countries had capacity for molecular detection of ZIKV while others facilitated testing through referral. These results suggest that robust laboratory capacity is in place to support ZIKV surveillance in the Western Pacific Region.

  4. Organic molecule fluorescence as an experimental test-bed for quantum jumps in thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Farrow, Tristan; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Taylor, Robert A; Vlatko, Vedral

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate with an experiment how molecules are a natural test bed for probing fundamental quantum thermodynamics. Single-molecule spectroscopy has undergone transformative change in the past decade with the advent of techniques permitting individual molecules to be distinguished and probed. We demonstrate that the quantum Jarzynski equality for heat is satisfied in this set-up by considering the time-resolved emission spectrum of organic molecules as arising from quantum jumps between states. This relates the heat dissipated into the environment to the free energy difference between the initial and final state. We demonstrate also how utilizing the quantum Jarzynski equality allows for the detection of energy shifts within a molecule, beyond the relative shift.

  5. The Politics of Organic Phylogeny: The Art of Parenting and Surviving as Transnational Multilingual Latino Indigenous Immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Casas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This three-year qualitative research study took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina. Utilizing narrative analysis, it explores how Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan immigrants of indigenous backgrounds use language as a survival tool to move in and out of transnational social spaces. In addition, it explores the ways…

  6. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  7. Effect of zink oxyde nanoparticles on the test function of water organisms of different trophic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T; Gosteva, I; Morgalev, S; Kulizhskiy, S; Astafurova, T

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) with particle size Δ 50 = 20 nm was evaluated according to the degree of toxicity of the aqueous disperse system (DS) with biological testing methods using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels.We observed the influence of the concentration degree of nZnO on toxic effects level on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor 'Ekolyum-13', the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the rate of growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Bayer, mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus and fish Danio rerio. The detected values of L(E)C 50 are: for biosensor 'Ekolyum-13' – 0.30 mg/L, for ciliates Paramecium caudatum – 0.14 mg/L, for Chlorella vulgaris Bayer – 0.17 mg/L and for Daphnia magna Straus – 0.52 mg/L. No toxicity of nZnO was detected in relation to fish Danio rerio, L(E)C 50 > 100 mg/L. In assessing the maximum effect of nZnO according to GHS and EU Directive 93/67/ EEC, it is assigned to dangerous substances with a high degree of toxicity 'Acute toxicity 1'. (paper)

  8. Effect of zink oxyde nanoparticles on the test function of water organisms of different trophic levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgalev, Yu; Morgaleva, T.; Gosteva, I.; Morgalev, S.; Kulizhskiy, S.; Astafurova, T.

    2015-11-01

    The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) with particle size Δ50 = 20 nm was evaluated according to the degree of toxicity of the aqueous disperse system (DS) with biological testing methods using a set of test organisms representing the major trophic levels.We observed the influence of the concentration degree of nZnO on toxic effects level on the fluorescence of the bacterial biosensor "Ekolyum-13", the chemotactic response of ciliates Paramecium caudatum, the rate of growth of unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Bayer, mortality of entomostracans Daphnia magna Straus and fish Danio rerio. The detected values of L(E)C50 are: for biosensor "Ekolyum-13" - 0.30 mg/L, for ciliates Paramecium caudatum - 0.14 mg/L, for Chlorella vulgaris Bayer - 0.17 mg/L and for Daphnia magna Straus - 0.52 mg/L. No toxicity of nZnO was detected in relation to fish Danio rerio, L(E)C50 > 100 mg/L. In assessing the maximum effect of nZnO according to GHS and EU Directive 93/67/ EEC, it is assigned to dangerous substances with a high degree of toxicity "Acute toxicity 1".

  9. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  10. Resolution establishing the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Adopted on 19 November 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Resolution on the Establishment of a Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization which was adopted on 19 November 1996 at a meeting of the States Signatories of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  11. Diverse microbial species survive high ammonia concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Laura C.; Cockell, Charles S.; Summers, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Planetary protection regulations are in place to control the contamination of planets and moons with terrestrial micro-organisms in order to avoid jeopardizing future scientific investigations relating to the search for life. One environmental chemical factor of relevance in extraterrestrial environments, specifically in the moons of the outer solar system, is ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is known to be highly toxic to micro-organisms and may disrupt proton motive force, interfere with cellular redox reactions or cause an increase of cell pH. To test the survival potential of terrestrial micro-organisms exposed to such cold, ammonia-rich environments, and to judge whether current planetary protection regulations are sufficient, soil samples were exposed to concentrations of NH3 from 5 to 35% (v/v) at -80°C and room temperature for periods up to 11 months. Following exposure to 35% NH3, diverse spore-forming taxa survived, including representatives of the Firmicutes (Bacillus, Sporosarcina, Viridibacillus, Paenibacillus, Staphylococcus and Brevibacillus) and Actinobacteria (Streptomyces). Non-spore forming organisms also survived, including Proteobacteria (Pseudomonas) and Actinobacteria (Arthrobacter) that are known to have environmentally resistant resting states. Clostridium spp. were isolated from the exposed soil under anaerobic culture. High NH3 was shown to cause a reduction in viability of spores over time, but spore morphology was not visibly altered. In addition to its implications for planetary protection, these data show that a large number of bacteria, potentially including spore-forming pathogens, but also environmentally resistant non-spore-formers, can survive high ammonia concentrations.

  12. WANTO 32: Proceedings of the 32nd Weapons Agencies Nondestructive Testing Organization meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzlik, E.J. Jr.

    1991-02-01

    The Thirty-Second Weapons Agencies Nondestructive Testing Organization (WANTO) meeting was held at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on November 27--29, 1990. The meeting was hosted by Edward J. Majzlik, Jr., Savannah River Laboratory, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Chairman of the WANTO Steering Committee is L.E. (Larry) Bryant, Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report is the sole proceedings of the meeting and includes the agenda, attendance, steering committee report, interim reports and technical presentation summaries. This report is the first to present the meeting proceedings in an unclassified form. The reader should contact individual authors directly for any additional information desired. The meeting was organized to provide coverage of a wide variety of NDE subjects relevant to the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). Approximately 60 technical experts and managers representing 11 DOE weapons agencies and 3 DOE offices attended. A total of 56 technical presentations and 3 special NDE workshops were included in the agenda along with two tours of the SRS Reactor Mock-up Facility. Invited presentations included five speakers who reported on the DOE sponsored conference Concurrent Engineering and the NDE Role held at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 30-November 1, 1990 and X-ray Film Retention and Disposal presented by Orville R. Pratt, DOE/AL-Martin Marietta. The WANTO Steering Committee report for the Thirty-Second Meeting immediately follows this section. The meeting Agenda and Attendance are presented in Appendices A and B, respectively. Technical presentation summaries and abstracts are presented in Appendix C. For cases in which a summary was not provided, a telephone number is offered for direct contact with the author/presenter. Interim Activity Reports are compiled in Appendix D. Special Workshop reports are presented in Appendix E. (JF)

  13. Environmental risk assessment of selected organic chemicals based on TOC test and QSAR estimation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Zhang, Huanteng; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Yi; Ye, Guozhu; Zhu, Huimin; Dong, Sijun

    2018-02-01

    Environmental risks of organic chemicals have been greatly determined by their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) and physicochemical properties. Major regulations in different countries and regions identify chemicals according to their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which frequently displays a substantial correlation with the sediment sorption coefficient (Koc). Half-life or degradability is crucial for the persistence evaluation of chemicals. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) estimation models are indispensable for predicting environmental fate and health effects in the absence of field- or laboratory-based data. In this study, 39 chemicals of high concern were chosen for half-life testing based on total organic carbon (TOC) degradation, and two widely accepted and highly used QSAR estimation models (i.e., EPI Suite and PBT Profiler) were adopted for environmental risk evaluation. The experimental results and estimated data, as well as the two model-based results were compared, based on the water solubility, Kow, Koc, BCF and half-life. Environmental risk assessment of the selected compounds was achieved by combining experimental data and estimation models. It was concluded that both EPI Suite and PBT Profiler were fairly accurate in measuring the physicochemical properties and degradation half-lives for water, soil, and sediment. However, the half-lives between the experimental and the estimated results were still not absolutely consistent. This suggests deficiencies of the prediction models in some ways, and the necessity to combine the experimental data and predicted results for the evaluation of environmental fate and risks of pollutants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Test procedure for determining organic matter content in soils : UV-VIS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation has been having problems with organic matter in soils that they : stabilize for use as subgrade layers in road construction. The organic matter reduces the effectiveness of : common soil additives (lime/cement) ...

  15. Test results of an organic Rankine-cycle power module for a small community solar thermal power experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    The organic Rankine-cycle (ORC) power conversion assembly was tested. Qualification testing of the electrical transport subsystem was also completed. Test objectives were to verify compatibility of all system elements with emphasis on control of the power conversion assembly, to evaluate the performance and efficiency of the components, and to validate operating procedures. After 34 hours of power generation under a wide range of conditions, the net module efficiency exceeded 18% after accounting for all parasitic losses.

  16. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-11-12

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  17. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  18. Effect of granular activated carbon concentration on the content of organic matter and salt, influencing E. coli activity and survival in fluidized bed disinfection reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Ribeiro, A.F.M.M.R.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2014-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is used in water treatment systems, typically to remove pollutants such as natural organic matter, volatile organic compounds, chlorine, taste, and odor. GAC is also used as a key component of a new technology that combines a fluidized bed reactor with radio frequency

  19. Use of lichens as indicator and test organism for atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skye, E

    1969-01-01

    Some species of lichens are very specialized with regard to their substrata, while others grow on almost any substratum. The species that grow on the bark of trees are discussed. Not all kinds of bark are equally desirable to all epiphytic lichen species. Some species occur on bark with a fairly low pH (pH 3-4), while others occur on moderately acid to almost neutral bark (pH 4.5-6-7). Different ways of using lichens as indicators and test plants for atmospheric pollution have been tried. Individual species have served as indicators. In order to get an idea of the zonation around a source of damage, it is possible to use the number of species per tree or group of trees examined. This method is practicable only under certain special conditions. The comparison of the species gives a better indication of the degree and kind of atmospheric pollution than the epiphyte flora. De Sloover and LeBlanc have published a formula, with the aid of which an index of atmospheric purity (IAP) may be produced. This index may then be used in the cartographical representation of zones of air purity. Another formula is based on the degree of cover and poleotolerance in the individual species. Schoenbeck has developed Brodo's transplantation method and uses Hypogymnia physodes as a test organism for atmospheric pollution. The extent of the damage to the lichens is recorded on infra-red-sensitive film. The damaged areas are measured with a planimeter, by which means a numerical value is obtained for the extent of damage.

  20. The neutralization of acidic coal mine lakes by additions of natural organic matter: a mesocosm test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugam, R.B.; Gastineau, J.; Ratcliff, E.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical polyethylene enclosures 3 m in length and 1 m in diameter reaching from the surface to the bottom were constructed in an acid (pH=3.1) lake on a coal surface mine in southern Illinois. Wheat straw was added to the enclosures to test the effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on water chemistry. Added straw increased sulfide concentrations, raised pH to 6.5, reduced O 2 and increased acid neutralizing capacity of the enclosed water columns when compared with a control enclosure and with the open lake. Generation of acid neutralizing capacity exceeded the standing stock of sulfide indicating that sulfide was removed either by precipitation of FeS or outgassing of H 2 S. The pH and acid neutralizing capacity within the enclosures eventually returned to the level of the surrounding lake because of water exchange around the enclosure walls. Our results show that additions of organic matter to acid surface mine lakes result in the generation of acid neutralizing capacity

  1. Locomotor Sensory Organization Test: How Sensory Conflict Affects the Temporal Structure of Sway Variability During Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Mukherjee, Mukul; Siu, Ka-Chun; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    When maintaining postural stability temporally under increased sensory conflict, a more rigid response is used where the available degrees of freedom are essentially frozen. The current study investigated if such a strategy is also utilized during more dynamic situations of postural control as is the case with walking. This study attempted to answer this question by using the Locomotor Sensory Organization Test (LSOT). This apparatus incorporates SOT inspired perturbations of the visual and the somatosensory system. Ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT and the corresponding six conditions on the LSOT. The temporal structure of sway variability was evaluated from all conditions. The results showed that in the anterior posterior direction somatosensory input is crucial for postural control for both walking and standing; visual input also had an effect but was not as prominent as the somatosensory input. In the medial lateral direction and with respect to walking, visual input has a much larger effect than somatosensory input. This is possibly due to the added contributions by peripheral vision during walking; in standing such contributions may not be as significant for postural control. In sum, as sensory conflict increases more rigid and regular sway patterns are found during standing confirming the previous results presented in the literature, however the opposite was the case with walking where more exploratory and adaptive movement patterns are present.

  2. Decoupling degradation in exciton formation and recombination during lifetime testing of organic light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Kyle W.; Suddard-Bangsund, John; Qian, Gang; Holmes, Russell J.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of organic light-emitting device degradation is typically restricted to fitting the overall luminance loss as a function of time or the characterization of fully degraded devices. To develop a more complete understanding of degradation, additional specific data are needed as a function of luminance loss. The overall degradation in luminance during testing can be decoupled into a loss in emitter photoluminescence efficiency and a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a method that permits separation of these component efficiencies, yielding the time evolution of two additional specific device parameters that can be used in interpreting and modeling degradation without modification to the device architecture or introduction of any additional post-degradation characterization steps. Here, devices based on the phosphor tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) are characterized as a function of initial luminance and emissive layer thickness. The overall loss in device luminance is found to originate primarily from a reduction in the exciton formation efficiency which is exacerbated in devices with thinner emissive layers. Interestingly, the contribution to overall degradation from a reduction in the efficiency of exciton recombination (i.e., photoluminescence) is unaffected by thickness, suggesting a fixed exciton recombination zone width and degradation at an interface.

  3. Data from one test "Semi-Volatile Organic Compound Small Chamber for bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate in Vinyl Flooring Test 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This data was generated from a small chamber bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emission test. It was to participate an interaboratory study of DEHP emissions from vinyl flooring in a SVOC emission chamber organized by Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VT).

  4. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  5. Introducing of the methods of pollutants detecting and species used as experiment organisms in testing laboratories (ro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo T. Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish are vertebrate animals often used in research for wastewaters, environment chemicals, cancer and diabetes drugs due to their speed and ease for handling and obtaining test results. Organisms capacity to detect and avoid contaminated soils reveals soils stressor potential and has an ecological relevance indepted with its direct relationship to soil biodiversity and it’s quality as a habitat for the organism. Soil pollution tests were accomplished on arthropods (Collembola, earthworms, oligochaete worms (Enchytraeidae, this being behavior modification tests, observing which species avoids contaminated soils and if response intensity depends on contamination degree. Using Daphnia sp. for testing it’s possible because of their sensibility to an amount of aquatic pollutants and also for their small sizes involving a use of small volumes of test substance and water for dilution.

  6. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  7. Two-Sample Statistics for Testing the Equality of Survival Functions Against Improper Semi-parametric Accelerated Failure Time Alternatives: An Application to the Analysis of a Breast Cancer Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROËT, PHILIPPE; TSODIKOV, ALEXANDER; DE RYCKE, YANN; MOREAU, THIERRY

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents two-sample statistics suited for testing equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives. These tests are designed for comparing either the short- or the long-term effect of a prognostic factor, or both. These statistics are obtained as partial likelihood score statistics from a time-dependent Cox model. As a consequence, the proposed tests can be very easily implemented using widely available software. A breast cancer clinical trial is presented as an example to demonstrate the utility of the proposed tests. PMID:15293627

  8. Two-sample statistics for testing the equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives: an application to the analysis of a breast cancer clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broët, Philippe; Tsodikov, Alexander; De Rycke, Yann; Moreau, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents two-sample statistics suited for testing equality of survival functions against improper semi-parametric accelerated failure time alternatives. These tests are designed for comparing either the short- or the long-term effect of a prognostic factor, or both. These statistics are obtained as partial likelihood score statistics from a time-dependent Cox model. As a consequence, the proposed tests can be very easily implemented using widely available software. A breast cancer clinical trial is presented as an example to demonstrate the utility of the proposed tests.

  9. Surviving downsizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, A.C.; Schulz, J.W.; Holmes, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Utilities along with other companies are under increasing pressure to operate in a leaner, more efficient way. Companies with excess personnel costs consider downsizing as one solution. Developments in communication and technology along with more team-oriented management approaches further fuel the move to downsize as these developments permit smaller, flatter organizations. Downsizing is often, however, a difficult and even hazardous path. Reducing the size of a workforce does not automatically translate into lower costs or improved operations. The hidden costs of downsizing, i.e., the psychological impacts on the entire organization, may, in fact, overwhelm the anticipated gains. Yet, utilities facing deregulation and increasing competition ma be forced to follow this difficult course

  10. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P

    2016-10-06

    Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.

  12. Testing the new ICRU 62 'Planning Organ at Risk Volume' concept for the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muren, Ludvig Paul; Karlsdottir, Asa; Kvinnsland, Yngve; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dahl, Olav

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To study the impact of the new ICRU 62 'Planning organ at Risk Volume' (PRV) concept on the relationship between rectum dose-volume histogram (DVH) data and toxicity. Patients and methods: The acute gastro-intestinal (GI) RTOG toxicity in 127 prostate cancer patients prescribed a total dose of 70 Gy with conformal irradiation to either the prostate, the prostate and seminal vesicles or the whole pelvis (initial 50 Gy only) were analysed. DVHs were derived for the rectum only and for rectum extended with six PRV margin sets (narrow/intermediate/wide; anterior/anterior and posterior). The data was analysed using permutation tests, logistic regression and effective uniform dose (EUD) calculations. Results: Acute Grade 2 GI toxicity was seen in 22 of 127 cases (17%). Permutation tests showed that the difference between DVHs for patients with and without Grade 2 effects was significant, both for rectum only and rectum PRVs (P-value range: 0.02-0.04), with generally lower P-values for the PRVs. In the logistic regression, the fractional DVH variables (i.e. volumes) were significantly related to toxicity, with approximately 2-3 times as many significant dose levels for the PRVs as for rectum only. E.g. with wide anterior and posterior margins (16 and 11 mm, respectively) the relation was significant at 26 different dose levels (6-7, 13-14, 35-43, 60-71 and 73 Gy), compared to nine levels (38-40, 43-44 and 71-74 Gy) for rectum only. EUDs were significantly different for patients with and without Grade 2 effects both for rectum only and the PRVs (95% confidence interval for EUD increase with Grade 2 effects: 0.1-3.1 Gy). Conclusions: All statistical methods applied indicated a small, but definite difference in DVH parameters between patients with versus those without Grade 2 effects. The difference was most pronounced when margins of 16 mm anterior and 11 mm posterior were applied

  13. Locomotor sensory organization test: a novel paradigm for the assessment of sensory contributions in gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jung Hung; Eikema, Diderik-Jan Anthony; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    Feedback based balance control requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive and vestibular input to detect the body's movement within the environment. When the accuracy of sensory signals is compromised, the system reorganizes the relative contributions through a process of sensory recalibration, for upright postural stability to be maintained. Whereas this process has been studied extensively in standing using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT), less is known about these processes in more dynamic tasks such as locomotion. In the present study, ten healthy young adults performed the six conditions of the traditional SOT to quantify standing postural control when exposed to sensory conflict. The same subjects performed these six conditions using a novel experimental paradigm, the Locomotor SOT (LSOT), to study dynamic postural control during walking under similar types of sensory conflict. To quantify postural control during walking, the net Center of Pressure sway variability was used. This corresponds to the Performance Index of the center of pressure trajectory, which is used to quantify postural control during standing. Our results indicate that dynamic balance control during locomotion in healthy individuals is affected by the systematic manipulation of multisensory inputs. The sway variability patterns observed during locomotion reflect similar balance performance with standing posture, indicating that similar feedback processes may be involved. However, the contribution of visual input is significantly increased during locomotion, compared to standing in similar sensory conflict conditions. The increased visual gain in the LSOT conditions reflects the importance of visual input for the control of locomotion. Since balance perturbations tend to occur in dynamic tasks and in response to environmental constraints not present during the SOT, the LSOT may provide additional information for clinical evaluation on healthy and deficient sensory processing.

  14. Interlaboratory indoor ageing of roll-to-roll and spin coated organic photovoltaic devices: Testing the ISOS tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren A.; Corazza, Michael; Madsen, Morten Vesterager

    2014-01-01

    to roll-to-roll production. Furthermore, the reproducibility of current–voltage (IV) measurement and preconditioning (light soaking treatments) are addressed. Additionally, the inter-comparison of the degradation rates of the samples aged under three different dark test conditions (ambient, dry/heat, damp...

  15. Modelling survival: exposure pattern, species sensitivity and uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight; Cedergreen, Nina; Charles, Sandrine; Ducrot, Virginie; Focks, Andreas; Gabsi, Faten; Gergs, André; Goussen, Benoit; Jager, Tjalling; Kramer, Nynke I; Nyman, Anna-Maija; Poulsen, Veronique; Reichenberger, Stefan; Schäfer, Ralf B; Van den Brink, Paul J; Veltman, Karin; Vogel, Sören; Zimmer, Elke I; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-07-06

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test the ability of GUTS to predict survival of aquatic organisms across different pesticide exposure patterns, time scales and species. Firstly, using synthetic data, we identified experimental data requirements which allow for the estimation of all parameters of the GUTS proper model. Secondly, we assessed how well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates to build species sensitivity distributions for different exposure patterns. We find that GUTS adequately predicts survival across exposure patterns that vary over time. When toxicity is assessed for time-variable concentrations species may differ in their responses depending on the exposure profile. This can result in different species sensitivity rankings and safe levels. The interplay of exposure pattern and species sensitivity deserves systematic investigation in order to better understand how organisms respond to stress, including humans.

  16. Risk management in organic coffee supply chains : testing the usefulness of critical risk models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusselaers, J.F.; Benninga, J.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the findings of the analysis of the supply chain of organic coffee from Uganda to the Netherlands using a Chain Risk Model (CRM). The CRM considers contamination of organic coffee with chemicals as a threat for the supply chain, and analyses the consequences of contamination in

  17. Do European Standard Disinfectant tests truly simulate in-use microbial and organic soiling conditions on food preparation surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B; Morin, V N; Rödger, H-J; Holah, J; Bird, C

    2010-04-01

    The results from European standard disinfectant tests are used as one basis to approve the use of disinfectants in Europe. The design of these laboratory-based tests should thus simulate as closely as possible the practical conditions and challenges that the disinfectants would encounter in use. No evidence is available that the organic and microbial loading in these tests simulates actual levels in the food service sector. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total viable count (TVC) were determined on 17 visibly clean and 45 visibly dirty surfaces in two restaurants and the food preparation surfaces of a large retail store. These values were compared to reference values recovered from surfaces soiled with the organic and microbial loading, following the standard conditions of the European Surface Test for bactericidal efficacy, EN 13697. The TOC reference values for clean and dirty conditions were higher than the data from practice, but cannot be regarded as statistical outliers. This was considered as a conservative assessment; however, as additional nine TOC samples from visibly dirty surfaces were discarded from the analysis, as their loading made them impossible to process. Similarly, the recovery of test organisms from surfaces contaminated according to EN 13697 was higher than the TVC from visibly dirty surfaces in practice; though they could not be regarded as statistical outliers of the whole data field. No correlation was found between TVC and TOC in the sampled data, which re-emphasizes the potential presence of micro-organisms on visibly clean surfaces and thus the need for the same degree of disinfection as visibly dirty surfaces. The organic soil and the microbial burden used in EN disinfectant standards represent a realistic worst-case scenario for disinfectants used in the food service and food-processing areas.

  18. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  19. Maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with BioOss (R) mixed with a bone marrow concentrate or autogenous bone : test of principle on implant survival and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rickert, D.; Vissink, A.; Slot, Jan; Sauerbier, S.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Raghoebar, G. M.

    The purpose of this study was to assess implant survival and 1-year clinical performance of implants placed in the posterior maxilla that had been subjected to maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery with bovine bone mineral (BioOss (R)) mixed with autogenous bone marrow concentrate or autogenous

  20. Long-Term Stability Testing Results Using Surrogates And Sorbents For Savannah River Site Organic And Aqueous Wastestreams - 10016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has tasked MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) with evaluating the long-term stability of various commercially available sorbent materials to solidify two organic surrogate wastestreams (both volatile and nonvolatile), a volatile organic surrogate with a residual aqueous phase, an aqueous surrogate, and an aqueous surrogate with a residual organic phase. The Savannah River Site (SRS) Legacy and F-Canyon plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste surrogates constituted the volatile organic surrogates, and various oils constituted the nonvolatile organic surrogates. The aqueous surrogates included a rainwater surrogate and an aqueous organic surrogate. MSE also evaluated the PUREX surrogate with a residual aqueous component with and without aqueous type sorbent materials. Solidification of the various surrogate wastestreams listed above was performed from 2004 to 2006 at the MSE Test Facility located in Butte, Montana. This paper summarizes the comparison of the initial liquid release test (LRT) values with LRT results obtained during subsequent sampling events in an attempt to understand and define the long-term stability characteristics for the solidified wastestreams.

  1. Influence of pH on organic acid production by Clostridium sporogenes in test tube and fermentor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, T J; Parris, N; Conway, L K

    1985-01-01

    The influence of pH on the growth parameters of and the organic acids produced by Clostridium sporogenes 3121 cultured in test tubes and fermentors at 35 degrees C was examined. Specific growth rates in the fermentor maintained at a constant pH ranged from 0.20 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.86 h-1 at pH 6.50. Acetic acid was the primary organic acid in supernatants of 24-h cultures; total organic acid levels were 2.0 to 22.0 mumol/ml. Supernatants from pH 5.00 and 5.50 cultures had total organic acid levels less than one-third of those found at pH 6.00 to 7.00. The specific growth rates of the test tube cultures ranged from 0.51 h-1 at pH 5.00 to 0.95 h-1 at pH 6.50. The pH of the medium did not affect the average total organic acid content (51.5 mumol/ml) but did affect the distribution of the organic acids, which included formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic, and 3-phenylpropionic acids. Butyric acid levels were lower, but formic and propionic acid levels were higher, at pH 5.00 than at other pHs. PMID:4004207

  2. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  3. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  4. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  5. The development and testing of a volatile organics concentrator for use in monitoring Space Station water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Itamar; Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Stolki, Thomas J.; Trabanino, Rudy; Hinsdale, Lloyd; Webb, Johanna; Sauer, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    The Volatile Organics Concentrator (VOC) system, designed to attach to a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) for the analyses of volatile organic compounds in water on Space Station Freedom, is described. Organic volatiles are collected and concentrated in the VOC by means of two primary solid sorbent tubes and desorbed into the GC/MS system. The paper describes the results of testing the VOC breadboard using a GC/MS system. Evaluations performed on 39 organic compounds recovered from water samples were compared with data for these compounds using direct injection/GC/MS and purge and trap/GC/MS procedures. The results demonstrate that the VOC/GC/MS system's detection limits for the 39 compounds analyzed are comparable to those of the EPA Method 524.2, and for many compounds reaching a factor of 5 lower.

