WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving stem cells

  1. Control of neural stem cell survival by electroactive polymer substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lundin

    Full Text Available Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy, a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to modulate survival and maintenance of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. NSCs cultured on PPy substrates containing different counter ions, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS, tosylate (TsO, perchlorate (ClO(4 and chloride (Cl, showed a distinct correlation between PPy counter ion and cell viability. Specifically, NSC viability was high on PPy(DBS but low on PPy containing TsO, ClO(4 and Cl. On PPy(DBS, NSC proliferation and differentiation was comparable to standard NSC culture on tissue culture polystyrene. Electrical reduction of PPy(DBS created a switch for neural stem cell viability, with widespread cell death upon polymer reduction. Coating the PPy(DBS films with a gel layer composed of a basement membrane matrix efficiently prevented loss of cell viability upon polymer reduction. Here we have defined conditions for the biocompatibility of PPy substrates with NSC culture, critical for the development of devices based on conducting polymers interfacing with NSCs.

  2. Controlling Redox Status for Stem Cell Survival, Expansion, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Sart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have long been considered as pathological agents inducing apoptosis under adverse culture conditions. However, recent findings have challenged this dogma and physiological levels of ROS are now considered as secondary messengers, mediating numerous cellular functions in stem cells. Stem cells represent important tools for tissue engineering, drug screening, and disease modeling. However, the safe use of stem cells for clinical applications still requires culture improvements to obtain functional cells. With the examples of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, this review investigates the roles of ROS in the maintenance of self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of stem cells. In addition, this work highlights that the tight control of stem cell microenvironment, including cell organization, and metabolic and mechanical environments, may be an effective approach to regulate endogenous ROS generation. Taken together, this paper indicates the need for better quantification of ROS towards the accurate control of stem cell fate.

  3. Can mesenchymal stem cell survive in hydroxyapatite sulphate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Kholinne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many studies have reported the role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC in treating fractures. In case with bone defect, fracture healing needs not only osteogenic but also osteoconductive component (scaffold. Hydroxyapatite calcium sulphate (HA-CaSO4 being widely used as bone void filler, may serve as scaffold for MSC. However, the effect of this scaffold to the viability of MSC has not been evaluated before.Methods: MSC were isolated from the iliac marrow of a Giant Flamish rabbit, and expanded in DMEM using histogradient density. After one week, they were sub-cultured in a 25cc TC flask (passage 1 and have the medium replaced every 3 days. During the subculture, we embedded a HA-CaSO4 pellet into the flask. The cells were evaluated under inverted microscope at a weekly interval.Results: At the first week, MSC are difficult to be identified in microscope due to the large number of HA-CaSO4 crystals. By the third week however MSC have grown and the HA-CaSO4 crystals can readily be washed off by medium replacement. By the fourth weeks, MSC can be still seen on microscope.Conclusion: HA-CaSO4 could serve as a good scaffold due to its pellet shape and easily absorbed, thus providing revascularization which is essential for bone healing.In addition, HA-CaSO4 does not interfere with MSC survival. (Med J Indones 2012;21:8-12Keywords: Fracture healing, Hydroxyapatite Calcium Sulphate (HA-CaSO4, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC

  4. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  5. Doxycycline Enhances Survival and Self-Renewal of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Yi, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Kim, Hyongbum; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Summary We here report that doxycycline, an antibacterial agent, exerts dramatic effects on human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC/iPSCs) survival and self-renewal. The survival-promoting effect was also manifest in cultures of neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from hESC/iPSCs. These doxycycline effects are not associated with its antibacterial action, but mediated by direct activation of a PI3K-AKT intracellular signal. These findings indicate doxycycline as a useful supplement for stem cell cultures, facilitating their growth and maintenance. PMID:25254347

  6. Fasting protects mice from lethal DNA damage by promoting small intestinal epithelial stem cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkum, Kelsey L; Stemler, Kristina M; White, Lynn S; Loza, Andrew J; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Michalski, Basia M; Kuzmicki, Catherine; Pless, Robert; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Piwnica-Worms, David; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2015-12-22

    Short-term fasting protects mice from lethal doses of chemotherapy through undetermined mechanisms. Herein, we demonstrate that fasting preserves small intestinal (SI) architecture by maintaining SI stem cell viability and SI barrier function following exposure to high-dose etoposide. Nearly all SI stem cells were lost in fed mice, whereas fasting promoted sufficient SI stem cell survival to preserve SI integrity after etoposide treatment. Lineage tracing demonstrated that multiple SI stem cell populations, marked by Lgr5, Bmi1, or HopX expression, contributed to fasting-induced survival. DNA repair and DNA damage response genes were elevated in SI stem/progenitor cells of fasted etoposide-treated mice, which importantly correlated with faster resolution of DNA double-strand breaks and less apoptosis. Thus, fasting preserved SI stem cell viability as well as SI architecture and barrier function suggesting that fasting may reduce host toxicity in patients undergoing dose intensive chemotherapy.

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  8. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  9. How to Improve the Survival of Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Ischemic Heart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangpeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC is an intensely studied stem cell type applied for cardiac repair. For decades, the preclinical researches on animal model and clinical trials have suggested that MSC transplantation exerts therapeutic effect on ischemic heart disease. However, there remain major limitations to be overcome, one of which is the very low survival rate after transplantation in heart tissue. Various strategies have been tried to improve the MSC survival, and many of them showed promising results. In this review, we analyzed the studies in recent years to summarize the methods, effects, and mechanisms of the new strategies to address this question.

  10. Targeting A20 decreases glioma stem cell survival and tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita B Hjelmeland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs. GSCs are regulated by molecular pathways distinct from the bulk tumor that may be useful therapeutic targets. We determined that A20 (TNFAIP3, a regulator of cell survival and the NF-kappaB pathway, is overexpressed in GSCs relative to non-stem glioblastoma cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. To determine the functional significance of A20 in GSCs, we targeted A20 expression with lentiviral-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA (shRNA. Inhibiting A20 expression decreased GSC growth and survival through mechanisms associated with decreased cell-cycle progression and decreased phosphorylation of p65/RelA. Elevated levels of A20 in GSCs contributed to apoptotic resistance: GSCs were less susceptible to TNFalpha-induced cell death than matched non-stem glioma cells, but A20 knockdown sensitized GSCs to TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis. The decreased survival of GSCs upon A20 knockdown contributed to the reduced ability of these cells to self-renew in primary and secondary neurosphere formation assays. The tumorigenic potential of GSCs was decreased with A20 targeting, resulting in increased survival of mice bearing human glioma xenografts. In silico analysis of a glioma patient genomic database indicates that A20 overexpression and amplification is inversely correlated with survival. Together these data indicate that A20 contributes to glioma maintenance through effects on the glioma stem cell subpopulation. Although inactivating mutations in A20 in lymphoma suggest A20 can act as a tumor suppressor, similar point mutations have not been identified through glioma genomic sequencing: in fact, our data suggest A20 may function as a tumor enhancer in glioma through promotion of GSC survival. A20 anticancer therapies should therefore be viewed with caution as effects will likely differ depending on the tumor type.

  11. Survival of Dental Pulp Stem Cells: The effect of Soymilk and Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sholehvar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are alternate source of mesenchymal stem cells. Subsequent to tooth avulsion and fracture, DPSCs can play a prominent role in tissue regeneration. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of soymilk and milk on survival of dental pulp stem cells. Materials & Methods: DPSCs were isolated from 16 freshly extracted incisors of 5 rabbits. The 3rd passage was seeded in 24 well plates, and after 3 days, soymilk, cow milk, HBSS, and distilled water were replaced with culture media. After 45 minutes, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours, the viability of DPSCs were investigated. Mesenchymal nature of stem cells was investigated by RT-PCR. The cell viability was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Karyotyping was done to evaluate the cytogenetic stability of cells.  Results: The viability of DPSCs in all media were significantly more than distilled water at all intervals. After 6 h, the viability of DPSCs in soymilk, cow milk, and HBSS were 100,000±0.00, 100,000±0.00, and 74.74±5.70, respectively. After 6 h, both soymilk and cow milk maintained cells significantly better than HBSS. Conclusion: Like cow milk, soymilk is a suitable alternative transfer media for avulsed and broken teeth that can increase the survival of DPSCs.   

  12. Do Increased Doses to Stem-Cell Niches during Radiation Therapy Improve Glioblastoma Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Adeberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. The reasons for the inevitable glioblastoma recurrence are yet understood. However, recent data suggest that tumor cancer stem cells (CSCs in the stem-cell niches, with self-renewing capacities, might be responsible for tumor initiation, propagation, and recurrence. We aimed to analyze the effect of higher radiation doses to the stem-cell niches on progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS in glioblastoma patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-five patients with primary glioblastoma treated with radiation therapy were included in this retrospective analysis. The SVZ and DG were segmented on treatment planning magnetic resonance imaging, and the dose distributions to the structures were calculated. The relationship of dosimetry data and survival was evaluated using the Cox regression analysis. Results. Conventionally fractionated patients (n=54 who received higher doses (Dmean ≥ 40 Gy to the IL SVZ showed improved PFS (8.5 versus 5.2 months; p=0.013. Furthermore, higher doses (Dmean ≥ 30 Gy to the CL SVZ were associated with increased PFS (10.1 versus 6.9 months; p=0.025. Conclusion. Moderate higher IL SVZ doses (≥40 Gy and CL SVZ doses (≥30 Gy are associated with improved PFS. Higher doses to the DG, the second stem-cell niche, did not influence the survival. Targeting the potential cancer stem cells in the SVZ might be a promising treatment approach for glioblastoma and should be addressed in a prospective randomized trial.

  13. Sox2+ adult stem/progenitor cells are important for tissue regeneration and survival of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Katrin; Sarkar, Abby; Yram, Mary Anna; Polo, Jose M.; Bronson, Rod; Sengupta, Sumitra; Seandel, Marco; Geijsen, Niels; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor Sox2 maintains the pluripotency of early embryonic cells and regulates the formation of several epithelia during fetal development. Whether Sox2 continues to play a role in adult tissues remains largely unknown. We here show that Sox2 marks adult cells in several epithelial tissues where its expression has not previously been characterized, including the stomach, cervix, anus, testes, lens and multiple glands. Genetic lineage tracing and transplantation experiments demonstrate that Sox2-expressing cells continuously give rise to mature cell types within these tissues, documenting their self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Consistent with these findings, ablation of Sox2+ cells in mice results in a disruption of epithelial tissue homeostasis and lethality. Developmental fate mapping reveals that Sox2+ adult stem cells originate from fetal Sox2+ tissue progenitors. Thus, our results identify Sox2 expression in numerous adult ectodermal and endodermal stem cell compartments, which are critical for normal tissue regeneration and survival. PMID:21982232

  14. Distance in cancer gene expression from stem cells predicts patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Riester

    Full Text Available The degree of histologic cellular differentiation of a cancer has been associated with prognosis but is subjectively assessed. We hypothesized that information about tumor differentiation of individual cancers could be derived objectively from cancer gene expression data, and would allow creation of a cancer phylogenetic framework that would correlate with clinical, histologic and molecular characteristics of the cancers, as well as predict prognosis. Here we utilized mRNA expression data from 4,413 patient samples with 7 diverse cancer histologies to explore the utility of ordering samples by their distance in gene expression from that of stem cells. A differentiation baseline was obtained by including expression data of human embryonic stem cells (hESC and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC for solid tumors, and of hESC and CD34+ cells for liquid tumors. We found that the correlation distance (the degree of similarity between the gene expression profile of a tumor sample and that of stem cells orients cancers in a clinically coherent fashion. For all histologies analyzed (including carcinomas, sarcomas, and hematologic malignancies, patients with cancers with gene expression patterns most similar to that of stem cells had poorer overall survival. We also found that the genes in all undifferentiated cancers of diverse histologies that were most differentially expressed were associated with up-regulation of specific oncogenes and down-regulation of specific tumor suppressor genes. Thus, a stem cell-oriented phylogeny of cancers allows for the derivation of a novel cancer gene expression signature found in all undifferentiated forms of diverse cancer histologies, that is competitive in predicting overall survival in cancer patients compared to previously published prediction models, and is coherent in that gene expression was associated with up-regulation of specific oncogenes and down-regulation of specific tumor suppressor genes associated with

  15. A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian G. Ballios

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs. The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability.

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2: A Role in Cancer Stem Cell Survival and Repopulation of Cancer Cells during Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. Tumour cell repopulation is a major cause of treatment failure. The central dogma is that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy selects resistant cancer cells that are able to reinitiate tumour growth. However, there is compelling evidence of an active proliferative response, driven by increased COX-2 expression and downstream PGE2 release, which contribute to the repopulation of tumours and poor patient outcome. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell biology and as a mediator of tumour repopulation that can be molecularly targeted to overcome resistance to therapy.

  17. Collagen Promotes Higher Adhesion, Survival and Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnapaka Somaiah

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC can differentiate into several cell types and are desirable candidates for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, due to poor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in the patient, the therapy outcomes have not been satisfactory. Although several studies have been done to understand the conditions that promote proliferation, differentiation and migration of MSC in vitro and in vivo, still there is no clear understanding on the effect of non-cellular bio molecules. Of the many factors that influence the cell behavior, the immediate cell microenvironment plays a major role. In this context, we studied the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in controlling cell survival, proliferation, migration and directed MSC differentiation. We found that collagen promoted cell proliferation, cell survival under stress and promoted high cell adhesion to the cell culture surface. Increased osteogenic differentiation accompanied by high active RHOA (Ras homology gene family member A levels was exhibited by MSC cultured on collagen. In conclusion, our study shows that collagen will be a suitable matrix for large scale production of MSC with high survival rate and to obtain high osteogenic differentiation for therapy.

  18. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Induces Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Cell Survival of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravillas Mellado-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a promising therapeutic alternative for tissue repair in various clinical applications. However, restrictive cell survival, differential tissue integration, and undirected cell differentiation after transplantation in a hostile microenvironment are complications that require refinement. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF from platelet-rich plasma favors human and canine ASC survival, proliferation, and delaying human ASC senescence and autophagocytosis in comparison with serum-containing cultures. In addition, canine and human-derived ASCs efficiently differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes in the presence of PRGF. PRGF treatment induces phosphorylation of AKT preventing ASC death induced by lethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, AKT inhibition abolished the PRGF apoptosis prevention in ASC exposed to 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide. Here, we show that canine ASCs respond to PRGF stimulus similarly to the human cells regarding cell survival and differentiation postulating the use of dogs as a suitable translational model. Overall, PRGF would be employed as a serum substitute for mesenchymal stem cell amplification to improve cell differentiation and as a preconditioning agent to prevent oxidative cell death.

  19. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Márcia Alves Diniz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 0.04 cm2, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2, 0.4 J, 10 seconds, 1 point, 10 J/cm2. After 24 h, cell viability was assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. Data were statistically compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (P<0.05. Results. Different cell types showed different viabilities in response to the same materials. Substances leached from adhesives were less cytotoxic to MSCs than to other cell types. Substances leached from Clearfil SE Bond were highly cytotoxic to all cell types tested, except to the MSCs when applied polymerized and in association with LPT. LPT was unable to significantly increase the cell viability of fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells submitted to the dental adhesives. Conclusion. LPT enhances mesenchymal stem cells survival in response to substances leached from dental adhesives.

  20. Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase is required for chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoyu; Peng, Cong; Abraham, Sheela A.; Shan, Yi; Guo, Zhiru; Desouza, Ngoc; Cheloni, Giulia; Li, Dongguang; Holyoake, Tessa L.; Li, Shaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of some types of cancer, suggesting that inhibition of these cells may limit disease progression and relapse. Unfortunately, few CSC-specific genes have been identified. Here, we determined that the gene encoding arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (Alox15/15-LO) is essential for the survival of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in a murine model of BCR-ABL–induced chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In the absence of Alox15, BCR-ABL was unable to induce CML in mice. Furthermore, Alox15 deletion impaired LSC function by affecting cell division and apoptosis, leading to an eventual depletion of LSCs. Moreover, chemical inhibition of 15-LO function impaired LSC function and attenuated CML in mice. The defective CML phenotype in Alox15-deficient animals was rescued by depleting the gene encoding P-selectin, which is upregulated in Alox15-deficient animals. Both deletion and overexpression of P-selectin affected the survival of LSCs. In human CML cell lines and CD34+ cells, knockdown of Alox15 or inhibition of 15-LO dramatically reduced survival. Loss of Alox15 altered expression of PTEN, PI3K/AKT, and the transcription factor ICSBP, which are known mediators of cancer pathogenesis. These results suggest that ALOX15 has potential as a therapeutic target for eradicating LSCs in CML. PMID:25105362

  1. Laser Phototherapy Enhances Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival in Response to the Dental Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background. We investigated the influence of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the survival of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) submitted to substances leached from dental adhesives. Method. MSCs were isolated and characterized. Oral mucosa fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells were used as comparative controls. Cultured medium conditioned with two adhesive systems was applied to the cultures. Cell monolayers were exposed or not to LPT. Laser irradiations were performed using a red laser (GaAlAs, 780 nm, 0.04 cm2, 40 mW, 1 W/cm2, 0.4 J, 10 seconds, 1 point, 10 J/cm2). After 24 h, cell viability was assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay. Data were statistically compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P adhesives were less cytotoxic to MSCs than to other cell types. Substances leached from Clearfil SE Bond were highly cytotoxic to all cell types tested, except to the MSCs when applied polymerized and in association with LPT. LPT was unable to significantly increase the cell viability of fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells submitted to the dental adhesives. Conclusion. LPT enhances mesenchymal stem cells survival in response to substances leached from dental adhesives. PMID:25879065

  2. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Human Endometrial Mesenchymal Stem Cells That Survived Sublethal Heat Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a critical environmental and personal factor. Although heat shock is a well-studied biological phenomenon, hyperthermia response of stem cells is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that sublethal heat shock induced premature senescence in human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSC. This study aimed to investigate the fate of eMSC-survived sublethal heat shock (SHS with special emphasis on their genetic stability and possible malignant transformation using methods of classic and molecular karyotyping, next-generation sequencing, and transcriptome functional analysis. G-banding revealed random chromosome breakages and aneuploidy in the SHS-treated eMSC. Molecular karyotyping found no genomic imbalance in these cells. Gene module and protein interaction network analysis of mRNA sequencing data showed that compared to untreated cells, SHS-survived progeny revealed some difference in gene expression. However, no hallmarks of cancer were found. Our data identified downregulation of oncogenic signaling, upregulation of tumor-suppressing and prosenescence signaling, induction of mismatch, and excision DNA repair. The common feature of heated eMSC is the silence of MYC, AKT1/PKB oncogenes, and hTERT telomerase. Overall, our data indicate that despite genetic instability, SHS-survived eMSC do not undergo transformation. After long-term cultivation, these cells like their unheated counterparts enter replicative senescence and die.

  3. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bien-Möller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed.

  4. p38α negatively regulates survival and malignant selection of transformed bronchioalveolar stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Voisset

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the cause of most cancer-related deaths in the Western world. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for almost 80% of all lung cancers, and 50% of this type are adenocarcinomas. The cellular and molecular origin of this type of lung cancer remains elusive and the mechanisms are poorly known. It is known that K-Ras mutations appear in 25-30% of lung adenocarcinomas and it is the best known single mutation that can be related to lung cancers. Recently, it has been suggested that a putative population of mouse bronchioalveolar stem cells could be considered as the cell of origin of adenocarcinomas. These cells are expanded in the early stages of lung tumorigenesis. We have isolated a population of mouse bronchioalveolar stem cells and induced their transformation by oncogenic K-RasG12. Different approaches have shown that an intracellular network linking the p38α MAPK and the PI3K-Pdk1 pathways is involved in regulating the survival and malignant progression of the transformed cells. Absence of p38α catalytic activity leads to further Pdk1 activation (independent of Akt and Erk activity, enhancing the survival and proliferation of the more malignant lung cancer cells. This specifically selects high Sca-1/Sox9 cells that harbour a stronger colonizing potential, as they maintain their capacity to produce secondary tumors after serial transplantations.

  5. Early NK Cell Reconstitution Predicts Overall Survival in T-Cell Replete Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Friis, Lone Smidstrups

    2016-01-01

    Early immune reconstitution plays a critical role in clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first lymphocytes to recover after transplantation and are considered powerful effector cells in HSCT. We aimed to evaluate...... the clinical impact of early NK cell recovery in T-cell replete transplant recipients. Immune reconstitution was studied in 298 adult patients undergoing HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from 2005 to 2013. In multivariate analysis NK...... cell numbers day 30 (NK30) >150cells/µL were independently associated with superior overall survival (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95, p=0.01). Cumulative incidence analyses showed that patients with NK30 >150cells/µL had significantly less transplant related mortality (TRM), p=0...

  6. [Survival analysis of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with primary immunodeficiency in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, R; Badell, I; González, M; Martínez, A M; Sánchez de Toledo, J; Olivé, M T; González, M E; Elorza, I; Díaz de Heredia, C

    2015-02-01

    Children with primary immunodeficiency have severe life-threatening infections and a higher prevalence of autoimmune problems, allergy and lymphoproliferative disorders. Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been the only potentially curative option. Patients with primary immunodeficiency underwent allogenic stem cell transplantation in the period 1985-2011, and registered in the Spanish Working Party for Bone Marrow Transplantation in Children. One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent 173 allogenic stem cell transplantations, of whom 97 had severe combined immunodeficiency, 30 with immune dysregulation disorders, 25 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and 21 phagocyte disorders. The median patient age at diagnosis was 6 months (range: 17 days - 168 months) and the median patient age at transplant was 12 months (range: 1 month - 189 months). The donors were 30 (19%) identical siblings, 40 (25%) alternative family donors, and 89 (56%) unrelated donors. The source of stem cells was bone marrow in 68 (43%), cord blood in 52 (33%), and peripheral blood in 39 (24%). Ninety eight (61.6%) are alive, 57 (35.9%) died. Event-free survival at 10 years was 63%, with 90% for children transplanted from identical siblings, 36% for those transplanted from alternative family donors, and 66% for those transplanted from unrelated donors. The best results have been obtained with identical siblings, but other options may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Key roles of hyaluronan and its CD44 receptor in the stemness and survival of cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawut eChanmee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs represent a unique subpopulation of self-renewing oncogenic cells that drive cancer initiation and progression. CSCs often acquire multidrug and oxidative stress resistance and are thereby thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence following treatment and remission. Although the mechanisms responsible for CSC generation, maintenance, and expansion have become a major focus in cancer research, the molecular characteristics of CSCs remain poorly understood. The stemness and subsequent expansion of CSCs are believed to be highly influenced by changes in microenvironmental signals as well as genetic and epigenetic alterations. Hyaluronan (HA, a major component of the extracellular matrix, has recently been demonstrated to provide a favorable microenvironment for the self-renewal and maintenance of stem cells. HA directly and indirectly affects CSC self-renewal by influencing the behaviour of both cancer and stromal cells. For instance, HA in the tumor microenvironment modulates the function of tumor-associated macrophages to support CSC self-renewal, and excessive HA production promotes the acquisition of CSC signatures through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The importance of HA in mediating CSC self-renewal has been strengthened by the finding that interactions between HA and its receptor, CD44, propagate the stemness of CSCs. HA-CD44 interactions evoke a wide range of signals required for CSC self-renewal and maintenance. CD44 also plays a critical role in the preservation and multidrug resistance of CSCs by transmitting survival and anti-apoptotic signals. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in HA and CD44 control of CSC stemness may help in the design of more effective therapies for cancer patients. In this review, we address the key roles of HA and CD44 in CSC self-renewal and maintenance. We also discuss the involvement of CD44 in the oxidative stress and multidrug resistance of

  8. Preliminary Study on Intrasplenic Implantation of Artificial Cell Bioencapsulated Stem Cells to Increase the Survival of 90% Hepatectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2012-01-01

    We implanted artificial cell bioencapsulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the spleens of 90% hepatectomized (PH) rats. The resulting 14 days survival rate was 91%. This is compared to a survival rate of 21% in 90% hepatectomized rats and 25% for those receiving free MSCs transplanted the same way. Unlike free MSCs, the bioencapsulated MSCs are retained in the spleens and their hepatotrophic factors can continue to drain directly into the liver without dilution resulting in improved hepatic regeneration. In addition, with time the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in the spleen renders the spleen as a ectopic liver support. PMID:19132579

  9. Transforming growth factor-B3 protects murine small intestinal crypt stem cells and animal survival after irradiation, possibly by reducing stem-cell cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, D; Haley, J D; Bruskin, A M; Potten, C S

    2000-04-01

    Damage to the normal replacing tissues of the body, specifically the gastro-intestinal tract, limits the treatment and hence, cure rate of cancer patients. Here, we investigate the possibility that the sensitivity of the gastro-intestinal tract can be manipulated by transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-beta3), making it more resistant to radiation in a murine model. The effects of TGF-beta3 were assessed using the crypt microcolony assay, a test of crypt stem-cell functional competence, in animal survival studies examining diarrhoea severity, labelling index and crypt size. Prior treatment with TGF-beta3 can result in a 3- to 4-fold increase (protection factor, PF) in surviving crypts, whilst longer exposure can raise the PF to almost 12. Protection of intestinal clonogenic stem cells results in marked protection of survival with a corresponding reduction in the duration and level of diarrhoea and ultimate restoration of normal histology in surviving mice. Inhibition of proliferation can be demonstrated when sufficient TGF-beta3 exposure is studied. Crypt size is also reduced. In conclusion, TGF-beta3 protects small intestinal clonogenic stem cells from radiation damage, reducing diarrhoea and animal mortality. The mode of action is believed to be specific inhibition of stem-cell proliferation.

  10. Stem cell factor expression after renal ischemia promotes tubular epithelial survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Stokman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway.

  11. Fhit-deficient hematopoietic stem cells survive hydroquinone exposure carrying precancerous changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hideshi; Mimori, Koshi; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Hiroshi; Pichiorri, Flavia; Druck, Teresa; Inoue, Hiroshi; Vecchione, Andrea; Saito, Toshiyuki; Mori, Masaki; Huebner, Kay

    2008-05-15

    The fragile FHIT gene is among the first targets of DNA damage in preneoplastic lesions, and recent studies have shown that Fhit protein is involved in surveillance of genome integrity and checkpoint response after genotoxin exposure. We now find that Fhit-deficient hematopoietic cells, exposed to the genotoxin hydroquinone, are resistant to the suppression of stem cell in vitro colony formation observed with wild-type (Wt) hematopoietic cells. In vivo-transplanted, hydroquinone-exposed, Fhit-deficient bone marrow cells also escaped the bone marrow suppression exhibited by Wt-transplanted bone marrow. Comparative immunohistochemical analyses of bone marrow transplants showed relative absence of Bax in Fhit-deficient bone marrow, suggesting insensitivity to apoptosis; assessment of DNA damage showed that occurrence of the oxidized base 8-hydroxyguanosine, a marker of DNA damage, was also reduced in Fhit-deficient bone marrow, as was production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine relieved hydroquinone-induced suppression of colony formation by Wt hematopoietic cells, suggesting that the decreased oxidative damage to Fhit-deficient cells, relative to Wt hematopoietic cells, accounts for the survival advantage of Fhit-deficient bone marrow. Homology-dependent recombination repair predominated in Fhit-deficient cells, although not error-free repair, as indicated by a higher incidence of 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies. Tissues of hydroquinone-exposed Fhit-deficient bone marrow-transplanted mice exhibited preneoplastic alterations, including accumulation of histone H2AX-positive DNA damage. The results indicate that reduced oxidative stress, coupled with efficient but not error-free DNA damage repair, allows unscheduled long-term survival of genotoxin-exposed Fhit-deficient hematopoietic stem cells carrying deleterious mutations.

  12. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 regulates human embryonic stem cell adhesion, stemness, and survival via control of epithelial cell adhesion molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Tae; Seo Choi, Hong; Min Lee, Hyun; Jang, Young-Joo; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2014-10-01

    B-Cell receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) regulates the export of secreted membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the downstream secretory pathway. Previously, we generated a monoclonal antibody 297-D4 against the surface molecule on undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we found that 297-D4 antigen was localized to pluripotent hESCs and downregulated during early differentiation of hESCs and identified that the antigen target of 297-D4 was BAP31 on the hESC-surface. To investigate the functional role of BAP31 in hESCs, BAP31 expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA. BAP31 depletion impaired hESC self-renewal and pluripotency and drove hESC differentiation into multicell lineages. BAP31 depletion hindered hESC proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and inducing caspase-independent cell death. Interestingly, BAP31 depletion reduced hESC adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Analysis of cell surface molecules showed decreased expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in BAP31-depleted hESCs, while ectopic expression of BAP31 elevated the expression of EpCAM. EpCAM depletion also reduced hESC adhesion to ECM, arrested cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and induced cell death, producing similar effects to those of BAP31 depletion. BAP31 and EpCAM were physically associated and colocalized at the ER and cell surface. Both BAP31 and EpCAM depletion decreased cyclin D1 and E expression and suppressed PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting that BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. These findings provide, for the first time, mechanistic insights into how BAP31 regulates hESC stemness and survival via control of EpCAM expression. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Survival of cord blood haematopoietic stem cells in a hyaluronan hydrogel for ex vivo biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Elise; Kassim, Yusra; Petit, Cyrille; Buquet, Catherine; Dulong, Virginie; Cerf, Didier Le; Buchonnet, Gérard; Vannier, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) grow in a specified niche in close association with the microenvironment, the so-called 'haematopoietic niche'. Scaffolds have been introduced to overcome the liquid culture limitations, mimicking the presence of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study the hyaluronic acid scaffold, already developed in the laboratory, has been used for the first time to maintain long-term cultures of CD34⁺ haematopoietic cells obtained from human cord blood. One parameter investigated was the impact on ex vivo survival of CD34⁺ cord blood cells (CBCs) on the hyaluronic acid surface, immobilized with peptides containing the RGD motif. This peptide was conjugated by coating the hyaluronan hydrogel and cultured in serum-free liquid phase complemented with stem cell factor (SCF), a commonly indispensable cytokine for haematopoiesis. Our work demonstrated that these hyaluronan hydrogels were superior to traditional liquid cultures by maintaining and expanding the HPCs without the need for additional cytokines, and a colonization of 280-fold increment in the hydrogel compared with liquid culture after 28 days of ex vivo expansion. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Oxygen levels do not determine radiation survival of breast cancer stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chann Lagadec

    Full Text Available For more than a century oxygen has been known to be one of the most powerful radiosensitizers. However, despite decades of preclinical and clinical research aimed at overcoming tumor hypoxia, little clinical progress has been made so far. Ionizing radiation damages DNA through generation of free radicals. In the presence of oxygen these lesions are chemically modified, and thus harder to repair while hypoxia protects cells from radiation (Oxygen enhancement ratio (OER. Breast cancer stem cells (BSCSs are protected from radiation by high levels of free radical scavengers even in the presence of oxygen. This led us to hypothesize that BCSCs exhibit an OER of 1. Using four established breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, SUM159PT and primary breast cancer samples, we determined the number of BCSCs using cancer stem cell markers (ALDH1, low proteasome activity, compared radiation clonogenic survival and mammosphere formation under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and correlated these results to the expression levels of key members of the free radical scavenging systems. The number of BCSCs increased with increased aggressiveness of the cancer. This correlated with increased radioresistance (SF(8Gy, and decreasing OERs. When cultured as mammospheres, breast cancer cell lines and primary samples were highly radioresistant and not further protected by hypoxia (OER∼1.We conclude that because BCSCs are protected from radiation through high expression levels of free radical scavengers, hypoxia does not lead to additional radioprotection of BCSCs.

  15. The influence of social support on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survival: a systematic review of literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Beattie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic Stem cell Transplantation (HSCT can negatively impact the psychosocial well-being of the patient. Social support is a complex term that has been variably used to encompass perceived and objective support, including caregiver presence. Social support has been associated with superior psychosocial outcomes; however the influence of social support on HSCT survival remains unclear. We sought to summarize the literature on the influence of social support on HSCT survival. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINAHL, AND PSYCINFO WERE SEARCHED USING THE FOLLOWING SEARCH CATEGORIES/CONCEPTS: 1 HSCT, 2 Social support, 3 Caregiver, 4 Survival, and 5 Treatment outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 6 relevant studies: 4 publications, 1 dissertation, and 1 abstract. Three studies were retrospective and 3, prospective. Sample size ranged between 92-272 with a mean/median patient age between 30-55 yrs. The duration of follow-up ranged between 13.3-48 months. Social support was measured inconsistently: 2 by retrospective investigator assessment, 2 as patients' perceived support, 1 as caregiver presence, and 1 included caregiver presence and retrospective investigator assessment. The 4 published studies and 1 abstract demonstrate an association between better social support and survival. However, the unpublished dissertation, with the largest sample size found no association. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of evidence examining social support with HSCT survival. Available studies are older, with the most recent publication in 2005. A heterogeneous group of HSCT patients were studied with variable follow-up times. Further, covariates were variably considered in HSCT survival analyses and we suggest that there may be publication bias, given the negative unpublished study with the largest sample size. Prospective studies using validated scales are necessary to better assess the influence of social support on HSCT mortality. Given the potential

  16. Kinetics of progenitor hemopoetic stem cells in sepsis: Correlation with patients survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakoulis Nikolaos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current theories underline the crucial role of pro-inflammatory mediators produced by monocytes for the pathogenesis of sepsis. Since monocytes derive from progenitor hemopoetic cells, the kinetics of stem cells was studied in peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. Methods Blood was sampled from 44 patients with septic syndrome due to ventilator-associated pneumonia on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 upon initiation of symptoms. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 and G-CSF were estimated by ELISA. CD34/CD45 cells were determined after incubation with anti-CD45 FITC and anti-CD34 PE monocloncal antibodies and flow cytometric analysis. Samples from eight healthy volunteers served as controls. Results Median of CD34/CD45 absolute count of controls was 1.0/μl. Respective values of the total study population were 123.4, 112.4, 121.5 and 120.9/μl on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 (p Conclusion Stem cells are increased in peripheral blood over all days of follow-up compared to healthy volunteers. Patients with counts on day 1 less than 310/μl are accompanied by increased survival compared to patients with more than 310/μl.

  17. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion. Conversely, the yield was increased upon co-culture of CD34+ cells with CD14+ cells (full contact or transwell assays) or CD34+ cells re-constituted in conditioned medium from CD14+ cells. In particular, CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocytes/macrophages enhanced erythroblast outgrowth from CD34+ cells. No effect of CD14+ cells on erythroblasts themselves was observed. However, 2 days of co-culturing CD34+ and CD14+ cells increased CD34+ cell numbers and colony-forming units 5-fold. Proliferation assays suggested that CD14+ cells sustain CD34+ cell survival but not proliferation. These data identify previously unrecognized erythroid and non-erythroid CD34− and CD34+ populations in blood that contribute to the erythroid yield. A flow cytometry panel containing CD34/CD36 can be used to follow specific stages during CD34+ differentiation to erythroblasts. We have shown modulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival by CD14+ cells present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells which can also be found near specific hematopoietic niches in the bone marrow. PMID:26294724

  18. Functionalized Scaffold-mediated Interleukin 10 Gene Delivery Significantly Improves Survival Rates of Stem Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Carolyn; Power, Karen; Sefton, Michael; O'Brien, Timothy; Gallagher, William M.; Pandit, Abhay

    2011-01-01

    While stem cell transplantation could potentially treat a variety of disorders, clinical studies have not yet demonstrated conclusive benefits. This may be partly because transplanted stem cells have low survival rates, potentially due to host inflammation. The system described herein used two different gene therapy techniques to improve retention of rat mesenchymal stem cells. In the first, stem cells were transfected with interleukin-10 (IL-10) before being loaded into a collagen scaffold. In the second, unmodified stem cells were loaded into a collagen scaffold along with polymer-complexed IL-10 plasmids. The scaffolds were surgically implanted into the dorsum of syngeneic rats. At each endpoint, the scaffolds were explanted and cell retention, IL-10 level and inflammatory response were quantified. All treatment groups had statistically significant increases in cell retention after 7 days, but the group treated with 2 µg of IL-10 polyplexes had a significant improvement even at 21 days. This cell retention was associated with increased IL-10 and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. The primary effect on the inflammatory response appeared to be on macrophage differentiation, encouraging the regulatory phenotype over the cytotoxic lineage. Improving cell survival may be an important step toward realization of the therapeutic potential of stem cells. PMID:21266957

  19. Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression facilitates differentiation and promotes survival of embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Law, Frédéric; Meduri, Geri; Le Menuet, Damien; Lombès, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), highly expressed in the hippocampus, binds corticosteroid hormones and coordinately participates, with the glucocorticoid receptor, to the control of stress responses, memorization, and behavior. To investigate the impact of MR in neuronal survival, we generated murine embryonic stem (ES) cells that overexpress human MR (hMR) (P1-hMR) and are induced to differentiate into mature neurons. We showed that recombinant MR expression increased throughout differentiation and is 2-fold higher in P1-hMR ES-derived neurons compared with wild-type controls, whereas glucocorticoid receptor expression was unaffected. Although proliferation and early neuronal differentiation were comparable in P1-hMR and wild-type ES cells, MR overexpression was associated with higher late neuronal marker expression (microtubule-associated protein 2 and β-tubulin III). This was accompanied by a shift towards neuron survival with an increased ratio of anti- vs. proapoptotic molecules and 50% decreased caspase 3 activity. Knocking down MR overexpression by small interfering RNA drastically reversed neuroprotective effects with reduced Bcl(2)/Bax ratio and decreased microtubule-associated protein 2 expression. P1-hMR neurons were protected against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through reduced caspase 3 activation and drastically increased Bcl(2)/Bax ratio and β-tubulin III expression. We demonstrated the involvement of MR in neuronal differentiation and survival and identify MR as an important neuroprotective mediator opening potential pharmacological strategies.