  6. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  7. Strategic management and the performance of public organizations: Testing venerable Ideas against recent theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Boyne, George A.; Walker, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Miles and Snow, among others, argue that strategy content is an important influence on organizational performance. Their typology, applied recently to public organizations in the United Kingdom, divides strategic actors into four general types: prospectors, defenders, analyzers, and reactors. This

  8. Prospective clinical testing of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) in organ transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    ANGUS W THOMSON; ALAN F ZAHORCHAK; Mohamed B. Ezzelarab; Lisa H. Butterfield; Fadi G. Lakkis; Diana M Metes

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering...

  9. Listeria monocytogenes survival of UV-C radiation is enhanced by presence of sodium chloride, organic food material and by bacterial biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The bactericidal effect on food processing surfaces of ceiling-mounted UV-C light (wavelength 254nm) was determined in a fish smoke house after the routine cleaning and disinfection procedure. The total aerobic counts were reduced during UV-C light exposure (48h) and the number of Listeria...... and that it, as all disinfecting procedures, is hampered by the presence of organic material....

  10. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  11. 77 FR 62396 - Annual Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Banking Organizations With Total Consolidated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... minimum risk-based capital requirements.\\3\\ Stress testing is one tool that helps both bank supervisors... the FDIC and the OCC to help to ensure that the company-run stress testing regulations are consistent... purposes of the annual company-run stress tests so that the same set of scenarios can be used to conduct...

  12. Role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: the G model tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, J.T.; Berner, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory study of the bacterial decomposition of Long Island Sound plankton in oxygenated seawater over a period of 2 years shows that the organic material undergoes decomposition via first-order kinetics and can be divided into two decomposable fractions, of considerably different reactivity, and a nonmetabolized fraction. This planktonic material, after undergoing varying degrees of oxic degradation, was added in the laboratory to anoxic sediment taken from a depth of 1 m at the NWC site of Long Island Sound and the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction in the sediment measured by the 35 S radiotracer technique. The stimulated rate of sulfate reduction was in direct proportion to the amount of planktonic carbon added. This provides direct confirmation of the first-order decomposition, or G model, for marine sediments and proves that the in situ rate of sulfate reduction is organic-matter limited. Slower sulfate reduction rates resulted when oxically degraded plankton rather than fresh plankton was added, and the results confirm the presence of the same two fractions of organic matter deduced from the oxic degradation studies. Near-surface Long Island Sound sediment, which already contains abundant readily decomposable organic matter, was also subjected to anoxic decomposition by bacterial sulfate reduction. The decrease in sulfate reduction rate with time parallels decreases in the amount of organic matter, and these results also indicate the presence of two fractions of organic carbon of distinctly different reactivity. From plots of the log of reduction rate vs. time two first-order rate constants were obtained that agree well with those derived from the plankton addition experiment. Together, the two experiments confirm the use of a simple multi-first-order rate law for organic matter decomposition in marine sediments

  13. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  14. Some Remarks on Practical Aspects of Laboratory Testing of Deep Soil Mixing Composites Achieved in Organic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanty, Piotr; Rybak, Jarosław; Stefaniuk, Damian

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of organic soil-cement samples are presented in the paper. The research program continues previously reported the authors’ experiences with cement-fly ash-soil sample testing. Over 100 of compression and a dozen of tension tests have been carried out altogether. Several samples were waiting for failure test for over one year after they were formed. Several factors, like: the large amount of the tested samples, a long observation time, carrying out the tests in complex cycles of loading and the possibility of registering the loads and deformation in the axial and lateral direction - have made it possible to take into consideration numerous interdependencies, three of which have been presented in this work: the increments of compression strength, the stiffness of soil-cement in relation to strength and the tensile strength. Compressive strength, elastic modulus and tensile resistance of cubic samples were examined. Samples were mixed and stored in the laboratory conditions. Further numerical analysis in the Finite Element Method numerical code Z_Soil, were performed on the basis of laboratory test results. Computations prove that cement-based stabilization of organic soil brings serious risks (in terms of material capacity and stiffness) and Deep Soil Mixing technology should not be recommended for achieving it. The numerical analysis presented in the study below includes only one type of organic and sandy soil and several possible geometric combinations. Despite that, it clearly points to the fact that designing the DSM columns in the organic soil may be linked with a considerable risk and the settlement may reach too high values. During in situ mixing, the organic material surrounded by sand layers surely mixes with one another in certain areas. However, it has not been examined and it is difficult to assume such mixing already at the designing stage. In case of designing the DSM columns which goes through a

  15. Waste retrieval sluicing system vapor sampling and analysis plan for evaluation of organic emissions, process test phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained to address vapor issues related to the sluicing of tank 241-C-106. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Emissions Collection Phase III (Jones 1999) and Process Test Plan Phase III, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Emissions Collection (Powers 1999). Analytical requirements include those specified in Request for Ecology Concurrence on Draft Strategy/Path Forward to Address Concerns Regarding Organic Emissions from C-106 Sluicing Activities (Peterson 1998). The Waste Retrieval Sluicing System was installed to retrieve and transfer high-heat sludge from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102, which is designed for high-heat waste storage. During initial sluicing of tank 241-C-106 in November 1998, operations were halted due to detection of unexpected high volatile organic compounds in emissions that exceeded regulatory permit limits. Several workers also reported smelling sharp odors and throat irritation. Vapor grab samples from the 296-C-006 ventilation system were taken as soon as possible after detection; the analyses indicated that volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were present. In December 1998, a process test (phase I) was conducted in which the pumps in tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 were operated and vapor samples obtained to determine constituents that may be present during active sluicing of tank 241-C-106. The process test was suspended when a jumper leak was detected. On March 7, 1999, phase I1 of the process test was performed; the sluicing system was operated for approximately 7 hours and was ended using the controlled shutdown method when the allowable amount of solids were transferred to 241-AY-102. The phase II test was successful, however, further testing is required to obtain vapor samples at higher emission levels

  16. WORKSHOP REPORT - CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LEACHING TEST METHODS FOR SEMI- AND NON-VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a summary of the information exchange at a workshop on the potential for release of semi- or non-volatile organic constituents at contaminated sites where sub-surface treatment has been used to control migration, and from waste that is disposed or re-used. The...

  17. Qualitative Organic Analysis: An Efficient, Safer, and Economical Approach to Preliminary Tests and Functional Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Sunita; Angrish, Chetna

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative organic analysis of an unknown compound is an integral part of the university chemistry laboratory curriculum. This type of training is essential as students learn to approach a problem systematically and to interpret the results logically. However, considerable quantities of waste are generated by using conventional methods of…

  18. Developing and Testing a Measure for the Ethical Culture of Organizations: The Corporate Ethical Virtues Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Kaptein (Muel)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBased on four interlocking empirical studies, this paper initially validates and refines the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model which formulates normative criteria for the ethical culture of organizations. The findings of an exploratory factor analysis provide support for the existence of

  19. Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, William; Kaczala, Fabio; Jani, Yahya; Marchand, Lilian; Augustsson, Anna; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g., plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TEs). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After 5 months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations [3.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)]. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  20. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl...... sulfate (SDS) solution was used as a hypothetical gut fluid. Pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were the main PAH species in the SIDS extractable fraction of road dust, as well as the whole extract. Benzo(ghi)perylene showed relatively low concentrations in the SIDS extract in spite of a high...... concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants...

  1. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume I. Organization plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    This plan and the accompanying MFTF-B Integrated Operations Plan are submitted in response to UC/LLNL Purchase Order 3883801, dated July 1981. The organization plan also addresses the specific tasks and trade studies directed by the scope of work. The Integrated Operations Plan, which includes a reliability, quality assurance, and safety plan and an integrated logistics plan, comprises the burden of the report. In the first section of this volume, certain underlying assumptions and observations are discussed setting the requirements and limits for organization. Section B presents the recommended structure itself. Section C Device Availability vs Maintenance and Support Efforts and Section D Staffing Levels and Skills provide backup detail and justification. Section E is a trade study on maintenance and support by LLNL staff vs subcontract and Section F is a plan for transitioning from the construction phase into operation. A brief summary of schedules and estimated costs concludes the volume

  3. A rapidly equilibrating, thin film, passive water sampler for organic contaminants; characterization and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Tiffany; Vlahos, Penny; Harner, Tom; Helm, Paul; Wilford, Bryony

    2011-02-01

    Improving methods for assessing the spatial and temporal resolution of organic compound concentrations in marine environments is important to the sustainable management of our coastal systems. Here we evaluate the use of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) as a candidate polymer for thin-film passive sampling in waters of marine environments. Log K(EVA-W) partition coefficients correlate well (r(2) = 0.87) with Log K(OW) values for selected pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) where Log K(EVA-W) = 1.04 Log K(OW) + 0.22. EVA is a suitable polymer for passive sampling due to both its high affinity for organic compounds and its ease of coating at sub-micron film thicknesses on various substrates. Twelve-day field deployments were effective in detecting target compounds with good precision making EVA a potential multi-media fugacity meter. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Organization of Proficiency Testing for Dairy Laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia in Order to Improve Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Mikulec

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Participation in proficiency testing is not only an obligation for all analytical laboratories which tend to be credible, but also an opportunity to check how the results agree with the reference or assign value. The Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Dairy Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb, is itself incorporated in the proficiency testing organized by dairy laboratories from Germany, Italy, France, Switzerland and Slovenia. The aim is to find out its own accuracy and reliability in particular milk and dairy products analyses. On the basis of seven years experience of participating in proficiency testing, five years ago the Reference Laboratory started organizing its own proficiency testing for dairy laboratories in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia for milk components such as milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count. The results of the analyses have been statistically analyzed and, on the basis of Z-score, the successful measurements have been estimated. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the organisation and data processing of proficiency testing for milk fat, protein, lactose and somatic cells count in milk for the involved dairy laboratories.

  5. Assessing soil ecotoxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether using earthworm bioassay; closed soil microcosm test for volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2005-01-01

    An earthworm bioassay was conducted to assess ecotoxicity in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-amended soils. Ecotoxicity of MTBE to earthworms was evaluated by a paper contact method, natural field soil test, and an OECD artificial soil test. All tests were conducted in closed systems to prevent volatilization of MTBE out of test units. Test earthworm species were Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei. Mortality and abnormal morphology of earthworms exposed to different concentrations of MTBE were examined. MTBE was toxic to both earthworm species and the severity of response increased with increasing MTBE concentrations. Perionyx excavatus was more sensitive to MTBE than Eisenia andrei in filter papers and two different types of soils. MTBE toxicity was more severe in OECD artificial soils than in field soils, possibly due to the burrowing behavior of earthworms into artificial soils. The present study demonstrated that ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE can be assessed using an earthworm bioassay in closed soil microcosm with short-term exposure duration. - Earthworm bioassay can be a good protocol to assess soil ecotoxicity of volatile organic compounds such as MTBE

  6. Post-treatment surveillance testing of patients with colorectal cancer and the association with survival: protocol for a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Jiban, Md Jibanul Haque; Choudhury, Kanak; Loerzel, Victoria; Specogna, Adrian V; Troy, Steven P; Zhang, Shunpu

    2018-04-28

    Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing. However, due to differences in study protocols and limitations of sample size and length of follow-up, the RCT may not be the best study design to evaluate this relationship. An observational comparative effectiveness research study can overcome the sample size/follow-up limitations of RCT designs while assessing real-world variability in receipt of surveillance testing to provide much needed evidence on this important clinical issue. The gap in knowledge that this study will address concerns whether adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network CRC surveillance guidelines improves survival. Patients with colon and rectal cancer aged 66-84 years, who have been diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 and have been included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, are eligible for this retrospective cohort study. To minimise bias, patients had to survive at least 12 months following the completion of treatment. Adherence to surveillance testing up to 5 years post-treatment will be assessed in each year of follow-up and overall. Binomial regression will be used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and adherence. Survival analysis will be conducted to assess the association between adherence and 5-year survival. This study was approved by the National Cancer Institute and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Central Florida. The results of this study will be disseminated by publishing in

  7. Testing for genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Past, present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst-Jensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methodologies and how these have evolved and may evolve in the next decade. Challenges and limitations for the application of the test methods as well as to the interpretation of results produced with the methods are highlighted and discussed, bearing in mind the various interests and competences of the involved stakeholders. To better understand the suitability and limitations of detection methodologies the evolution of transformation processes for creation of GMOs is briefly reviewed.

  8. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  9. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  10. Partner testing, linkage to care, and HIV-free survival in a program to prevent parent-to-child transmission of HIV in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmone, Andy; Bomai, Korai; Bongi, Wayaki; Frank, Tarua Dale; Dalepa, Huleve; Loifa, Betty; Kiromat, Mobumo; Das, Sarthak; Franke, Molly F.

    2014-01-01

    Background To eliminate new pediatric HIV infections, interventions that facilitate adherence, including those that minimize stigma, enhance social support, and mitigate the influence of poverty, will likely be required in addition to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined the relationship between partner testing and infant outcome in a prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV program, which included a family-centered case management approach and a supportive environment for partner disclosure and testing. Design We analyzed routinely collected data for women and infants who enrolled in the parent-to-child transmission of HIV program at Goroka Family Clinic, Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital, Papua New Guinea, from 2007 through 2011. Results Two hundred and sixty five women were included for analysis. Of these, 226 (85%) had a partner, 127 (56%) of whom had a documented HIV test. Of the 102 HIV-infected partners, 81 (79%) had been linked to care. In adjusted analyses, we found a significantly higher risk of infant death, infant HIV infection, or loss to follow-up among mother–infant pairs in which the mother reported having no partner or a partner who was not tested or had an unknown testing status. In a second multivariable analysis, infants born to women with more time on ART or who enrolled in the program in later years experienced greater HIV-free survival. Conclusions In a program with a patient-oriented and family-centered approach to prevent vertical HIV transmission, the majority of women's partners had a documented HIV test and, if positive, linkage to care. Having a tested partner was associated with program retention and HIV-free survival for infants. Programs aiming to facilitate diagnosis disclosure, partner testing, and linkage to care may contribute importantly to the elimination of pediatric HIV. PMID:25172429

  11. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU(reg s ign) reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition

  12. Batch tests of a microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from spent organic extracts from hydrogenogenic fermentation of organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Martinez, A.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenogenic fermentative processes of organic solid wastes produce spent solids that contain substantial concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids and solvents. The spent solids can be extracted with wastewater to give a stream containing concentrated, degradable organic compounds. (Author)

  13. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald

    1962-01-01

    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  14. Interim report on testing of off-gas treatment technologies for abatement of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselow, J.S.; Jarosch, T.R.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.; Lombard, K.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to briefly summarize the results to date of the off-gas treatment program for atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program is part of the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development's Integrated Demonstration for Treatment of Organics in Soil and Water at a Non-Arid Site. The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed. That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment program would complement the Integrated Demonstration not only because off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the US to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate systematic and unbiased evaluation of the emerging technologies

  15. Zebrafish as a potential model organism for drug test against hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cun-Bao Ding

    Full Text Available Screening and evaluating anti- hepatitis C virus (HCV drugs in vivo is difficult worldwide, mainly because of the lack of suitable small animal models. We investigate whether zebrafish could be a model organism for HCV replication. To achieve NS5B-dependent replication an HCV sub-replicon was designed and created with two vectors, one with HCV ns5b and fluorescent rfp genes, and the other containing HCV's 5'UTR, core, 3'UTR and fluorescent gfp genes. The vectors containing sub-replicons were co-injected into zebrafish zygotes. The sub-replicon amplified in liver showing a significant expression of HCV core RNA and protein. The sub-replicon amplification caused no abnormality in development and growth of zebrafish larvae, but induced gene expression change similar to that in human hepatocytes. As the amplified core fluorescence in live zebrafish was detectable microscopically, it rendered us an advantage to select those with replicating sub-replicon for drug experiments. Ribavirin and oxymatrine, two known anti-HCV drugs, inhibited sub-replicon amplification in this model showing reduced levels of HCV core RNA and protein. Technically, this method had a good reproducibility and is easy to operate. Thus, zebrafish might be a model organism to host HCV, and this zebrafish/HCV (sub-replicon system could be an animal model for anti-HCV drug screening and evaluation.

  16. Prognostic and survival analysis of 837 Chinese colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Li, Mo-Dan; Hu, Han-Guang; Dong, Cai-Xia; Chen, Jia-Qi; Li, Xiao-Fen; Li, Jing-Jing; Shen, Hong

    2013-05-07

    To develop a prognostic model to predict survival of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Survival data of 837 CRC patients undergoing surgery between 1996 and 2006 were collected and analyzed by univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression model to reveal the prognostic factors for CRC. All data were recorded using a standard data form and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, United States). Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log rank test was used to assess differences in survival. Univariate hazard ratios and significant and independent predictors of disease-specific survival and were identified by Cox proportional hazard analysis. The stepwise procedure was set to a threshold of 0.05. Statistical significance was defined as P analysis suggested age, preoperative obstruction, serum carcinoembryonic antigen level at diagnosis, status of resection, tumor size, histological grade, pathological type, lymphovascular invasion, invasion of adjacent organs, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging were positive prognostic factors (P analysis showed a significant statistical difference in 3-year survival among these groups: LNR1, 73%; LNR2, 55%; and LNR3, 42% (P analysis results showed that histological grade, depth of bowel wall invasion, and number of metastatic lymph nodes were the most important prognostic factors for CRC if we did not consider the interaction of the TNM staging system (P < 0.05). When the TNM staging was taken into account, histological grade lost its statistical significance, while the specific TNM staging system showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001). The overall survival of CRC patients has improved between 1996 and 2006. LNR is a powerful factor for estimating the survival of stage III CRC patients.

  17. Comparing Recent Organizing Templates for Test Content between ACS Exams in General Chemistry and AP Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Two different versions of "big ideas" rooted content maps have recently been published for general chemistry. As embodied in the content outline from the College Board, one of these maps is designed to guide curriculum development and testing for advanced placement (AP) chemistry. The Anchoring Concepts Content Map for general chemistry…

  18. Accelerated Lifetime Testing of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells Encapsulated by Polyisobutylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Young, Trevor L; Kim, Jincheol; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yifeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Keevers, Mark J; Hao, Xiaojing; Verlinden, Pierre J; Green, Martin A; Ho-Baillie, Anita W Y

    2017-08-02

    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have undergone rapid progress. However, unstable performance caused by sensitivity to environmental moisture and high temperature is a major impediment to commercialization of PSCs. In the present work, a low-temperature, glass-glass encapsulation technique using high performance polyisobutylene (PIB) as the moisture barrier is investigated on planar glass/FTO/TiO 2 /FAPbI 3 /PTAA/gold perovskite solar cells. PIB was applied as either an edge seal or blanket layer. Electrical connections to the encapsulated PSCs were provided by either the FTO or Au layers. Results of a "calcium test" demonstrated that a PIB edge-seal effectively prevents moisture ingress. A shelf life test was performed and the PIB-sealed PSC was stable for at least 200 days. Damp heat and thermal cycling tests, in compliance with IEC61215:2016, were used to evaluate different encapsulation methods. Current-voltage measurements were performed regularly under simulated AM1.5G sunlight to monitor changes in PCE. The best results we have achieved to date maintained the initial efficiency after 540 h of damp heat testing and 200 thermal cycles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, these are among the best damp heat and thermal cycle test results for perovskite solar cells published to date. Given the modest performance of the cells (8% averaged from forward and reverse scans) especially with the more challenging FAPbI 3 perovskite material tested in this work, it is envisaged that better stability results can be further achieved when higher performance perovskite solar cells are encapsulated using the PIB packaging techniques developed in this work. We propose that heat rather than moisture was the main cause of our PSC degradation. Furthermore, we propose that preventing the escape of volatile decomposition products from the perovskite solar cell materials is the key for stability. PIB encapsulation is a very promising packaging solution for perovskite

  19. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  20. Rapid small-scale column testing of granular activated carbon for organic micro-pollutant removal in treated domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietzschmann, F; Müller, J; Sperlich, A; Ruhl, A S; Meinel, F; Altmann, J; Jekel, M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of the rapid small-scale column test (RSSCT) concept for testing of granular activated carbon (GAC) for organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) removal from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The chosen experimental setup was checked using pure water, WWTP effluent, different GAC products, and variable hydrodynamic conditions with different flow velocities and differently sized GAC, as well as different empty bed contact times (EBCTs). The setup results in satisfying reproducibility and robustness. RSSCTs in combination with WWTP effluent are effective when comparing the OMP removal potentials of different GAC products and are a useful tool for the estimation of larger filters. Due to the potentially high competition between OMPs and bulk organics, breakthrough curves are likely to have unfavorable shapes when treating WWTP effluent. This effect can be counteracted by extending the EBCT. With respect to the strong competition observed in GAC treatment of WWTP effluent, the small organic acid and neutral substances are retained longer in the RSSCT filters and are likely to cause the majority of the observed adsorption competition with OMPs.

  1. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  2. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  3. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  4. Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C E; Yeh, P T; Johnson, C; Baggaley, R

    2017-12-01

    New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p lay providers. Studies from Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.

  5. Procedure to select test organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in aquatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbeck, Angelika; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Bundschuh, Mirco; Hofmann, Frieder; Oehen, Bernadette; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Trtikova, Miluse

    2017-11-01

    For a long time, the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops focused mainly on terrestrial ecosystems. This changed when it was scientifically established that aquatic ecosystems are exposed to GM crop residues that may negatively affect aquatic species. To assist the risk assessment process, we present a tool to identify ecologically relevant species usable in tiered testing prior to authorization or for biological monitoring in the field. The tool is derived from a selection procedure for terrestrial ecosystems with substantial but necessary changes to adequately consider the differences in the type of ecosystems. By using available information from the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), the procedure can draw upon existing biological data on aquatic systems. The proposed procedure for aquatic ecosystems was tested for the first time during an expert workshop in 2013, using the cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as the GM crop and 1 stream type as the receiving environment in the model system. During this workshop, species executing important ecological functions in aquatic environments were identified in a stepwise procedure according to predefined ecological criteria. By doing so, we demonstrated that the procedure is practicable with regard to its goal: From the initial long list of 141 potentially exposed aquatic species, 7 species and 1 genus were identified as the most suitable candidates for nontarget testing programs. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:974-979. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Testing the hypothesis that diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine has negative non-specific and sex-differential effects on child survival in high-mortality countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine; Nielsen, Jens; Lisse, Ida Maria; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Measles vaccines (MV) have sex-differential effects on mortality not explained by protection against measles infection. The authors examined whether whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine has sex-differential and non-specific effects. Following previous reviews and a new search, the effect of DTP on mortality up to the next vaccination was assessed in all studies where DTP was given after BCG or DTP was given after MV and there was prospective follow-up after ascertainment of vaccination status. High-mortality countries in Africa and Asia. The initial observation of negative effect of DTP generated six hypotheses, which were examined in all available studies and two randomised trials reducing the time of exposure to DTP. Consistency between studies. In the first study, DTP had negative effects on survival in contrast to the beneficial effects of BCG and MV. This pattern was repeated in the six other studies available. Second, the two 'natural experiments' found significantly higher mortality for DTP-vaccinated compared with DTP-unvaccinated children. Third, the female-male mortality ratio was increased after DTP in all nine studies; in contrast, the ratio was decreased after BCG and MV in all studies. Fourth, the increased female mortality associated with high-titre measles vaccine was found only among children who had received DTP after high-titre measles vaccine. Fifth, in six randomised trials of early MV, female but not male mortality was increased if DTP was likely to be given after MV. Sixth, the mortality rate declined markedly for girls but not for boys when DTP-vaccinated children received MV. The authors reduced exposure to DTP as most recent vaccination by administering a live vaccine (MV and BCG) shortly after DTP. Both trials reduced child mortality. These observations are incompatible with DTP merely protecting against the targeted diseases. With herd immunity to whooping cough, DTP is associated with higher mortality for girls

  7. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. Joshua; Chow, Oliver S.; Gollub, Marc J.; Nash, Garrett M.; Temple, Larissa K.; Weiser, Martin R.; Guillem, José G.; Paty, Philip B.; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or—in patients treated with NOM—the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment

  8. Organ Preservation in Rectal Adenocarcinoma: a phase II randomized controlled trial evaluating 3-year disease-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation plus induction or consolidation chemotherapy, and total mesorectal excision or nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J Joshua; Chow, Oliver S; Gollub, Marc J; Nash, Garrett M; Temple, Larissa K; Weiser, Martin R; Guillem, José G; Paty, Philip B; Avila, Karin; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2015-10-23

    Treatment of patients with non-metastatic, locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) includes pre-operative chemoradiation, total mesorectal excision (TME) and post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. This trimodality treatment provides local tumor control in most patients; but almost one-third ultimately die from distant metastasis. Most survivors experience significant impairment in quality of life (QoL), due primarily to removal of the rectum. A current challenge lies in identifying patients who could safely undergo rectal preservation without sacrificing survival benefit and QoL. This multi-institutional, phase II study investigates the efficacy of total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT) and selective non-operative management (NOM) in LARC. Patients with MRI-staged Stage II or III rectal cancer amenable to TME will be randomized to receive FOLFOX/CAPEOX: a) before induction neoadjuvant chemotherapy (INCT); or b) after consolidation neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CNCT), with 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemoradiation. Patients in both arms will be re-staged after completing all neoadjuvant therapy. Those with residual tumor at the primary site will undergo TME. Patients with clinical complete response (cCR) will receive non-operative management (NOM). NOM patients will be followed every 3 months for 2 years, and every 6 months thereafter. TME patients will be followed according to NCCN guidelines. All will be followed for at least 5 years from the date of surgery or--in patients treated with NOM--the last day of treatment. The studies published thus far on the safety of NOM in LARC have compared survival between select groups of patients with a cCR after NOM, to patients with a pathologic complete response (pCR) after TME. The current study compares 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) in an entire population of patients with LARC, including those with cCR and those with pCR. We will compare the two arms of the study with respect to organ preservation at 3 years, treatment compliance

  9. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. Methods The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Results Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. Discussion This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety. PMID:26406893

  10. Field Test of the World Health Organization Multi-Professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Donna; Zheng, Hao; Rousi, Eirini; Leotsakos, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Although the importance of training in patient safety has been acknowledged for over a decade, it remains under-utilized and under-valued in most countries. WHO developed the Multi-professional Patient Safety Curriculum Guide to provide schools with the requirements and tools for incorporating patient safety in education. It was field tested with 12 participating schools across the six WHO regions, to assess its effectiveness for teaching patient safety to undergraduate and graduate students in a global variety of settings. The evaluation used a combined prospective/retrospective design to generate formative information on the experiences of working with the Guide and summative information on the impacts of the Guide. Using stakeholder interviews and student surveys, data were gathered from each participating school at three times: the start of the field test (baseline), soon after each school started teaching, and soon after each school finished teaching. Stakeholders interviewed were strongly positive about the Guide, noting that it emphasized universally important patient safety topics, was culturally appropriate for their countries, and gave credibility and created a focus on patient safety at their schools. Student perceptions and attitudes regarding patient safety improved substantially during the field test, and their knowledge of the topics they were taught doubled, from 10.7% to 20.8% of correct answers on the student survey. This evaluation documented the effectiveness of the Curriculum Guide, for both ease of use by schools and its impacts on improving the patient safety knowledge of healthcare students. WHO should be well positioned to refine the contents of the Guide and move forward in encouraging broader use of the Guide globally for teaching patient safety.

  11. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  12. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Maintenance of adult primate liver in organ culture: Potential use in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; O'Brien, K.A.; Allen, L.; DeLuca, J.; Norman, B.; Keenan, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Adult Rhesus monkey liver slices were incubated using a dynamic organ culture method to determine hepatocyte viability, drug biotransformation potential and the in vitro response to the hepatotoxicant, allyl alcohol (AA). After 1, 2, 4, or 8 hr, slices were removed from culture and analyzed for incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into acid-precipitable material, and medium alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was determined. Separate slices were taken for histological evaluation and for evaluation of microsomal 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin-O-deethylase (EFCOD) activity. Incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine into slices was linear over the period of incubation and was specifically inhibited by cycloheximide (10 uM) at all time points. In the absence of AA, enzyme leakage was minimal over 8 hr. Marked ALT leakage occurred with 1 mM AA. Control slices had an initial fall to 55% of in vivo EFCOD activity that stabilized at 40-50% control slices indicated that there was minimal cellular degeneration and that, in PAS-stained sections, glycogen accumulation occurred over the incubation period. This system allows for maintenance and viability of adult primate liver slices in culture for at least 8 hr and may be useful for in vitro toxicity and biotransformation studies

  14. Design and field test of collaborative tools in the service of an innovative organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beler, N.; Parfouru, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design process of collaborative tools, based on ICT, aiming at supporting the tasks of the team that manages an outage of an energy production plant for maintenance activities. The design process follows an iterative and multidisciplinary approach, based on a collective tasks modeling of the outage management team in the light of Socio Organizational and Human (SOH) field studies, and on the state of the art of ICT. Field test of the collaborative tools designed plays a great place in this approach, allowing taking into account the operational world but involves also some risks which must be managed. To implement tools on all the production plants, we build an 'operational concept' with a level of description which authorizes the evolution of tools and allows some local adaptations. The field tests provide lessons on the ICT topics. For examples: the status of the remote access tools, the potential of use of a given information input by an actor for several individual and collective purposes, the actors perception of the tools meaning, and the requirements for supporting the implementation of change. (authors)

  15. Dynamic permeation sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCS): 'a standards test environment' nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Marr, I.

    2000-01-01

    The generation of a test environment for trace VOCs in urban air or work place has never been easy. This investigation is concerned with the loss rates of VOCs through polythene membrane of different thickness. Permeation glass sample bottles were suspended in the chamber with water jacket at 24 deg. C -+ 0.5 deg. temperature. The condenser was connected with a stream of nitrogen gas at a flow rate of 75-ml min/sup -1 and further diluted with air 500-ml min/sup -1/. The loss in weight of VOCs in each bottle was determined regularly, every 24 hours, with a good agreement. The loss rate depends upon temperature of the bath, thickness of the polythene, internal diameter of the permeation bottle opening. However the loss rate from permeation tubes also depends upon the solubility of the VOCs in the polymer. It is generally believed that the vapors of VOCs in the permeation bottle are dissolved in the polythene sheet (making some sort of solution) and are eventually evaporated out of it. It was observed that the loss rate per minute for benzene > toluene. This simple technique described 'generation of test environment through dynamic permeation source' could be suitable for preparing mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene in atmosphere at ppm levels or lower, with good stability, reliability and also for other compounds of atmospheric interest. (author)

  16. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  17. Demonstration test results of organic materials' volumetric reduction using bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    To discover technologies that can be utilized for decontamination work and verify their effects, economic feasibility, safety, and other factors, the Ministry of the Environment launched the 'FY2011 Decontamination Technology Demonstrations Project' to publicly solicit decontamination technologies that would be verified in demonstration tests and adopted 22 candidates. JAEA was commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment to provide technical assistance related to these demonstrations. This paper describes the volume reduction due to bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning of organic materials in this report. The purpose of this study is that to evaluate a technique that can be used as biomass energy source, while performing volume reduction of contamination organic matter generated by decontamination. An important point of volume reduction technology of contaminated organic matter, is to evaluate the mass balance in the system. Then, confirming the mass balance of radioactive material and where to stay is important. The things that are common to all technologies, are ensuring that the radioactive cesium is not released as exhaust gas, etc.. In addition, it evaluates the cost balance and energy balance in order to understand the applicability to the decontamination of volume reduction technology. The radioactive cesium remains in the carbides when organic materials are carbonized, and radioactive cesium does not transfer to bio-ethanol when organic materials are processed for bio-ethanol production. While plant operating costs are greater if radioactive materials need to be treated, if income is expected by business such as power generation, depreciation may be calculated over approximately 15 years. (authors)

  18. THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING MODELS OF STRESS-TESTING OF THE TRADING PORTFOLIO OF FINANCIAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimbaev Farkhad

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis gave an impetus to finding “weaknesses” in financial institutions. One such tool is the stress-testing. This method is intended to identify through modeling “hypothetical” or “historical” scenarios, the most losses, in the execution of a script. In the simulation of hypothetical scenarios to find the impact factor, as shock events on the trade portfolio. When using historical scenarios, as the shocks applied developments in the past that have caused catastrophic losses, both in quantitative and qualitative size. For example, such scenarios can be: financial crises of the 90-ies and the current decline in international stock markets, a drop or increase in foreign exchange rates, etc.

  19. Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment in organizations: a test of an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, L F; Drasgow, F; Hulin, C L; Gelfand, M J; Magley, V J

    1997-08-01

    Sexual harassment of women in organizational settings has recently become a topic of interest to researchers and the general public alike. Although numerous studies document its frequency, the development of conceptual models identifying antecedents and consequences of harassment has proceeded at a slower pace. In this article, an empirical test of a recently proposed conceptual model is described. According to the model, organizational climate for sexual harassment and job gender context are critical antecedents of sexual harassment; harassment, in turn, influences work-related variables (e.g., job satisfaction); psychological states (e.g., anxiety and depression); and physical health. On the basis of a sample of women employed at a large, regulated utility company, the model's predictions were generally supported.

  20. Dynamic tests and adaptive control of a bottoming organic Rankine cycle of IC engine using swash-plate expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Galindo, J.; Dolz, V.; Royo-Pascual, L.; Haller, R.; Melis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental testing of a bottoming Rankine Cycle is presented and applied to a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine. • Both stationary and transient tests were performed, including the NEDC cycle. • Indicated diagrams of the swash-plate expander during these transients were presented and analyzed. - Abstract: This paper deals with the experimental testing of a bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrate in a 2 l turbocharged gasoline engine using ethanol as working fluid. The main components of the cycle are a boiler, a condenser, a pump and a swash-plate expander. Both steady and transient tests were performed in three engine operating points to understand the behavior and inertia of the system. Pressure-Volume diagram during these transients were presented and analyzed. Operating parameters of the expander, such as expander speed and boiler power, were shifted. The objective of these tests is to understand the inertia of the system and to have a robust control in all the possible transient tests. New European Driving Cycle was tested with and without the expander because it is supposed to represent the typical usage of a car in Europe. It was used to validate the control of the ORC in realistic dynamic conditions of the engine. The importance of each parameter was analyzed by fixing all the parameters, changing each time one specific value. The main result of this paper is that using a slightly simple and robust control based on adaptive PIDs, the two dynamic effects of an ORC could be taken into account, i.e. high inertia effects (boiler and condenser) and low inertia effects (pump and volumetric expander).

  1. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Alexander V; Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Boer, Willem F

    2013-08-01

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on varied experimental designs. The recent EFSA guidance document for environmental risk assessment (2010) does not provide clear and structured suggestions that address the statistics of field trials on effects on NTO's. This review examines existing practices in GM plant field testing such as the way of randomization, replication, and pseudoreplication. Emphasis is placed on the importance of design features used for the field trials in which effects on NTO's are assessed. The importance of statistical power and the positive and negative aspects of various statistical models are discussed. Equivalence and difference testing are compared, and the importance of checking the distribution of experimental data is stressed to decide on the selection of the proper statistical model. While for continuous data (e.g., pH and temperature) classical statistical approaches - for example, analysis of variance (ANOVA) - are appropriate, for discontinuous data (counts) only generalized linear models (GLM) are shown to be efficient. There is no golden rule as to which statistical test is the most appropriate for any experimental situation. In particular, in experiments in which block designs are used and covariates play a role GLMs should be used. Generic advice is offered that will help in both the setting up of field testing and the interpretation and data analysis of the data obtained in this testing. The combination of decision trees and a checklist for field trials, which are provided, will help in the interpretation of the statistical analyses of field trials and to assess whether such analyses were correctly applied. We offer generic advice to risk assessors and applicants that will

  2. Investigation of the cut-edge corrosion of organically-coated galvanized steel after accelerated atmospheric corrosion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reşit Yıldız

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cut edge corrosion of organically coated (epoxy, polyurethane and polyester galvanized steel was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Measurements were performed on specimens that had been tested in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test. The samples were subjected to 10 s fogging and 1 h awaiting cycles in an exposure cabinet (120 and 180 days with artificial acid rain solution. According to the investigation, the coatings were damaged from the cut edge into the sheet, this distance was about 0.8 cm. These defects were more pronounced at after 180 days in proportion to after 120 days.

  3. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) Smoking Regimen Data Comparisons in Tobacco Product Marketing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changyu; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the differences in TNCO (tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide) smoke yields generated under the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Cambridge Filter Test (CFT) smoking regimens. Twenty-nine commercial cigarette products from the US marketplace were acquired in 2015 and tested by measuring the TNCO smoke yields generated under these 2 nonintense smoking regimens. Data obtained demonstrated a linear relationship between the TNCO yields produced under the 2 smoking regimens (R 2 > 0.99). TNCO yields produced by each product were higher under the CFT smoking regimen than the ISO smoking regimen. We found that tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields were consistently 10% to 13% higher under the CFT smoking regimen than under the ISO smoking regimen. This strong correlation indicates that the 2 smoking regimens can be used to apply a correlation correction to CFT TNCO data and allow its comparison to ISO TNCO data in tobacco product marketing applications.

  4. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  5. Synthesis of functional materials by radiation and qualification testing of organic materials in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Ki Yup; Kang, Phil Hyun and others; Jun, Hong Jae; Suh, Dong Hak; Lee, Young Moo; Min, Byung Kak; Bae, You Han

    2003-05-01

    The radiation crosslinking and grafting can be easily adjusted and is easily reproducible by controlling the radiation dose. These studies aim to develop new biomaterials such as covering for burns and wound, and controlled release of drug. A radiation technology was used to develop PTC materials useful in devices that limit electric fault currents. Radiation-curing of fiber-matrix composites is a promising application. There are a number of advantages to radiation curing of composites, compared with conventional thermal processing. Radiation curing at ambient temperature allows tighter control of part dimensions, and elimination of internal stresses which otherwise occur on cooling and which reduce material strength. These studies involved radiation curing of epoxy resins with various fibers and filler for structural application for aerospace and sport goods. The chain scission is the basis of other radiation treatments aimed at enhancing processing characteristics of polymers. These studies aim to make PTFE powder from PTFE scrap using the radiation degradation which allows incorporation of the material into coatings, inks etc. Low density polyethylene, crosslinked polyethylene, ethylene propylene rubber, and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber as cable insulating, seathing and sealing materials were irradiated for the accelerated ageing tests. Degradation was investigated by measuring dielectric analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. Dielectric tanδ, storage modulus and loss modulus were increased with irradiation doses. However, decomposition temperature decreased with irradiation doses

  6. The design organization test: further demonstration of reliability and validity as a brief measure of visuospatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Gogel, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological assessments are frequently time-consuming and fatiguing for patients. Brief screening evaluations may reduce test duration and allow more efficient use of time by permitting greater attention toward neuropsychological domains showing probable deficits. The Design Organization Test (DOT) was initially developed as a 2-min paper-and-pencil alternative for the Block Design (BD) subtest of the Wechsler scales. Although initially validated for clinical neurologic patients, we sought to further establish the reliability and validity of this test in a healthy, more diverse population. Two alternate versions of the DOT and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) were administered to 61 healthy adult participants. The DOT showed high alternate forms reliability (r = .90-.92), and the two versions yielded equivalent levels of performance. The DOT was highly correlated with BD (r = .76-.79) and was significantly correlated with all subscales of the WASI. The DOT proved useful when used in lieu of BD in the calculation of WASI IQ scores. Findings support the reliability and validity of the DOT as a measure of visuospatial ability and suggest its potential worth as an efficient estimate of intellectual functioning in situations where lengthier tests may be inappropriate or unfeasible.

  7. Organization and methodology applied to the control of commissioning tests to guarantee safe operation of nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausner, J.P.; Jorel, M.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes the activities of the Safety Analysis Department (DAS), which provides technical support for the French safety authorities in the specific context of analysis and control of startup test programme quality at each of the different stages of the programme. These activities combine to ensure that the objective of the startup tests is reached, in particular that the functions of each safety-related system are guaranteed in all operating configurations, that the performance levels of all components in the system comply with design criteria and that defects revealed during previous tests have been dealt with correctly. The special case of French nuclear facilities, linked to unit standardization, has made it possible to acquire a large amount of experience with the startup of the 900 MWe units and has illustrated the importance of defining a startup test programme. In 1981, a working group, comprising operating organization and safety authority representatives, studied the lessons which had to be learned from 900 MWe unit startup and the improvements which could be made and taken into account in the 1300 MWe unit startup programme. To illustrate the approach adopted by the DAS, we go on to describe the lessons learned from startup of the first 1300 MWe (P4) units

  8. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  9. Testing the ``Wildfire Hypothesis:'' Terrestrial Organic Carbon Burning as the Cause of the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Carbon Isotope Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. A.; Kurtz, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    The 3‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary has generally been attributed to dissociation of seafloor methane hydrates. We are testing the alternative hypothesis that the carbon cycle perturbation resulted from wildfires affecting the extensive peatlands and coal swamps formed in the Paleocene. Accounting for the CIE with terrestrial organic carbon rather than methane requires a significantly larger net release of fossil carbon to the ocean-atmosphere, which may be more consistent with the extreme global warming and ocean acidification characteristic of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). While other researchers have noted evidence of fires at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in individual locations, the research presented here is designed to test the "wildfire hypothesis" for the Paleocene-Eocene boundary by examining marine sediments for evidence of a global increase in wildfire activity. Such fires would produce massive amounts of soot, widely distributed by wind and well preserved in marine sediments as refractory black carbon. We expect that global wildfires occurring at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary would produce a peak in black carbon abundance at the PETM horizon. We are using the method of Gelinas et al. (2001) to produce high-resolution concentration profiles of black carbon across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary using seafloor sediments from ODP cores, beginning with the Bass River core from ODP leg 174AX and site 1209 from ODP leg 198. This method involves the chemical and thermal extraction of non-refractory carbon followed by combustion of the residual black carbon and measurement as CO2. Measurement of the δ 13C of the black carbon will put additional constraints on the source of the organic material combusted, and will allow us to determine if this organic material was formed prior to or during the CIE.

  10. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  11. Treatment plan for aqueous/organic/decontamination wastes under the Oak Ridge Reservation FFCA Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, P.M.; Benson, C.E.; Gilbert, V.P.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which seeks to facilitate the treatment of low-level mixed wastes currently stored at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in violation of the Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act Land Disposal Restrictions. The FFCA establishes schedules for DOE to identify treatment for wastes, referred to as Appendix B wastes, that current have no identified or existing capacity for treatment. A development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DDT ampersand E) program was established to provide the support necessary to identify treatment methods for mixed was meeting the Appendix B criteria. The Program has assembled project teams to address treatment development needs for major categories of the Appendix B wastes based on the waste characteristics and possible treatment technologies. The Aqueous, Organic, and Decontamination (A OE D) project team was established to identify pretreatment options for aqueous and organic wastes which will render the waste acceptable for treatment in existing waste treatment facilities and to identify the processes to decontaminate heterogeneous debris waste. In addition, the project must also address the treatment of secondary waste generated by other DDT ampersand E projects. This report details the activities to be performed under the A OE D Project in support of the identification, selection, and evaluation of treatment processes. The goals of this plan are (1) to determine the major aqueous and organic waste streams requiring treatment, (2) to determine the treatment steps necessary to make the aqueous and organic waste acceptable for treatment in existing treatment facilities on the ORR or off-site, and (3) to determine the processes necessary to decontaminate heterogeneous wastes that are considered debris

  12. Application of a stent splint to protect intraoral organs from radiation injury to a 97 year-old patient with multiple oral cancers who survived over 100 year-old

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagisawa, Shigetaka; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Aoki, Hirooki; Mizuki, Harumi; Ashizawa, Akira [Oita Medical Coll., Hasama (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    Radiation therapy had been used with increasing frequency in recent years in the management of oral cancers of advanced ages. In those cases we have to take good care to maintain the oral health of patients undergoing cancerocidal dose of radiation therapy. Using splints, as a tissue displacer, during radiation, we could treat a 99-year-old female patient without serious radiation sequelae, successfully she survived over 100 year-old. As she visited us at 97 year-old, the primary lesions located on the left upper lip, nose, upper and lower gums were diagnosed as multiple verrucous carcinoma histologically. Seventeen months after the first radiotherapy to the lip, nose and upper jaw, we planned again radiotherapy to the recurrent tumor of the lower gum. In order to eliminate and minimize side effects of the second irradiation for the contigenous intraoral organs, we devised a splint to exclude the tongue and upper gum apart from a radiation field. The splint, as tissue displacer, was made of heat-cured acrylic resin and divided into two pieces which were formed like full denture without artificial teeth. They were applied to the upper and lower jaws. The lower one had a large wing to exclude the tongue from irradiation field. After setting of the splint, she had been clenched slightly with an aid of chin cap. Then we could finish successfully the radiotherapy with 10 MV X-ray 40 Gy as scheduled without serious troubles. (author).

  13. Application of a stent splint to protect intraoral organs from radiation injury to a 97 year-old patient with multiple oral cancers who survived over 100 year-old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Shigetaka; Kawamura, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Aoki, Hirooki; Mizuki, Harumi; Ashizawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    Radiation therapy had been used with increasing frequency in recent years in the management of oral cancers of advanced ages. In those cases we have to take good care to maintain the oral health of patients undergoing cancerocidal dose of radiation therapy. Using splints, as a tissue displacer, during radiation, we could treat a 99-year-old female patient without serious radiation sequelae, successfully she survived over 100 year-old. As she visited us at 97 year-old, the primary lesions located on the left upper lip, nose, upper and lower gums were diagnosed as multiple verrucous carcinoma histologically. Seventeen months after the first radiotherapy to the lip, nose and upper jaw, we planned again radiotherapy to the recurrent tumor of the lower gum. In order to eliminate and minimize side effects of the second irradiation for the contigenous intraoral organs, we devised a splint to exclude the tongue and upper gum apart from a radiation field. The splint, as tissue displacer, was made of heat-cured acrylic resin and divided into two pieces which were formed like full denture without artificial teeth. They were applied to the upper and lower jaws. The lower one had a large wing to exclude the tongue from irradiation field. After setting of the splint, she had been clenched slightly with an aid of chin cap. Then we could finish successfully the radiotherapy with 10 MV X-ray 40 Gy as scheduled without serious troubles. (author)

  14. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q. Brent; Saucier, Joseph D.; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch–Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor cells. This complements an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in diverse neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch–Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability within by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. PMID:23962751

  15. The Drosophila T-box transcription factor Midline functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor cell fates and regulates cell survival within the eye imaginal disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Chen, Q Brent; Saucier, Joseph D; Drescher, Brandon; Zong, Yan; Morgan, Sarah; Forstall, John; Meriwether, Andrew; Toranzo, Randy; Leal, Sandra M

    2013-01-01

    We report that the T-box transcription factor Midline (Mid), an evolutionary conserved homolog of the vertebrate Tbx20 protein, functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway essential for specifying the fates of sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells. These findings complement an established history of research showing that Mid regulates the cell-fate specification of diverse cell types within the developing heart, epidermis and central nervous system. Tbx20 has been detected in unique neuronal and epithelial cells of embryonic eye tissues in both mice and humans. However, the mechanisms by which either Mid or Tbx20 function to regulate cell-fate specification or other critical aspects of eye development including cell survival have not yet been elucidated. We have also gathered preliminary evidence suggesting that Mid may play an indirect, but vital role in selecting SOP cells within the third-instar larval eye disc by regulating the expression of the proneural gene atonal. During subsequent pupal stages, Mid specifies SOP cell fates as a member of the Notch-Delta signaling hierarchy and is essential for maintaining cell viability by inhibiting apoptotic pathways. We present several new hypotheses that seek to understand the role of Mid in regulating developmental processes downstream of the Notch receptor that are critical for specifying unique cell fates, patterning the adult eye and maintaining cellular homeostasis during eye disc morphogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. Standard test method for determination of low concentrations of uranium in oils and organic liquids by X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the steps necessary for the preparation and analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of oils and organic solutions containing uranium. Two different preparation techniques are described. 1.2 The procedure is valid for those solutions containing 20 to 2000 μg uranium per mL as presented to the spectrometer for the solution technique and 200 to 50 000 μg uranium per g for the pellet technique. 1.3 This test method requires the use of an appropriate internal standard. Care must be taken to ascertain that samples analyzed by this test method do not contain the internal standard or that this contamination, whenever present, has been corrected for mathematically. Such corrections are not addressed in this procedure. Care must be taken that the internal standard and sample medium are compatible; that is, samples must be miscible with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and must not remove the internal standard from solution. Alternatively, a scatter line may be used as the internal standard. 1....

  18. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  19. Choice of test organisms for determination of oil dispersant toxicity in marine waters. Auswahl von Testorganismen zur Bestimmung der Toxizitaet von Dispergatoren bei der Oelbekaempfung in marinen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Several marine organisms were investigated regarding their qualification for oil dispersant toxicity determination. Appropriate organisms were chosen for two different test procedures: Using mortality as a test criterion an acute toxicity test can be carried out very easy with larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. The sensitivity for different dispersants ranges over several orders of magnitude. Another test indicator is the cell multiplication-inhibition test, conducted with the microalga Scrippsiella trochoidea, a representative of phytoplankton. The sensitivity for a common dispersant ranges a hundredfold higher than the acute toxicity test. Both test procedures are also practicable for other water-soluble substances, as well. One oil-spill dispersant efficiency test is proposed provisionally. (orig.) With 62 refs., 20 tabs., 11 figs.

  20. Survival of the most transferable at the top of Jacob's ladder: Defining and testing the ωB97M(2) double hybrid density functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Narbe; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2018-06-01

    A meta-generalized gradient approximation, range-separated double hybrid (DH) density functional with VV10 non-local correlation is presented. The final 14-parameter functional form is determined by screening trillions of candidate fits through a combination of best subset selection, forward stepwise selection, and random sample consensus (RANSAC) outlier detection. The MGCDB84 database of 4986 data points is employed in this work, containing a training set of 870 data points, a validation set of 2964 data points, and a test set of 1152 data points. Following an xDH approach, orbitals from the ωB97M-V density functional are used to compute the second-order perturbation theory correction. The resulting functional, ωB97M(2), is benchmarked against a variety of leading double hybrid density functionals, including B2PLYP-D3(BJ), B2GPPLYP-D3(BJ), ωB97X-2(TQZ), XYG3, PTPSS-D3(0), XYGJ-OS, DSD-PBEP86-D3(BJ), and DSD-PBEPBE-D3(BJ). Encouragingly, the overall performance of ωB97M(2) on nearly 5000 data points clearly surpasses that of all of the tested density functionals. As a Rung 5 density functional, ωB97M(2) completes our family of combinatorially optimized functionals, complementing B97M-V on Rung 3, and ωB97X-V and ωB97M-V on Rung 4. The results suggest that ωB97M(2) has the potential to serve as a powerful predictive tool for accurate and efficient electronic structure calculations of main-group chemistry.

  1. Testing the Impact of Waste from Anaerobic Digestion (Enriched with an Organic Component on the Quality of Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste from anaerobic digestion is considered as a mineral fertilizer and it is usually applied to agricultural land. The aim of our attempt was to enrich this waste from anaerobic digestion (digestate with an organic component (in our case represented by haylage. For this purpose, we made different mixtures of digestate and haylage in different weight ratios. In the field trial, the effect of these mixtures on the soil, under standard agricultural conditions, was monitored. Selected accessible nutrients (P, K, Mg, Mn, Ca and the amount of carbon and nitrogen in the soil were monitored. The results of the laboratory tests confirmed that the areas where the sowing and digestate mixtures were applied showed greater amounts of macro- and micronutrients in plant-accessible forms than the surface fertilized only with digestate or areas fertilized only with standard fertilizers.