  20. Haemodynamic unloading increases the survival and affects the differentiation of cardiac stem cells after implantation into an infarcted heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Hiroshi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryo; Mikamo, Akihito; Guo, Chang-Ying; Murata, Tomoaki; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2014-06-01

    It has been anticipated that stem cell therapy is capable of repairing an injured heart but is currently limited by its marginal efficacy. We believe that mechanical stress due to haemodynamic loading may negate the therapeutic potency of stem cells and therefore investigated how haemodynamic unloading affects the survival and differentiation of stem cells after implantation into an infarcted heart. A left ventricular (LV) haemodynamic unloading model was implemented by heterotopic transplantation of an infarcted donor heart into another healthy mouse. An in situ infarcted heart with general haemodynamic loading was used as control. A total of 5 million cardiac stem cells expanded from green fluorescence protein (GFP)-transgenic mouse were intramyocardially implanted into the infarcted LVs of haemodynamically unloaded donor heart or general haemodynamic loaded heart. The survival and differentiation of the implanted cardiac stem cells were evaluated by histological analyses at 3 and 21 days after cell implantation (n = 5-6 in each time points per group). Compared with the general haemodynamic loading condition, haemodynamic unloading of the infarcted hearts significantly improved the survival, increased the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of cardiac stem cells at 21 days after cell implantation (P cells was much higher in the unloaded hearts than in the loaded hearts at 21 days after cell implantation, although the difference was not statistically significant (5.67 ± 5.10 vs 0.75 ± 0.50, P = 0.051). Among the surviving GFP(+) donor cells 21 days after implantation, the expressions of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, smooth muscle actin and sarcomeric alpha actin were ~7, 38 and 27% in the loaded heart and ~19, 14 and 55% in the unloaded heart, respectively. Haemodynamic unloading favours the survival/engraftment of donor stem cells and affects their differentiation after implantation into an infarcted heart. Although further studies in a

  1. Effects of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on the Survival of Rabbit Ear Composite Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Min Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Composite grafts are frequently used for facial reconstruction. However, the unpredictability of the results and difficulties with large defects are disadvantages. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs express several cytokines, and increase the survival of random flaps and fat grafts owing to their angiogenic potential. Methods This study investigated composite graft survival after ADSC injection. Circular chondrocutaneous composite tissues, 2 cm in diameter, from 15 New Zealand white rabbits were used. Thirty ears were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the experimental groups (1 and 2, ADSCs were subcutaneously injected 7 days and immediately before the operation, respectively. Similarly, phosphate-buffered saline was injected in the control group just before surgery in the same manner as in group 2. In all groups, chondrocutaneous composite tissue was elevated, rotated 90 degrees, and repaired in its original position. Skin flow was assessed using laser Doppler 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after surgery. At 1 and 12 days after surgery, the viable area was assessed using digital photography; the rabbits were euthanized, and immunohistochemical staining for CD31 was performed to assess neovascularization. Results The survival of composite grafts increased significantly with the injection of ADSCs (P<0.05. ADSC injection significantly improved neovascularization based on anti-CD31 immunohistochemical analysis and vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.05 in both group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. No statistically significant differences in graft survival, anti-CD31 neovascularization, or microcirculation were found between groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Treatment with ADSCs improved the composite graft survival, as confirmed by the survival area and histological evaluation. The differences according to the injection timing were not significant.

  2. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell administration does not improve corneal graft survival outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherezade Fuentes-Julián

    Full Text Available The effect of local and systemic injections of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (AD-MSC into rabbit models of corneal allograft rejection with either normal-risk or high-risk vascularized corneal beds was investigated. The models we present in this study are more similar to human corneal transplants than previously reported murine models. Our aim was to prevent transplant rejection and increase the length of graft survival. In the normal-risk transplant model, in contrast to our expectations, the injection of AD-MSC into the graft junction during surgery resulted in the induction of increased signs of inflammation such as corneal edema with increased thickness, and a higher level of infiltration of leukocytes. This process led to a lower survival of the graft compared with the sham-treated corneal transplants. In the high-risk transplant model, in which immune ocular privilege was undermined by the induction of neovascularization prior to graft surgery, we found the use of systemic rabbit AD-MSCs prior to surgery, during surgery, and at various time points after surgery resulted in a shorter survival of the graft compared with the non-treated corneal grafts. Based on our results, local or systemic treatment with AD-MSCs to prevent corneal rejection in rabbit corneal models at normal or high risk of rejection does not increase survival but rather can increase inflammation and neovascularization and break the innate ocular immune privilege. This result can be partially explained by the immunomarkers, lack of immunosuppressive ability and immunophenotypical secretion molecules characterization of AD-MSC used in this study. Parameters including the risk of rejection, the inflammatory/vascularization environment, the cell source, the time of injection, the immunosuppression, the number of cells, and the mode of delivery must be established before translating the possible benefits of the use of MSCs in corneal transplants to clinical

  3. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  4. Arctigenin protects against neuronal hearing loss by promoting neural stem cell survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinghua; Chen, Mo; Ding, Yan; Wang, Qin

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal hearing loss has become a prevalent health problem. This study focused on the function of arctigenin (ARC) in promoting survival and neuronal differentiation of mouse cochlear neural stem cells (NSCs), and its protection against gentamicin (GMC) induced neuronal hearing loss. Mouse cochlea was used to isolate NSCs, which were subsequently cultured in vitro. The effects of ARC on NSC survival, neurosphere formation, differentiation of NSCs, neurite outgrowth, and neural excitability in neuronal network in vitro were examined. Mechanotransduction ability demonstrated by intact cochlea, auditory brainstem response (ABR), and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude in mice were measured to evaluate effects of ARC on GMC-induced neuronal hearing loss. ARC increased survival, neurosphere formation, neuron differentiation of NSCs in mouse cochlear in vitro. ARC also promoted the outgrowth of neurites, as well as neural excitability of the NSC-differentiated neuron culture. Additionally, ARC rescued mechanotransduction capacity, restored the threshold shifts of ABR and DPOAE in our GMC ototoxicity murine model. This study supports the potential therapeutic role of ARC in promoting both NSCs proliferation and differentiation in vitro to functional neurons, thus supporting its protective function in the therapeutic treatment of neuropathic hearing loss in vivo. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intranasal Oncolytic Virotherapy with CXCR4-Enhanced Stem Cells Extends Survival in Mouse Model of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Mahua; Yu, Dou; Kanojia, Deepak; Li, Gina; Sukhanova, Madina; Spencer, Drew A; Pituch, Katatzyna C; Zhang, Lingjiao; Han, Yu; Ahmed, Atique U; Aboody, Karen S; Lesniak, Maciej S; Balyasnikova, Irina V

    2016-09-13

    The challenges to effective drug delivery to brain tumors are twofold: (1) there is a lack of non-invasive methods of local delivery and (2) the blood-brain barrier limits systemic delivery. Intranasal delivery of therapeutics to the brain overcomes both challenges. In mouse model of malignant glioma, we observed that a small fraction of intranasally delivered neural stem cells (NSCs) can migrate to the brain tumor site. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxic preconditioning or overexpression of CXCR4 significantly enhances the tumor-targeting ability of NSCs, but without altering their phenotype only in genetically modified NSCs. Modified NSCs deliver oncolytic virus to glioma more efficiently and extend survival of experimental animals in the context of radiotherapy. Our findings indicate that intranasal delivery of stem cell-based therapeutics could be optimized for future clinical applications, and allow for safe and repeated administration of biological therapies to brain tumors and other CNS disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  7. Dinitrophenol modulates gene expression levels of angiogenic, cell survival and cardiomyogenic factors in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anwar; Akhter, Muhammad Aleem; Haneef, Kanwal; Khan, Irfan; Naeem, Nadia; Habib, Rakhshinda; Kabir, Nurul; Salim, Asmat

    2015-01-25

    Various preconditioning strategies influence regeneration properties of stem cells. Preconditioned stem cells generally show better cell survival, increased differentiation, enhanced paracrine effects, and improved homing to the injury site by regulating the expression of tissue-protective cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we analyzed gene expression pattern of growth factors through RT-PCR after treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with a metabolic inhibitor, 2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) and subsequent re-oxygenation for periods of 2, 6, 12 and 24h. These growth factors play important roles in cardiomyogenesis, angiogenesis and cell survival. Mixed pattern of gene expression was observed depending on the period of re-oxygenation. Of the 13 genes analyzed, ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) and GATA6 were downregulated after DNP treatment and subsequent re-oxygenations. Ankrd1 expression was, however, increased after 24h of re-oxygenation. Placental growth factor (Pgf), endoglin (Eng), neuropilin (Nrp1) and jagged 1 (Jag1) were up-regulated after DNP treatment. Gradual increase was observed as re-oxygenation advances and by the end of the re-oxygenation period the expression started to decrease and ultimately regained normal values. Epiregulin (Ereg) was not expressed in normal MSCs but its expression increased gradually from 2 to 24h after re-oxygenation. No change was observed in the expression level of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) at any time period after re-oxygenation. Kindlin3, kinase insert domain receptor (Kdr), myogenin (Myog), Tbx20 and endothelial tyrosine kinase (Tek) were not expressed either in normal cells or cells treated with DNP. It can be concluded from the present study that MSCs adjust their gene expression levels under the influence of DNP induced metabolic stress. Their levels of expression vary with varying re-oxygenation periods. Preconditioning of MSCs with DNP can be used for enhancing the potential of these cells for

  8. Mast Cell Leukemia: Review of a Rare Disease and Case Report of Prolonged Survival after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bauer, MD, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell leukemia is a rare and aggressive form of mastocytosis characterized by >20% mast cells found in the bone marrow aspirates of patients with signs of systemic mastocytosis-related organ damage. The prognosis for patients with mast cell leukemia is extremely poor, with resistance to both cytoreductive therapies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors being relatively common. While allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been associated with long-term survival in patients with advanced systemic mastocytosis, reports regarding its effectiveness in mast cell leukemia are limited to fewer than 20 cases described in the literature. Here, we report a patient with mast cell leukemia who remains in complete remission 24 months after allogeneic HSCT at the time of this writing, and briefly review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches to this rare disease.

  9. Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells are not dependent on Bcr-Abl kinase activity for their survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ashley; Helgason, G. Vignir; Schemionek, Mirle; Zhang, Bin; Myssina, Svetlana; Allan, Elaine K.; Nicolini, Franck E.; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Bhatia, Ravi; Brunton, Valerie G.; Koschmieder, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) stem cells are insensitive to kinase inhibitors and responsible for minimal residual disease in treated patients. We investigated whether CML stem cells, in a transgenic mouse model of CML-like disease or derived from patients, are dependent on Bcr-Abl. In the transgenic model, after retransplantation, donor-derived CML stem cells in which Bcr-Abl expression had been induced and subsequently shut off were able to persist in vivo and reinitiate leukemia in secondary recipients on Bcr-Abl reexpression. Bcr-Abl knockdown in human CD34+ CML cells cultured for 12 days in physiologic growth factors achieved partial inhibition of Bcr-Abl and downstream targets p-CrkL and p-STAT5, inhibition of proliferation and colony forming cells, but no reduction of input cells. The addition of dasatinib further inhibited p-CrkL and p-STAT5, yet only reduced input cells by 50%. Complete growth factor withdrawal plus dasatinib further reduced input cells to 10%; however, the surviving fraction was enriched for primitive leukemic cells capable of growth in a long-term culture-initiating cell assay and expansion on removal of dasatinib and addition of growth factors. Together, these data suggest that CML stem cell survival is Bcr-Abl kinase independent and suggest curative approaches in CML must focus on kinase-independent mechanisms of resistance. PMID:22184410

  10. Dynamic of bone marrow fibrosis regression predicts survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Nicolaus; Zabelina, Tatjana; Alchalby, Haefaa; Stübig, Thomas; Wolschke, Christine; Ayuk, Francis; von Hünerbein, Natascha; Kvasnicka, Hans-Michael; Thiele, Jürgen; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Büsche, Guntram

    2014-06-01

    We correlate regression of bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) on day 30 and 100 after dose- reduced allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) in 57 patients with primary or post-essential thrombocythemia/polycythemia vera myelofibrosis with graft function and survival. The distribution of International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk score categories was 1 patient with low risk, 5 patients with intermediate-1 risk, 18 patients with intermediate-2 risk, and 33 patients with high risk. Before allo-SCT, 41 patients (72%) were classified as XXX [myclofibrosis (MF)]-3 and 16 (28%) were classified as MF-2 according to the World Health Organization criteria. At postengraftment day +30 (±10 days), 21% of the patients had near-complete or complete regression of BMF (MF-0/-1), and on day +100 (±20 days), 54% were MF-0/-1. The 5-year overall survival rate at day +100 was 96% in patients with MF-0/-1 and 57% for those with MF-2/-3 (P = .04). There was no difference in BMF regression at day +100 between IPSS high-risk and low/intermediate-risk patients. Complete donor cell chimerism at day +100 was seen in 81% of patients with MF-0/-1 and in 31% of those with MF-2/-3. Patients with MF-2/-3 at day +100 were more likely to be transfusion-dependent for either RBCs (P = .014) or platelets (P = .018). Rapid BMF regression after reduced-intensity conditioning allo-SCT resulted in a favorable survival independent of IPSS risk score at transplantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li, E-mail: lin.796@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Olson, Veronica [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States); Bekaii-Saab, Tanios [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lin, Jiayuh, E-mail: lin.674@osu.edu [Center for Childhood Cancer, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43205 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower

  12. Nutritional status of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: influencing risk factors and impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghammaz, Amro Mohamed Sedky; Ben Matoug, Rima; Elzimaity, Maha; Mostafa, Nevine

    2017-04-24

    Patients subjected to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased nutritional risk which in turn may alter their outcome. For providing good nutritional care for patients, it is important to analyze risk factors influencing nutritional status during and after HSCT. Fifty patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT were subjected to nutritional status assessment by using the patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) at initial admission, day 30 and day 180. Two patients (4%) had malnutrition at admission, 36 (72%) at day 30, and 24 (48%) at day 180. At day 30, comorbidity index higher than 0 and fever lasting for more than 1 week had a significant impact on nutritional status (P = .004 and P = .006, respectively). Regarding day 180, comorbidity index higher than 0 and presence of ≥grade II acute gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GI GVHD) significantly influenced nutritional status (P = .017 and P = .026, respectively). Well-nourished patients at admission and day 180 had a significantly higher overall survival (OS) in comparison to malnourished patients (P Nutritional status at admission and day 180 had a significant influence on OS in multivariate analysis (P = .039 and P = .032, respectively). Allogeneic HSCT patients having high comorbidity index, developing prolonged fever, and experiencing ≥grade II acute GI GVHD suffer from worsening in their nutritional status during hospitalization and after discharge. Also, nutritional status at admission and day 180 significantly influences their survival.