  2. Toxicity of organic compounds to marine invertebrate embryos and larvae: a comparison between the sea urchin embryogenesis bioassay and alternative test species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Juan; Beiras, Ricardo; Mariño-Balsa, José Carlos; Fernández, Nuria

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of the insecticides lindane and chlorpyrifos, the herbicide diuron, the organometallic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT), and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the early life stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea), Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea), Maja squinado and Palaemon serratus (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in laboratory acute toxicity tests. The assays studied embryogenesis success from fertilized egg to normal larvae in P. lividus (48 h incubation at 20 degrees C) and C. intestinalis (24 h incubation at 20 degrees C), and larval mortality at 24 and 48 h in M. squinado and P. serratus. For P. lividus, the median effective concentrations (EC50) reducing percentages of normal larvae by 50% were: 350 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 5500 microg l(-1) for diuron, 4277 microg l(-1) for SDS, and 0.309 microg l(-1) for TBT. For C. intestinalis, the EC50 values affecting embryogenesis success were 5666 microg l(-1) for chlorpyrifos, 24,397 microg (l-1) for diuron, 4412 microg l(-1) for lindane, 5145 microg I(-1) for SDS, and 7.1 microg l(-1) for TBT. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) for M. squinado larval survival were 0.84 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.79 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.23 microg(l(-1) (24 h) and 2.18 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 687 microg l(-1) (48 h) for SDS. For P. serratus the LC50 values obtained were 0.35 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 0.22 microg l(-1) (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 3011 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 3044 microg l(-1) (48 h) for diuron, 5.20 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 5.59 microg l(-1) (48 h) for lindane, and 22.30 microg l(-1) (24 h) and 17.52 microg l(-1) (48 h) for TBT. Decapod larvae, as expected, were markedly more sensitive to the insecticides than sea urchins and ascidians, and SDS was the least toxic compound tested for these organisms. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of TBT for sea urchin and ascidian embryos, chlorpyrifos and

  3. Assessing research activity and capacity of community-based organizations: development and pilot testing of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Mitchell, Leif; Tian, Terry; Choudhury, Shonali; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    Although awareness of the importance of the research capacity of community-based organizations (CBOs) is growing, a uniform framework of the research capacity domains within CBOs has not yet been developed. To develop a framework and instrument (the Community REsearch Activity assessment Tool [CREAT]) for assessing the research activity and capacity of CBOs that incorporates awareness of the different data collection and analysis priorities of CBOs. We conducted a review of existing tools for assessing research capacity to identify key capacity domains. Instrument items were developed through an iterative process with CBO representatives and community researchers. The CREAT was then pilot tested with 30 CBOs. The four primary domains of the CREAT framework include 1) organizational support for research, 2) generalizable experiences, 3) research specific experiences, and 4) funding. Organizations reported a high prevalence of activities in the research-specific experiences domain, including conducting literature reviews (70%), use of research terminology (83%), and primary data collection (100%). Respondents see research findings as important to improve program and service delivery, and to seek funds for new programs and services. Funders, board members, and policymakers are the most important dissemination audiences. The work reported herein advances the field of CBO research capacity by developing a systematic framework for assessing research activity and capacity relevant to the work of CBOs, and by developing and piloting an instrument to assess activity in these domains.

  4. Microbial survival on food contact surfaces in the context of food hygiene regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart-Moonlight, Belinda Isobel

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial food poisoning causes substantial suffering and financial loss worldwide. One way organisms enter foods is via cross contamination directly or indirectly from structural and food contact surfaces. An 'in situ' method was developed for the detection of surviving bacteria on surfaces. Samples of test surfaces were overlaid with agar and after incubation, colonies were visualised by reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, which was reduced to a purple insoluble dye. It was shown that the death of bacteria applied as liquid films to surfaces, occurred largely at the point of drying. For impervious surfaces (ceramic, stainless steel, glass and polystyrene), surface type had little effect on survival. In contrast, survival was markedly affected by the nature of the suspension fluid in which cells were dried. In deionised water, survival was low and for Gram negative organisms was strongly influenced by cell density. Where cells were dried in simulated food films (containing brain heart infusion, NaCI, serum or sucrose), survival values increased with increasing concentrations and approached 100% for Staphylococcus aureus cells suspended in 10% w/v sucrose. The survival of Gram positive organisms on impervious surfaces was generally greater than for Gram negative organisms and consistent with this observation, scanning electron microscopy indicated that Gram negative cells collapsed during drying. On wood surfaces, survival was generally similar to or higher than on impervious surfaces. However, neither of the Gram positive organisms tested (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) could be recovered following inoculation onto the surface of the African hard-wood, iroko, although Gram negative organisms survived well. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that cells had not been adsorbed below the wood surface and an ethanol-soluble toxic factor was extracted from iroko, which killed Staphylococcus aureus cells, but had no effect on the viability of

  5. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans survives subfreezing temperatures in an isochoric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikus, Hannah; Miller, Alexander [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nastase, Gabriel, E-mail: traznasa@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Building Services, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, 500036 (Romania); Serban, Alexandru [Department of Building Services, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, 500036 (Romania); Shapira, Michael [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rubinsky, Boris, E-mail: rubinsky@berkeley.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    This study is the first experimental evidence showing that a living multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, can survive subfreezing temperatures in an isochoric (constant volume) thermodynamic system, while immersed in a simple isotonic solution, without the addition of cryoprotectants. Some of the test conditions were more extreme than those found at the ice/water interface of the Antarctic subglacial Vostok lake. On earth, life takes place in an isobaric (constant pressure) environment. In isobaric systems, subfreezing temperature survival of organisms in nature and subfreezing temperature preservation of living material for biotechnology and medicine, is made possible by use of cryoprotective chemicals additives. Our theoretical thermodynamic studies suggested that in an isochoric system, living biological material could survive subfreezing temperatures, without any cryoprotective chemicals. By confirming the theoretical predictions, this paper suggests a new technology for subfreezing preservation of cells, organs and organisms of possible value for biotechnology and medicine as well as new possible mechanisms of living organism survival in nature. - Highlights: • Preservation of biological materials at, subfreezing temperatures, in an isochoric system, is demonstrated. • Experiments were performed with Caenorhabditis elegans to pressures of 65 MPa and temperatures of −6 °C. • Isochoric subfreezing temperature is a new preservation method that does not require the use of cryoprotectants.

  6. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans survives subfreezing temperatures in an isochoric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, Hannah; Miller, Alexander; Nastase, Gabriel; Serban, Alexandru; Shapira, Michael; Rubinsky, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first experimental evidence showing that a living multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, can survive subfreezing temperatures in an isochoric (constant volume) thermodynamic system, while immersed in a simple isotonic solution, without the addition of cryoprotectants. Some of the test conditions were more extreme than those found at the ice/water interface of the Antarctic subglacial Vostok lake. On earth, life takes place in an isobaric (constant pressure) environment. In isobaric systems, subfreezing temperature survival of organisms in nature and subfreezing temperature preservation of living material for biotechnology and medicine, is made possible by use of cryoprotective chemicals additives. Our theoretical thermodynamic studies suggested that in an isochoric system, living biological material could survive subfreezing temperatures, without any cryoprotective chemicals. By confirming the theoretical predictions, this paper suggests a new technology for subfreezing preservation of cells, organs and organisms of possible value for biotechnology and medicine as well as new possible mechanisms of living organism survival in nature. - Highlights: • Preservation of biological materials at, subfreezing temperatures, in an isochoric system, is demonstrated. • Experiments were performed with Caenorhabditis elegans to pressures of 65 MPa and temperatures of −6 °C. • Isochoric subfreezing temperature is a new preservation method that does not require the use of cryoprotectants.

  7. Fledgling survival increases with development time and adult survival across north and south temperate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Penn; Martin, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Slow life histories are characterized by high adult survival and few offspring, which are thought to allow increased investment per offspring to increase juvenile survival. Consistent with this pattern, south temperate zone birds are commonly longer-lived and have fewer young than north temperate zone species. However, comparative analyses of juvenile survival, including during the first few weeks of the post-fledging period when most juvenile mortality occurs, are largely lacking. We combined our measurements of fledgling survival for eight passerines in South Africa with estimates from published studies of 57 north and south temperate zone songbird species to test three predictions: (1) fledgling survival increases with length of development time in the nest; (2) fledgling survival increases with adult survival and reduced brood size controlled for development time; and (3) south temperate zone species, with their higher adult survival and smaller brood sizes, exhibit higher fledgling survival than north temperate zone species controlled for development time. We found that fledgling survival was higher among south temperate zone species and generally increased with development time and adult survival within and between latitudinal regions. Clutch size did not explain additional variation, but was confounded with adult survival. Given the importance of age-specific mortality to life history evolution, understanding the causes of these geographical patterns of mortality is important.

  8. ’Itinéraires de la faim’ des migrants subsahariens expulsés d’Algérie au Mali Organizing survival among sub-Saharan migrants expelled from Algeria to Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lecadet

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Algérie, l’expulsion des migrants d’origine subsaharienne vers la frontière Nord du Mali est devenue depuis le début des années 2000 un processus régulier. Rationnement alimentaire drastique dans les prisons algériennes, angoisse vitale dans les ghettos organisés en micro-communautés nationales aux abords de la frontière, leitmotiv de l’aide d’urgence : la faim constitue une caractéristique majeure de l’expérience vécue par les expulsés. Elle est à la fois une violence intime, une donnée politique, un motif d’intervention humanitaire. On parlera ainsi d’itinéraires de la faim pour appréhender le processus de l’expulsion et les parcours erratiques de l’après-expulsion : ils sont ici envisagés à la fois du point de vue du dispositif étatique algérien qui en porte la responsabilité et des contre-dispositifs précaires mis en œuvre par les expulsés pour survivre. Les expulsés auto-organisés, les associations d’expulsés, l’intervention ponctuelle des ONG, tentent en effet de faire face aux expulsions par des formes de regroupement, d’accueil et de restauration atypiques dans un contexte d’abandon et de dénuement radical.Since the beginning of the century the expulsion of sub-Saharan migrants from Algeria to the Northern Malian border has become a regular event. Hunger is the main aspect of expelled migrant life, caused by poor rations in Algerian jails, daily fear in the ghettos organized into national micro-communities on the border and the limited supply of emergency aid. Hunger is simultaneously a primal suffering, a political issue and an argument for humanitarian aid. We describe the process of expulsion and the erratic journey of migrants after deportation as itineraries of hunger. These itineraries are considered from two points of view; the state processes involved in these collective deportations and the precarious strategies invented by expelled migrants to survive. A combination

  9. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  10. Design and testing of a chamber device to measure organic vapor fluxes from the unsaturated zone under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, F.D.; Choi, J-W.; Smith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    As the difficulty and expense of achieving water quality standards at contaminated sites becomes more apparent, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is taking a closer look at natural attenuation processes for selected sites. To determine if a site has potential for natural attenuation, all natural processes affecting the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the subsurface must be identified and quantified. This research addresses the quantification of air-phase VOCs leaving the subsurface and entering the atmosphere, both through diffusion and soil-gas advection caused by barometric pumping. A simple, easy-to-use, and inexpensive device for measuring VOC flux under natural conditions was designed, constructed and tested both in a controlled laboratory environment and in a natural field setting. Design parameters for the chamber were selected using continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-equation based modeling under several flux inputs. The final chamber design performs at greater than 95% efficiency for the simulated cases. Laboratory testing of the flux chamber under both diffusion and advection transport conditions was performed in a device constructed to simulate the unsaturated zone. Results indicate an average flux measurement accuracy of 83% over 3 orders of magnitude for diffusion-only fluxes and 94% for combined advection-diffusion fluxes. A field test of the chamber was performed and results compared with predictions made by a 1-dimensional unsaturated zone flow and transport model whose calibration and parameters were obtained from data collected at the site. Fluxes measured directly by the chamber were generally in good agreement with the fluxes calculated from the calibrated flow-and-transport model. (author)

  11. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  12. IEEE Std 600: IEEE trial-use standard requirements for organizations that conduct qualification testing of safety systems equipment for use in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this standard is to provide requirements for establishing a program for conducting qualification tests of safety systems equipment used in nuclear power generating stations. Compliance with the requirements of this standard does not assure the adequacy of the qualification tests performed. This standard applies to organizations that conduct qualification tests on equipment that has a definable safety function and is an identifiable part of a safety system for use in nuclear power generating stations. It requires a technical program, a quality assurance program, and a demonstrated ability to meet specified technical requirements. It does not apply to materials tests, production tests, normal performance testing, qualification by analysis, qualification by operating experience, or reliability tests such as diesel-generator multiple start tests. The intent of this standard is to achieve greater consistency, reliability, and reproducibility of test results and to provide adequate control of qualification testing of safety systems equipment

  13. The strains recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471) can be certified as non-genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Yamada, Masami; Awogi, Takumi; Hakura, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial reverse mutation test, commonly called Ames test, is used worldwide. In Japan, the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are regulated under the Cartagena Domestic Law, and organisms obtained by self-cloning and/or natural occurrence would be exempted from the law case by case. The strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli recommended for use in the bacterial reverse mutation test (OECD guideline 471), have been considered as non-GMOs because they can be constructed by self-cloning or naturally occurring bacterial strains, or do not disturb the biological diversity. The present article explains the reasons why these tester strains should be classified as non-GMOs.

  14. Xenograft survival in two species combinations using total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has profound immunosuppressive actions and has been applied successfully to allotransplantation but not xenotransplantation. Cyclosporine (CsA) has not generally permitted successful xenotransplantation of organs but has not been used in combination with TLI. TLI and CsA were given alone and in combination to rats that were recipients of hamster or rabbit cardiac xenografts. Combined TLI and CsA prolonged survival of hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts from three days in untreated controls to greater than 100 days in most recipients. TLI alone significantly prolonged rabbit to rat xenograft survival with doubling of survival time. However, combined treatment did not significantly prolong rabbit-to-rat cardiac xenograft survival compared with TLI alone. The hamster and rat are phylogenetically closely related. Transplants from hamsters to rat are concordant xenografts since the time course of unmodified rejection is similar to first-set rejection of allografts. Although the rabbit-to-rat transplant is also between concordant species (average survival of untreated controls: 3.2 days) the rabbit and rat are more distantly related. These results suggest that TLI is an effective immunosuppressant when applied to cardiac xenotransplants in these animal models; that the choice of species critically affects xenograft survival when TLI and/or CsA are used for immunosuppression; and that the closely related species combination tested has markedly prolonged (greater than 100 days) survival using combined TLI and CsA

  15. Comparing ELISA test-positive prevalence, risk factors and management recommendations for Johne's disease prevention between organic and conventional dairy farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Laura; Sorge, Ulrike S; DeVries, Trevor; Godkin, Ann; Lissemore, Kerry; Kelton, David

    2015-11-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is a chronic, infectious disease in cattle. Between 2010 and 2013, a voluntary JD control program was successfully launched in Ontario, Canada, including a Risk Assessment and Management Plan (RAMP) and JD ELISA testing of the entire milking herd. Over the last decade, the organic dairy sector has been growing. However, organic farming regulations and philosophies may influence the risk for JD transmission on Ontario organic dairy farms. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in JD ELISA test positive prevalence, risk factors for JD and recommendations for JD prevention between organic and conventional dairy herds in Ontario. RAMP results (i.e. RAMP scores and recommendations) and ELISA results were available for 2103 dairy herds, including 42 organic herds. If available, additional data on milk production, milk quality, and herd characteristics were gathered. Organic and conventional herds had a similar herd-level JD ELISA test-positive prevalence (26.2% and 27.2%, respectively). Organic herds (4.2%) had a higher within-herd JD ELISA test-positive prevalence compared to conventional herds (2.3%) if they had at least one JD test-positive animal on the farm. Organic farms had lower risk scores for biosecurity (9 points lower), and higher scores in the calving (7 points higher) and the calf-rearing management areas (4 points higher). After accounting for RAMP score, organic farms received fewer recommendations for the calving management area (Odds Ratio=0.41) and more recommendations in the adult cow management area (Odds Ratio=2.70). A zero-inflated negative binomial model was built with purchase of animals and the herd size included in the logistic portion of the model. Herd type (organic or conventional), colostrum and milk feeding practices, average bulk tank somatic cell count, and presence of non-Holstein breeds were included in the negative binomial portion of the model. Organic farms had a higher number of

  16. 76 FR 35072 - Proposed Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in Total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... framework should be applied at various levels in the banking organization, such as business line, portfolio... a banking organization's overall strategy and annual and planning cycles. Results should be... part of the development and maintenance of a banking organization's contingency funding planning. \\6...

  17. Successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Wang, W.; Lampi, M.A.; Zhang, C.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A large number of aquatic and terrestrial environments are polluted with various levels of toxicants. Metals, organics and total petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources pose a risk to both human health and the health of ecosystems. Although these persistent contaminants are difficult to remediate, several industrial sites throughout North America are being remediated as part of land reclamation and restoration programs. This paper addressed the issue of phytoremediation for removing contaminants from soils. Phytoremediation is considered to be a viable remediation strategy because the increased biomass of plants, relative to the biomass of soil microbes in the absence of plants, allows for higher throughput. Extensive root systems can infiltrate large volumes of soil, thus promoting degradation of contaminants over a wide area. This paper described a newly developed multi-process phytoremediation system with accelerated remediation kinetics to effectively remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) from soils. The system combines land farming/sunlight exposure; inoculation of contaminant degrading bacteria; and, plant growth with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which mitigates the effects of stress ethylene in plants. The primary factor for success was the interaction between the plant and the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Several field tests were conducted following successful greenhouse tests. Results at a TPH contaminated site in Sarnia, Ontario showed that over a 2 year period, 60 to 70 per cent remediation of 15 per cent TPH was achieved. At a site in Turner Valley, Alberta, 35 per cent remediation of 1 per cent recalcitrant TPH was achieved, while a DDT contaminated site near Simcoe, Ontario had nearly 30 per cent of CHC removed in a 3 month period. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Wang, W.; Lampi, M.A.; Zhang, C.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A large number of aquatic and terrestrial environments are polluted with various levels of toxicants. Metals, organics and total petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources pose a risk to both human health and the health of ecosystems. Although these persistent contaminants are difficult to remediate, several industrial sites throughout North America are being remediated as part of land reclamation and restoration programs. This paper addressed the issue of phytoremediation for removing contaminants from soils. Phytoremediation is considered to be a viable remediation strategy because the increased biomass of plants, relative to the biomass of soil microbes in the absence of plants, allows for higher throughput. Extensive root systems can infiltrate large volumes of soil, thus promoting degradation of contaminants over a wide area. This paper described a newly developed multi-process phytoremediation system with accelerated remediation kinetics to effectively remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) from soils. The system combines land farming/sunlight exposure; inoculation of contaminant degrading bacteria; and, plant growth with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which mitigates the effects of stress ethylene in plants. The primary factor for success was the interaction between the plant and the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Several field tests were conducted following successful greenhouse tests. Results at a TPH contaminated site in Sarnia, Ontario showed that over a 2 year period, 60 to 70 per cent remediation of 15 per cent TPH was achieved. At a site in Turner Valley, Alberta, 35 per cent remediation of 1 per cent recalcitrant TPH was achieved, while a DDT contaminated site near Simcoe, Ontario had nearly 30 per cent of CHC removed in a 3 month period. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Using Spent Mushroom Substrate as the Base for Organic-Mineral Micronutrient Fertilizer – Field Tests on Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tuhy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spent mushroom substrate (SMS is a noxious byproduct of the mushroom industry. The aim of this work was to convert SMS into organic-mineral micronutrient (Zn(II, Mn(II, and Cu(II fertilizer via biosorption and examine the effect of its application in field tests on maize compared to commercial reference micronutrient fertilizer. Crop yield and crop quality were assessed, and multielemental analysis of grains was conducted for the evaluation of the fertilization effect on maize grains and to assess bioavailability of nutrients from fertilizers. Grain yield for maize treated with micronutrients delivered with SMS was noticeably higher (11.5% than the untreated group and the NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer treated only group (2.8%. Bioavailability (TF of micronutrients from SMS were comparable with reference micronutrient fertilizer (7% Zn, 4% Mn, and 2.3% Cu. The new product has the potential to be used as a micronutrient fertilizer. Satisfactory results of grain yield (6.4 Mg ha-1, high content of micronutrients (Zn 1.6%, Mn 1.2%, and Cu 1.8%, and macronutrients (P 1.0%, S 3.1%, Ca 8.2%, and K 0.2% were observed. The bioavailability suggests that enriched SMS could be a good alternative to fertilizers in the present market.

  20. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  1. Composite driveshaft prototype design and survivability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Todd C.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Mills, Brent T.; Habtour, Ed M.

    2017-01-01

    Rotorcraft drivelines typically utilize a multi-segmented metallic system to transmit power between the engine and tail rotor. The typical arrangement of metal driveshaft segments, hanger bearings, and flexible couplers contribute to a significant logistical footprint, maintenance downtime, and

  2. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of thymoma: ability of the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in predicting the World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the Masaoka-Koga staging system and its prognostic significance on disease-free survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priola, Adriano Massimiliano; Priola, Sandro Massimo; Gned, Dario; Ducco, Lorena; Veltri, Andrea; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fornari, Alessandro; Ferrero, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance for distinguishing thymomas according to WHO and Masaoka-Koga classifications and in predicting disease-free survival (DFS) by using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Forty-one patients were grouped based on WHO (low-risk vs. high-risk) and Masaoka-Koga (early vs. advanced) classifications. For prognosis, seven patients with recurrence at follow-up were grouped separately from healthy subjects. Differences on ADC levels between groups were tested using Student-t testing. Logistic regression models and areas under the ROC curve (AUROC) were estimated. Mean ADC values were different between groups of WHO (low-risk = 1.58 ± 0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; high-risk = 1.21 ± 0.23 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p < 0.0001) and Masaoka-Koga (early = 1.43 ± 0.26 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; advanced = 1.31 ± 0.31 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p = 0.016) classifications. Mean ADC of type-B3 (1.05 ± 0.17 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec) was lower than type-B2 (1.32 ± 0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; p = 0.023). AUROC in discriminating groups was 0.864 for WHO classification (cut-point = 1.309 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; accuracy = 78.1 %) and 0.730 for Masaoka-Koga classification (cut-point = 1.243 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec; accuracy = 73.2 %). Logistic regression models and two-way ANOVA were significant for WHO classification (odds ratio[OR] = 0.93, p = 0.007; p < 0.001), but not for Masaoka-Koga classification (OR = 0.98, p = 0.31; p = 0.38). ADC levels were significantly associated with DFS recurrence rate being higher for patients with ADC ≤ 1.299 x 10 -3 mm 2 /sec (p = 0.001; AUROC, 0.834; accuracy = 78.0 %). ADC helps to differentiate high-risk from low-risk thymomas and discriminates the more aggressive type-B3. Primary tumour ADC is a prognostic indicator of recurrence. (orig.)

  3. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium...... not decrease toxicity significantly. Conversely, the presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM; 20mgL-1) completely alleviated Ag ENP toxicity in all testing scenarios and did not aid in stabilizing suspensions. In contrast, addition of Suwannee River NOM stabilized ZnO ENP suspensions and did...... in stock suspensions. The authors' results suggest that aging and presence of Suwannee River NOM are important parameters in standard toxicity testing of ENPs, which in some cases may aid in gaining better control over the exposure conditions but in other cases might contribute to agglomeration...

  4. Bacterial survival following shock compression in the GigaPascal range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazael, Rachael; Fitzmaurice, Brianna C.; Foglia, Fabrizia; Appleby-Thomas, Gareth J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility that life can exist within previously unconsidered habitats is causing us to expand our understanding of potential planetary biospheres. Significant populations of living organisms have been identified at depths extending up to several km below the Earth's surface; whereas laboratory experiments have shown that microbial species can survive following exposure to GigaPascal (GPa) pressures. Understanding the degree to which simple organisms such as microbes survive such extreme pressurization under static compression conditions is being actively investigated. The survival of bacteria under dynamic shock compression is also of interest. Such studies are being partly driven to test the hypothesis of potential transport of biological organisms between planetary systems. Shock compression is also of interest for the potential modification and sterilization of foodstuffs and agricultural products. Here we report the survival of Shewanella oneidensis bacteria exposed to dynamic (shock) compression. The samples examined included: (a) a "wild type" (WT) strain and (b) a "pressure adapted" (PA) population obtained by culturing survivors from static compression experiments to 750 MPa. Following exposure to peak shock pressures of 1.5 and 2.5 GPa the proportion of survivors was established as the number of colony forming units (CFU) present after recovery to ambient conditions. The data were compared with previous results in which the same bacterial samples were exposed to static pressurization to the same pressures, for 15 minutes each. The results indicate that shock compression leads to survival of a significantly greater proportion of both WT and PA organisms. The significantly shorter duration of the pressure pulse during the shock experiments (2-3 μs) likely contributes to the increased survival of the microbial species. One reason for this can involve the crossover from deformable to rigid solid-like mechanical relaxational behavior that occurs for

  5. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  6. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  7. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  8. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  9. Challenges in the estimation of Net SURvival: The CENSUR working survival group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, R

    2016-10-01

    Net survival, the survival probability that would be observed, in a hypothetical world, where the cancer of interest would be the only possible cause of death, is a key indicator in population-based cancer studies. Accounting for mortality due to other causes, it allows cross-country comparisons or trends analysis and provides a useful indicator for public health decision-making. The objective of this study was to show how the creation and formalization of a network comprising established research teams, which already had substantial and complementary experience in both cancer survival analysis and methodological development, make it possible to meet challenges and thus provide more adequate tools, to improve the quality and the comparability of cancer survival data, and to promote methodological transfers in areas of emerging interest. The Challenges in the Estimation of Net SURvival (CENSUR) working survival group is composed of international researchers highly skilled in biostatistics, methodology, and epidemiology, from different research organizations in France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Slovenia, and Canada, and involved in French (FRANCIM) and European (EUROCARE) cancer registry networks. The expected advantages are an interdisciplinary, international, synergistic network capable of addressing problems in public health, for decision-makers at different levels; tools for those in charge of net survival analyses; a common methodology that makes unbiased cross-national comparisons of cancer survival feasible; transfer of methods for net survival estimations to other specific applications (clinical research, occupational epidemiology); and dissemination of results during an international training course. The formalization of the international CENSUR working survival group was motivated by a need felt by scientists conducting population-based cancer research to discuss, develop, and monitor implementation of a common methodology to analyze net survival in order

  10. Survival of added bacterial species and metabolism of toxic compounds in natural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.M.