  13. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is a survival factor for radiation-exposed intestinal epithelial stem cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Satoshi; Martin, Kareen; Booth, Catherine; Potten, Christopher S.; de Murcia, Gilbert; Bürkle, Alexander; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a key enzyme mediating the cellular response to DNA strand breaks. It plays a critical role in genomic stability and survival of proliferating cells in culture undergoing DNA damage. Intestinal epithelium is the most proliferative tissue in the mammalian body and its stem cells show extreme sensitivity to low-level genotoxic stress. We investigated the role of PARP-1 in the in vivo damage response of intestinal stem cells in crypts of PARP-1–/– and control mice following whole-body γ-irradiation (1 Gy). In the PARP-1–/– mice there was a significant delay during the first 6 h in the transient p53 accumulation in stem cells whereas an increased number of cells were positive for p21CIP1/WAF1. Either no or only marginal differences were noted in MDM2 expression, apoptosis, induction of or recovery from mitotic blockage, or inhibition of DNA synthesis. We further observed a dose-dependent reduction in crypt survival measured at 4 days post-irradiation in control mice, and this crypt-killing effect was significantly potentiated in PARP-1–/– mice. Our results thus establish that PARP-1 acts as a survival factor for intestinal stem cells in vivo and suggest a functional link with early p53 and p21CIP1/WAF1 responses. PMID:14576306

  14. Extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate: a novel actor in human glioblastoma stem cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Riccitelli

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive intracranial neoplasms in humans, and despite advances and the introduction of the alkylating agent temozolomide in therapy have improved patient survival, resistance mechanisms limit benefits. Recent studies support that glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs, a cell subpopulation within the tumour, are involved in the aberrant expansion and therapy resistance properties of glioblastomas, through still unclear mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P a potent onco-promoter able to act as extracellular signal, favours malignant and chemoresistance properties in GSCs. Notwithstanding, the origin of S1P in the GSC environment remains unknown. We investigated S1P metabolism, release, and role in cell survival properties of GSCs isolated from either U87-MG cell line or a primary culture of human glioblastoma. We show that both GSC models, grown as neurospheres and expressing GSC markers, are resistant to temozolomide, despite not expressing the DNA repair protein MGMT, a major contributor to temozolomide-resistance. Pulse experiments with labelled sphingosine revealed that both GSC types are able to rapidly phosphorylate the long-chain base, and that the newly produced S1P is efficiently degraded. Of relevance, we found that S1P was present in GSC extracellular medium, its level being significantly higher than in U87-MG cells, and that the extracellular/intracellular ratio of S1P was about ten-fold higher in GSCs. The activity of sphingosine kinases was undetectable in GSC media, suggesting that mechanisms of S1P transport to the extracellular environment are constitutive in GSCs. In addition we found that an inhibitor of S1P biosynthesis made GSCs sensitive to temozolomide (TMZ, and that exogenous S1P reverted this effect, thus involving extracellular S1P as a GSC survival signal in TMZ resistance. Altogether our data implicate for the first time GSCs as a pivotal source

  15. Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Thakur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this presentation is to create awareness of stem cell applications in the ISORBE community and to foster a strategy of how the ISORBE community can disseminate information and promote the use of radiolabeled stem cells in biomedical applications. Methods: The continued excitement in Stem Cells, in many branches of basic and applied biomedical science, stems from the remarkable ability of stem cells to divide and develop into different types of cells in the body. Often called as Magic Seeds, stem cells are produced in bone marrow and circulate in blood, albeit at a relatively low concentration. These virtues together with the ability of stem cells to grow in tissue culture have paved the way for their applications to generate new and healthy tissues and to replace diseased or injured human organs. Although possibilities of stem cell applications are many, much remains yet to be understood of these remarkable magic seeds. Conclusion: This presentation shall briefly cover the origin of stem cells, the pros and cons of their growth and division, their potential application, and shall outline some examples of the contributions of radiolabeled stem cells, in this rapidly growing branch of biomedical science

  16. Protein kinase G1 α overexpression increases stem cell survival and cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that overexpression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type 1α (PKG1α could mimic the effect of tadalafil on the survival of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs contributing to regeneration of the ischemic heart.MSCs from male rats were transduced with adenoviral vector encoding for PKG1α ((PKG1αMSCs.Controls included native MSCs ((NatMSCs and MSCs transduced with an empty vector ((NullMSCs. PKG1α activity was increased approximately 20, 5 and 16 fold respectively in (PKG1αMSCs. (PKG1αMSCs showed improved survival under oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD which was evidenced by lower LDH release, caspase-3/7 activity and number of positive TUNEL cells. Anti-apoptotic proteins pAkt, pGSK3β, and Bcl-2 were significantly increased in (PKG1αMSCs compared to (NatMSCs and (NullMSCs. Higher release of multiple prosurvival and angiogenic factors such as HGF, bFGF, SDF-1 and Ang-1 was observed in (PKG1αMSCs before and after OGD. In a female rat model of acute myocardial infarction, (PKG1αMSCs group showed higher survival compared with (NullMSCs group at 3 and 7 days after transplantation as determined by TUNEL staining and sry-gene quantitation by real-time PCR. Increased anti-apoptotic proteins and paracrine factors in vitro were also identified. Immunostaining for cardiac troponin I combined with GFP showed increased myogenic differentiation of (PKG1αMSCs. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared to DMEM group and (NullMSCs group, (PKG1αMSCs group showed increased blood vessel density in infarct and peri-infarct areas (62.5±7.7; 68.8±7.3 per microscopic view, p<0.05 and attenuated infarct size (27.2±2.5%, p<0.01. Heart function indices including ejection fraction (52.1±2.2%, p<0.01 and fractional shortening (24.8%±1.3%, p<0.01 were improved significantly in (PKG1αMSCs group.Overexpression of PKG1α transgene could be a powerful approach to improve MSCs survival and their angiomyogenic potential in the

  17. The ATM-BID pathway regulates quiescence and survival of haematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryanovich, Maria; Oberkovitz, Galia; Niv, Hagit; Vorobiyov, Lidiya; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Brenner, Ori; Lapidot, Tsvee; Jung, Steffen; Gross, Atan

    2012-03-25

    BID, a BH3-only BCL2 family member, functions in apoptosis as well as the DNA-damage response. Our previous data demonstrated that BID is an ATM effector acting to induce cell-cycle arrest and inhibition of apoptosis following DNA damage. Here we show that ATM-mediated BID phosphorylation plays an unexpected role in maintaining the quiescence of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Loss of BID phosphorylation leads to escape from quiescence of HSCs, resulting in exhaustion of the HSC pool and a marked reduction of HSC repopulating potential in vivo. We also demonstrate that BID phosphorylation plays a role in protecting HSCs from irradiation, and that regulating both quiescence and survival of HSCs depends on BID's ability to regulate oxidative stress. Moreover, loss of BID phosphorylation, ATM knockout or exposing mice to irradiation leads to an increase in mitochondrial BID, which correlates with an increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress. These results show that the ATM-BID pathway serves as a critical checkpoint for coupling HSC homeostasis and the DNA-damage stress response to enable long-term regenerative capacity.

  18. Peroxiredoxin 3 maintains the survival of endometrial cancer stem cells by regulating oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Sung; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Seo, Young Jin; Byun, Jung Mi; Kim, Young Nanm; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Han, Jin; Kim, Ki Tae; Jang, Sung-Wuk

    2017-11-03

    Cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapy could reduce tumor growth, recurrence, and metastasis in endometrial cancer (EC). The mitochondria of CSCs have been recently found to be an important target for cancer treatment, but the mitochondrial features of CSCs and their regulators, which maintain mitochondrial function, remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial properties of CSCs, and identified specific targets for eliminating CSCs in EC. We found that endometrial CSCs displayed higher mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca 2+ , reactive oxygen species, ATP levels, and oxygen consumption rates than non-CSCs. Further, we also verified that mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) was upregulated, and that it contributed to the survival of CSCs in EC. The knockdown of the Prx3 gene resulted not only in decreased sphere formation, but also reduced the viability of endometrial CSCs, by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, we found that the forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1), an important transcriptional factor, is overexpressed in patients with EC. FoxM1 expression correlates with elevated Prx3 expression levels, in agreement with the tumorigenic ability of Prx3 in endometrial CSCs. Taken together, our findings indicate that human endometrial CSCs have enhanced mitochondrial function compared to that of endometrial tumor cells. Endometrial CSCs show increased expression of the mitochondrial Prx3, which is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and survival, and is induced by FoxM1. Based on our findings, we believe that these proteins might represent valuable therapeutic targets and could provide new insights into the development of new therapeutic strategies for patients with endometrial cancer.

  19. Beta-Catenin: A Potential Survival Marker of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Mercy S; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    .... It has been established that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates the self renewal of normal stem cells in the hematopoietic system, the epidermis, as well as many other organs, but the importance...

  20. Forced mastication increases survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yuki; Kitamura, Takamasa; Fujihara, Yuri; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Mitome, Masato; Hasegawa, Tomokazu

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of forced mastication on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of adult mice. Six-week-old mice were subjected to either a hard or normal diet for 13 weeks. They received a daily injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 12 consecutive days beginning at 14 weeks of age. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the DG was counted 1 day after and 5 weeks after the final BrdU injection. The number of BrdU-positive cells 1 day after injection did not differ between the 2 diet groups. However, the number of BrdU-positive cells in the group fed the hard diet was significantly increased 5 weeks after BrdU injection compared to the group fed the normal diet. The results of the Morris water maze test showed that mice fed a hard diet required significantly less time to reach the platform than the control mice when tested at 10 days. Moreover, mice in the group fed the hard diet spent significantly more time in the former platform area than the group fed the normal diet, indicating that hard diet feeding improved spatial memory compared to normal diet feeding. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of glutamate receptor 1 mRNA was significantly increased in the group fed the hard diet compared with the group fed the normal diet. These results suggest that mastication increases the survival of adult neural stem cells in the hippocampal DG.

  1. Pluripotent male germline stem cells from goat fetal testis and their survival in mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jinlian; Zhu, Haijing; Pan, Shaohui; Liu, Chao; Sun, Junwei; Ma, Xiaoling; Dong, Wuzi; Liu, Weishuai; Li, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Male germline stem cells (mGSCs) are stem cells present in male testis responsible for spermatogenesis during their whole life. Studies have shown that mGSCs can be derived in vitro and resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) properties both in the mouse and humans. However, little is know about these cells in domestic animals. Here we report the first successful establishment of goat GSCs derived from 2-5-month fetal testis, and developmental potential assay of these cells both in vitro and in vivo. These cells express pluripotent markers such as Oct4, Sox2, C-myc, and Tert when cultured as human ESCs conditions. Embryoid bodies (EBs) formed by goat mGSCs were induced with 2 × 10(-6) M retinoic acid (RA). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that some cells inside of the EBs were positive for meiosis marker-SCP3, STRA8, and germ cell marker-VASA, and haploid marker-FE-J1, PRM1, indicating their germ cell lineage differentiation. Some cells become elongated sperm-like cells after induction. Approximately 34.88% (30/86) embryos showed cleavage and four embryos were cultured on murine fibroblast feeder and formed small embryonic stem like colonies. However, most stalled at four-cell stage after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of these cells. Transplantation of DAPI labeled mGSCs into the seminiferous tubules of busulfan-treated mice, and showed that mGSCs can colonize, self-renew, and differentiate into germ cells. Thus, we have established a goat GSC cell line and these cells could be differentiated into sperm-like cells in vivo and sperms in vitro, providing a promising platform for generation of transgenic goat for production of specific humanized proteins.

  2. Immunosuppression of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells transplantation after spinal cord injury improves graft survival and beneficial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Redondo-Castro, Elena; Hernandez, Joaquim; Navarro, Xavier

    2015-03-15

    Cell therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI) is a promising strategy for clinical application. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated beneficial effects following transplantation in animal models of SCI. However, despite the immunoprivilege properties of the MSC, their survival in the injured spinal cord is reduced due to the detrimental milieu in the damaged tissue and immune rejection of the cells. The limited survival of the engrafted cells may determine the therapy success. Therefore, we compared two strategies to increase the presence of the cells in the injured spinal cord in rats: increasing the amount of MSC transplants and using immunosuppressive treatment with FK506 after transplantation. Functional outcomes for locomotion and electrophysiological responses were assessed. The grafted cells survival and the amount of cavity and spared tissue were studied. The findings indicate that immunosuppression improved grafted cells survival. A cell-dose effect was found regarding locomotion recovery and tissue protection independent of immunosuppression. Nevertheless, immunosuppression enhanced the electrophysiological outcomes and allowed filling of the cavity formed after injury by new regenerative tissue and axons. These results indicate that MSC transplantation combined with immunosuppression prolongs the survival of engrafted cells and improves functional and morphological outcomes after SCI.

  3. Crucial role of interleukin-4 in the survival of colon cancer stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Alea, Mileidys Perez; Lombardo, Ylenia; Todaro, Matilde; Medema, J. P.; Stassi, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    Colon tumors may be maintained by a rare fraction of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) that express the cell surface marker CD133. Self-renewing CSCs exhibit relatively greater resistance to clinical cytotoxic therapies and recent work suggests that this resistance may be mediated in part by an autocrine

  4. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  5. Symptomatic BK Virus Infection Is Associated with Kidney Function Decline and Poor Overall Survival in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayyeh, Ala; Hamdi, Amir; Lin, Heather; Abdelrahim, Maen; Rondon, Gabriela; Andersson, Borje S; Afrough, Aimaz; Martinez, Charles S; Tarrand, Jeffrey J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Marin, David; Gaber, A. Osama; Salahudeen, Abdulla; Oran, Betul; Chemaly, Roy F.; Olson, Amanda; Jones, Roy; Popat, Uday; Champlin, Richard E; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2017-01-01

    Nephropathy due to BK virus infection is an evolving challenge in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that BKV infection was a marker of Kidney Function Decline and a poor prognostic factor in HSCT recipients who experience this complication. In this retrospective study, we analyzed all patients who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution between 2004 and 2012. We evaluated the incidence of persistent kidney function decline, which was defined as a confirmed reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 25% from baseline using the CKD-EPI equation. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model the cause-specific hazard of kidney function decline and Fine and Gray’s method was used to account for the competing risks of death. Among 2477 recipients of a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, BK viruria was detected in 25% (n=629) and kidney function decline in 944 (38.1%). On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft versus host disease, preparative conditioning regimen, and graft source, BK viruria remained a significant risk factor for kidney function decline (P <0.001). In addition, patients with BKV infection and kidney function decline experienced worse overall survival. Post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, BKV infection was strongly and independently associated with subsequent kidney function decline and worse patient survival after HSCT. PMID:26608093

  6. Co-transplantation of syngeneic mesenchymal stem cells improves survival of allogeneic glial-restricted precursors in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Bulte, Camille A; Shats, Irina; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2016-01-01

    Loss of functional cells from immunorejection during the early post-transplantation period is an important factor that reduces the efficacy of stem cell-based therapies. Recent studies have shown that transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert therapeutic effects by secreting anti-inflammatory and pro-survival trophic factors. We investigated whether co-transplantation of MSCs could improve the survival of other transplanted therapeutic cells. Allogeneic glial-restricted precursors (GRPs) were isolated from the brain of a firefly luciferase transgenic FVB mouse (at E13.5 stage) and intracerebrally transplanted, either alone, or together with syngeneic MSCs in immunocompetent BALB/c mice (n=20) or immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) mice as survival control (n=8). No immunosuppressive drug was given to any animal. Using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) as a non-invasive readout of cell survival, we found that co-transplantation of MSCs significantly improved (ptransplanted cells surviving in both the GRP only and the GRP+MSC group. In contrast, on day 21 post-transplantation, we observed a 94.2% decrease in BLI signal intensity in immunocompetent mice transplanted with GRPs alone versus 68.1% in immunocompetent mice co-transplanted with MSCs and GRPs (pcells, reduced astrogliosis, and a higher number of FoxP3(+) cells at the site of transplantation for the immunocompetent mice receiving MSCs. The present study demonstrates that co-transplantation of MSCs can be used to create a microenvironment that is more conducive to the survival of allogeneic GRPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Krüppel-like factor 5 is essential for proliferation and survival of mouse intestinal epithelial stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandayam O. Nandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 is a pro-proliferative transcription factor that is expressed in dividing epithelial cells of the intestinal crypt. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 has been identified as a stem cell marker in both small intestinal and colonic epithelial cells. To determine whether KLF5 regulates proliferation of intestinal stem cells, we investigated the effects of Klf5 deletion specifically from the intestinal stem cells in adult mice. Mice with inducible intestinal stem cell-specific deletion of Klf5 (Lgr5-Klf5fl/fl were injected with tamoxifen for 5 consecutive days to induce Lgr5-driven Cre expression. Intestinal and colonic tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry at various time points up to 112 days following start of tamoxifen treatment. Klf5 is co-localized in the crypt-based columnar (CBC cells that express Lgr5. By 11 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, Lgr5-positive crypts from which Klf5 was deleted exhibited a loss of proliferation that was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. Beginning at 14 days following the start of tamoxifen treatment, both Klf5 expression and proliferation were re-established in the transit-amplifying epithelial cells but not in the Lgr5-positive CBC cells. By 112 days post-treatment, up to 90% of the Lgr5-positive cells from which Klf5 was deleted were lost from the intestinal crypts. These results indicate a critical role for KLF5 in the survival and maintenance of intestinal stem cells.

  8. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  9. Stem cell survival is severely compromised by the thymidineanalog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), an alternative to BrdU for proliferation assays and stem cell tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte C; Skovrind, Ida; Christensen, Marlene Louise

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has opened up the possibility of treating numerous degenerating diseases. However, we are still merely at the stage of identifying appropriate sources of stem cells and exploring their full differentiation potential. Thus, tracking the stem cells upon in vivo engraftment...... and during in vitro co-culture is very important and is an area of research embracing many pitfalls. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), a rather new thymidine analog incorporated into DNA, has recently been suggested to be a novel highly valid alternative to other dyes for labeling of stem cells and subsequent...... tracing of their proliferation and differentiation ability. However, our results herein do not at any stage support this recommendation, since EdU severely reduces the viability of stem cells. Accordingly, we found that transplanted EdU-labeled stem cells hardly survive upon in vivo transplantation...

  10. Beta-catenin: A Potential Survival Marker of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    discrete nuclear foci can be visualized and quantitated following radiation (31). To determine whether mammary epithelial stem cells may be affected by...levels of nuclear ß- catenin exist in a minor population of progenitor cells, resulting in their enhanced capacity for self-renewal and increased...repopulation experiments, and provide an enrichment of 300-fold in radioprotection of lethally irradiated recipients (Goodell et al., 1996; Goodell et

  11. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingli; Yang, Ming; Poremsky, Elizabeth; Kidd, Sarah; Schneider, Jay S; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.

  12. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suna, E-mail: wangs3@mail.nih.gov; Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-04-15

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative {sup RT}PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  13. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia; Kamand, Morad; Okarmus, Justyna; Rosenberg, Tine; Friis, Stig Düring; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Blaabjerg, Morten; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Skrydstrup, Troels; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson’s disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting in both protection and generation of reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the effect of CO produced by a novel CO-releasing molecule on dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells. Short-term exposure to 25 ppm CO at days 0 and 4 significantly increased the relative content of β-tubulin III-immunoreactive immature neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase expressing catecholaminergic neurons, as assessed 6 days after differentiation. Also the number of microtubule associated protein 2-positive mature neurons had increased significantly. Moreover, the content of apoptotic cells (Caspase3) was reduced, whereas the expression of a cell proliferation marker (Ki67) was left unchanged. Increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cultures exposed to CO may suggest a mechanism involving mitochondrial alterations and generation of ROS. In conclusion, the present procedure using controlled, short-term CO exposure allows efficient dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells at low cost and may as such be useful for derivation of cells for experimental studies and future development of donor cells for transplantation in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:29338033

  14. Induced Neural Stem Cells Achieve Long-Term Survival and Functional Integration in the Adult Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hemmer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can be converted directly into multipotent neural stem cells (i.e., induced neural stem cells [iNSCs]. iNSCs offer an attractive alternative to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology with regard to regenerative therapies. Here, we show an in vivo long-term analysis of transplanted iNSCs in the adult mouse brain. iNSCs showed sound in vivo long-term survival rates without graft overgrowths. The cells displayed a neural multilineage potential with a clear bias toward astrocytes and a permanent downregulation of progenitor and cell-cycle markers, indicating that iNSCs are not predisposed to tumor formation. Furthermore, the formation of synaptic connections as well as neuronal and glial electrophysiological properties demonstrated that differentiated iNSCs migrated, functionally integrated, and interacted with the existing neuronal circuitry. We conclude that iNSC long-term transplantation is a safe procedure; moreover, it might represent an interesting tool for future personalized regenerative applications.