    1987-01-01

    Bacteria able to degrade either 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) or phenanthrene (PHEN) were isolated from polluted freshwater environments. Two isolates able to degrade each compound were tested for mineralization with a sensitive 14 C assay and for survival in lake water and sewage using a selective medium. One DCP isolate was identified as Alcaligenes paradoxus and the other as Alcaligenes sp. One PHEN isolate was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and the other as Pseudomonas sp. All four isolates survived and grew in sterile environments which indicated that starvation would not be a factor in survival of these strains. The number of organisms declined immediately in number in nonsterile lake water. However, they did survive or even grow in nonsterile sewage for a short period before declining in number. Biotic factors appeared to be influential for survival and mineralization of target compounds in many environments. The removal of protozoa, which prey on bacteria, improved survival of the added cells, but had no influence on the mineralization of 10 μg DCP/L. In comparison, degradation of 10 and 25 mg DCP/L stopped after a few days. Yeast nitrogen base appeared to overcome the lack of nutrient regeneration, a function attributed to protozoa. The additional nutrients increased toxicant mineralization, especially when seeded with appropriate species. Thus, protozoa may limit growth of added cells but appear to be needed for mineralization of higher concentrations of DCP

  11. Acid tolerance response and survival by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensäter, G; Larsson, U B; Greif, E C; Cvitkovitch, D G; Hamilton, I R

    1997-10-01

    Using 21 species of oral bacteria, representing six acidogenic genera, we undertook to determine whether the pH-limiting exponential growth is related to the ability of the organisms to generate an acid-tolerance response that results in enhanced survival at low pH. The lower pH limit of exponential growth varied by more than two units with that of Neisseria A182 at pH 6.34; growth of Lactobacillus casei RB1014 stopped at pH 3.81, with species of Actinomyces, Enterococcus, Prevotella and Streptococcus falling between these limits. The working hypothesis was that the organisms with the higher pH limits for growth are unable to respond to acidic environments in order to survive, whereas the more aciduric organisms would possess or acquire acid tolerance. Adaptation to acid tolerance was tested by determining whether the prior exposure of exponential-phase cells to a low, sub-lethal pH would trigger the induction of a mechanism that would enhance survival at a pH killing pH 7.5 control cells. The killing pH varied from pH 4.5 for Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 to pH 2.3 for the three Lactobacillus casei strains in the study, with the three Streptococcus mutans strains killed at pH 3.0 for 3 h. The adaptation experiments revealed three groups of organisms: non-acid-responders, generally representing strains with the highest terminal pH values; weak acid-responders in the middle of the pH list, generating low numbers of survivors at one or two pH values, and the aciduric, strong responders generating a high number of survivors at pH values in the range 6.0 to 3.5, but not at pH 7.5. Predominant among the latter group were the S. mutans and Lactobacilli casei strains, with the most significant adaptive response exhibited by S. mutans LT11 and S. mutans Ingbritt, involving a process that required protein synthesis. Time course experiments with the latter organisms indicated that 90-120 min was required after exposure to the triggering pH before the acid response was

  12. White Mountain Research Station: 25 years of high-altitude research. [organization and functions of test facility for high altitude research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.

    1973-01-01

    The organization and functions of a test facility for conducting research projects at high altitudes are discussed. The projects conducted at the facility include the following: (1) bird physiology, (2) cardiorespiratory physiology, (3) endocrinological studies, (4) neurological studies, (5) metabolic studies, and (6) geological studies.

  13. Microbial survival and odor in laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Signe Munk; Johansen, Charlotte; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2001-01-01

    The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-were eva......The survival and distribution of microflora during laundering at 30 or 40 degreesC in commercial U.S. and European Union (E.U.) detergents were determined in laboratory wash experiments. Four test strains-Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa......-were evaluated on cotton textile. A significant survival and transfer between textiles were found for all four test strains washed in E.U. and U.S. color detergents (without bleach), whereas no survival was observed in bleach-containing detergents. Gram-negative strains generally survived in greater numbers than...... Gram-positive strains. A greater survival was observed in U.S. detergents at U.S. conditions (30 degreesC, 12 min) than in E.U. detergents at E.U. conditions (40 degreesC, 30 min). The adhesion of odorants to cotton and polyester textiles during washing and drying was studied using six previously...

  14. The Role of Local Governmental Funding in Nonprofit Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Besel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.

  15. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    , leaving one large pool near the bottom of the side channel and several shallow isolated pools that may or may not go dry. In seasonally connected side channels, juvenile salmonid survival in pools less than 100 cm average depth was lower than in pools greater than 100 cm average depth (Martens and Connolly, 2014). In this report, we document our field work and analysis completed in 2013. During 2013, USGS sampling efforts were focused on resampling of three reaches in Beaver Creek, testing methodology in the Whitefish Island side channel, conducting hatchery survival estimates, and operating a screw trap on the Chewuch River (funded by Yakama Nation; fig. 1). The Beaver Creek sampling effort was a revisit of three index sites sampled continuously from 2004 to 2007 to look at the fish response to barrier removal. Methodology testing in Whitefish Island side channel was done to determine the best method for evaluating fish populations after restoration efforts in side channels (previous sampling methods were determined to be ineffective after pools were deepened). Hatchery survival estimates were completed to monitor fish survival in the Methow and Columbia Rivers, while the screw trap was operated to estimate migrating fish populations in the Chewuch River and track passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. In addition, we maintained a network of PIT-tag interrogation systems (PTIS), assisted Reclamation with fish removal events associated with stream restoration (two people for 9 days; 14 percent of summer field season), and conducted a stream metabolism study designed to help parameterize and calibrate the stream productivity model (Bellmore and others, 2014) with model validation.

  16. The A[subscript 1c] Blood Test: An Illustration of Principles from General and Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    The glycated hemoglobin blood test, usually designated as the A[subscript 1c] test, is a key measure of the effectiveness of glucose control in diabetics. The chemistry of glucose in the bloodstream, which underlies the test and its impact, provides an illustration of the importance of chemical equilibrium and kinetics to a major health problem.…

  17. The survival of Coxiella burnetii in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstigneeva, A. S.; Ul'Yanova, T. Yu.; Tarasevich, I. V.

    2007-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen of Q-fever—a widespread zoonosis. The effective adaptation of C. burnetii to intracellular existence is in contrast with its ability to survive in the environment outside the host cells and its resistance to chemical and physical agents. Its mechanism of survival remains unknown. However, its survival appears to be related to the developmental cycle of the microorganism itself, i.e., to the formation of its dormant forms. The survival of Coxiella burnetii was studied for the first time. The pathogenic microorganism was inoculated into different types of soil and cultivated under different temperatures. The survival of the pathogen was verified using a model with laboratory animals (mice). Viable C. burnetii were found in the soil even 20 days after their inoculation. The relationship between the organic carbon content in the soils and the survival of C. burnetii was revealed. Thus, the results obtained were the first to demonstrate that the soil may serve as a reservoir for the preservation and further spreading of the Q-fever pathogen in the environment, on the one hand, and reduce the risk of epidemics, on the other.

  18. Tracking plasma cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katrin; Oehme, Laura; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Zhang, Yang; Niesner, Raluca; Hauser, Anja E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cells play a crucial role for the humoral immune response as they represent the body's factories for antibody production. The differentiation from a B cell into a plasma cell is controlled by a complex transcriptional network and happens within secondary lymphoid organs. Based on their lifetime, two types of antibody secreting cells can be distinguished: Short-lived plasma cells are located in extrafollicular sites of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node medullary cords and the splenic red pulp. A fraction of plasmablasts migrate from secondary lymphoid organs to the bone marrow where they can become long-lived plasma cells. Bone marrow plasma cells reside in special microanatomical environments termed survival niches, which provide factors promoting their longevity. Reticular stromal cells producing the chemokine CXCL12, which is known to attract plasmablasts to the bone marrow but also to promote plasma cell survival, play a crucial role in the maintenance of these niches. In addition, hematopoietic cells are contributing to the niches by providing other soluble survival factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on the factors involved in plasma cell differentiation, their localization and migration. We also give an overview on what is known regarding the maintenance of long lived plasma cells in survival niches of the bone marrow. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Factors affecting survival of Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The survival of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, was studied in water, to assess the risks for dissemination of Cms via surface water and infection of potato crops by irrigation. Cms was able to survive for a maximum period of 7

  20. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  1. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  2. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  3. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  4. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... of risk management, the final guidance provides principles that a banking organization should follow... integrated into overall risk management.\\8\\ The agencies expect such companies would follow the principles... risk management program. The guidance outlines broad principles for a [[Page 29464

  5. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Glandorf, Debora C. M.; Schilthuizen, Menno; de Boer, Willem F.

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on

  6. The use of statistical tools in field testing of putative effects of genetically modified plants on nontarget organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Elsas, van J.D.; Glandorf, D.C.M.; Schilthuizen, M.; Boer, de W.F.

    2013-01-01

    To fulfill existing guidelines, applicants that aim to place their genetically modified (GM) insect-resistant crop plants on the market are required to provide data from field experiments that address the potential impacts of the GM plants on nontarget organisms (NTO's). Such data may be based on

  7. Biostatistics series module 9: Survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival analysis is concerned with “time to event“ data. Conventionally, it dealt with cancer death as the event in question, but it can handle any event occurring over a time frame, and this need not be always adverse in nature. When the outcome of a study is the time to an event, it is often not possible to wait until the event in question has happened to all the subjects, for example, until all are dead. In addition, subjects may leave the study prematurely. Such situations lead to what is called censored observations as complete information is not available for these subjects. The data set is thus an assemblage of times to the event in question and times after which no more information on the individual is available. Survival analysis methods are the only techniques capable of handling censored observations without treating them as missing data. They also make no assumption regarding normal distribution of time to event data. Descriptive methods for exploring survival times in a sample include life table and Kaplan–Meier techniques as well as various kinds of distribution fitting as advanced modeling techniques. The Kaplan–Meier cumulative survival probability over time plot has become the signature plot for biomedical survival analysis. Several techniques are available for comparing the survival experience in two or more groups – the log-rank test is popularly used. This test can also be used to produce an odds ratio as an estimate of risk of the event in the test group; this is called hazard ratio (HR. Limitations of the traditional log-rank test have led to various modifications and enhancements. Finally, survival analysis offers different regression models for estimating the impact of multiple predictors on survival. Cox's proportional hazard model is the most general of the regression methods that allows the hazard function to be modeled on a set of explanatory variables without making restrictive assumptions concerning the

  8. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Iole; Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Lo Curto, Alberto; Faulks, Richard Martin; Le Marc, Yvan; Bisignano, Carlo; Caggia, Cinzia; Wickham, Martin Sean John

    2010-12-01

    In the present study six probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains were investigated for their ability to survive in the human upper gastrointestinal tract through a dynamic gastric model of digestion. MRS broth was used as delivery vehicle and survival was investigated during in vitro gastric and gastric plus duodenal digestion. Results highlighted that all tested strains showed good survival rate during both gastric and duodenal digestion. In particular, three strains exhibited a great survival showing a recovery percentage in the range between 117 and 276%. In agreement with survival data, high lactic acid production was detected for all strains, confirming their metabolic activity during digestion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a test method to access the sludge reduction potential of aquatic organisms in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, B.R.; Klapwijk, A.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows the development of a quantitative sludge reduction test method, which uses the sludge consuming aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae). Essential for the test are sufficient oxygen supply and the presence of a non-stirred layer of sludge for burrowing of

  10. Sequential versus Organized Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weist, Richard M.; Crawford, Charlotte

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that organization in rehearsal is a necessary condition for organization in recall; that is, if recall is organized, then rehearsal must have been organized. (Author)

  11. The Survival and Resistance of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus hamelinensis, and Halococcus morrhuae to Simulated Outer Space Solar Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuko, S; Domingos, C; Parpart, A; Reitz, G; Rettberg, P

    2015-11-01

    Solar radiation is among the most prominent stress factors organisms face during space travel and possibly on other planets. Our analysis of three different halophilic archaea, namely Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1, Halococcus morrhuae, and Halococcus hamelinensis, which were exposed to simulated solar radiation in either dried or liquid state, showed tremendous differences in tolerance and survivability. We found that Hcc. hamelinensis is not able to withstand high fluences of simulated solar radiation compared to the other tested organisms. These results can be correlated to significant differences in genomic integrity following exposure, as visualized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. In contrast to the other two tested strains, Hcc. hamelinensis accumulates compatible solutes such as trehalose for osmoprotection. The addition of 100 mM trehalose to the growth medium of Hcc. hamelinensis improved its survivability following exposure. Exposure of cells in liquid at different temperatures suggests that Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 is actively repairing cellular and DNA damage during exposure, whereas Hcc. morrhuae exhibits no difference in survival. For Hcc. morrhuae, the high resistance against simulated solar radiation may be explained with the formation of cell clusters. Our experiments showed that these clusters shield cells on the inside against simulated solar radiation, which results in better survival rates at higher fluences when compared to Hbt. salinarum NRC-1 and Hcc. hamelinensis. Overall, this study shows that some halophilic archaea are highly resistant to simulated solar radiation and that they are of high astrobiological significance. Halophiles-Solar radiation-Stress resistance-Survival.

  12. [Incorporation of an organic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using independent data sources]. [MAGIC Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1992-09-01

    A project was initiated in March, 1992 to (1) incorporate a rigorous organic acid representation, based on empirical data and geochemical considerations, into the MAGIC model of acidification response, and (2) test the revised model using three sets of independent data. After six months of performance, the project is on schedule and the majority of the tasks outlined for Year 1 have been successfully completed. Major accomplishments to data include development of the organic acid modeling approach, using data from the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation (ALSC), and coupling the organic acid model with MAGIC for chemical hindcast comparisons. The incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC can account for much of the discrepancy earlier observed between MAGIC hindcasts and paleolimnological reconstructions of preindustrial pH and alkalinity for 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Additional work is on-going for model calibration and testing with data from two whole-catchment artificial acidification projects. Results obtained thus far are being prepared as manuscripts for submission to the peer-reviewed scientific literature.

  13. Immediate tasks in realization of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly resolution on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, S.

    2000-01-01

    The author points out, that ecological heritage of Semipalatinsk test site is not studied, scattered investigations does not give objective assessment about radiation situation in the region. Only operations of close down of wells on the base of inter-state agreement between Republic of Kazakhstan and the United States of America were carried out. There are following main rehabilitation measures on liquidation of nuclear tests consequences in the region: study, deactivation and re-cultivation of populated territories; study of radioactive contamination level in underground waters and definition radionuclides migration by biological chain for taking preventative measures. It is noted, that citizens of the region with gratitude took solution of 52-53 Sessions of United Nations Organization General Assembly 'On liquidation of nuclear tests consequences on Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

  14. Optimization of organic contaminant and toxicity testing analytical procedures for estimating the characteristics and environmental significance of natural gas processing plant waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, N.

    1990-10-01

    The Gas Plant Sludge Characterization Phase IIB program is a continuation of the Canadian Petroleum Association's (CPA) initiatives to characterize sludge generated at gas processing plants. The objectives of the Phase IIB project were to develop an effective procedure for screening waste sludges or centrifuge/leachate generated from sludge samples for volatile, solvent-soluble and water-soluble organics; verify the reproducibility of the three aquatic toxicity tests recommended as the battery of tests for determining the environmental significance of sludge centrifugates or leachates; assess the performance of two terrestrial toxicity tests in determining the environmental significance of whole sludge samples applied to soil; and to assess and discuss the reproducibility and cost-effectiveness of the sampling and analytical techniques proposed for the overall sludge characterization procedure. Conclusions and recommendations are provided for sludge collection, preparation and distribution, organic analyses, toxicity testing, project management, and procedure standardization. The three aquatic and two terrestrial toxicity tests proved effective in indicating the toxicity of complex mixtures. 27 refs., 3 figs., 59 tabs

  15. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  16. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  17. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  18. Biopan-survival I: exposure of the osmophiles synechococcus sp. (Nageli) and haloarcula sp. to the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.; Rothschild, L. J.

    The objective of this study was to determine the survivability of osmophilic microorganisms in space, as well as examine the DNA breakage in osmophilic cells exposed to solar UV-radiation plus vacuum and to vacuum only. The organisms used were an unidentified species of Synechococcus (Nägeli) that inhabits the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and an unidentified species of the extremely halophilic genus Haloarcula (designated as isolate G) isolated from a evaporitic NaCl crystal. Because these organisms are desiccation resistant and gypsum-halite as well as NaCl attenuate UV-radiation, we hypothesized that these organisms would survive in the space environment, better than most others. The organisms were exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks while in earth orbit aboard the Biopan facility. Ground controls were tested in a space simulation facility. All samples were compared to unexposed samples. Survivability was determined by plate counts and the most probable number technique. DNA breakage was determined by labeling breaks in the DNA with ^32P followed by translation. Results indicate that the osmophilic microbes survived the 2 week exposure. The major cause of cell death was DNA damage. The number of strand breaks in the DNA from vacuum UV exposed cells was greater than the vacuum only exposed cells.

  19. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  20. Comparing Titanium Release from Ceramic Tiles using a waste material characterization test - Influence of Calcium and Organic Matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are beneficial in the building industry to enhance or add certain features to commonly used materials. One example is the use of nano-titanium dioxide in the surface coating of ceramic tiles, to make the tiles surface self-cleaning. At the end of life stage, ceramic tiles might...... to assess if nano-titanium dioxide coated ceramic tiles are suitable for depositing in a landfill or not. Specifically, we used compliance batch test method, which is a simple test evaluating the release from a solid material to an aqueous media during 24 hrs. If nano-Ti particles are released from solid...... immediately after the 24 hrs. test using single particle ICPMS and Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging. The preliminary results suggest that nanoparticulate titanium is released from both tiles – with and without nano-titanium dioxide coating. The size distributions of the released particles are similar...

  1. The survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on soft surfaces: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeargin, Thomas; Buckley, David; Fraser, Angela; Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-11-01

    Worldwide, enteric viruses are the main cause of acute gastroenteritis. In humans, these viruses spread via person-to-person contact, food, water, and/or the environment. Their survival and inactivation on hard surfaces have been extensively studied; however, nonlaunderable soft surfaces, such as upholstery and carpet, have received little attention. The aim of this systematic review was to determine factors that influence the survival and inactivation of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. EBSCO and Web of Science were searched for experimental studies published between 1965 and 2015 using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methods. Titles and abstracts were screened using 3 eligibility criteria. The quality of all study methods was also assessed. Our search yielded 12 articles. Viruses survived between 0 hours and 140 days depending on surface and environment conditions. Virus survival was influenced by temperature, relative humidity, organic content, and deposition method. A variety of chemistries were tested across studies and were shown to have a varied effect on enteric viruses. Chlorine, glutaraldehyde, vaporous ozone, and hydrogen peroxide were the most efficacious against enteric viruses (> 3-log reduction). Environmental factors, such as temperature and relative humidity, can influence survival of enteric viruses on nonlaunderable soft surfaces. The efficacy of liquid and vaporous chemistries are associated with surface and virus type. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  3. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  4. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses.The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed.Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  5. Cytokine Release Assays as Tests for Exposure to Leishmania, and for Confirming Cure from Leishmaniasis, in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Carrillo

    Full Text Available Spain has one of the world's largest pools of organ donors and is a global leader in terms of the number of transplants it performs. The current outbreak of leishmaniasis in Fuenlabrada (in the southwest of the region of Madrid, Spain has involved 600 clinical cases since late 2009 (prevalence 0.2%. It may therefore be wise to monitor the town's transplanted population for Leishmania infantum; its members are immunosuppressed and at greater risk of infection and relapse following treatment. The present work examines the use of cytokine release assays to determine the prevalence of Leishmania infection in this population, and to confirm recovery following treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The humoral and cellular immune responses to L. infantum were characterized in 63 solid organ transplant (SOT recipients from Fuenlabrada, 57 of whom reported no previous episode of VL (NVL subjects, and six of whom had been cured of VL (CVL subjects. Seventeen subjects (12 NVL and 5 CVL showed a patent lymphoproliferative response to soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures and of whole blood with SLA led to the production of different combinations of cytokines that might serve to confirm Leishmania infection or recovery from VL and help prevent cured patients from relapsing into this serious condition.

  6. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  7. Survival of influenza virus on banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-05-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness.

  8. Survival of Influenza Virus on Banknotes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Yves; Vogel, Guido; Wunderli, Werner; Suter, Patricia; Witschi, Mark; Koch, Daniel; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Successful control of a viral disease requires knowledge of the different vectors that could promote its transmission among hosts. We assessed the survival of human influenza viruses on banknotes given that billions of these notes are exchanged daily worldwide. Banknotes were experimentally contaminated with representative influenza virus subtypes at various concentrations, and survival was tested after different time periods. Influenza A viruses tested by cell culture survived up to 3 days when they were inoculated at high concentrations. The same inoculum in the presence of respiratory mucus showed a striking increase in survival time (up to 17 days). Similarly, B/Hong Kong/335/2001 virus was still infectious after 1 day when it was mixed with respiratory mucus. When nasopharyngeal secretions of naturally infected children were used, influenza virus survived for at least 48 h in one-third of the cases. The unexpected stability of influenza virus in this nonbiological environment suggests that unusual environmental contamination should be considered in the setting of pandemic preparedness. PMID:18359825

  9. Predicting survival in oldest old people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taekema, Diana G.; Gussekloo, J.; Westendorp, Rudi G J; De Craen, Anton J M; Maier, Andrea B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Measures of physical performance are regarded as useful objective clinical tools to estimate survival in elderly people. However, oldest old people, aged 85 years or more, are underrepresented in earlier studies and frequently unable to perform functional tests. We studied the association

  10. InvestigationOrganizer: The Development and Testing of a Web-based Tool to Support Mishap Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert F.; Williams, James; Keller, Richard; Sturken, Ian; Panontin, Tina

    2004-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a collaborative web-based system designed to support the conduct of mishap investigations. IO provides a common repository for a wide range of mishap related information, and allows investigators to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links between evidence, causal models, findings and recommendations. It integrates the functionality of a database, a common document repository, a semantic knowledge network, a rule-based inference engine, and causal modeling and visualization. Thus far, IO has been used to support four mishap investigations within NASA, ranging from a small property damage case to the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia. This paper describes how the functionality of IO supports mishap investigations and the lessons learned from the experience of supporting two of the NASA mishap investigations: the Columbia Accident Investigation and the CONTOUR Loss Investigation.

  11. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael; Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla; Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza; Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m 3 /ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis

  13. [The phylogenetic theory of pathology. The arterial hypertension--a test of metabolic disorder. The biological basis of damage of target organs (a lecture)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-05-01

    The increase of blood tension is a diagnostic test of disorders of homeostasis, trophology, endoecology and adaptation in paracrine regulated coenosis of cells. This conditions results in disorder of microcirculation in the distal section of arterial race and in compensatory increase of blood tension in its proximal section. The increase of blood tension disturbs the function of paracrine coenosis of cells which have one's own system of hemo- and hydrodynamics such as brain with system of spinal liquor and kidneys with local pool of primary urine. They counteract the rise of blood tension and activate local, humoral system of renin-angiotensin-II increasing peripheral resistance to blood flow. At that, the compensatory blood tension becomes even higher. The aldosterone and natriuretic peptides are functional synergists. So, they preserve and excrete ions of Na+ and support the stability of unified pool of intercellular medium ("Inner Ocean" of organism) where all cells live. The parameters of this pool are limited most strictly in vivo. If at the level of nephron the conditions are formed that can alter the parameters of unified pool of intercellular medium the vasomotor center rises blood tension from the level of organism "forcing" nephrons to re-establish the parameters of this pool and normalize the biological functions and biological reactions. The blood pressure increase under pathology of kidneys is caused because of pathological compensation at the level of organism mediated by vegetal nervous system and dictated by necessity to preserve the parameters of inner medium of organism.

  14. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  15. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  16. Opportunistic testing versus organized prostate-specific antigen screening: outcome after 18 years in the Göteborg randomized population-based prostate cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnsrud Godtman, Rebecka; Holmberg, Erik; Lilja, Hans; Stranne, Johan; Hugosson, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    It has been shown that organized screening decreases prostate cancer (PC) mortality, but the effect of opportunistic screening is largely unknown. To compare the ability to reduce PC mortality and the risk of overdiagnosis between organized and opportunistic screening. The Göteborg screening study invited 10 000 randomly selected men for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing every 2 yr since 1995, with a prostate biopsy recommended for men with PSA ≥2.5 ng/ml. The control group of 10 000 men not invited has been exposed to a previously reported increased rate of opportunistic PSA testing. Both groups were followed until December 31, 2012. Observed cumulative PC incidence and mortality rates in both groups were calculated using the actuarial method. Using historical data from 1990-1994 (pre-PSA era), we calculated expected PC incidence and mortality rates in the absence of any PSA testing. The number needed to invite (NNI) and the number needed to diagnose (NND) were calculated by comparing the expected versus observed incidence and mortality rates. At 18 yr, 1396 men were diagnosed with PC and 79 men died of PC in the screening group, compared to 962 and 122, respectively, in the control group. In the screening group, the observed cumulative PC incidence/mortality was 16%/0.98% compared to expected values of 6.8%/1.7%. The corresponding values for the control group were 11%/1.5% and 6.9%/1.7%. Organized screening was associated with an absolute PC-specific mortality reduction of 0.72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.94%) and relative risk reduction of 42% (95% CI 28-54%). There was an absolute reduction in PC deaths of 0.20% (95% CI -0.06% to 0.47%) and a relative risk reduction of 12% (95% CI -5 to 26%) associated with opportunistic PSA testing. NNI and NND were 139 (95% CI 107-200) and 13 for organized biennial screening and 493 (95% CI 213- -1563) and 23 for opportunistic screening. The extent of opportunistic screening could not be measured

  17. Part III: Comparing observed growth of selected test organisms in food irradiation studies with growth predictions calculated by ComBase softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L.; Beczner, J.; Polyak-Feher, K.; Gaal, O.; Lebovics, V.K.; Lugasi, A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of intensive predictive microbiological modelling activities, several computer programs and softwares became available recently for facilitating microbiological risk assessment. Among these tools, the establishment of the ComBase, an international database and its predictive modelling softwares of the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP) set up by the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmore, PA, and the Food Micromodel/Growth Predictor by the United Kingdom's Institute of Food Research, Norwich, are most important. The authors have used the PMP 6.1 software version of ComBase as a preliminary trial to compare observed growth of selected test organisms in relation to their food irradiation work during recent years within the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Food Irradiation Research Projects (D6.10.23 and D6.20.07) with the predicted growth on the basis of growth models available in ComBase for the same species as those of the authors' test organisms. The results of challenge tests with Listeria monocytogenes inoculum in untreated or irradiated experimental batches of semi-prepared breaded turkey meat steaks (cordon bleu), sliced tomato, sliced watermelon, sliced cantaloupe and sous vide processed mixed vegetables, as well as Staphylococcus aureus inoculum of a pasta product, tortellini, were compared with their respective growth models under relevant environmental conditions. This comparison showed good fits in the case of non-irradiated and high moisture food samples, but growth of radiation survivors lagged behind the predicted values. (author)

  18. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  19. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  20. Genetically modified crops and aquatic ecosystems: considerations for environmental risk assessment and non-target organism testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Anderson, Jennifer; Bachman, Pamela; De Schrijver, Adinda; Dively, Galen; Federici, Brian; Hamer, Mick; Gielkens, Marco; Jensen, Peter; Lamp, William; Rauschen, Stefan; Ridley, Geoff; Romeis, Jörg; Waggoner, Annabel

    2012-08-01

    Environmental risk assessments (ERA) support regulatory decisions for the commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. The ERA for terrestrial agroecosystems is well-developed, whereas guidance for ERA of GM crops in aquatic ecosystems is not as well-defined. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how comprehensive problem formulation can be used to develop a conceptual model and to identify potential exposure pathways, using Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize as a case study. Within problem formulation, the insecticidal trait, the crop, the receiving environment, and protection goals were characterized, and a conceptual model was developed to identify routes through which aquatic organisms may be exposed to insecticidal proteins in maize tissue. Following a tiered approach for exposure assessment, worst-case exposures were estimated using standardized models, and factors mitigating exposure were described. Based on exposure estimates, shredders were identified as the functional group most likely to be exposed to insecticidal proteins. However, even using worst-case assumptions, the exposure of shredders to Bt maize was low and studies supporting the current risk assessments were deemed adequate. Determining if early tier toxicity studies are necessary to inform the risk assessment for a specific GM crop should be done on a case by case basis, and should be guided by thorough problem formulation and exposure assessment. The processes used to develop the Bt maize case study are intended to serve as a model for performing risk assessments on future traits and crops.