  15. Inhibition of HSP90 Promotes Neural Stem Cell Survival from Oxidative Stress through Attenuating NF-κB/p65 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell survival after transplantation determines the efficiency of stem cell treatment, which develops as a novel potential therapy for several central nervous system (CNS diseases in recent decades. The engrafted stem cells face the damage of oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response at the lesion point in host. Among the damaging pathologies, oxidative stress directs stem cells to apoptosis and even death through several signalling pathways and DNA damage. However, the in-detail mechanism of stem cell survival from oxidative stress has not been revealed clearly. Here, in this study, we used hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 to induce the oxidative damage on neural stem cells (NSCs. The damage was in consequence demonstrated involving the activation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 and NF-κB/p65 signalling pathways. Further application of the pharmacological inhibitors, respectively, targeting at each signalling indicated an upper-stream role of HSP90 upon NF-κB/p65 on NSCs survival. Preinhibition of HSP90 with the specific inhibitor displayed a significant protection on NSCs against oxidative stress. In conclusion, inhibition of HSP90 would attenuate NF-κB/p65 activation by oxidative induction and promote NSCs survival from oxidative damage. The HSP90/NF-κB mechanism provides a new evidence on rescuing NSCs from oxidative stress and also promotes the stem cell application on CNS pathologies.

  16. Stem Cell Factor Expression after Renal Ischemia Promotes Tubular Epithelial Survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, Geurt; Stroo, Ingrid; Claessen, Nike; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Weening, Jan J.; Leemans, Jaklien C.; Florquin, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration

  17. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    OpenAIRE

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34+ cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34+ and CD34− populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting a role for feeder cells present in blood mononuclear cells that increase hematopoietic output. Immunodepleting peripheral blood mononuclear cells for CD14+ cells reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor...

  18. Effect of Recipient Age and Stem Cell Source on the Association between Donor Telomere Length and Survival after Allogeneic Unrelated Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Severe Aplastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Shahinaz M; Wang, Tao; Dagnall, Casey; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen R; Hicks, Belynda; Jones, Kristine; Katki, Hormuzd A; Lee, Stephanie J; Savage, Sharon A

    2016-12-01

    We previously showed an association between donor leukocyte relative telomere length (RTL) and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survival in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received bone marrow grafts at ages survival, but further analysis identified differences by recipient age and stem cell source as the likely explanation. In patients survival benefit only in <40-year-old patients receiving bone marrow graft (HR comparing longest and middle RTL tertiles with shortest = .69; 95% CI, .50 to .95, P = .02). The study suggested that the association between donor RTL and post-HCT outcomes in recipients with SAA may vary by recipient age and stem cell source. A larger study is needed to account for multiple comparisons and to further test the generalizability of our findings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Ferulic acid promotes survival and differentiation of neural stem cells to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lintao; Cui, Xinhua; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jia; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-11-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed. Gentamicin was used to induce neuronal hearing loss in mice, in the presence and absence of FA, followed by assessments of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude. FA promoted survival, neurosphere formation and differentiation of NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and excitability of in vitro neuronal network. Furthermore, FA restored ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE in gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss mouse model in vivo. Our data, for the first time, support potential therapeutic efficacy of FA in promoting survival and differentiation of NSCs to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief reports: Controlling the survival of human pluripotent stem cells by small molecule-based targeting of topoisomerase II alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Uri; Cowell, Ian G; Austin, Caroline A; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2015-03-01

    Pluripotent-specific inhibitors (PluriSIns) make a powerful tool to study the mechanisms controlling the survival of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Here, we characterize the mechanism of action of PluriSIn#2, a compound that selectively eliminates undifferentiated hPSCs, while sparing various other cell types derived from them. Toxicogenomic analysis predicts this compound to be a topoisomerase inhibitor. Gene expression analyses reveal that one of the human topoisomerase enzymes, topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A), is uniquely expressed in hPSCs: TOP2A is highly expressed in undifferentiated cells, is downregulated during their differentiation, and its expression depends on the expression of core pluripotency transcription factors. Furthermore, siRNA-based knockdown of TOP2A in undifferentiated hPSCs results in their cell death, revealing that TOP2A expression is required for the survival of these cells. We find that PluriSIn#2 does not directly inhibit TOP2A enzymatic activity, but rather selectively represses its transcription, thereby significantly reducing TOP2A protein levels. As undifferentiated hPSCs require TOP2A activity for their survival, TOP2A inhibition by PluriSIn#2 thus causes their cell death. Therefore, TOP2A dependency can be harnessed for the selective elimination of tumorigenic hPSCs from culture. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  1. Serial in vivo imaging of transplanted allogeneic neural stem cell survival in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Amit K; Gross, Sarah K; Almad, Akshata A; Bulte, Camille A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2017-03-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are being investigated as a possible treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through intraspinal transplantation, but no longitudinal imaging studies exist that describe the survival of engrafted cells over time. Allogeneic firefly luciferase-expressing murine NSCs (Luc+-NSCs) were transplanted bilaterally (100,000 cells/2μl) into the cervical spinal cord (C5) parenchyma of pre-symptomatic (63day-old) SOD1G93A ALS mice (n=14) and wild-type age-matched littermates (n=14). Six control SOD1G93A ALS mice were injected with saline. Mice were immunosuppressed using a combination of tacrolimus+sirolimus (1mg/kg each, i.p.) daily. Compared to saline-injected SOD1G93A ALS control mice, a transient improvement (pALS mice at the time of disease onset (71.7±17.9% at 4weeks post-transplantation, pALS mice, poor cell survival was accompanied by accumulation of mature macrophages and the presence of astrogliosis and microgliosis. We conclude that the disease progression adversely affects the survival of engrafted murine Luc+-NSCs in SOD1G93A ALS mice as a result of the hostile ALS spinal cord microenvironment, further emphasizing the challenges that face successful cell therapy of ALS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Polarized Secretion of PEDF from Human Embryonic Stem Cell–Derived RPE Promotes Retinal Progenitor Cell Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danhong; Deng, Xuemei; Spee, Christine; Sonoda, Shozo; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Barron, Ernesto; Pera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Human embryonic stem cell–derived RPE (hES-RPE) transplantation is a promising therapy for atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, future therapeutic approaches may consider co-transplantation of hES-RPE with retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) as a replacement source for lost photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of polarization of hES-RPE monolayers on their ability to promote survival of RPCs. Methods. The hES-3 cell line was used for derivation of RPE. Polarization of hES-RPE was achieved by prolonged growth on permeable inserts. RPCs were isolated from 16- to 18-week-gestation human fetal eyes. ELISA was performed to measure pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) levels from conditioned media. Results. Pigmented RPE-like cells appeared as early as 4 weeks in culture and were subcultured at 8 weeks. Differentiated hES-RPE had a normal chromosomal karyotype. Phenotypically polarized hES-RPE cells showed expression of RPE-specific genes. Polarized hES-RPE showed prominent expression of PEDF in apical cytoplasm and a marked increase in secretion of PEDF into the medium compared with nonpolarized culture. RPCs grown in the presence of supernatants from polarized hES-RPE showed enhanced survival, which was ablated by the presence of anti-PEDF antibody. Conclusions. hES-3 cells can be differentiated into functionally polarized hES-RPE cells that exhibit characteristics similar to those of native RPE. On polarization, hES-RPE cells secrete high levels of PEDF that can support RPC survival. These experiments suggest that polarization of hES-RPE would be an important feature for promotion of RPC survival in future cell therapy for atrophic AMD. PMID:21087957

  3. Multimodal Treatment Eliminates Cancer Stem Cells and Leads to Long-Term Survival in Primary Human Pancreatic Cancer Tissue Xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C Hermann

    Full Text Available In spite of intense research efforts, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains one of the most deadly malignancies in the world. We and others have previously identified a subpopulation of pancreatic cancer stem cells within the tumor as a critical therapeutic target and additionally shown that the tumor stroma represents not only a restrictive barrier for successful drug delivery, but also serves as a paracrine niche for cancer stem cells. Therefore, we embarked on a large-scale investigation on the effects of combining chemotherapy, hedgehog pathway inhibition, and mTOR inhibition in a preclinical mouse model of pancreatic cancer.Prospective and randomized testing in a set of almost 200 subcutaneous and orthotopic implanted whole-tissue primary human tumor xenografts.The combined targeting of highly chemoresistant cancer stem cells as well as their more differentiated progenies, together with abrogation of the tumor microenvironment by targeting the stroma and enhancing tissue penetration of the chemotherapeutic agent translated into significantly prolonged survival in preclinical models of human pancreatic cancer. Most pronounced therapeutic effects were observed in gemcitabine-resistant patient-derived tumors. Intriguingly, the proposed triple therapy approach could be further enhanced by using a PEGylated formulation of gemcitabine, which significantly increased its bioavailability and tissue penetration, resulting in a further improved overall outcome.This multimodal therapeutic strategy should be further explored in the clinical setting as its success may eventually improve the poor prognosis of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

  4. Enhanced cell survival and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor promote cardioprotection in myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Xiaolin [Section of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Yuelin [Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Liang, Xiaoting; Ding, Yue [Pudong District Clinical Translational Medical Research Center, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Xu, Yan; Fang, Zhen [Section of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Fengxiang, E-mail: njzfx6@njmu.edu.cn [Section of Pacing and Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Poor cell survival post transplantation compromises the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important cytokine for angiogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MSCs overexpressing HGF in a mouse model of MI. The apoptosis of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and HGF-UC-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was detected. The conditioned medium (CdM) of UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs under a hypoxic condition was harvested and its protective effect on neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) exposed to a hypoxic challenge was examined. UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs were transplanted into the peri-infarct region in mice following MI and heart function assessed 4 weeks post transplantation. The apoptosis of HGF-UC-MSCs under hypoxic conditions was markedly decreased compared with that of UC-MSCs. NCMs treated with HGF-UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM) exhibited less cell apoptosis in response to hypoxic challenge than those treated with UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (UC-MSCs-hy-CdM). HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM released the inhibited p-Akt and lowered the enhanced ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 induced by hypoxia in the NCMs. HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM expressed higher levels of HGF, EGF, bFGF and VEGF than UC-MSCs-hy-CdM. Transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs or UC-MSCs greatly improved heart function in the mouse model of MI. Compared with UC-MSCs, transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs was associated with less cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced angiogenesis and increased proliferation of cardiomyocytes. This study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapy in cardiovascular disease.

  5. Enhanced Survival and Engraftment of Transplanted Stem Cells using Growth Factor Sequestering Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Amit K.; Tharp, Kevin M.; Ye, Jianqin; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Jackson, Wesley M.; Stahl, Andreas; Schaffer, David V.; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    We have generated a bioinspired tunable system of hyaluronic acid (HyA)-based hydrogels for Matrix-Assisted Cell Transplantation (MACT). With this material, we have independently evaluated matrix parameters such as adhesion peptide density, mechanical properties, and growth factor sequestering capacity, to engineer an environment that imbues donor cells with a milieu that promotes survival and engraftment with host tissues after transplantation. Using a versatile population of Sca-1+/CD45− cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), we demonstrated that the addition of heparin in the HyA hydrogels was necessary to coordinate the presentation of TGFβ1 and to support the trophic functions of the CPCs via endothelial cell differentiation and vascular like tubular network formation. Presentation of exogenous TGFβ1 by binding with heparin improved differentiated CPC function by sequestering additional endogenously-produced angiogenic factors. Finally, we demonstrated that TGFβ1 and heparin-containing HyA hydrogels can promote CPC survival when implanted subcutaneously into murine hind-limbs and encouraged their participation in the ensuing neovascular response, including blood vessels that had anastomosed with the host’s blood vessels. PMID:25682155

  6. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  7. Nanomedicine to overcome radioresistance in glioblastoma stem-like cells and surviving clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séhédic, Delphine; Cikankowitz, Annabelle; Hindré, François; Davodeau, François; Garcion, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the standard treatments for glioblastoma, but its effectiveness often encounters the phenomenon of radioresistance. This resistance was recently attributed to distinct cell contingents known as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) and dominant clones. It is characterized in particular by the activation of signaling pathways and DNA repair mechanisms. Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine offer new possibilities for radiosensitizing these cell populations. Several strategies have been developed in this direction, the first consisting of encapsulating a contrast agent or synthesizing metal-based nanocarriers to concentrate the dose gradient at the level of the target tissue. In the second strategy the physicochemical properties of the vectors are used to encapsulate a wide range of pharmacological agents which act in synergy with the ionizing radiation to destroy the cancerous cells. This review reports on the various molecular anomalies present in GSCs and the predominant role of nanomedicines in the development of radiosensitization strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Imaging and Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Young Jang; Zhaohui Ye; Linzhao Cheng

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been enormous progress in understanding both multipotent stem cells such as hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. However, it has been challenging to study developmental potentials of these stem cells because they reside in complex cellular environments and aspects of their distribution, migration, engraftment, survival, proliferation, and differentiation often could not be suffici...

  9. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  10. Absolute lymphocyte count as predictor of overall survival for patients with multiple myeloma treated with single autologous stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Zepeda, Victor H; Reece, Donna E; Trudel, Suzanne; Chen, Christine; Franke, Norman; Winter, Andrew; Tiedemann, Rodger; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Post-autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) studies have demonstrated that absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery is associated with prolonged survival in some hematological malignancies. To assess whether ALC recovery has prognostic significance in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing single ASCT, we conducted a retrospective analysis of ALC at different time-points in patients with MM. In total 769 consecutive patients who underwent single ASCT from January 2000 to December 2007 were evaluated. An ALC of ≥ 1400 cells/μL at day 0, day 15 and day 90 significantly correlated with a better overall survival (OS) (median OS of 111, 90.7 and 84 months vs. 74, 70.5 and 65 months, respectively, p < 0.001 for all time-points). Multivariate analysis showed that ALC is an independent prognostic factor for OS after ASCT. In conclusion, ALC is a surrogate marker of the host immune system that correlates with better survival in patients with MM undergoing single ASCT. Immunomodulatory drugs, vaccination strategies and cellular therapies in MM should be investigated.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 increases hematopoietic stem cell survival and accelerates hematopoietic recovery after radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Rebecca L.; Georger, Mary; Bromberg, Olga; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frisch, Benjamin J.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which continuously maintain all mature blood cells, are regulated within the marrow microenvironment. We previously reported that pharmacologic treatment of naïve mice with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expands HSPCs. However, the cellular mechanisms mediating this expansion remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PGE2 treatment in naïve mice inhibits apoptosis of HSPCs without changing their proliferation rate. In a murine model of sub-lethal total body irradiation (TBI), in which HSPCs are rapidly lost, treatment with a long-acting PGE2 analogue (dmPGE2) reversed the apoptotic program initiated by TBI. dmPGE2 treatment in vivo decreased the loss of functional HSPCs following radiation injury, as demonstrated both phenotypically and by their increased reconstitution capacity. The antiapoptotic effect of dmPGE2 on HSPCs did not impair their ability to differentiate in vivo, resulting instead in improved hematopoietic recovery after TBI. dmPGE2 also increased microenvironmental cyclooxygenase-2 expression and expanded the α-SMA+ subset of marrow macrophages, thus enhancing the bone marrow microenvironmental response to TBI. Therefore, in vivo treatment with PGE2 analogues may be particularly beneficial to HSPCs in the setting of injury by targeting them both directly and also through their niche. The current data provide rationale for in vivo manipulation of the HSPC pool as a strategy to improve recovery after myelosuppression. PMID:23169593

  12. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  13. Non-virally engineered human adipose mesenchymal stem cells produce BMP4, target brain tumors, and extend survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangraviti, Antonella; Tzeng, Stephany Y; Gullotti, David; Kozielski, Kristen L; Kim, Jennifer E; Seng, Michael; Abbadi, Sara; Schiapparelli, Paula; Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Vescovi, Angelo; Brem, Henry; Olivi, Alessandro; Tyler, Betty; Green, Jordan J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for enabling non-viral nanobiotechnology to allow safe and effective gene therapy and cell therapy, which can be utilized to treat devastating diseases such as brain cancer. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) display high anti-glioma tropism and represent a promising delivery vehicle for targeted brain tumor therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that non-viral, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) can be used to engineer hAMSCs with higher efficacy (75% of cells) than leading commercially available reagents and high cell viability. To accomplish this, we engineered a poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) polymer structure to transfect hAMSCs with significantly higher efficacy than Lipofectamine™ 2000. We then assessed the ability of NP-engineered hAMSCs to deliver bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which has been shown to have a novel therapeutic effect by targeting human brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC), a source of cancer recurrence, in a human primary malignant glioma model. We demonstrated that hAMSCs genetically engineered with polymeric nanoparticles containing BMP4 plasmid DNA (BMP4/NP-hAMSCs) secrete BMP4 growth factor while maintaining their multipotency and preserving their migration and invasion capacities. We also showed that this approach can overcome a central challenge for brain therapeutics, overcoming the blood brain barrier, by demonstrating that NP-engineered hAMSCs can migrate to the brain and penetrate the brain tumor after both intranasal and systemic intravenous administration. Critically, athymic rats bearing human primary BTIC-derived tumors and treated intranasally with BMP4/NP-hAMSCs showed significantly improved survival compared to those treated with control GFP/NP-hAMCSs. This study demonstrates that synthetic polymeric nanoparticles are a safe and effective approach for stem cell-based cancer-targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term potentiation promotes proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesup Cho

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity, promotes neurogenesis by facilitating proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We found that the induction of hippocampal LTP significantly facilitates proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of both endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the hippocampus in rats. These effects were eliminated by preventing LTP induction by pharmacological blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR via systemic application of the receptor antagonist, 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Moreover, using a NPC-neuron co-culture system, we were able to demonstrate that the LTP-promoted NPC neurogenesis is at least in part mediated by a LTP-increased neuronal release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its consequent activation of tropomysosin receptor kinase B (TrkB receptors on NSCs. Our results indicate that LTP promotes the neurogenesis of both endogenous and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the brain. The study suggests that pre-conditioning of the host brain receiving area with a LTP-inducing deep brain stimulation protocol prior to NSC transplantation may increase the likelihood of success of using NSC transplantation as an effective cell therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Long-term progression-free survival of mantle cell lymphoma after intensive front-line immunochemotherapy with in vivo-purged stem cell rescue: a nonrandomized phase 2 multicenter study by the Nordic Lymphoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C.H.; Kolstad, A.; Laurell, A.