  1. Lack of retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy predicts survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, J R; Yang, J C; Linehan, W M; White, D E; Rosenberg, S A; Walther, M M

    2001-07-01

    . Statistical analysis was done with the Mantel-Cox test for comparison of survival on Kaplan-Meier curves and with Fisher's exact test for response rates for IL-2. A total of 154 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy as preparation for IL-2 based regimens. There were 82 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and no preoperative retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy who survived longer (median 14.7 months) than the 72 with lymphadenopathy (median 8.5, p = 0.0004). Patients with incompletely resected, unresectable or an unknown volume resected had decreased survival compared to those with no retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. A multivariate analysis of survival was performed evaluating the known prognostic indicators, performance status and tumor burden, as represented by the number of organs involved with metastases, and the new prognostic factor, lymphadenopathy. Lymphadenopathy was more closely associated with survival than performance status, and appeared to be a new prognostic variable. Patients with and without retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy at initial presentation had similar rates for treatment with IL-2 (54% for both groups). Of the 82 patients with no lymphadenopathy 11 (13%) had long-term survival greater than 5 years. Of the 6 complete responses to IL-2, 5 occurred in this group. Only 1 other patient with incompletely resected retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy survived longer than 5 years. No significant difference in survival was seen between patients who did or did not undergo complex surgery. Patients who presented with metastatic renal cancer and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy had a shorter survival than those with no detectable retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. It is warranted to continue to perform complex extrarenal resection during nephrectomy since no significant difference in the response rate for IL-2 or mean survival compared with those of patients undergoing nephrectomy alone is currently detectable.

  2. The useful micro-organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Can man survive civilization? Academician Ivan Malek, Director of the Institute of Microbiology in Prague, a member of the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee and for many years an adviser to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and UNESCO, believes he can, But he also considers that if man is to survive he must study and use all the resources at his disposal - including the micro-organisms of the planet earth. (author)

  3. Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of airborne particulates, PM10 and TSP, organic extracts in the Drosophila wing-spot test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Dihl, Rafael [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grazielli Azevedo da Silva, Carla [Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza do Amaral, Viviane; Reguly, Maria Luiza [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil - ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues de Andrade, Heloisa Helena [Laboratorio de Diagnostico da Toxicidade Genetica (TOXIGEN), Programa de Pos Graduacao em Genetica e Toxicologia Aplicada (PPGGTA), Universidade Luterana do Brasil -ULBRA, Avenida Farroupilha 8001, 92420280 Canoas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: heloisa@ulbra.br

    2008-01-15

    The genotoxicity associated with air pollution in the city of Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), was assessed in November (spring) and January (summer). We applied the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster in its standard version with normal bioactivation (ST) and in its variant with increased cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformation capacity (HB). The data indicated the genotoxicity of TSP and PM10 collected in November, in both ST and HB crosses. The genotoxic activity of the PM10 material in the spring sample was exclusively associated with the induction of mitotic recombination, whereas the TSP genetic toxicity was due to both recombinational as well as point and/or chromosomal mutation events. Considering PM10 collected in January, a positive response-100% (17.10 m{sup 3}/ml) concentration-was observed in the HB cross, which was not detected in the ST cross. - Drosophila Wing-Spot Test can be used for detection of airborne particulates mutagenesis.

  4. [Survival strategy of photosynthetic organisms. 1. Variability of the extent of light-harvesting pigment aggregation as a structural factor optimizing the function of oligomeric photosynthetic antenna. Model calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisova, Z G

    2004-01-01

    In accordance with our concept of rigorous optimization of photosynthetic machinery by a functional criterion, this series of papers continues purposeful search in natural photosynthetic units (PSU) for the basic principles of their organization that we predicted theoretically for optimal model light-harvesting systems. This approach allowed us to determine the basic principles for the organization of a PSU of any fixed size. This series of papers deals with the problem of structural optimization of light-harvesting antenna of variable size controlled in vivo by the light intensity during the growth of organisms, which accentuates the problem of antenna structure optimization because optimization requirements become more stringent as the PSU increases in size. In this work, using mathematical modeling for the functioning of natural PSUs, we have shown that the aggregation of pigments of model light-harvesting antenna, being one of universal optimizing factors, furthermore allows controlling the antenna efficiency if the extent of pigment aggregation is a variable parameter. In this case, the efficiency of antenna increases with the size of the elementary antenna aggregate, thus ensuring the high efficiency of the PSU irrespective of its size; i.e., variation in the extent of pigment aggregation controlled by the size of light-harvesting antenna is biologically expedient.

  5. Parental Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors in their Offspring: NORD-TEST Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Pukkala, Eero; Tynes, Tore; Feychting, Maria; Hansen, Johnni; Togawa, Kayo; Nordby, Karl-Christian; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Wiebert, Pernilla; Woldbæk, Torill; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Olsson, Ann; Schüz, Joachim

    2017-06-30

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) were suggested to have a prenatal environmentally related origin. The potential endocrine disrupting properties of certain solvents may interfere with the male genital development in utero . We aimed to assess the association between maternal and paternal occupational exposures to organic solvents during the prenatal period and TGCT risk in their offspring. This registry-based case control study included TGCT cases aged 14–49 y ( n =8,112) diagnosed from 1978 to 2012 in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Controls ( n =26,264) were randomly selected from the central population registries and were individually matched to cases on year and country of birth. Occupational histories of parents prior to the child’s birth were extracted from the national censuses. Job codes were converted into solvent exposure using the Nordic job-Nordic Occupational Cancer Study Job-Exposure Matrix. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, no association was found between prenatal maternal exposure to solvents and TGCT risk. In subset analyses using only mothers for whom occupational information was available in the year of or in the year prior to the child’s birth, there was an association with maternal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (ARHC) (OR=1.53; CI: 1.08, 2.17), driven by exposure to toluene (OR=1.67; CI: 1.02, 2.73). No association was seen for any paternal occupational exposure to solvents with the exception of exposure to perchloroethylene in Finland (OR=2.42; CI: 1.32, 4.41). This study suggests a modest increase in TGCT risk associated with maternal prenatal exposure to ARHC. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP864.

  6. Assessing UAS Flight Testing and It's Importance for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control in Cooperation with Partnering Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    From the 1st of June until the 21st of August, the internship has been conducted at NASA Ames Research Center as part of the Master of Space Studies at the International Space University. The main activities consisted of doing research on UAV flight-­-testing and the assessing of safety with respect to Beyond-­-Line-­-Of-­-Sight operations. Further activities consisted of accommodating international partners and potential partners at the NASA Ames site, in order to identify mutual interest and future collaboration. Besides those activities, the report describes the planning process of the ISU Space Coast Trip to 10 different space related companies on the west-­-coast of California. Key words: UAS, UAV, BLOS, Ames, ISU Trip

  7. The organization of irrational beliefs in posttraumatic stress symptomology: testing the predictions of REBT theory using structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study directly tests a central prediction of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) that has received little empirical attention regarding the core and intermediate beliefs in the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms. A theoretically consistent REBT model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined using structural equation modelling techniques among a sample of 313 trauma-exposed military and law enforcement personnel. The REBT model of PTSD provided a good fit of the data, χ(2) = 599.173, df = 356, p depreciation beliefs. Results were consistent with the predictions of REBT theory and provides strong empirical support that the cognitive variables described by REBT theory are critical cognitive constructs in the prediction of PTSD symptomology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Starvation-survival of subsurface bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of four subsurface isolates to survive starvation was examined and the results were compared to survival curves obtained for Escherichia coli B and Serratia marcescens. To examine the starvation-survival phenomenon further, several experimental parameters including nutritional history, initial cell density, growth phase, temperature of growth and starvation, and aeration. Nutritional history, initial cell density, and growth phases of the cells had some effect on the ability of these bacteria to survive whereas temperature and limited aeration had no effect under the conditions tested. No conditions were found where E. coli B or Serratia marcescens died rapidly or where less than 10% of the original cell number of viable cells remained. Because the apparent survival of these bacteria may be due to cryptic growth, cross-feeding experiments with 14 C-labeled cells and unlabeled cells were carried out with E. coli B and Pseudomonas Lula V. Leaked extracellular 14 C-compounds were not used for growth or maintenance energy, and were not taken up by either bacterium. Cryptic growth did not occur; the cells were truly starving under the experimental conditions used

  9. Gastric Malignancy Survival in Zambia, Southern Africa: A Two Year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    numbers provided at time of enrollment. Corresponding author: ... duration of symptoms, treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, ... Zambia and no studies about management survival out comes. ... evaluated risk factors associated with gastric cancer survival in ... patients because patient financial limitations precluded testing for ...

  10. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  11. Study of ignition, combustion, and production of harmful substances upon burning solid organic fuel at a test bench with a vortex chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Anufriev, I. S.; Strizhak, P. A.; Greben'kov, P. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Results of investigation of furnace processes upon burning of pulverized fuel at a test bench with a power of 5 MW are presented. The test bench consists of two stages with tangential air and pulverized coal feed, and it is equipped by a vibrocentrifugal mill and a disintegrator. Such milling devices have an intensive mechanical impact on solid organic fuel, which, in a number of cases, increases the reactivity of ground material. The processes of ignition and stable combustion of a mixture of gas coal and sludge (wastes of concentration plant), as well as Ekibastus coal, ground in the disintegrator, were studied at the test bench. The results of experimental burning demonstrated that preliminary fuel grinding in the disintegrator provides autothermal combustion mode even for hardly inflammable organic fuels. Experimental combustion of biomass, wheat straw with different lignin content (18, 30, 60%) after grinding in the disintegrator, was performed at the test bench in order to determine the possibility of supporting stable autothermal burning. Stable biofuel combustion mode without lighting by highly reactive fuel was achieved in the experiments. The influence of the additive GTS-Powder (L.O.M. Leaders Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea) in the solid and liquid state on reducing sulfur oxide production upon burning Mugun coal was studied. The results of experimental combustion testify that, for an additive concentration from 1 to 15% of the total mass of the burned mixture, the maximum SO2 concentration reduction in ejected gases was not more than 18% with respect to the amount for the case of burning pure coal.

  12. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  13. Survival of microorganisms in smectite clays: Implications for Martian exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Vestal, J. Robie

    1992-08-01

    Manned exploration of Mars may result in the contamination of that planet with terrestrial microbes, a situation requiring assessment of the survival potential of possible contaminating organisms. In this study, the survival of Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, and the enteric bacteriophage MS2 was examined in clays representing terrestrial (Wyoming type montmorillonite) or Martian (Fe 3+-montmorillonite) soils exposed to terrestrial and Martian environmental conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure and composition, but not to UV flux or oxidizing conditions. Survival of bacteria was determined by standard plate counts and biochemical and physiological measurements over 112 days. Extractable lipid phosphate was used to measure microbial biomass, and the rate of 14C-acetate incorporation into microbial lipids was used to determine physiological activity. MS2 survival was assayed by plaque counts. Both bacterial types survived terrestrial or Martian conditions in Wyoming montmorillonite better than Martian conditions in Fe 3+-montmorillonite. Decreased survival may have been caused by the lower pH of the Fe 3+-montmorillonite compared to Wyoming montmorillonite. MS2 survived simulated Mars conditions better than the terrestrial environment, likely due to stabilization of the virus caused by the cold and dry conditions of the simulated Martian environment. The survival of MS2 in the simulated Martian environment is the first published indication that viruses may be able to survive in Martian type soils. This work may have implications for planetary protection for future Mars missions.

  14. Fingertip replantation: determinants of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Zheng; Zhu, Qingsheng; Lei, Wei; Han, Yisheng; Li, Mingquan; Wang, Zhen

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for an unsuccessful replanted fingertip. Two hundred eleven complete fingertip amputations in 211 patients who underwent replantation surgery between August of 1990 and March of 2006 were included in this study. The patients' age, gender, smoking history, digit position, dominant hand, amputation level, injury mechanism, platelet count, ischemia time, preservation method of the amputated part, anesthesia, number of arteries repaired, venous drainage, use of vein grafting, neurorrhaphy, bone shortening, and smoking after operation were tested for their impact on fingertip survival. One hundred seventy-two of 211 patients (81.5 percent) had a successful replantation. Univariate analysis showed crush or avulsion injury, high platelet count, and inappropriate preservation of the amputated part in saline solution or ethanol to be associated with a high incidence of replantation failure. Twenty-two of 54 patients (41 percent) who had a crush or avulsion trauma had failed replantation. Logistic regression analysis identified injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of the amputated part, and the use of vein grafting as statistically significant predictive factors for success or failure. Injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of amputated part, and the use of vein grafting were found to be the main predictors for the survival of the replanted fingertip. Applying external bleeding in zone 1 and venous drainage through the medullary cavity in zone 2 or venous anastomosis combined with vein grafting rather than venous anastomosis alone were strongly recommended in the fingertip replantation of crush or avulsion injury.

  15. Development and successful field tests of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of persistent petroleum and organic contaminants in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Huang, X.-D.; Gurska, Y.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Lampi, M.A.; Khalid, A.; Isherwood, D.; Chang, P.; Wang, W.; Wang, H.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2006-07-01

    If efficient systems with rapid remediation kinetics can be realized, phytoremediation of persistent contaminants from soils holds great promise. A multi-process phytoremediation system (MPPS) with accelerated remediation kinetics that effectively removes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) from soils has been developed. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria interaction is the main element for success as it mitigates stress ethylene effects in plants, leading to high root biomass which, in turn, promotes growth of rhizosphere organisms. Based on the success of greenhouse experiments, field tests of the MPPS were initiated at an Imperial Oil land farm site in Sarnia, Ontario in the summer of 2004, followed by 127 field tests at the same site in the summer of 2005 and 2006. In addition, a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated site in Alberta was used in 2005 and 2006. The study presented and discussed selected results of successful greenhouse, pilot field tests and field tests of the MPPS. It was concluded that increased root biomass is achieved in the contaminated soils, which leads to more efficient and complete removal of TPHs in the field. Three years of field trials of the MPPS showed that remediation continues with successive seasons. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Provider-related barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs) and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Howerton, Devery; Lange, James; Setodji, Claude Messan; Becker, Kirsten; Klein, David J; Asch, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    We examined provider-reported barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs), and hospitals. 12 primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs; three per region) were sampled randomly, with sampling weights proportional to AIDS case reports. Across PMSAs, all 671 hospitals and a random sample of 738 clinics/CBOs were telephoned for a survey on rapid HIV test availability. Of the 671 hospitals, 172 hospitals were randomly selected for barriers questions, for which 158 laboratory and 136 department staff were eligible and interviewed in 2005. Of the 738 clinics/CBOs, 276 were randomly selected for barriers questions, 206 were reached, and 118 were eligible and interviewed in 2005-2006. In multivariate models, barriers regarding translation of administrative/quality assurance policies into practice were significantly associated with rapid HIV testing availability. For greater rapid testing diffusion, policies are needed to reduce administrative barriers and provide quality assurance training to non-laboratory staff.

  17. Adaptive memory: the comparative value of survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Thompson, Sarah R

    2008-02-01

    We recently proposed that human memory systems are "tuned" to remember information that is processed for survival, perhaps as a result of fitness advantages accrued in the ancestral past. This proposal was supported by experiments in which participants showed superior memory when words were rated for survival relevance, at least relative to when words received other forms of deep processing. The current experiments tested the mettle of survival memory by pitting survival processing against conditions that are universally accepted as producing excellent retention, including conditions in which participants rated words for imagery, pleasantness, and self-reference; participants also generated words, studied words with the intention of learning them, or rated words for relevance to a contextually rich (but non-survival-related) scenario. Survival processing yielded the best retention, which suggests that it may be one of the best encoding procedures yet discovered in the memory field.

  18. Deceased Organ Donors and PHS Risk Identification: Impact on Organ Usage and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Timothy L; Clark, Marissa A; Taranto, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    In 2013, the public health service (PHS) changed the criteria intended to identify organ donors that put the associated organ recipients at increased risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The changing donor demographics, organ utilization, and outcomes associated with this change are not known. A review of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was performed to assess the impact of PHS donor designation on organ utilization and outcomes. After the 2013 modification, over 20% of all deceased organ donors in the United States were identified as PHS increased risk. Compared with the standard risk deceased organ donor, the PHS donor was younger, male, died from anoxia, more likely to be HCV and antibody reacting to hepatitis B core antigen+, and less likely to have diabetes or hypertension. Organs from the 18- to 34-year-old deceased donors with PHS risks (but relatively few medical comorbidities) and tested negative for HCV were less frequently transplanted compared with the standard risk donors (3.9 vs 4.2 organs transplanted per donor). However, the transplant patient and graft survival as well as risk of unexpected transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV were equivalent, irrespective of PHS donor status. The rationale of using PHS donor designation that negatively impacts utilization of high-quality organs without the benefit of identifying the subset of organs with demonstrable proclivity to transmit HIV, HBV, or HCV needs to be reexamined.

  19. Improving Survival in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nath Mukerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in cirrhosis is consequent of decompensation, only treatment being timely liver transplantation. Organ allocation is prioritized for the sickest patients based on Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD score. In order to improve survival in patients with high MELD score it is imperative to preserve them in suitable condition till transplantation. Here we examine means to prolong life in high MELD score patients till a suitable liver is available. We specially emphasize protection of airways by avoidance of sedatives, avoidance of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, elective intubation in grade III or higher encephalopathy, maintaining a low threshold for intubation with lesser grades of encephalopathy when undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy as pre transplant evaluation or transferring patient to a transplant center. Consider post-pyloric tube feeding in encephalopathy to maintain muscle mass and minimize risk of aspiration. In non intubated and well controlled encephalopathy, frequent physical mobility by active and passive exercises are recommended. When renal replacement therapy is needed, night-time Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis may be useful in keeping the daytime free for mobility. Sparing and judicious use of steroids needs to be borne in mind in treatment of ARDS and acute hepatitis from alcohol or autoimmune process.

  20. Assessment of the microbial growth potential of slow sand filtrate with the biomass production potential test in comparison with the assimilable organic carbon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Mark, Ed J; Dignum, Marco

    2017-11-15

    Slow sand filtration is the final treatment step at four surface-water supplies in the Netherlands. The microbial growth potential (MGP) of the finished water was measured with the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) method using pure cultures and the biomass production potential (BPP) test. In the BPP test, water samples were incubated untreated at 25 °C and the active-biomass concentration was measured by adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. Addition of a river-water inoculum improved the test performance and characteristic growth and maintenance profiles of the water were obtained. The maximum ATP concentration attained within seven days and the cumulative biomass production after 14 days of incubation (BPC 14 , d ng ATP L -1 ) showed highly significant and strong linear relationships with the AOC in the slow sand filtrates. The lowest AOC and BPC 14 levels were observed in the supplies applying dune filtration without ozonation in post treatment, with AOC/TOC = 1.7 ± 0.3 μg acetate-C equivalents mg -1 C and BPC 14 /TOC = 16.3 ± 2.2 d ng ATP mg -1 C, corresponding with 1.2 ± 0.19 ng ATP mg -1 C. These characteristics may represent the lowest specific MGP of natural organic matter achievable by biofiltration at temperatures ≤20 °C. The AOC and BPC 14 concentrations in the slow sand filtrate of the supply treating lake water by ozonation with granular-activated-carbon filtration and slow sand filtration as post treatment increased with decreasing temperature. The BPP test revealed that this slow sand filtrate sampled at 2 °C contained growth-promoting compounds that were not detected with the AOC test. These observations demonstrate the utility of the BPP test for assessing the MGP of drinking water and show the performance limits of biofiltration for MGP reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Applying standardized uptake values in gallium-67-citrate single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography studies and their correlation with blood test results in representative organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriihara, Akira; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Yoshida, Katsuya; Isogai, Jun; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2018-05-21

    Recently, semiquantitative analysis using standardized uptake value (SUV) has been introduced in bone single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Our purposes were to apply SUV-based semiquantitative analytic method for gallium-67 (Ga)-citrate SPECT/CT and to evaluate correlation between SUV of physiological uptake and blood test results in representative organs. The accuracy of semiquantitative method was validated using an National Electrical Manufacturers Association body phantom study (radioactivity ratio of sphere : background=4 : 1). Thereafter, 59 patients (34 male and 25 female; mean age, 66.9 years) who had undergone Ga-citrate SPECT/CT were retrospectively enrolled in the study. A mean SUV of physiological uptake was calculated for the following organs: the lungs, right atrium, liver, kidneys, spleen, gluteal muscles, and bone marrow. The correlation between physiological uptakes and blood test results was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The phantom study revealed only 1% error between theoretical and actual SUVs in the background, suggesting the sufficient accuracy of scatter and attenuation corrections. However, a partial volume effect could not be overlooked, particularly in small spheres with a diameter of less than 28 mm. The highest mean SUV was observed in the liver (range: 0.44-4.64), followed by bone marrow (range: 0.33-3.60), spleen (range: 0.52-2.12), and kidneys (range: 0.42-1.45). There was no significant correlation between hepatic uptake and liver function, renal uptake and renal function, or bone marrow uptake and blood cell count (P>0.05). The physiological uptake in Ga-citrate SPECT/CT can be represented as SUVs, which are not significantly correlated with corresponding blood test results.

  2. Chronic consequences of acute injuries: worse survival after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Renfro, Lindsay A; Barnes, Sunni; Rayan, Nadine; Gentilello, Larry M; Fleming, Neil; Ballard, David

    2012-09-01

    The Trauma Quality Improvement Program uses inhospital mortality to measure quality of care, which assumes patients who survive injury are not likely to suffer higher mortality after discharge. We hypothesized that survival rates in trauma patients who survive to discharge remain stable afterward. Patients treated at an urban Level I trauma center (2006-2008) were linked with the Social Security Administration Death Master File. Survival rates were measured at 30, 90, and 180 days and 1 and 2 years from injury among two groups of trauma patients who survived to discharge: major trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3 injuries, n = 2,238) and minor trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≤ 2 injuries, n = 1,171). Control groups matched to each trauma group by age and sex were simulated from the US general population using annual survival probabilities from census data. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses conditional upon survival to each time point were used to determine changes in risk of mortality after discharge. Cox proportional hazards models with left truncation at the time of discharge were used to determine independent predictors of mortality after discharge. The survival rate in trauma patients with major injuries was 92% at 30 days posttrauma and declined to 84% by 3 years (p > 0.05 compared with general population). Minor trauma patients experienced a survival rate similar to the general population. Age and injury severity were the only independent predictors of long-term mortality given survival to discharge. Log-rank tests conditional on survival to each time point showed that mortality risk in patients with major injuries remained significantly higher than the general population for up to 6 months after injury. The survival rate of trauma patients with major injuries remains significantly lower than survival for minor trauma patients and the general population for several months postdischarge. Surveillance for early identification and treatment of

  3. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  4. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shahbazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011 among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and "charity for kidney patients" of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients′ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.47 (1.02-2.13]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered.

  5. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Publications desktop survival guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to document and simplify the writing, reviewing, and production process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) staff and to provide specific answers concerning the content, style, and format of UMTRA Project documents. Goal of the UMTRA Project document preparation process is to deliver to the US DOE high-quality documents that meet requirements (meets expressed client needs; accurate and consistent technical content; clear writing; well organized document; consistent style). A document review process has been established to ensure that TAC documents are accurate, consistent, and well organized. The editing process applies standard rules for style and format, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure to make the document consistent and easier to read. This guide sets forth the rules to be applied to UMTRA Project documents.