    2008-01-01

    purged autologous stem cell support. Overall and complete response was achieved in 96% and 54%, respectively. The 6-year overall, event-free, and progression-free survival were 70%, 56%, and 66%, respectively, with no relapses occurring after 5 years. Multivariate analysis showed Ki-67 to be the sole......, and progression-free survival, the duration of molecular remission, and the proportion of PCR-negative stem cell products were significantly increased (P purged stem cell support can lead to long-term progression-free survival of MCL and perhaps cure. Registered...

  16. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  17. HIV-1 and recombinant gp120 affect the survival and differentiation of human vessel wall-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Gianandrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection elicits the onset of a progressive immunodeficiency and also damages several other organs and tissues such as the CNS, kidney, heart, blood vessels, adipose tissue and bone. In particular, HIV infection has been related to an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and derangement in the structure of blood vessels in the absence of classical risk factors. The recent characterization of multipotent mesenchymal cells in the vascular wall, involved in regulating cellular homeostasis, suggests that these cells may be considered a target of HIV pathogenesis. This paper investigated the interaction between HIV-1 and vascular wall resident human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Results MSCs were challenged with classical R5 and X4 HIV-1 laboratory strains demonstrating that these strains are able to enter and integrate their retro-transcribed proviral DNA in the host cell genome. Subsequent experiments indicated that HIV-1 strains and recombinant gp120 elicited a reliable increase in apoptosis in sub-confluent MSCs. Since vascular wall MSCs are multipotent cells that may be differentiated towards several cell lineages, we challenged HIV-1 strains and gp120 on MSCs differentiated to adipogenesis and endotheliogenesis. Our experiments showed that the adipogenesis is increased especially by upregulated PPARγ activity whereas the endothelial differentiation induced by VEGF treatment was impaired with a downregulation of endothelial markers such as vWF, Flt-1 and KDR expression. These viral effects in MSC survival and adipogenic or endothelial differentiation were tackled by CD4 blockade suggesting an important role of CD4/gp120 interaction in this context. Conclusions The HIV-related derangement of MSC survival and differentiation may suggest a direct role of HIV infection and gp120 in impaired vessel homeostasis and in genesis of vessel damage observed in HIV-infected patients.

  18. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation.

  19. Neuro-peptide treatment with Cerebrolysin improves the survival of neural stem cell grafts in an APP transgenic model of Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rockenstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs have been considered as potential therapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD but their use is hampered by the poor survival of grafted cells. Supply of neurotrophic factors to the grafted cells has been proposed as a way to augment survival of the stem cells. In this context, we investigated the utility of Cerebrolysin (CBL, a peptidergic mixture with neurotrophic-like properties, as an adjunct to stem cell therapy in an APP transgenic (tg model of AD. We grafted murine NSCs into the hippocampus of non-tg and APP tg that were treated systemically with CBL and analyzed after 1, 3, 6 and 9 months post grafting. Compared to vehicle-treated non-tg mice, in the vehicle-treated APP tg mice there was considerable reduction in the survival of the grafted NSCs. Whereas, CBL treatment enhanced the survival of NSCs in both non-tg and APP tg with the majority of the surviving NSCs remaining as neuroblasts. The NSCs of the CBL treated mice displayed reduced numbers of caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and furin immunoreactivity. These results suggest that CBL might protect grafted NSCs and as such be a potential adjuvant therapy when combined with grafting.

  20. Identification of Neurexophilin 3 as a Novel Supportive Factor for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Successful cell transplantation for Parkinson’s disease (PD) depends on both an optimal host brain environment and ideal donor cells. We report that a secreted peptide, neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), supports the survival of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. We compared the gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from two different environments: a supportive environment, which we defined as 1 week after acute administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and a nonsupportive environment, defined as 8 weeks after chronic administration of MPTP. NXPH3 expression was higher in the former condition and lower in the latter compared with untreated controls. When we injected mouse iPSC-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 into the mouse striatum, the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections that excluded NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in PD patients compared with normal controls. These findings will contribute to optimizing the host brain environment and patient recruitment in cell therapy for PD. Significance This study identified neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), a secreted peptide, through comparison of gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from various environments generated by different doses of dopaminergic (DA) neuron toxin. When mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 were injected into the mouse striatum, the ratio of DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections without NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with controls without PD. These

  1. Neural stem/progenitor cell-laden microfibers promote transplant survival in a mouse transected spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Takeuchi, Shoji; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) into the lesioned spinal cord can promote functional recovery following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. However, this strategy is insufficient following complete SCI because of the gap at the lesion epicenter. To obtain functional recovery in a mouse model of complete SCI, this study uses a novel collagen-based microfiber as a scaffold for engrafted NS/PCs. We hypothesized that the NS/PC-microfiber combination would facilitate lesion closure as well as transplant survival in the transected spinal cord. NS/PCs were seeded inside the novel microfibers, where they maintained their capacity to differentiate and proliferate. After transplantation, the stumps of the transected spinal cord were successfully bridged by the NS/PC-laden microfibers. Moreover, the transplanted cells migrated into the host spinal cord and differentiated into three neural lineages (astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes). However, the NS/PC-laden scaffold could not achieve a neural connection between the rostral end of the injury and the intact caudal area of the spinal cord, nor could it achieve recovery of motor function. To obtain optimal functional recovery, a microfiber design with a modified composition may be useful. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy with rehabilitation and/or medications should also be considered for practical success of biomaterial/cell transplantation-based approaches to regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic-AMP on survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted into spinal cord injured rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Kim

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs have great potential as a cell replacement therapy for spinal cord injury. However, poor control over transplant cell differentiation and survival remain major obstacles. In this study, we asked whether dibutyryl cyclic-AMP (dbcAMP, which was shown to induce up to 85% in vitro differentiation of NSPCs into neurons would enhance survival of transplanted NSPCs through prolonged exposure either in vitro or in vivo through the controlled release of dbcAMP encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres and embedded within chitosan guidance channels. NSPCs, seeded in fibrin scaffolds within the channels, differentiated in vitro to betaIII-tubulin positive neurons by immunostaining and mRNA expression, in response to dbcAMP released from PLGA microspheres. After transplantation in spinal cord injured rats, the survival and differentiation of NSPCs was evaluated. Untreated NSPCs, NSPCs transplanted with dbcAMP-releasing microspheres, and NSPCs pre-differentiated with dbcAMP for 4 days in vitro were transplanted after rat spinal cord transection and assessed 2 and 6 weeks later. Interestingly, NSPC survival was highest in the dbcAMP pre-treated group, having approximately 80% survival at both time points, which is remarkable given that stem cell transplantation often results in less than 1% survival at similar times. Importantly, dbcAMP pre-treatment also resulted in the greatest number of in vivo NSPCs differentiated into neurons (37±4%, followed by dbcAMP-microsphere treated NSPCs (27±14% and untreated NSPCs (15±7%. The reverse trend was observed for NSPC-derived oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with these populations being highest in untreated NSPCs. This combination strategy of stem cell-loaded chitosan channels implanted in a fully transected spinal cord resulted in extensive axonal regeneration into the injury site, with improved functional recovery after 6 weeks in animals implanted with

  3. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  4. Prolonged survival of patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation: the GELTAMO experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José; Conde, Eulogio; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Arranz, Reyes; Gandarillas, Marcos; Leon, Angel; Ojanguren, Jesus; Sureda, Anna; Carrera, Dolores; Bendandi, Mauricio; Moraleda, Jose; Ribera, Jose Maria; Albo, Carmen; Morales, Alfonso; García, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Pascual; Cañigral, Guillermo; Bergua, Juan; Caballero, María Dolores

    2007-04-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) is a rare lymphoma with a poor prognosis and no standard treatment. Here, we report our experiences with 19 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) within the GELTAMO co-operative group between 1992 and 2004. The median age at transplantation was 46 yr. Fifteen patients underwent the procedure as front-line therapy and four patients as salvage therapy. Most patients received peripheral stem cells (90%) coupled with BEAM or BEAC as conditioning regimen (79%). A 79% of patients achieved complete response, 5% partial response and 16% failed the procedure. After a median follow-up of 25 months, eight patients died (seven of progressive disease and secondary neoplasia), while actuarial overall survival and progression-free survival at 3 yr was 60% and 55%. Prognostic factors associated with a poor outcome included bone marrow involvement, transplantation in refractory disease state, attributing more than one factor of the age-adjusted-International Prognostic Index, Pretransplant peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) Score or Prognostic Index for PTCL. More than half of the patients with AIL that display unfavourable prognostic factors at diagnosis or relapse would be expected to be alive and disease-free after 3 yr when treated with HDC/ASCT. Patients who are transplanted in a refractory disease state do not benefit from this procedure.

  5. Prospectively defined murine mesenchymal stem cells inhibit Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced acute lung injury and improve pneumonia survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackstein, Holger; Lippitsch, Anne; Krug, Philipp; Schevtschenko, Inna; Kranz, Sabine; Hecker, Matthias; Dietert, Kristina; Gruber, Achim D; Bein, Gregor; Brendel, Cornelia; Baal, Nelli

    2015-10-06

    Numerous studies have described the immunosuppressive capacity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) but these studies use mixtures of heterogeneous progenitor cells for in vitro expansion. Recently, multipotent MSC have been prospectively identified in murine bone marrow (BM) on the basis of PDFGRa(+) SCA1(+) CD45(-) TER119(-) (PαS) expression but the immunomodulatory capacity of these MSC is unknown. We isolated PαS MSC by high-purity FACS sorting of murine BM and after in vitro expansion we analyzed the in vivo immunomodulatory activity during acute pneumonia. PαS MSC (1 × 10(6)) were applied intratracheally 4 h after acute respiratory Klebsiella pneumoniae induced infection. PαS MSC treatment resulted in significantly reduced alveolitis and protein leakage in comparison to mock-treated controls. PαS MSC-treated mice exhibited significantly reduced alveolar TNF-α and IL-12p70 expression, while IL-10 expression was unaffected. Dissection of respiratory dendritic cell (DC) subsets by multiparameter flow cytometry revealed significantly reduced lung DC infiltration and significantly reduced CD86 costimulatory expression on lung CD103(+) DC in PαS MSC-treated mice. In the post-acute phase of pneumonia, PαS MSC-treated animals exhibited significantly reduced respiratory IL-17(+) CD4(+) T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, PαS MSC treatment significantly improved overall pneumonia survival and did not increase bacterial load. In this study we demonstrated for the first time the feasibility and in vivo immunomodulatory capacity of prospectively defined MSC in pneumonia.

  6. Enhanced survival of transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes by the combination of cell sheets with the pedicled omental flap technique in a porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masashi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Miki, Kenji; Ito, Emiko; Sougawa, Nagako; Kawamura, Takuji; Daimon, Takashi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo; Toda, Koichi; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-09-10

    Transplantation of cardiomyocytes that are derived from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) shows promise in generating new functional myocardium in situ, whereas the survival and functionality of the transplanted cells are critical in considering this therapeutic impact. Cell-sheet method has been used to transplant many functional cells; however, potential ischemia might limit cell survival. The omentum, which is known to have rich vasculature, is expected to be a source of blood supply. We hypothesized that transplantation of hiPS-CM cell sheets combined with an omentum flap may deliver a large number of functional hiPS-CMs with enhanced blood supply. Retrovirally established human iPS cells were treated with Wnt signaling molecules to induce cardiomyogenic differentiation, followed by superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling. Cell sheets were created from the magnetically labeled hiPS-CMs using temperature-responsive dishes and transplanted to porcine hearts with or without the omentum flap (n=8 each). Two months after transplantation, the survival of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled hiPS-CMs, assessed by MRI, was significantly greater in mini-pigs with the omentum than in those without it; histologically, vascular density in the transplanted area was significantly greater in mini-pigs with the omentum than in those without it. The transplanted tissues contained abundant cardiac troponin T-positive cells surrounded by vascular-rich structures. The omentum flap enhanced the survival of hiPS-CMs after transplantation via increased angiogenesis, suggesting that this strategy is useful in clinical settings. The combination of hiPS-CMs and the omentum flap may be a promising technique for the development of tissue-engineered vascular-rich new myocardium in vivo.

  7. Long-term survival of human neural stem cells in the ischemic rat brain upon transient immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rota Nodari

    Full Text Available Understanding the physiology of human neural stem cells (hNSCs in the context of cell therapy for neurodegenerative disorders is of paramount importance, yet large-scale studies are hampered by the slow-expansion rate of these cells. To overcome this issue, we previously established immortal, non-transformed, telencephalic-diencephalic hNSCs (IhNSCs from the fetal brain. Here, we investigated the fate of these IhNSC's immediate progeny (i.e. neural progenitors; IhNSC-Ps upon unilateral implantation into the corpus callosum or the hippocampal fissure of adult rat brain, 3 days after global ischemic injury. One month after grafting, approximately one fifth of the IhNSC-Ps had survived and migrated through the corpus callosum, into the cortex or throughout the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. By the fourth month, they had reached the ipsilateral subventricular zone, CA1-3 hippocampal layers and the controlateral hemisphere. Notably, these results could be accomplished using transient immunosuppression, i.e administering cyclosporine for 15 days following the ischemic event. Furthermore, a concomitant reduction of reactive microglia (Iba1+ cells and of glial, GFAP+ cells was also observed in the ipsilateral hemisphere as compared to the controlateral one. IhNSC-Ps were not tumorigenic and, upon in vivo engraftment, underwent differentiation into GFAP+ astrocytes, and β-tubulinIII+ or MAP2+ neurons, which displayed GABAergic and GLUTAmatergic markers. Electron microscopy analysis pointed to the formation of mature synaptic contacts between host and donor-derived neurons, showing the full maturation of the IhNSC-P-derived neurons and their likely functional integration into the host tissue. Thus, IhNSC-Ps possess long-term survival and engraftment capacity upon transplantation into the globally injured ischemic brain, into which they can integrate and mature into neurons, even under mild, transient immunosuppressive conditions. Most notably

  8. MLN0128, a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, disrupts survival signaling and triggers apoptosis in AML and AML stem/ progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhihong; Wang, Rui-Yu; Qiu, Yi Hua; Mak, Duncan H; Coombes, Kevin; Yoo, Suk Young; Zhang, Qi; Jessen, Katti; Liu, Yi; Rommel, Christian; Fruman, David A; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Kornblau, Steven M; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2016-08-23

    mTOR activation leads to enhanced survival signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The active-site mTOR inhibitors (asTORi) represent a promising new approach to targeting mTOR in AKT/mTOR signaling. MLN0128 is an orally-administered, second-generation asTORi, currently in clinical development. We examined the anti-leukemic effects and the mechanisms of action of MLN0128 in AML cell lines and primary samples, with a particular focus on its effect in AML stem/progenitor cells. MLN0128 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in AML by attenuating the activity of mTOR complex 1 and 2. Using time-of-flight mass cytometry, we demonstrated that MLN0128 selectively targeted and functionally inhibited AML stem/progenitor cells with high AKT/mTOR signaling activity. Using the reverse-phase protein array technique, we measured expression and phosphorylation changes in response to MLN0128 in 151 proteins from 24 primary AML samples and identified several pro-survival pathways that antagonize MLN0128-induced cellular stress. A combined blockade of AKT/mTOR signaling and these pro-survival pathways facilitated AML cell killing. Our findings provide a rationale for the clinical use of MLN0128 to target AML and AML stem/progenitor cells, and support the use of combinatorial multi-targeted approaches in AML therapy.

  9. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2011-03-07

    Abstract Introduction A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. Methods Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. Results The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-α-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. Conclusions Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  10. Lentiviral vector mediated modification of mesenchymal stem cells & enhanced survival in an in vitro model of ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGinley, Lisa

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: A combination of gene and cell therapies has the potential to significantly enhance the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The development of efficient gene delivery methods is essential if MSCs are to be of benefit using such an approach. Achieving high levels of transgene expression for the required period of time, without adversely affecting cell viability and differentiation capacity, is crucial. In the present study, we investigate lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of rat bone-marrow derived MSCs and examine any functional effect of such genetic modification in an in vitro model of ischaemia. METHODS: Transduction efficiency and transgene persistence of second and third generation rHIV-1 based lentiviral vectors were tested using reporter gene constructs. Use of the rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W vector was optimised in terms of dose, toxicity, cell species, and storage. The in vivo condition of ischaemia was modelled in vitro by separation into its associated constituent parts i.e. hypoxia, serum and glucose deprivation, in which the effect of therapeutic gene over-expression on MSC survival was investigated. RESULTS: The second generation lentiviral vector rHIV-pWPT-EF1-alpha-GFP-W, was the most efficient and provided the most durable transgene expression of the vectors tested. Transduction with this vector did not adversely affect MSC morphology, viability or differentiation potential, and transgene expression levels were unaffected by cryopreservation of transduced cells. Over-expression of HSP70 resulted in enhanced MSC survival and increased resistance to apoptosis in conditions of hypoxia and ischaemia. MSC differentiation capacity was significantly reduced after oxygen deprivation, but was preserved with HSP70 over-expression. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data validate the use of lentiviral vectors for efficient in vitro gene delivery to MSCs and suggest that lentiviral vector transduction can facilitate

  11. The relationship between circulating natural killer cells after reduced intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and relapse-free survival and graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Erin M; Buzzeo, Mathew P; Levine, Jeff B; Schold, Jesse D; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf; Reddy, Vijay

    2008-12-01

    Natural killer cells are known to have anti-tumor activity in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that reconstituted circulating natural killer cells may be associated with improved relapse-free survival after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Serial peripheral blood absolute natural killer cell counts were prospectively measured by flow cytometry of lymphocytes expressing CD56 and CD16 in 167 patients. Cluster analysis was used at engraftment and 60 days post-transplant to distinguish patients with high and low absolute natural killer cell counts. At engraftment 80 patients had high counts (> 22.2/mm3) and 43 had low counts. At 60 days post-transplant 84 patients had high counts (> 18.2/mm3) and 38 had low counts. The primary study end-points were death, relapse and acute graft-versus-host disease. The median follow-up was 373 days (range, 67-1767). Among patients given reduced intensity conditioning, a low absolute natural killer cell count at 60 days post-transplant was independently associated with relapse [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 28.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3-186.4] and death (AHR = 17.5, 95% CI 4.3-71.3). Furthermore, patients given reduced intensity conditioning who had a high absolute natural killer cell count at 60 days had a significantly better 1-year survival than those with a low count by Kaplan-Meier analysis (83% vs. 11%, pkiller count in patients given reduced intensity conditioning was independently associated with an increase in relapse or death (AHR = 20.22, 95% CI 4.76-85.40). In contrast, there was no significant association between 60-day absolute natural killer cell counts and clinical outcomes in patients receiving myeloablative conditioning. There was no significant association between absolute natural killer cell count and graft-versus-host disease. High natural killer cell reconstitution is associated with reduced relapse and death without an increased incidence of

  12. TRANSGENIC GDNF POSITIVELY INFLUENCES PROLIFERATION, DIFFERENTIATION, MATURATION AND SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURONS PRODUCED FROM MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Édgar Cortés

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESC are pluripotent and thus can differentiate into every cell type present in the body. Directed differentiation into motor neurons has been described for pluripotent cells. Although neurotrophic factors promote neuronal survival, their role in neuronal commitment is elusive. Here, we developed double-transgenic lines of mouse ESC that constitutively produce Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF and also contain a GFP reporter, driven by HB9, which is expressed only by postmitotic motor neurons. After lentiviral transduction, ESC lines integrated and expressed the human GDNF gene without altering pluripotency markers before differentiation. Further, GDNF-ESC showed significantly higher spontaneous release of this neurotrophin to the medium, when compared to controls. To study motor neuron induction, control and GDNF cell lines were grown as embryoid bodies and stimulated with retinoic acid and Sonic Hedgehog. In GDNF-overexpressing cells, a significant increase of proliferative Olig2+ precursors, which are specified as spinal motor neurons, was found. Accordingly, GDNF increases the yield of cells with the pan motor neuronal markers HB9, monitored by GFP expression, and Isl1. At terminal differentiation, almost all differentiated neurons express phenotypic markers of motor neurons in GDNF cultures, with lower proportions in control cells. To test if the effects of GDNF were present at early differentiation stages, exogenous recombinant human GDNF was added to control ESC, also resulting in enhanced motor neuron differentiation. This effect was abolished by the co-addition of neutralizing anti-GDNF antibodies, strongly suggesting that differentiating ESC are responsive to GDNF. Using the HB9::GFP reporter, motor neurons were selected for electrophysiological recordings. Motor neurons differentiated from GDNF-ESC, compared to control motor neurons, showed greater electrophysiological maturation, characterized by

  13. Sox2(+) adult stem and progenitor cells are important for tissue regeneration and survival of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, K.; Sarkar, A.; Yram, M.A.; Polo, J.M.; Bronson, R.; Sengupta, S.; Seandel, M.; Geijsen, N.; Hochedlinger, K.

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 maintains the pluripotency of early embryonic cells and regulates the formation of several epithelia during fetal development. Whether Sox2 continues to play a role in adult tissues remains largely unknown. We show here that Sox2 marks adult cells in several epithelial

  14. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia

    2018-01-01

    cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting...

  15. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is th...

  16. Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells exert trophic effects on β-cell survival in diabetic rats and isolated islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells (uMSCs, owing to their cellular and procurement advantages compared with mesenchymal stem cells derived from other tissue sources, are in clinical trials to treat type 1 (T1D and type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, the therapeutic basis remains to be fully understood. The immunomodulatory property of uMSCs could explain the use in treating T1D; however, the mere immune modulation might not be sufficient to support the use in T2D. We thus tested whether uMSCs could exert direct trophic effects on β-cells. Infusion of uMSCs into chemically induced diabetic rats prevented hyperglycemic progression with a parallel preservation of islet size and cellularity, demonstrating the protective effect of uMSCs on β-cells. Mechanistic analyses revealed that uMSCs engrafted long-term in the injured pancreas and the engraftment markedly activated the pancreatic PI3K pathway and its downstream anti-apoptotic machinery. The pro-survival pathway activation was associated with the expression and secretion of β-cell growth factors by uMSCs, among which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 was highly abundant. To establish the causal relationship between the uMSC-secreted factors and β-cell survival, isolated rat islets were co-cultured with uMSCs in the transwell system. Co-culturing improved the islet viability and insulin secretion. Furthermore, reduction of uMSC-secreted IGF1 via siRNA knockdown diminished the protective effects on islets in the co-culture. Thus, our data support a model whereby uMSCs exert trophic effects on islets by secreting β-cell growth factors such as IGF1. The study reveals a novel therapeutic role of uMSCs and suggests that multiple mechanisms are employed by uMSCs to treat diabetes.

  17. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  18. Effect of Azithromycin on Airflow Decline-Free Survival After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: The ALLOZITHRO Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Anne; Chevret, Sylvie; Granata, Angela; Chevallier, Patrice; Vincent, Laure; Huynh, Anne; Tabrizi, Reza; Labussiere-Wallet, Hélène; Bernard, Marc; Chantepie, Sylvain; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Thiebaut-Bertrand, Anne; Thepot, Sylvain; Contentin, Nathalie; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Maillard, Natacha; Risso, Karine; Berceanu, Ana; Blaise, Didier; Peffault de La Tour, Regis; Chien, Jason W; Coiteux, Valérie; Socié, Gérard

    2017-08-08

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Previous studies have suggested that azithromycin may reduce the incidence of post-lung transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. To evaluate if the early administration of azithromycin can improve airflow decline-free survival after allogeneic HSCT. The ALLOZITHRO parallel-group trial conducted in 19 French academic transplant centers and involving participants who were at least 16 years old, had undergone allogeneic HSCT for a hematological malignancy, and had available pretransplant pulmonary function test results. Enrollment was from February 2014 to August 2015 with follow-up through April 26, 2017. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 3 times a week either 250 mg of azithromycin (n = 243) or placebo (n = 237) for 2 years, starting at the time of the conditioning regimen. The primary efficacy end point was airflow decline-free survival at 2 years after randomization. Main secondary end points were overall survival and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at 2 years. Thirteen months after enrollment, the independent data and safety monitoring board detected an unanticipated imbalance across blinded groups in the number of hematological relapses, and the treatment was stopped December 26, 2016. Among 480 randomized participants, 465 (97%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis (mean age, 52 [SD, 14] years; 75 women [35%]). At the time of data cutoff, 104 patients (22%; 54 azithromycin vs 50 placebo) had experienced an airflow decline; 138 patients (30%) died (78 azithromycin vs 60 placebo). Two-year airflow decline-free survival was 32.8% (95% CI, 25.9%-41.7%) with azithromycin and 41.3% (95% CI, 34.1%-50.1%) with placebo (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.02-1.70; P = .03). Of the 22 patients (5%) who experienced bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, 15 (6%) were in

  19. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Follicular Lymphoma: Favorable Long-Term Survival Irrespective of Pretransplantation Rituximab Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ubieto, Ana; Grande, Carlos; Caballero, Dolores; Yáñez, Lucrecia; Novelli, Silvana; Hernández-Garcia, Miguel Teodoro; Manzanares, María; Arranz, Reyes; Ferreiro, José Javier; Bobillo, Sabella; Mercadal, Santiago; Galeo, Andrea; López Jiménez, Javier; Moraleda, José María; Vallejo, Carlos; Albo, Carmen; Pérez, Elena; Marrero, Carmen; Magnano, Laura; Palomera, Luis; Jarque, Isidro; Martínez-Sánchez, Pilar; Martín, Alejandro; Coria, Erika; López-Guillermo, Armando; Salar, Antonio; Lahuerta, Juan José

    2017-10-01

    High-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) has contributed to modify the natural history of follicular lymphoma (FL); however, an overall survival (OS) benefit has been demonstrated at relapse only after a rituximab-free chemotherapy regimen. A total of 655 patients with FL were reported to the Spanish GELTAMO (Grupo Español de Linfomas y Trasplantes de Médula Ósea) registry and underwent first ASCT between 1989 and 2007. A total of 203 patients underwent ASCT in first complete response (CR1), 174 in second complete response (CR2), 28 in third complete response (CR3), 140 in first partial response (PR1), 81 in subsequent PR, and 29 with resistant/refractory disease; 184 patients received rituximab before ASCT. With a median follow-up of 12 years from ASCT, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 9.7 and 21.3 years, respectively. Actuarial 12-year PFS and OS were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58%-68%) and 73% (95% CI, 68%-78%), respectively, for patients in CR (with a plateau in the curve beyond 15.9 years), 25% (95% CI, 19%-28%) and 49% (95% CI 42%-56%), respectively, for patients in PR, and 23% (95% CI, 8%-48%) and 28% (95% CI, 9%-45%), respectively, for patients with resistant/refractory disease (P < .001). In patients who received rituximab before ASCT, the estimated 9-year PFS and OS from ASCT were 59.5% (95% CI, 51%-67%) and 75% (95% CI, 68%-83%), respectively. Interestingly, for patients who underwent transplantation in CR ≥2 or PR ≥2 who had received rituximab before ASCT (n = 90), 9-year PFS and OS were 61% (95% CI, 51%-73%) and 75% (95% CI, 65%-80%), respectively, with no relapses occurring beyond 5.1 years after ASCT. The cumulative incidence of second malignancies in the global series was 6.7% at 5 years and 12.8% at 10 years. This analysis strongly suggests that ASCT is a potentially curative option for eligible patients with FL. In the setting of relapse, it is

  20. Migration, integration, survival, and differentiation of stem cell-derived neural progenitors in the retina in a pharmacological model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gustavo; Navajas, Eduardo; Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the retinal integration and differentiation of neurospheres formed by stem cells and mouse neural progenitor cells injected intravitreally in mice eyes with retinal injury. Methods. Eight male C57BL mice, 8 weeks old, were submitted to intraperitoneal injection of sodium iodate (2% NaIO3, 50 mg/kg). After 72 hours, 2  μ L of solution with mNPC were injected intravitreally (100.000 cells/ μ L). After 7 days, their eyes were dissected and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose in PB for at least 24 hours at 4°C. The material was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the following primary antibodies evaluation. Results. The results showed that the grafted cells integrated and survived in the adult mice within the sinner retinal tissue for at least 7 days. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed mature neuronal pattern in some regions. The mNPC population in the transplants was tightly surrounded by neuroretinal cells, suggesting their active role in neuron survival. Notably, the appearance of GFP-positive mNPC was not the result of fusion between donor cells and endogenous neuroretinal cells. Conclusions. Migration, survival, and differentiation of mNPCs were observed after 7 days following a single application with neurosphere method. The results may be clinically relevant for future stem cell therapy to restore retinal degeneration.

  1. MiRNA-486 regulates angiogenic activity and survival of mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia through modulating Akt signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xue-Feng [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Respiration, Qinghai Provincial People' s Hospital, Xining (China); Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Yin, Yue [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Department of Hematology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, Qin-Qin [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Ge, Ri-Li, E-mail: geriligao@hotmail.com [High Altitude Medicine of Ministry of Chinese Education and Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Qinghai University, Xining 810001 (China); Wang, Li-Sheng, E-mail: wangls@bmi.ac.cn [Department of Experimental Hematology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2016-02-12

    MicroRNA-486 (miR-486) was first identified from human fetal liver cDNA library and validated as a regulator of hematopoiesis. Its roles in regulating the biological function of bone marrow-derived mesnechymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) under hypoxia have not been explored yet. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure to hypoxia upregulates miR-486 expression in BM-MSCs. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-486 resulted in increase of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in both mRNA and protein levels. MiR-486 expression also promotes proliferation and reduces apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Whereas MiR-486 knockdown downregulated the secretion of HGF and VEGF and induced apoptosis of BM-MSCs. Furthermore, PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling was validated to be involved in changes of BM-MSC biological functions regulated by miR-486. These results suggested that MiR-486 mediated the hypoxia-induced angiogenic activity and promoted the proliferation and survival of BM-MSCs through regulating PTEN-PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings might provide a novel understanding of effective therapeutic strategy for hypoxic-ischemic diseases. - Highlights: • miR-486 is a hypoxia-induced miRNA. • miR-486 regulates the secretion of HGF and VEGF, promotes proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis of BM-MSCs. • miR-486 enhances PI3K/AKT activity signaling by targeting PTEN molecule.

  2. Hyaluronan Mixed Esters of Butyric and Retinoic Acid Affording Myocardial Survival and Repair without Stem Cell Transplantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cantoni, Silvia; Cavallini, Claudia; Bianchi, Francesca; Valente, Sabrina; Frascari, Irene; Olivi, Elena; Aquaro, Giovanni D.; Bonavita, Francesca; Scarlata, Ignazio; Maioli, Margherita; Vaccari, Valentina; Tassinari, Riccardo; Bartoli, Antonietta; Recchia, Fabio A.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Ventura, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    Possible cardiac repair by adult stem cell transplantation is currently hampered by poor cell viability and delivery efficiency, uncertain differentiating fate in vivo, the needs of ex vivo cell expansion, and consequent delay in transplantation after the onset of heart attack. By the aid of magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and immunohistochemistry, we show that injection of a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (HBR) into infarcted rat hearts afforded substantial cardiovascular repair and recovery of myocardial performance. HBR restored cardiac [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and increased capillary density and led to the recruitment of endogenous Stro-1-positive stem cells. A terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated that HBR-treated hearts exhibited a decrease in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 stem cells, HBR enhanced the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, kdr, akt, and pim-1. HBR also increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor, suggesting that the mixed ester may have recruited both myocardial and Stro-1 cells also. An increase in capillarogenesis was induced in vitro with medium obtained from HBR-exposed cells. In the infarcted myocardium, HBR injection increased histone H4 acetylation significantly. Acetyl-H4 immunoreactivity increased in rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 cells exposed to HBR, compared with untreated cells. In conclusion, efficient cardiac regenerative therapy can be afforded by HBR without the need of stem cell transplantation or vector-mediated gene delivery. PMID:20097747

  3. Hyaluronan mixed esters of butyric and retinoic acid affording myocardial survival and repair without stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cantoni, Silvia; Cavallini, Claudia; Bianchi, Francesca; Valente, Sabrina; Frascari, Irene; Olivi, Elena; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Bonavita, Francesca; Scarlata, Ignazio; Maioli, Margherita; Vaccari, Valentina; Tassinari, Riccardo; Bartoli, Antonietta; Recchia, Fabio A; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Ventura, Carlo

    2010-03-26

    Possible cardiac repair by adult stem cell transplantation is currently hampered by poor cell viability and delivery efficiency, uncertain differentiating fate in vivo, the needs of ex vivo cell expansion, and consequent delay in transplantation after the onset of heart attack. By the aid of magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and immunohistochemistry, we show that injection of a hyaluronan mixed ester of butyric and retinoic acid (HBR) into infarcted rat hearts afforded substantial cardiovascular repair and recovery of myocardial performance. HBR restored cardiac [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and increased capillary density and led to the recruitment of endogenous Stro-1-positive stem cells. A terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay demonstrated that HBR-treated hearts exhibited a decrease in the number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 stem cells, HBR enhanced the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, kdr, akt, and pim-1. HBR also increased the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor, suggesting that the mixed ester may have recruited both myocardial and Stro-1 cells also. An increase in capillarogenesis was induced in vitro with medium obtained from HBR-exposed cells. In the infarcted myocardium, HBR injection increased histone H4 acetylation significantly. Acetyl-H4 immunoreactivity increased in rat cardiomyocytes and Stro-1 cells exposed to HBR, compared with untreated cells. In conclusion, efficient cardiac regenerative therapy can be afforded by HBR without the need of stem cell transplantation or vector-mediated gene delivery.

  4. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  5. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  6. Scd1 Plays a Tumor-Suppressive Role in Survival of Leukemia Stem Cells and the Development of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haojian; Li, Huawei; Ho, Ngoc; Li, Dongguang

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is derived from a stem cell, and it is widely accepted that the existence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is one of the major reasons for the relapse of CML treated with kinase inhibitors. Key to eradicating LSCs is to identify genes that play a critical role in survival regulation of these stem cells. Using BCR-ABL-induced CML mouse model, here we show that expression of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) gene is downregulated in LSCs and that Scd1 plays a tumor-suppressive role in LSCs with no effect on the function of normal hematopoietic stem cells. Deletion of Scd1 causes acceleration of CML development and conversely overexpression of Scd1 delays CML development. In addition, using genetic approaches, we show that Pten, p53, and Bcl2 are regulated by Scd1 in LSCs. Furthermore, we find that induction of Scd1 expression by a PPARγ agonist suppresses LSCs and delays CML development. Our results demonstrate a critical role for Scd1 in functional regulation of LSCs, providing a new anti-LSC strategy through enhancing Scd1 activity. PMID:22431519

  7. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy blood stem cells into your body to replace your damaged or ... A bone marrow transplant is also called a stem cell transplant. A bone marrow transplant may be necessary ...

  8. Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graft-versus-host disease: A potential risk when stem cells come from donors If you receive a transplant ... medications and blood products into your body. Collecting stem cells for transplant If a transplant using your own ...