  7. Effect of pasteurization on survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, A; Mutharia, L; Chen, S; Rahn, K; Odumeru, J

    2002-12-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (Mptb) is the causative agent of Johne's disease of ruminant animals including cattle, goats, and sheep. It has been suggested that this organism is associated with Crohn's disease in humans, and milk is a potential source of human exposure to this organism. A total of 18, including 7 regular batch and 11 high temperature short time (HTST) pasteurization experiments, were conducted in this study. Raw milk or ultra-high temperature pasteurized milk samples were spiked at levels of 10(3), 10(5), and 10(7) cfu of Mptb/ml. Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains at 10(7) cfu/ml were used as controls. Pasteurization experiments were conducted using time and temperature standards specified in the Canadian National Dairy Code: regular batch pasteurization method: 63 degrees C for 30 min, and HTST method: 72 degrees C for 15 s. The death curve of this organism was assessed at 63 degrees C. No survivors were detected after 15 min. Each spiked sample was cultured in Middlebrook 7H9 culture broth and Middlebrook 7H11 agar slants. Samples selected from 15 experiments were also subjected to BACTEC culture procedure. Survival of Mptb was confirmed by IS900-based PCR of colonies recovered on slants. No survivors were detected from any of the slants or broths corresponding to the seven regular batch pasteurization trials. Mptb survivors were detected in two of the 11 HTST experiments. One was by both slant and broth culture for the sample spiked to 10(7) cfu/ml of Mptb, while the other was detected by BACTEC for the sample spiked to 10(5) cfu/ml. These results indicate that Mptb may survive HTST pasteurization when present at > or = 10(5) cfu/ml in milk. A total of 710 retail milk samples collected from retail store and dairy plants in southwest Ontario were tested by nested IS900 PCR for the presence of Mptb. Fifteen percent of these samples (n = 110) were positive. However, no survivors were isolated from the broth and agar cultures of

  8. The self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) theory of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, David B

    2002-04-01

    A new theory of substance use disorders is proposed-the SPFit theory-that is based on evolutionary biology and adaptive systems. Self-perceived survival ability and reproductive fitness (SPFit) is proposed as a human psychobiological construct that prioritizes and organizes (i.e. motivates) behavior, but is highly vulnerable to temporary, artificial activation by drugs of abuse. Autoshaping/sign-tracking/feature positive phenomena are proposed to underlie the development of craving and expectations about drugs as the individual learns that abused drugs will easily and reliably inflate SPFit. The cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system and its modulating interconnections are viewed as the biological substrate of SPFit; it is proposed to be a survival and reproductive motivation system rather than a reward center or reward pathway. Finally, the concept of modularity of mind is applied to the SPFit construct. Although considerable empirical data are consistent with the theory, new research is needed to test specific hypotheses derived from SPFit theory.

  9. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  10. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  11. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing 6 to 12 Months after ASCUS or LSIL Cytology in Organized Screening To Predict High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia between Screening Rounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøborg, Katrine D.; Nygård, Mari; Røysland, Kjetil; Campbell, Suzanne; Alfsen, G. Cecilie; Jonassen, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out a prospective study comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA (PreTect HPV-Proofer; NorChip, Klokkarstua, Norway) and DNA (Amplicor HPV test; Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland) triage testing of women 6 to 12 months after atypical-squamous-cells-of-undetermined-significance (ASCUS) or low-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesion (LSIL) cytology in organized screening to predict high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) between screening rounds. Between January 2005 and April 2008, 692 study women with screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL cytology 6 to 12 months earlier returned for HPV mRNA and DNA testing and repeat cytology. The median follow-up time was 3 years, using existing health care facilities. Follow-up test results were available for 625 women. Of the 145 CIN2+ cases detected during the study period, 95 (65.5%) were HPV mRNA positive 6 to 12 months after screening-detected ASCUS/LSIL, 44 (30.4%) were HPV mRNA negative, and 6 (4.1%) were invalid. The corresponding HPV DNA results were 139 (95.9%), 5 (3.4%), and 1 (0.7%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after a negative HPV mRNA and DNA test were 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2 to 13.3%) and 1.8% (95% CI, 0.0 to 3.6%), respectively. The cumulative incidences of CIN2+ 3 years after positive HPV mRNA and DNA tests were 52.8% (95% CI, 40.1 to 60.1%) and 41.3% (95% CI, 35.5 to 46.6%), respectively. In conclusion, both positive HPV mRNA and DNA test results have a high enough long-term prediction of CIN2+ risk to consider referral to colposcopy as good practice when performed in delayed triage of women with ASCUS/LSIL cytology. In addition, the low CIN2+ risk among women with a negative Amplicor HPV test in our study confirms its safe use in a clinical setting. PMID:22518869

  13. Organizational adoption of preemployment drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, C S; Blum, T C

    2001-04-01

    This study explored the adoption of preemployment drug testing by 360 organizations. Survival models were developed that included internal organizational and labor market factors hypothesized to affect the likelihood of adoption of drug testing. Also considered was another set of variables that included social and political variables based on institutional theory. An event history analysis using Cox regressions indicated that both internal organizational and environmental variables predicted adoption of drug testing. Results indicate that the higher the proportion of drug testers in the worksite's industry, the more likely it would be to adopt drug testing. Also, the extent to which an organization uses an internal labor market, voluntary turnover rate, and the extent to which management perceives drugs to be a problem were related to likelihood of adoption of drug testing.

  14. Fiscal 1997 research report on the survey on public test and evaluation organizations for development of welfare equipment; 1997 nendo fukushi kiki kaihatsu ni kakawaru koteki shiken hyoka kikan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This research studies the construction policy of public test and evaluation systems for future development and practical use of welfare equipment, through survey on the current methods for development, practical test and evaluation of welfare equipment in countries advanced in welfare, and preparation of basic data for promoting establishment of public test and evaluation functions in Japan. Infrastructure preparation for standards and public test and evaluation organizations for developing welfare equipment is being promoted by Technical Laboratory of Bicycle Industry Promotion Association and some national organizations such as Product Evaluation Technical Center, Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Bioscience and Human Technology, and Living and JIS Center. However, preparation of objective and across test and evaluation systems for developing welfare equipment is still insufficient. Product Evaluation Technical Center is now approaching to evaluation and standardization of welfare equipment. Public test and evaluation organizations of the UK, Sweden and Denmark are presented. (NEDO)

  15. Dying to remember, remembering to survive: mortality salience and survival processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Daniel J; Hart, Joshua; Kramer, Melanie E; Burns, Amy D

    2014-01-01

    Processing items for their relevance to survival improves recall for those items relative to numerous other deep processing encoding techniques. Perhaps related, placing individuals in a mortality salient state has also been shown to enhance retention of items encoded after the morality salience manipulation (e.g., in a pleasantness rating task), a phenomenon we dubbed the "dying-to-remember" (DTR) effect. The experiments reported here further explored the effect and tested the possibility that the DTR effect is related to survival processing. Experiment 1 replicated the effect using different encoding tasks, demonstrating that the effect is not dependent on the pleasantness task. In Experiment 2 the DTR effect was associated with increases in item-specific processing, not relational processing, according to several indices. Experiment 3 replicated the main results of Experiment 2, and tested the effects of mortality salience and survival processing within the same experiment. The DTR effect and its associated difference in item-specific processing were completely eliminated when the encoding task required survival processing. These results are consistent with the interpretation that the mechanisms responsible for survival processing and DTR effects are overlapping.

  16. A taylor series approach to survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, J.B.; Groer, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    A method of survival analysis using hazard functions is developed. The method uses the well known mathematical theory for Taylor Series. Hypothesis tests of the adequacy of many statistical models, including proportional hazards and linear and/or quadratic dose responses, are obtained. A partial analysis of leukemia mortality in the Life Span Study cohort is used as an example. Furthermore, a relatively robust estimation procedure for the proportional hazards model is proposed. (author)

  17. Fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel for annulus fibrosus repair: performance evaluation with large animal organ culture, in situ biomechanics, and in vivo degradation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Likhitpanichkul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF defects from annular tears, herniation, and discectomy procedures are associated with painful conditions and accelerated intervertebral disc (IVD degeneration. Currently, no effective treatments exist to repair AF damage, restore IVD biomechanics and promote tissue regeneration. An injectable fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel (Fib-Gen was evaluated for its performance repairing large AF defects in a bovine caudal IVD model using ex vivo organ culture and biomechanical testing of motion segments, and for its in vivo longevity and biocompatibility in a rat model by subcutaneous implantation. Fib-Gen sealed AF defects, prevented IVD height loss, and remained well-integrated with native AF tissue following approximately 14,000 cycles of compression in 6-day organ culture experiments. Fib-Gen repair also retained high viability of native AF cells near the repair site, reduced nitric oxide released to the media, and showed evidence of AF cell migration into the gel. Biomechanically, Fib-Gen fully restored compressive stiffness to intact levels validating organ culture findings. However, only partial restoration of tensile and torsional stiffness was obtained, suggesting opportunities to enhance this formulation. Subcutaneous implantation results, when compared with the literature, suggested Fib-Gen exhibited similar biocompatibility behaviour to fibrin alone but degraded much more slowly. We conclude that injectable Fib-Gen successfully sealed large AF defects, promoted functional restoration with improved motion segment biomechanics, and served as a biocompatible adhesive biomaterial that had greatly enhanced in vivo longevity compared to fibrin. Fib-Gen offers promise for AF repairs that may prevent painful conditions and accelerated degeneration of the IVD, and warrants further material development and evaluation.

  18. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85% and low (≤70% relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion: C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01 in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter

  19. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter and faeces under various environmental conditions has

  20. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  1. Working memory load eliminates the survival processing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Rummel, Jan; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In a series of experiments, Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada (2007) demonstrated that words judged for their relevance to a survival scenario are remembered better than words judged for a scenario not relevant on a survival dimension. They explained this survival-processing effect by arguing that nature "tuned" our memory systems to process and remember fitness-relevant information. Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) proposed that it may not be survival processing per se that facilitates recall but the richness and distinctiveness with which information is encoded. To further test this account, we investigated how the survival processing effect is affected by cognitive load. If the survival processing effect is due to automatic processes or, alternatively, if survival processing is routinely prioritized in dual-task contexts, we would expect this effect to persist under cognitive load conditions. If the effect relies on cognitively demanding processes like richness and distinctiveness of encoding, however, the survival processing benefit should be hampered by increased cognitive load during encoding. Results were in line with the latter prediction, that is, the survival processing effect vanished under dual-task conditions.

  2. Determinants of IPO survival on the Johannesburg securities exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownhilder Ngek Neneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the determinants of IPO survival on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE. Using the Kaplan-Meier test, this study established that firms less than five years prior to listing on the JSE have a significant smaller mean survival time; firms with a gross proceed less than the median have a significant shorter mean survival time; overpriced IPOs have a significant higher survival time; IPOs listed during the hot market period on the JSE have a significant smaller mean survival time and IPOs with return on asset, operating profit margin, and return on equity less than or equal to zero have a low mean survival time. Also, being in the internet industry significantly shortens the mean survival time of an IPO. Moreover, based on the Cox Proportional Hazard model, it was established that the determinants of IPO survivability on the JSE are the firms’ age, size, market period, return on equity and operating profit margin are. These findings provide investors and companies in the JSE with empirical evidence of the determinants of IPO survivability of the JSE. As such, investors are advised to consider these factors when selecting their portfolios

  3. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  4. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  5. Dehydration survival of crop plants and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2018-01-08

    Dehydration survival under drought stress is defined in this review as the transition from plant activity into a quiescent state of life preservation, which will be terminated by either recovery or death, depending on the stress regime and the plant's resilience. Dehydration survival is a popular phenotype by which functional genomics attempts to test gene function in drought resistance and survival. The available reports on phenotyping and genotyping of dehydration survival in genomic studies indicate that the measurement of this trait is often biased to the extent that misguided interpretations are likely to occur. This review briefly discusses the physiological basis of dehydration survival in resurrection plants and crop plants, and concludes that in phenotyping dehydration survival there is a need to distinguish between dehydration avoidance and dehydration tolerance (also termed desiccation tolerance) in affecting survival and recovery. Without this distinction, functional genomics studies of the trait might be biased. Survival due to dehydration avoidance is expressed by the capacity to maintain a relatively high plant water status as the plant is desiccated. Survival due to dehydration tolerance is expressed by delayed mortality (mortality at a relatively low plant water status) as affected by the resilience of plant metabolism. The common test of dehydration survival, using the relative recovery after a given number of stress days, is therefore insufficient because it is mainly driven by dehydration avoidance and so ignores a possible role for dehydration tolerance. Conceivable methods for more accurate phenotyping of the two components of dehydration survival are proposed and discussed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The effect of retraining of nurses on cardiopulmonary resuscitationsuccess rate and short-term and long-term survival in patients revived

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahi M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is performed in order to restore the functioning of two most important body organs the heart and brain. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of retraining of nurses on CPR success rate and short-term and long-term CPR survival. Materials and Method: The study population of the present quasi-experimental study consisted of all nurses of Taleghani Hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran, in 2011. The study subjects (n = 400 were selected using convenience and purposive sampling method. The patient survival rate during the first 24 hours (short-term survival and discharge from the hospital (long-term survival after CPR were reported. Then, the study subjects, in groups of 20, participated in CPR training courses. Short-term (24 hours and long-term (discharge from hospital in good mental status survival subsequent to CPR were reevaluated and compared with pre-training results. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and t-test and chi-square test. Results: Retraining promoted CPR success rates. This increase in the short-term success rate was not significant, but the increase in long-term success rate was statistically significant (P = 0.007. Conclusion: Periodic retraining of nurses may improve CPR success rate particularly long-term survival or discharge from hospital. Therefore, further studies on long-term success of CPR considering confounding factors are recommended

  7. Atrial fibrillation and survival in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Timothy A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival in colorectal cancer may correlate with the degree of systemic inflammatory response to the tumour. Atrial fibrillation may be regarded as an inflammatory complication. We aimed to determine if atrial fibrillation is a prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. Patients and methods A prospective colorectal cancer patient database was cross-referenced with the hospital clinical-coding database to identify patients who had underwent colorectal cancer surgery and were in atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Results A total of 175 patients underwent surgery for colorectal cancer over a two-year period. Of these, 13 patients had atrial fibrillation pre- or postoperatively. Atrial fibrillation correlated with worse two-year survival (p = 0.04; log-rank test. However, in a Cox regression analysis, atrial fibrillation was not significantly associated with survival. Conclusion The presence or development of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer is associated with worse overall survival, however it was not found to be an independent factor in multivariate analysis.

  8. Revisiting the Survival Mnemonic Effect in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa N. S. Pand Eirada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The survival processing paradigm is designed to explore the adaptive nature of memory functioning. The mnemonic advantage of processing information in fitness-relevant contexts, as has been demonstrated using this paradigm, is now well established, particularly in young adults; this phenomenon is often referred to as the “survival processing effect.” In the current experiment, we revisited the investigation of this effect in children and tested it in a new cultural group, using a procedure that differs from the existing studies with children. A group of 40 Portuguese children rated the relevance of unrelated words to a survival and a new moving scenario. This encoding task was followed by a surprise free-recall task. Akin to what is typically found, survival processing produced better memory performance than the control condition (moving. These data put on firmer ground the idea that a mnemonic tuning to fitness-relevant encodings is present early in development. The theoretical importance of this result to the adaptive memory literature is discussed, as well as potential practical implications of this kind of approach to the study of memory in children.

  9. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Rozing, Maarten P; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate...... with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex...

  10. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  11. The birth and survival of wildebeest calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R D; Estes, R K

    1979-05-01

    This paper describes social organization, parturition, post partum behavior of wildebeest mothers and offspring, and calf predation during the annual birth peak in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. The wildebeest's "follower-calf" system, unique among the Bovidae, is remarkably effective in protecting neonates. Even during hte one-month peak, the major predator on calves, the spotted hyena, is unable to feed to satiation. Calf survival is consistently high, despite large fluctuations in the numbers of wildebeest, with consequent effects on the size of the yearly calf crop.

  12. Detection and survival of Campylobacter in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, O; Kobalka, P; Zhang, Q

    2003-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a food-borne human pathogen, is widespread in poultry; however, the sources of infection and modes of transmission of this organism on chicken farms are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine if vertical transmission of C. jejuni occurs via eggs. Using a temperature differential method, it was shown that Campylobacter had limited ability to penetrate the eggshell. When C. jejuni was directly inoculated into the egg yolk and the eggs were stored at 18 degrees C, the organism was able to survive for up to 14 days. However, viability of C. jejuni was dramatically shortened when injected into the albumen or the air sac. When freshly laid eggs from Campylobacter-inoculated specific pathogen-free (SPF) layers were tested, C. jejuni-contamination was detected in three of 65 pooled whole eggs (5-10 eggs in each pool) via culture and PCR. However, the organism was not detected from any of the 800 eggs (80 pools), collected from the same SPF flock, but kept at 18 degrees C for 7 days before testing. Likewise, Campylobacter was not recovered from any of 500 fresh eggs obtained from commercial broiler-breeder flocks that were actively shedding Campylobacter in faeces. Also, none of the 1000 eggs from broiler breeders obtained from a commercial hatchery were positive for Campylobacter. These results suggest that vertical transmission of C. jejuni through the egg is probably a rare event and does not play a major role in the introduction of Campylobacter to chicken flocks. Control of Campylobacter transmission to chicken flocks should focus on sources of infection that are not related to eggs.

  13. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  14. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paximadis, Peter, E-mail: ppaximad@med.wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John [Department of Otolaryngology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Sukari, Ammar [Department of Medical Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Dyson, Greg [Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  15. Testing the accuracy of correlations for multicomponent mass transport of adsorbed gases in metal-organic frameworks: diffusion of H2/CH4 mixtures in CuBTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Seda; Liu, Jinchen; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2008-08-05

    Mass transport of chemical mixtures in nanoporous materials is important in applications such as membrane separations, but measuring diffusion of mixtures experimentally is challenging. Methods that can predict multicomponent diffusion coefficients from single-component data can be extremely useful if these methods are known to be accurate. We present the first test of a method of this kind for molecules adsorbed in a metal-organic framework (MOF). Specifically, we examine the method proposed by Skoulidas, Sholl, and Krishna (SSK) ( Langmuir, 2003, 19, 7977) by comparing predictions made with this method to molecular simulations of mixture transport of H 2/CH 4 mixtures in CuBTC. These calculations provide the first direct information on mixture transport of any species in a MOF. The predictions of the SSK approach are in good agreement with our direct simulations of binary diffusion, suggesting that this approach may be a powerful one for examining multicomponent diffusion in MOFs. We also use our molecular simulation data to test the ideal adsorbed solution theory method for predicting binary adsorption isotherms and a method for predicting mixture self-diffusion coefficients.

  16. Amino-Functionalized Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework Test Paper for Rapid and Selective Sensing of SO2 Gas and Its Derivatives by Luminescence Turn-On Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Guo, Lin; Cao, Dapeng

    2018-03-06

    Rapid and selective sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas has attracted more and more attention because SO 2 not only causes environmental pollution but also severely affects the health of human beings. Here we report an amino-functionalized luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) material (i.e., MOF-5-NH 2 ) and further investigate its sensing property for SO 2 gas and its derivatives as a luminescent probe. The results indicate that the MOF-5-NH 2 probe can selectively and sensitively sense SO 2 derivatives (i.e., SO 3 2- ) in real time by a luminescence turn-on effect with a lower detection limit of 0.168 ppm and a response time of less than 15 s. Importantly, the luminescence turn-on phenomenon can be observed by the naked eye. We also assembled MOF-5-NH 2 into a test paper to achieve the aim of portable detection, and the lower-limit concentration of the test paper for sensing SO 2 in real time was found to be about 0.05 ppm. Moreover, MOF-5-NH 2 also shows good anti-interference ability, strong luminescence stability, and reusability, which means that this material is an excellent sensing candidate. The amino functionalization may also provide a modification strategy to design luminescent sensors for other atmospheric pollutants.

  17. Adjuvant brachytherapy removes survival disadvantage of local disease extension in stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a SEER registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Peter J; Jani, Ashesh B; Horowitz, Ira R; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2008-01-01

    To assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The 17-registry Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched for patients with lymph node-positive non-Stage IV epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed and treated between 1988 and 1998. Two subgroups were identified: those with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and those with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. RT was coded as external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). Observed survival (OS) was reported with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up; the survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The therapy data revealed 611 women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer during this period. Of these women, 51% were treated with adjuvant EBRT, 21% with EBRT and BT, and 28% with no additional RT (NAT). Of the 611 patients, 293 had organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and 318 patients had Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. The 5-year OS rate for all patients was 40% with NAT, 56% after EBRT, and 64% after EBRT/BT. Adjuvant RT improved survival compared with NAT (p primary tumor was present, the addition of BT to EBRT was even more beneficial.

  18. Simultaneous testing of multiclass organic contaminants in food and environment by liquid chromatography/dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Meyer, Cordula; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Hayen, Heiko

    2012-11-21

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization (DBDI) LC/MS interface is based on the use of a low-temperature helium plasma, which features the possibility of simultaneous ionization of species with a wide variety of physicochemical properties. In this work, the performance of LC/DBDI-MS for trace analysis of highly relevant species in food and environment has been examined. Over 75 relevant species including multiclass priority organic contaminants and residues such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine species, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and drugs of abuse were tested. LC/DBDI-MS performance for this application was assessed and compared with standard LC/MS sources (electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)). The used benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer features a 10 Hz polarity switching mode, so that both positive and negative ion mode acquisitions are possible with acquisition cycles matching the requirements of fast liquid chromatography. Both polar and nonpolar species (including those typically analyzed by GC/electron ionization-MS) can be tested in a single run using polarity switching mode. The methodology was found to be effective in detecting a wide array of organic compounds at concentration levels in the low ng L(-1) to μg kg(-1) range in wastewater and food matrices, respectively. The linearity was evaluated in an olive oil extract, obtaining good correlation coefficients in the studied range. Additionally, minor matrix effects (≤15% of signal suppression or enhancement) were observed for most of the studied analytes in this complex fatty matrix. The results obtained were compared with data from both ESI and APCI sources, obtaining a merged coverage between ESI and APCI in terms of analyte ionization and higher overall sensitivity for the proposed ion source based on the DBD principle. The use of this approach further extends the coverage of current LC/MS methods towards

  19. In situ remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater using ZVI/organic carbon amendment in China: field pilot test and full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Meng, Liang; Guo, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Chlorinated solvents in groundwater pose threats to human health and the environment due to their carcinogenesis and bioaccumulation. These problems are often more severe in developing countries such as China. Thus, methods for chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater remediation are urgently needed. This study presents a technique of in situ remediation via the direct-push amendment injection that enhances the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater in the low-permeability aquifer. A field-based pilot test and a following real-world, full-scale application were conducted at an active manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China. The chlorinated solvents found at the clay till site included 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and chloroethane (CA). A commercially available amendment (EHC ® , Peroxychem, Philadelphia, PA) combining zero-valent iron and organic carbon was used to treat the above pollutants. Pilot test results showed that direct-push EHC injection efficiently facilitated the in situ reductive remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The mean removal rates of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCA, and 1,1-DCE at 270 days post-injection were 99.6, 99.3, and 73.3%, respectively, which were obviously higher than those of VC and CA (42.3 and 37.1%, respectively). Clear decreases in oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen concentration, and increases in Fe 2+ and total organic carbon concentration, were also observed during the monitoring period. These indicate that EHC promotes the anaerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons primarily via long-term biological reductive dechlorination, with instant chemical reductive dechlorination acting as a secondary pathway. The optimal effective time of EHC injection was 0-90 days, and its radius of influence was 1.5 m. In full-scale application, the maximum concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA

  20. Survival of a Rifampicin-Resistant Pseudomonas fluorescens Strain in Nine Mollisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. Stubbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens strain D7 (P.f. D7 is a naturally occurring soil bacterium that shows promise as a biological herbicide to inhibit growth of annual grass weeds, including downy brome (Bromus tectorum L., in crop- and rangelands. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain D7rif (P.f. D7rif is a rifampicin-resistant strain of P.f. D7. One of the greatest obstacles to successful biological weed control is survival of the organism under field conditions. Nine soils in the taxonomic order of Mollisols, collected from downy brome-infested areas of the Western and Central United States, were inoculated with P.f. D7rif and incubated in the laboratory to determine the effects of soil type, soil properties, incubation temperature, and soil water potential on survival of P.f. D7rif over 63 days. Silt loam soils from Lind, Washington, and Moro, Oregon, sustained the highest P.f. D7rif populations, and recovery was the lowest from Pendleton, Oregon soil. Survival and recovery of P.f. D7rif varied with soil type and temperature but not with the two soil water potentials tested. After 63 days, P.f. D7rif was recovered at levels greater than log 5.5 colony forming units (CFU g−1 soil from five of the nine test soils, a level adequate to suppress downy brome under field or range conditions.

  1. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Takakura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM, which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to ∼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of the effects of stroke. Next, we analyzed the effect of CM on hypertension-sensitive organs, the central nervous systems (CNS, heart, kidney and liver of these rats. We attempted to ascertain how the organs were improved by CM, and we paid particular attention to mitochondria and autophagy functions. The following results were from CM-treated rats in comparison with control rats. Microscopically, CNS neurons, cardiomyocytes, glomerular podocytes, renal epithelial cells, and hepatocytes all were improved. However, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expressions of mitochondria-related proteins, ATP synthase β subunit, SIRT3 and SOD2, and autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and cathepsin D all were reduced significantly in the CNS neurons, but increased significantly in the cells of the other three organs, although p62 was decreased in its expression in all the organs tested. Activity of Akt and mTOR was enhanced but that of AMPK was reduced in the CNS, while such kinase activity was completely the opposite in the other organs. Together, the influence of CM may differ between mitochondria and autophagy functioned between the two organ groups, as mitochondria and autophagy seemed to be repressed and promoted, respectively, in the CNS, while both mitochondria and autophagy were activated in the others. This could possibly be related to the steady or improved cellular activity in both the organs, which might result in the life

  2. Cordyceps militaris improves the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats possibly via influences of mitochondria and autophagy functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kentaro; Ito, Shogo; Sonoda, Junya; Tabata, Koji; Shiozaki, Motoko; Nagai, Kaoru; Shibata, Masahiro; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Gotow, Takahiro

    2017-11-01

    The genus Cordyceps and its specific ingredient, cordycepin, have attracted much attention for multiple health benefits and expectations for lifespan extension. We analyzed whether Cordyceps militaris (CM), which contains large amounts of cordycepin, can extend the survival of Dahl salt-sensitive rats, whose survival was reduced to ∼3 months via a high-salt diet. The survival of these life-shortened rats was extended significantly when supplemented with CM, possibly due to a minimization of the effects of stroke. Next, we analyzed the effect of CM on hypertension-sensitive organs, the central nervous systems (CNS), heart, kidney and liver of these rats. We attempted to ascertain how the organs were improved by CM, and we paid particular attention to mitochondria and autophagy functions. The following results were from CM-treated rats in comparison with control rats. Microscopically, CNS neurons, cardiomyocytes, glomerular podocytes, renal epithelial cells, and hepatocytes all were improved. However, immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis showed that the expressions of mitochondria-related proteins, ATP synthase β subunit, SIRT3 and SOD2, and autophagy-related proteins, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and cathepsin D all were reduced significantly in the CNS neurons, but increased significantly in the cells of the other three organs, although p62 was decreased in its expression in all the organs tested. Activity of Akt and mTOR was enhanced but that of AMPK was reduced in the CNS, while such kinase activity was completely the opposite in the other organs. Together, the influence of CM may differ between mitochondria and autophagy functioned between the two organ groups, as mitochondria and autophagy seemed to be repressed and promoted, respectively, in the CNS, while both mitochondria and autophagy were activated in the others. This could possibly be related to the steady or improved cellular activity in both the organs, which might result in the life extension of these

  3. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  4. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    This book brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. Myths and facts about consequences of a massive nuclear attack are discussed. The main emphasis, however, is on preparations that could be made in the last few days of a worsening crisis. This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. These chapters describe the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. The design features of several types of expedient blast shelters are described in another appendix. Two others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable using inexpensive materials found in most households. The report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah, for use by untrained citizens

  6. Association of collagen architecture with glioblastoma patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Kelli B; Clark, Paul A; Schroeder, Alexandra B; Salamat, M Shahriar; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Kuo, John S

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor. Collagen is present in low amounts in normal brain, but in GBMs, collagen gene expression is reportedly upregulated. However, to the authors' knowledge, direct visualization of collagen architecture has not been reported. The authors sought to perform the first direct visualization of GBM collagen architecture, identify clinically relevant collagen signatures, and link them to differential patient survival. METHODS Second-harmonic generation microscopy was used to detect collagen in a GBM patient tissue microarray. Focal and invasive GBM mouse xenografts were stained with Picrosirius red. Quantitation of collagen fibers was performed using custom software. Multivariate survival analysis was done to determine if collagen is a survival marker for patients. RESULTS In focal xenografts, collagen was observed at tumor brain boundaries. For invasive xenografts, collagen was intercalated with tumor cells. Quantitative analysis showed significant differences in collagen fibers for focal and invasive xenografts. The authors also found that GBM patients with more organized collagen had a longer median survival than those with less organized collagen. CONCLUSIONS Collagen architecture can be directly visualized and is different in focal versus invasive GBMs. The authors also demonstrate that collagen signature is associated with patient survival. These findings suggest that there are collagen differences in focal versus invasive GBMs and that collagen is a survival marker for GBM.

  7. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  8. Survival pathological prognosis factors in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Longoria Boada, Lourdes B.

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and longitudinal study of 273 women with breast cancer belonging to Granma province was carried out from 2003 to 2004, in order to analyze the survival of this female population, reason why the method of Kaplan Meier was used for the calculation of the mentioned variable and the Log Rank test was used for the comparison of curves. Patients with higher survival at 5 years were those who had tumors of 2 cm or less (87.5%), histological grade I (90.3%), nuclear grade I (88.3%), as well as the absence of vascular, lymphatic or lymph node invasion (with 80.6; 74.9 and 6.1% respectively). Also, tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, nodal status, as well as lymphatic and vascular invasion constituted prognosis factors, which favored the individualization of therapeutic behaviors

  9. Vicious Circles in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuch, Michael

    1985-01-01

    After examining some elementary notions of action theory and cybernetics, this article analyzes the dynamics, clustering, and survival chances of vicious circles. It argues that the action perspective implies that many structural suboptimalities of organizations are caused by vicious circles. Eleven figures and 105 references are provided. (DCS)

  10. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  11. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  12. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  13. Effects of xenobiotic compounds on the cell activities of Euplotes crassus, a single-cell eukaryotic test organism for the study of the pollution of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trielli, Francesca; Amaroli, Andrea; Sifredi, Francesca; Marchi, Barbara; Falugi, Carla; Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte

    2007-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that assays with protists are relevant to be exploited for the study of environmental modifications due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, the possibility of utilizing Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, for the pre-chemical screening of estuarine and coastal sediments was evaluated. For this purpose, the effects of exposure to pollutants were tested on the cell viability, fission rate and lysosomal membrane stability of E. crassus. The following toxicants were used: an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, basudin, an organochlorine hydrocarbon, AFD25, both employed especially for pest control in agricultural sites, a toxic heavy metal, mercury (HgCl 2 ) and different mixtures of the above-mentioned compounds, as they might occur in polluted sites. Exposure to these toxicants affected cell viability at concentrations ranging from 96.6 to 966 x 10 3 mg/l for basudin, from 3.3 to 33 x 10 3 mg/l for AFD25 and from 0.1 to 1 mg/l for HgCl 2 . A significant decrease in the mean fission rate (P -2 mg/l HgCl 2 . Furthermore, the Neutral Red Retention Assay showed a significant decrease in lysosomal membrane stability after 60- and 120-min exposures to AFD25 (33 mg/l) and HgCl 2 (0.33 mg/l). In addition, as it is well-known that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity represents a specific biomarker of exposure to OP and carbamate pesticides in higher organisms, initially the presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity was detected in E. crassus, using cytochemical, spectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods. Afterwards, this enzyme activity was characterized spectrophotometrically by its sensitivity to specific ChE inhibitors and to variations in pH and temperature. The ChE activity was inhibited significantly by basudin- (9.66 and 96.6 mg/l) or AFD25-exposure (3.3 mg/l). Conversely, exposure to AFD25 (33 mg/l) or HgCl 2 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/l) caused a significant increase in this enzyme activity. Moreover

  14. Modelling inorganic and organic biocide leaching from CBA-amine (Copper–Boron–Azole) treated wood based on characterisation leaching tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupsea, Maria [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Tiruta-Barna, Ligia, E-mail: ligia.barna@insa-toulouse.fr [University of Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F–31077 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Schiopu, Nicoleta [Paris-Est University, CSTB — Scientific and Technical Centre for the Building Industry, DEE/Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Team, 24 Rue Joseph Fourier, F-38400 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Schoknecht, Ute [BAM — Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Division 4.1, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation of the leaching behaviour of treated wood is the most pertinent and less expensive method for the prediction of biocides' release in water. Few studies based on mechanistic leaching models have been carried out so far. In this work, a coupled chemistry-mass transport model is developed for simulating the leaching behaviour of inorganic (Cu, B) and organic (Tebuconazole) biocides from CBA-amine treated wood. The model is based on experimental investigations (lab-scale leaching tests coupled with chemical and structural analysis). It considers biocides' interactions with wood solid components and with extractives (literature confirmed reactions), as well as transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection) in different compartments. Simulation results helped at identifying the main fixation mechanisms, like (i) direct complexation of Cu by wood-phenolic and -carboxylic sites (and not via monoethanolamine; complex) on lignin and hemicellulose and strong dependence on extractives' nature, (ii) pH dependent binding of tebuconazole on polarized -OH moieties on wood. The role of monoethanolamine is to provide a pore-solution pH of about 7.5, when copper solubility is found to be weakest. The capability of the developed model to simulate the chemical and transport behaviour is the main result of this study. Moreover, it proved that characterization leaching tests (pH dependency and dynamic tests), combined with appropriate analytical methods are useful experimental tools. Due to its flexibility for representing and simulating various leaching conditions, chemical-transport model developed could be used to further simulate the leaching behaviour of CBA treated wood at larger scales. - Highlights: • Biocide and extractives leaching from ammonia-CBA treated wood were modelled. • The chemical-transport model identifies the main fixation/solubilisation mechanisms. • The model describes well the results of equilibrium and dynamic leaching

  15. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  16. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  17. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  18. Survival and sustainability. Environmental concerns in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goekcekus, Hueseyin; Tuerker, Umut [Near East Univ., Nicosia, North Cyprus (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; LaMoreaux, James W. (eds.) [P.E. LaMoreaux and Associates, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, held at the Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus 19-24 February 2007, dealt with environmental threats and proposed solutions at all scales. The 21 themes addressed by the conference fell into four broad categories; Threats to Survival and Sustainability; Technological Advances towards Survival and Sustainability; Activities and Tools for Social Change; Defining Goals for Sustainable Societies. Activities and tools that move the society towards greater sustainability were emphasized at the conference. These included environmental law and ethics, environmental knowledge, technology and information systems, media, environmental awareness, education and lifelong learning, the use of literature for environmental awareness, the green factor in politics, international relations and environmental organizations. The breadth of the issues addressed at the conference made clear the need for greatly increased interdisciplinary and international collaboration the survival and sustainability concept. The exchanges at the conference represent a step in this direction. (orig.)

  19. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model.Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives.Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more longitudinal eco-physiological studies of life-histories in

  20. Achieving organizational alignment - key to survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    The restructuring of the gas and electric industry and the impact of the restructuring on organizational survival was discussed. The forces driving the trend to restructuring are commoditization of energy, demanding, fragmented customer needs, diverse, transforming technologies, and intense competition. Realigning a company to the changing marketplace is the key to survival with customers, financial markets, and with competition. This paper presented a reality-based, results oriented approach to strategy consulting. Four case studies - Telco, Natural gas holding company, Combined utility, and Duke/Louis Dreyfus - were used for illustrating different problems and different approaches to restructuring. In each case a comparison was made between the company's old organization in the early 1990's, the driving forces responsible for the change and the company's new organization in the mid 1990's. In all cases the predominance of the customer focus is quite apparent, as is the clear lines of demarcation between regulated and unregulated activities. The underlying theme in all restructuring is agility and striving for flexibility

  1. The Female Stroke Survival Advantage: Relation to Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2009-01-01

    Background: Age-related hormonal factors are thought to be related to the gender gap in longevity. Testing the hypothesis that survival is best in young premenopausal women we studied the effect of age on 1-week mortality in stroke patients. Methods: A registry was started in 2001 with the aim...... in women. While mortality increased almost linearly in women over the entire age range, it increased steeply in men from the age of 50 and at the age of 80 years survival was 80% better in women. Conclusion: The female stroke survival advantage applies to all ages. It increases with age due to a steeply...

  2. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsi, Payam; Yousefzadeh, Amir; Najafizadeh, Katayoun; Droudinia, Atousa; Bayati, Rouzbeh; Marjani, Majid; Shafaghi, Shadi; Farokhzad, Banafsheh; Javanmard, Pedram; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-11-01

    With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G) test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD) in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA) in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9%) turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%), and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%). Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  3. Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Tabarsi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6, culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10, and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9% turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%, and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%. Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.

  4. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P. [Institut fuer Botanik und Pharmazeutische Biologie, Friedrich-Alexander Universitaet, Erlangen (Germany); Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India)

    1995-12-31

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author). 37 refs, 6 figs.

  5. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation and nitrogen metabolism enzymes in Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.P.; Hader, D.P.; Kumar, H.D.; Kumar, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of artificial UV-B irradiation on growth, survival, pigmentation, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and total protein profile have been studied in a number of N 2 -fixing cyanobacterial strains isolated from rice (paddy) fields in India. Different organisms show different effects in terms of growth and survival. Complete killing of Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium occurs after 120 min of UV-B exposure, whereas the same occurs only after 150 min of exposure in the case of Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. Growth patterns of the cells treated with UV-B revealed that Nostoc commune and Scytonema sp. are comparatively more tolerant than Anabaena sp. and Nostoc carmium. Pigment content, particularly phycocyanin, was severely decreased following UV-B irradiation in all strains tested so far. In vivo NR activity was found to increase, while in vivo GS activity was decreased following exposure to UV-B for different durations in all test organisms; although complete inhibition of GS activity did not occur even after 120 min of UV-B exposure. (author)

  6. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  7. Acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and cheese whey for bio-plastic precursors recovery - Effects of process conditions during batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Pivato, Alberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-12-01

    The problem of fossil fuels dependency is being addressed through sustainable bio-fuels and bio-products production worldwide. At the base of this bio-based economy there is the efficient use of biomass as non-virgin feedstock. Through acidogenic fermentation, organic waste can be valorised in order to obtain several precursors to be used for bio-plastic production. Some investigations have been done but there is still a lack of knowledge that must be filled before moving to effective full scale plants. Acidogenic fermentation batch tests were performed using food waste (FW) and cheese whey (CW) as substrates. Effects of nine different combinations of substrate to inoculum (S/I) ratio (2, 4, and 6) and initial pH (5, 7, and 9) were investigated for metabolites (acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, lactate, and ethanol) productions. Results showed that the most abundant metabolites deriving from FW fermentation were butyrate and acetate, mainly influenced by the S/I ratio (acetate and butyrate maximum productions of 21.4 and 34.5g/L, respectively, at S/I=6). Instead, when dealing with CW, lactate was the dominant metabolite significantly correlated with pH (lactate maximum production of 15.7g/L at pH = 9). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The costs of parental care: a meta-analysis of the trade-off between parental effort and survival in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E S A; Nakagawa, S

    2012-09-01

    A fundamental premise of life-history theory is that organisms that increase current reproductive investment suffer increased mortality. Possibly the most studied life-history phenotypic relationship is the trade-off between parental effort and survival. However, evidence supporting this trade-off is equivocal. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis to test the generality of this tenet. Using experimental studies that manipulated parental effort in birds, we show that (i) the effect of parental effort on survival was similar across species regardless of phylogeny; (ii) individuals that experienced reduced parental effort had similar survival probabilities than control individuals, regardless of sex; and (iii) males that experienced increased parental effort were less likely to survive than control males, whereas females that experienced increased effort were just as likely to survive as control females. Our results suggest that the trade-off between parental effort and survival is more complex than previously assumed. Finally, our study provides recommendations of unexplored avenues of future research into life-history trade-offs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Survival of Salmonella spp. In Waste Egg Wash Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of salmonellae under various environmental conditions has been subject of numerous research studies. Due to low densities of these organisms in natural samples, laboratory or clinical cultures were used to ensure that the initial density of salmonellae was sufficien...

  10. Sexual selection, redundancy and survival of the most beautiful

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model is described of a highly redundant complex organism that has overlapping banks of genes such that each vital function is specified by several different genetic systems. This generates a synergistic profile linking probability of survival to the number of deleterious mutations in the genome. Computer models show ...

  11. Long-term survival and causes of death after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Davidsen, M; Thorvaldsen, P

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish contribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) Project, a register of patients with stroke was established in 1982. The purpose of the present study was to analyze long-term survival and causes of death...

  12. Does Organizational Forgetting Matter? Organizational Survival for Life Coaching Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Erhan; Gormus, Alparslan Sahin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to determine the role of organizational forgetting in different type of coaching companies and to determine organizational survival based on both knowledge structure of coaching companies and organizational forgetting with core features of organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Within the context of…

  13. Antiretroviral therapy related adverse effects: Can sub-Saharan Africa cope with the new "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2017-02-15

    Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future. Indeed, ART is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, prediabetes and overt diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis. The prevalence of these disorders is already high in SSA, and the situation will be exacerbated by the implementation of the new WHO recommendations. Most SSA countries are characterized by (extreme) poverty, very weak health systems, inadequate and low quality of health services, inaccessibility to existing health facilities, lack of (qualified) health personnel, lack of adequate equipment, inaccessibility and unaffordability of medicines, and heavy workload in a context of a double burden of disease. Additionally, there is dearth of data on the incidence and predictive factors of ART-related adverse effects in SSA, to anticipate on strategies that should be put in place to prevent the occurrence of these conditions or properly estimate the upcoming burden and prepare an adequate response plan. These are required if we are to anticipate and effectively prevent this upcoming burden. While SSA would be the first region to experience the huge benefits of implementing the "test and treat" policy of the WHO, the region is not yet prepared to manage the consequential increased burden of ART

  14. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....

  15. Memory and survival after microbeam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Juurlink, Bernhard H.J.; Ataelmannan, Khalid; Laissue, Jean; Blattmann, Hans; Braeuer-Krisch, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Minczewska, Joanna; Crosbie, Jeffrey; Taherian, Hadi; Frangou, Evan; Wysokinsky, Tomasz; Chapman, L. Dean; Griebel, Robert; Fourney, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Disturbances of memory function are frequently observed in patients with malignant brain tumours and as adverse effects after radiotherapy to the brain. Experiments in small animal models of malignant brain tumour using synchrotron-based microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) have shown a promising prolongation of survival times. Materials and methods: Two animal models of malignant brain tumour were used to study survival and memory development after MRT. Thirteen days after implantation of tumour cells, animals were submitted to MRT either with or without adjuvant therapy (buthionine-SR-sulfoximine = BSO or glutamine). We used two orthogonal 1-cm wide arrays of 50 microplanar quasiparallel microbeams of 25 μm width and a center-to-center distance of about 200 μm, created by a multislit collimator, with a skin entrance dose of 350 Gy for each direction. Object recognition tests were performed at day 13 after tumour cell implantation and in monthly intervals up to 1 year after tumour cell implantation. Results: In both animal models, MRT with and without adjuvant therapy significantly increased survival times. BSO had detrimental effects on memory function early after therapy, while administration of glutamine resulted in improved memory

  16. Illness perceptions predict survival in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcot, Joseph; Wellsted, David; Farrington, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Illness perceptions have been shown to be important determinants of functional and psychosocial outcomes, including quality of life and treatment adherence in end-stage renal disease patients. The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether haemodialysis patients' illness perceptions impact upon survival. Haemodialysis patients from a UK renal service completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Over the study period (May 2007 to December 2010), all-cause mortality was recorded as the endpoint. 223 patients were followed up for a median of 15.9 months (min. 10 days, max. 42.7 months). The median dialysis vintage was 17.6 months (min. 4 days, max. 391.3 months). Treatment control perceptions demonstrated a significant association with mortality (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-0.99, p = 0.03). After controlling for covariates, including age, albumin, extra renal comorbidity and depression scores, perception of treatment control remained a significant predictor of mortality (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99, p = 0.03). Patients' perceptions of treatment control (dialysis therapy) predict survival independently of survival risk factors, including comorbidity. Studies are required to test whether psychological interventions designed to modify maladaptive illness perceptions influence clinical outcomes in this patient setting. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  19. Prosobranch snails as test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals--an overview and a guideline proposal for a reproduction test with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duft, Martina; Schmitt, Claudia; Bachmann, Jean; Brandelik, Cornelius; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2007-02-01

    Recently, prosobranch snails have been recommended as promising candidates for test organisms for the assessment of endocrine active chemicals. Three prosobranch snail species, the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis, and the marine netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus are portrayed and their respective biotests are presented together with results of laboratory experiments and biological effect monitoring surveys in the field. All characterized species are highly sensitive toward xeno-androgens [triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), methyltestosterone (MT) and fenarimol (FEN)], and xeno-estrogens [bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), ethinylestradiol], and show effects at environmentally relevant, rather low concentrations in laboratory experiments. For exposure to the xeno-androgen TPT, EC(10) values range between 15.9 and 29.0 ng as Sn/L (sediment 0.03 mug as Sn/kg), for TBT, EC(10) values are found between 3.42 and 37.8 ng as Sn/L (sediment 2.98 microg as Sn/kg) and effect concentrations for FEN are calculated as 18.6 ng/L (EC(10)) and 0.19 microg/kg (EC(50) sediment; EC(10) not calculable). Exposure to xeno-estrogens yielded EC(10 )values of 13.9 ng/L (0.19 microg/kg) for BPA, a NOEC of <1 microg/L (EC(10) of 0.004 microg/kg) for OP and a NOEC of 1 ng/l (EC(10) sediment of 2.2 microg/kg) for ethinylestradiol. Responses to androgens comprised the development of imposex and the reduction of fertility or embryo production, effects of estrogens included the stimulation of egg production and embryo production, and the increased weight of glands. Also, biological effect monitoring studies with P. antipodarum and N. reticulatus in several rivers or estuarine areas revealed the capacity of the biotests to detect an androgenic or estrogenic potential of sediment samples. A comparison of the three test species with regard to sensitivity and practical aspects in routine application favors the freshwater mudsnail P

  20. Strand V: Education for Survival. First Aid and Survival Education. Health Curriculum Materials Grades 10-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 10-12. SUBJECT MATTER: First aid and survival education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six sections: transportation of the injured, automobile accidents, conditions resulting from nuclear explosion, chemical warfare, natural catastrophes, and psychological first aid. The publication format…

  1. Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Aircraft Survivability (JTCG/AS). Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    PMSG ). Report No.: JTCG/AS-99-D-003 Report Classification: UNCLASSIFIED Title: JTCG/AS Bibliography of Joint Aircraft Survivability Reports and...indicates those approved and not approved for funding by the Principal Members Steering Group ( PMSG ). Report No.: Report Classification: JTCG/AS-97-V-010...demonstrated by additional tests conducted at NWSC/Crane (up to Mach 0.8) and Rockwell International wind tunnel (up to Mach 1/9 and 30,000 feet altitude

  2. MARKETING ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Župljanin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.

  3. Pressure-Flow During Exercise Catheterization Predicts Survival in Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Elisabeth D; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Furian, Michael; Saxer, Stéphanie; Huber, Lars C; Maggiorini, Marco; Speich, Rudolf; Bloch, Konrad E; Ulrich, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension manifests with impaired exercise capacity. Our aim was to investigate whether the mean pulmonary arterial pressure to cardiac output relationship (mPAP/CO) predicts transplant-free survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Hemodynamic data according to right heart catheterization in patients with PAH and CTEPH at rest and during supine incremental cycle exercise were analyzed. Transplant-free survival and predictive value of hemodynamics were assessed by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Seventy patients (43 female; 54 with PAH, 16 with CTEPH; median (quartiles) age, 65 [50; 73] years; mPAP, 34 [29; 44] mm Hg; cardiac index, 2.8 [2.3; 3.5] [L/min]/m(2)) were followed up for 610 (251; 1256) days. Survival at 1, 3, 5, and 7 years was 89%, 81%, 71%, and 59%. Age, World Health Organization-functional class, 6-min walk test, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation (but not resting hemodynamics) predicted transplant-free survival. Maximal workload (hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89-0.99]; P = .027), peak cardiac index (HR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.27-0.95]; P = .034), change in cardiac index, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.06-0.94]; P = .040), and mPAP/CO (HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.03]; P = .003) during exercise predicted survival. Values for mPAP/CO predicted 3-year transplant-free survival with an area under the curve of 0.802 (95% CI, 0.66-0.95; P = .004). In this collective of patients with PAH or CTEPH, the pressure-flow relationship during exercise predicted transplant-free survival and correlated with established markers of disease severity and outcome. Right heart catheterization during exercise may provide important complementary prognostic information in the management of pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  5. Interaction of chemical cues from fish tissues and organophosphorous pesticides on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Jonathan D.; Farris, Jerry L.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladocera are frequently used as test organisms for assessing chemical and effluent toxicity and have been shown to respond to stimuli and cues from potential predators. In this study, the interactive effects of visual and chemical cues of fish and two organophosphorous pesticides on survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia were examined. A significant chemical cue (homogenized Pimephales promelas) and malathion interaction was observed on C. dubia survival (P = 0.006). Chemical cue and 2.82 μg/L malathion resulted in a 76.0% reduction in survival compared to malathion alone (P < 0.01). Furthermore, potentiation of malathion toxicity varied based on the source of chemical cues (i.e., epithelial or whole body). It is unclear in this study whether these chemical cues elicited a predation-related stress in C. dubia. Future research should examine the mechanism of this interaction and determine what role, if any, stress responses by C. dubia might play in the interaction. - Potentiation of organophosphorous pesticide toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) chemical cues was observed

  6. Effects of xenobiotic compounds on the cell activities of Euplotes crassus, a single-cell eukaryotic test organism for the study of the pollution of marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trielli, Francesca [Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa Corso Europa, 26, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Amaroli, Andrea [Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa Corso Europa, 26, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Sifredi, Francesca [Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa Corso Europa, 26, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Marchi, Barbara [Dipartimento di Biologia, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, 5, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Falugi, Carla [Dipartimento di Biologia, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, 5, I-16132 Genova (Italy); Corrado, Maria Umberta Delmonte [Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, University of Genoa Corso Europa, 26, I-16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: corrado@dipteris.unige.it

    2007-08-01

    It is now widely accepted that assays with protists are relevant to be exploited for the study of environmental modifications due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. In this work, the possibility of utilizing Euplotes crassus, an interstitial marine ciliate, for the pre-chemical screening of estuarine and coastal sediments was evaluated. For this purpose, the effects of exposure to pollutants were tested on the cell viability, fission rate and lysosomal membrane stability of E. crassus. The following toxicants were used: an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, basudin, an organochlorine hydrocarbon, AFD25, both employed especially for pest control in agricultural sites, a toxic heavy metal, mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) and different mixtures of the above-mentioned compounds, as they might occur in polluted sites. Exposure to these toxicants affected cell viability at concentrations ranging from 96.6 to 966 x 10{sup 3} mg/l for basudin, from 3.3 to 33 x 10{sup 3} mg/l for AFD25 and from 0.1 to 1 mg/l for HgCl{sub 2}. A significant decrease in the mean fission rate (P < 0.001) was found after 24- or 48-h exposures to 9.66 mg/l basudin, 3.3 mg/l AFD25 and 7 x 10{sup -2} mg/l HgCl{sub 2}. Furthermore, the Neutral Red Retention Assay showed a significant decrease in lysosomal membrane stability after 60- and 120-min exposures to AFD25 (33 mg/l) and HgCl{sub 2} (0.33 mg/l). In addition, as it is well-known that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity represents a specific biomarker of exposure to OP and carbamate pesticides in higher organisms, initially the presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity was detected in E. crassus, using cytochemical, spectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods. Afterwards, this enzyme activity was characterized spectrophotometrically by its sensitivity to specific ChE inhibitors and to variations in pH and temperature. The ChE activity was inhibited significantly by basudin- (9.66 and 96.6 mg/l) or AFD25-exposure (3.3 mg/l). Conversely

  7. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  8. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  9. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  10. Multitracer test for the determination of transport and in-situ degradation of organic micro-contaminants in karst aquifers on the example of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, O.; Nödler, K.; Licha, T.; Geyer, T.

    2012-04-01

    The application of organic micro-contaminants as indicators for contamination sources in aquifers and surface-water bodies has been increasingly discussed in the literature over the last years. One of the proposed substances was caffeine. It served as indicator for wastewater-leakage to various systems. As well, wastewater volumes could be estimated from caffeine concentrations. Although caffeine is known to be degradable, the degradation rates are normally only determined from mass balances or laboratory experiments. Degradation rates obtained from mass balances are relatively uncertain, as the input-function is difficult to be assessed. Laboratory experiments are hardly capable to consider the full complexity of natural systems and can rarely be transferred to those. To solve this problem, in-situ degradation rates of reactive indicators have to be determined. Especially multitracer tests can be used to access compound-specific transport parameters and degradation rates, relative to conservative tracers. A multitracer test with caffeine and uranine has been performed in a karst system (catchment of the Gallusquelle spring, SW Germany). From the breakthrough curves of the tracers, the transport behavior and the in-situ degradation rate of caffeine could be deduced. The tracers were injected into a sinkhole with a linear distance of 3000 m to the spring. The mean residence time of the tracers was found to be 84 h at a flow velocity of 35 m/h. Throughout the whole experiment, the spring discharg