  9. Polymorphism in TGFB1 is associated with worse non-relapse mortality and overall survival after stem cell transplantation with unrelated donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Bolaños, Esteban; Mayor, Neema P.; Marsh, Steven G.E.; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Apperley, Jane F.; Kirkland, Keiren; Mackinnon, Stephen; Marks, David I.; McQuaker, Grant; Perry, Julia; Potter, Michael N.; Russell, Nigel H.; Thomson, Kirsty; Shaw, Bronwen E.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β-1, encoded by the TGFB1 gene, is a cytokine that plays a central role in many physiological and pathogenic processes. We have sequenced TGFB1 regulatory region and assigned allelic genotypes in a large cohort of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and donors. In this study, we analyzed 522 unrelated donor-patient pairs and examined the combined effect of all the common polymorphisms in this genomic region. In univariate analysis, we found that patients carrying a specific allele, ‘p001’, showed significantly reduced overall survival (5-year overall survival 30.7% for p001/p001 patients vs. 41.6% others; P=0.032) and increased non-relapse mortality (1-year non-relapse mortality: 39.0% vs. 25.4%; P=0.039) after transplantation. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a p001/p001 genotype in patients was confirmed as an independent factor for reduced overall survival [hazard ratio=1.53 (1.04–2.24); P=0.031], and increased non-relapse mortality [hazard ratio=1.73 (1.06–2.83); P=0.030]. In functional experiments we found a trend towards a higher percentage of surface transforming growth factor β-1-positive regulatory T cells after activation when the cells had a p001 allele (P=0.07). Higher or lower production of transforming growth factor β-1 in the inflammatory context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may influence the development of complications in these patients. Findings indicate that TGFB1 genotype could potentially be of use as a prognostic factor in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation risk assessment algorithms. PMID:26611472

  10. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  11. Stemness in Cancer: Stem Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Their Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Pedro M; Caicedo, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Stemness combines the ability of a cell to perpetuate its lineage, to give rise to differentiated cells, and to interact with its environment to maintain a balance between quiescence, proliferation, and regeneration. While adult Stem Cells display these properties when participating in tissue homeostasis, Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) behave as their malignant equivalents. CSCs display stemness in various circumstances, including the sustaining of cancer progression, and the interaction with their environment in search for key survival factors. As a result, CSCs can recurrently persist after therapy. In order to understand how the concept of stemness applies to cancer, this review will explore properties shared between normal and malignant Stem Cells. First, we provide an overview of properties of normal adult Stem Cells. We thereafter elaborate on how these features operate in CSCs. We then review the organization of microenvironment components, which enables CSCs hosting. We subsequently discuss Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSCs), which, although their stemness properties are limited, represent essential components of the Stem Cell niche and tumor microenvironment. We next provide insights of the therapeutic strategies targeting Stem Cell properties in tumors and the use of state-of-the-art techniques in future research. Increasing our knowledge of the CSCs microenvironment is key to identifying new therapeutic solutions.

  12. Post-Transplantation Natural Killer Cell Count: A Predictor of Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Survival Outcomes After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hyewon; Han, Mi-Soon; Shim, Hyoeun; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Park, Boram; Kong, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Reconstitution of the immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) plays an important role in post-transplant outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of the lymphocyte subset (LST) counts to transplant-related complications and survival outcomes after allo-HSCT has not been fully elucidated. A total of 70 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT from 2007 to 2013, with LST results both 7 days before conditioning and 30 or 90 days after allo-HSCT were included. The LST counts in the peripheral blood were determined using 6-color flow cytometry. Clinical information, including transplant-related events during the first 100 days after allo-HSCT, was reviewed, and any association between these events and LST was analyzed. At 30 days after allo-HSCT, the CD4(+) T-cell (P = .009) and B-cell (P = .035) counts were lower and the natural killer (NK) cell count was greater (P Serial lymphocyte subset analysis can be used to identify and treat patients at risk during the early period after allo-HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HIF-2α and Oct4 have synergistic effects on survival and myocardial repair of very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoheng; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jiahong; Chen, Nannan; Yan, Jian; Pan, Xin

    2017-01-12

    Poor cell survival and limited functional benefits have restricted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) efficacy for treating myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that a better understanding of stem cell biology is needed. The transcription factor HIF-2α is an essential regulator of the transcriptional response to hypoxia, which can interact with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transcription factor Oct4 and modulate its signaling. Here, we obtained very small embryonic-like mesenchymal stem cells (vselMSCs) from MI patients, which possessed the very small embryonic-like stem cells' (VSELs) morphology as well as ESCs' pluripotency. Using microarray analysis, we compared HIF-2α-regulated gene profiles in vselMSCs with ESC profiles and determined that HIF-2α coexpressed Oct4 in vselMSCs similarly to ESCs. However, this coexpression was absent in unpurified MSCs (uMSCs). Under hypoxic condition, vselMSCs exhibited stronger survival, proliferation and differentiation than uMSCs. Transplantation of vselMSCs caused greater improvement in cardiac function and heart remodeling in the infarcted rats. We further demonstrated that HIF-2α and Oct4 jointly regulate their relative downstream gene expressions, including Bcl2 and Survivin; the important pluripotent markers Nanog, Klf4, and Sox2; and Ang-1, bFGF, and VEGF, promoting angiogenesis and engraftment. Importantly, these effects were generally magnified by upregulation of HIF-2α and Oct4 induced by HIF-2α or Oct4 overexpression, and the greatest improvements were elicited after co-overexpressing HIF-2α and Oct4; overexpressing one transcription factor while silencing the other canceled this increase, and HIF-2α or Oct4 silencing abolished these effects. Together, these findings demonstrated that HIF-2α in vselMSCs cooperated with Oct4 in survival and function. The identification of the cooperation between HIF-2α and Oct4 will lead to deeper characterization of the downstream targets of this interaction in vselMSCs and will

  14. Influence of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) on mouse duodenal crypt stem cell survival after multifraction X ray treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewit, L.; Begg, A.C.; Koehler, Y.S.; Stewart, F.A.; Bartelink, H.

    1985-10-01

    The mechanism of interaction of cis-platinum and X rays was investigated in mouse duodenal crypts using the microcolony assay. Mice were exposed to 1, 2, 5, 10, or 15 fractions of X rays, either alone or preceded by a single i.p. injection of cis-platinum, 8 mg/kg, one-half hour before the first fraction. In all fractionation regimens, cisplatinum caused a shift of the X ray survival curve for crypt cells towards lower doses. The vertical distances between the survival curves after X rays and those in combination with cis-platinum were about the same. After cis-platinum treatment alone, a crypt cell survival curve was established in the high dose range. The estimated cell kill by 8 mg/kg of cis-platinum, obtained by extrapolation of this curve, was 1 log10 cell number. These data imply independent cell killing mechanisms for cis-platinum and X rays. However, even after correction for cell kill by the drug, cis-platinum tended to inhibit slightly sublethal damage repair after X rays. This was supported by linear quadratic analyses, in which the alpha/beta value after combined treatment was found to be slightly higher than after X rays alone.

  15. Survival of transplanted human neural stem cell line (ReNcell VM) into the rat brain with and without immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, M; Müller, J; Wree, A; Ortinau, S; Rolfs, A; Schmitt, O

    2012-09-01

    Functional replacement of specific neuronal populations through transplantation of neural tissue represents an attractive therapeutic strategy for treating neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease (PD). Even though the brain is a partially immune privileged site, immunosuppression is still needed for the prevention of host immune response, and thus, xenograft rejection. Here, we investigated the fate of human ventral mesencephalon derived immortalized cell line ReNcell VM upon unilateral transplantation into the intact rat striatum with or without immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). The status of xenografted human ReNcell VM cells was analysed by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence 4 and 6weeks after transplantation. Four weeks after transplantation, ReNcell VM cells could be detected in both groups, although the number of survived cells was significantly higher in brains of immunosuppressed rats. In contrast, only 2 out of 6 brains grafted without immunosuppression revealed human ReNcell VM cells 6weeks post grafting, whereas a considerable number of human cells could still be found in all the brains of immunosuppressed rats. Immunohistochemical analysis of grafted cells showed almost no evidence of neuronal differentiation, but rather astroglial development. In summary, we have shown that the immunosuppression is needed for the survival of human VM derived progenitor cells in the rat striatum. CsA affected cell survival, but not differentiation capacity: in both groups, grafted either with or without immunosuppression, the ReNcell VM cells lacked neuronal phenotype and developed preferentially into astroglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Improved survival with ursodeoxycholic acid prophylaxis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation: long-term follow-up of a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutu, Tapani; Juvonen, Eeva; Remberger, Mats; Remes, Kari; Volin, Liisa; Mattsson, Jonas; Nihtinen, Anne; Hägglund, Hans; Ringdén, Olle

    2014-01-01

    We report the long-term results of a prospective randomized study on the use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) for prevention of hepatic complications after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Two hundred forty-two patients, 232 with malignant disease, were randomized to receive (n = 123) or not to receive (n = 119) UDCA from the beginning of the conditioning until 90 days post-transplantation. The results were reported after 1-year follow-up. UDCA administration reduced significantly the proportion of patients developing high serum bilirubin levels as well as the incidence of severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), liver GVHD, and intestinal GVHD. In the UDCA prophylaxis group, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was lower and overall survival better than in the control group. After a 10-year follow-up, the difference in the survival and NRM in favor of the UDCA-treated group, seen at 1 year, was maintained (survival 48% versus 38%, P = .037; NRM 28% versus 41%, P = .01). A landmark analysis in patients surviving at 1 year post-transplantation showed no significant differences between the study groups in the long-term follow-up in chronic GVHD, relapse rate, NRM, disease-free survival, or overall survival. These long-term results continue to support the useful role of UDCA in the prevention of transplant-related complications in allogeneic transplantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CD14+ cells from peripheral blood positively regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival resulting in increased erythroid yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideveld, Esther; Masiello, Francesca; Marra, Manuela; Esteghamat, Fatemehsadat; Yağcı, Nurcan; von Lindern, Marieke; Migliaccio, Anna Rita F.; van den Akker, Emile

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of erythroblasts from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells is 4- to 15-fold more efficient than that of CD34(+) cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, purified CD34(+) and CD34(-) populations from blood do not reconstitute this erythroid yield, suggesting

  18. Challenges for heart disease stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover-Plow J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jane Hoover-Plow, Yanqing GongDepartments of Cardiovascular Medicine and Molecular Cardiology, Joseph J Jacobs Center for Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. The use of stem cells to improve recovery of the injured heart after myocardial infarction (MI is an important emerging therapeutic strategy. However, recent reviews of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for MI and ischemic heart disease recovery report that less than half of the trials found only small improvements in cardiac function. In clinical trials, bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood cells were used as the source of stem cells delivered by intracoronary infusion. Some trials administered only a stem cell mobilizing agent that recruits endogenous sources of stem cells. Important challenges to improve the effectiveness of stem cell therapy for CVD include: (1 improved identification, recruitment, and expansion of autologous stem cells; (2 identification of mobilizing and homing agents that increase recruitment; and (3 development of strategies to improve stem cell survival and engraftment of both endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. This review is an overview of stem cell therapy for CVD and discusses the challenges these three areas present for maximum optimization of the efficacy of stem cell therapy for heart disease, and new strategies in progress.Keywords: mobilization, expansion, homing, survival, engraftment

  19. Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical for intestinal stem cell division, survival, and differentiation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamori, Ryotaro; Das, Soumyashree; Yu, Shiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cdc42 and Rab8a are critical regulators of these processes in mice. Conditional ablation of Cdc42 in the mouse intestinal epithelium resulted in the formation of large intracellular vacuolar structures containing microvilli (microvillus inclusion bodies) in epithelial enterocytes, a phenotype...... reminiscent of human microvillus inclusion disease (MVID), a devastating congenital intestinal disorder that results in severe nutrient deprivation. Further analysis revealed that Cdc42-deficient stem cells had cell division defects, reduced capacity for clonal expansion and differentiation into Paneth cells......, and increased apoptosis. Cdc42 deficiency impaired Rab8a activation and its association with multiple effectors, and prevented trafficking of Rab8a vesicles to the midbody. This impeded cytokinesis, triggering crypt apoptosis and disrupting epithelial morphogenesis. Rab8a was also required for Cdc42-GTP...

  20. Systemic Administration of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Increases Neuron Survival after Global Cerebral Ischemia In Vivo (2VO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Perasso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that administration of stem cells after focal cerebral ischemia improves brain damage, very little data are available concerning the damage induced by global cerebral ischemia. The latter causes neuronal death in selectively vulnerable areas, including the hippocampal CA1 region. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrowderived stromal cells (mesenchimal stem cells, MSC reduce brain damage after transient global ischemia. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats transient global ischemia was induced using bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 20 min in addition to controlled hypotension. Five days after, the animals were anaesthetized with urethane and the brain was fixed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to investigate histological damage. MSC did not fully protect against ischemic damage, as the number of viable neurons in this group was lower than in normal (sham-operated rats. However, in MSC-treated rats the number of viable CA1 pyramidal neurons was significally higher than in rats that had been subjected to ischemia but not treated with MSC. We conclude that intravenous administration of MSC after transient global ischemia reduces hippocampal damage.

  1. Latexin Inactivation Enhances Survival and Long-Term Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Expands the Entire Hematopoietic System in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural genetic diversity offers an important yet largely untapped resource to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function. Latexin (Lxn is a negative stem cell regulatory gene identified on the basis of genetic diversity. By using an Lxn knockout mouse model, we found that Lxn inactivation in vivo led to the physiological expansion of the entire hematopoietic hierarchy. Loss of Lxn enhanced the competitive repopulation capacity and survival of HSCs in a cell-intrinsic manner. Gene profiling of Lxn-null HSCs showed altered expression of genes enriched in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Thrombospondin 1 (Thbs1 was a potential downstream target with a dramatic downregulation in Lxn-null HSCs. Enforced expression of Thbs1 restored the Lxn inactivation-mediated HSC phenotypes. This study reveals that Lxn plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis, and it may lead to development of safe and effective approaches to manipulate HSCs for clinical benefit.

  2. Recovery of polyclonal immunoglobulins one year after autologous stem cell transplantation as a long-term predictor marker of progression and survival in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Cerdá, Seila; Labrador, Jorge; Sobejano, Eduardo; González-Mena, Beatriz; Aguilera, Carmen; Ocio, Enrique María; Vidriales, María Belén; Puig, Noemí; Gutiérrez, Norma Carmen; García-Sanz, Ramón; Alonso, José María; López, Rosa; Aguilar, Carlos; de Coca, Alfonso García; Hernández, Roberto; Hernández, José Mariano; Escalante, Fernando; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2017-05-01

    Immunoparesis or suppression of polyclonal immunoglobulins is a very common condition in newly diagnosed myeloma patients. However, the recovery of polyclonal immunoglobulins in the setting of immune reconstitution after autologous stem cell transplantation and its effect on outcome has not yet been explored. We conducted this study in a cohort of 295 patients who had undergone autologous transplantation. In order to explore the potential role of immunoglubulin recovery as a dynamic predictor of progression or survival after transplantation, conditional probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were estimated according to immunoglobulin recovery at different time points using a landmark approach. One year after transplant, when B-cell reconstitution is expected to be completed, among 169 patients alive and progression free, 88 patients (52%) showed immunoglobulin recovery and 81 (48%) did not. Interestingly, the group with immunoglobulin recovery had a significantly longer median progression-free survival than the group with persistent immunoparesis (median 60.4 vs. 27.9 months, respectively; Hazard Ratio: 0.45, 95%Confidence Interval: 0.31-0.66; P<0.001), and improved overall survival (11.3 vs. 7.3 years; Hazard Ratio: 0.45, 95%Confidence Interval: 0.27-0.74; P=0.002). Furthermore, the percentage of normal plasma cells detected by flow cytometry in the bone marrow assessed at day 100 after transplantation was associated with the immunoglobulin recovery at that time and may predict immunoglobulin recovery in the subsequent months: nine months and one year. In conclusion, the recovery of polyclonal immunoglobulins one year after autologous transplantation in myeloma patients is an independent long-term predictor marker for progression and survival. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Stress and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, John

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production but fail to improve survival in experimental staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hani; Darwish, Ilyse; Monroy, Maria-Fernanda; Prockop, Darwin J; Liles, W Conrad; Kain, Kevin C

    2014-01-14

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is caused by an overwhelming host-mediated response to bacterial superantigens produced mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. TSS is characterized by aberrant activation of T cells and excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines ultimately resulting in capillary leak, septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality rates. No therapeutic or vaccine has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for TSS, and novel therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcome are needed. Mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) are stromal cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, MSCs have immunomodulatory properties, including profound effects on activities of T cells and macrophages in specific contexts. Based on the critical role of host-derived immune mediators in TSS, we hypothesized that MSCs could modulate the host-derived proinflammatory response triggered by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and improve survival in experimental TSS. Effects of MSCs on proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood were measured in wild-type C57BL/6 mice injected with 50 μg of SEB. Effects of MSCs on survival were monitored in fatal experimental TSS induced by consecutive doses of D-galactosamine (10 mg) and SEB (10 μg) in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Despite significantly decreasing serum levels of IL-2, IL-6 and TNF induced by SEB in wild-type mice, human MSCs failed to improve survival in experimental TSS in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Similarly, a previously described downstream mediator of human MSCs, TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6), did not significantly improve survival in experimental TSS. Furthermore, murine MSCs, whether unstimulated or pre-treated with IFNγ, failed to improve survival in experimental TSS. Our results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs are insufficient to rescue mice from experimental TSS, and that mediators other than IL-2, IL-6 and TNF are likely to play

  5. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is called a fetus . Embryoid bodies - Rounded collections of cells that arise when embryonic stem cells ... dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and ...

  6. Non-Canonical Hedgehog Signaling Is a Positive Regulator of the WNT Pathway and Is Required for the Survival of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Regan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. To study CSCs in colon cancer, we used limiting dilution spheroid and serial xenotransplantation assays to functionally define the frequency of CSCs in a panel of patient-derived cancer organoids. These studies demonstrated cancer organoids to be enriched for CSCs, which varied in frequency between tumors. Whole-transcriptome analysis identified WNT and Hedgehog signaling components to be enhanced in CSC-enriched tumors and in aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-positive CSCs. Canonical GLI-dependent Hedgehog signaling is a negative regulator of WNT signaling in normal intestine and intestinal tumors. Here, we show that Hedgehog signaling in colon CSCs is autocrine SHH-dependent, non-canonical PTCH1 dependent, and GLI independent. In addition, using small-molecule inhibitors and RNAi against SHH-palmitoylating Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT, we demonstrate that non-canonical Hedgehog signaling is a positive regulator of WNT signaling and required for colon CSC survival. : Colon cancer is a heterogeneous tumor driven by a subpopulation(s of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs. Regan et al. use 3D culture models to demonstrate that CSC survival is regulated by non-canonical, SHH-dependent, PTCH1-dependent Hedgehog signaling, which acts as a positive regulator of WNT signaling to block CSC differentiation. Keywords: WNT pathway, non-canonical Hedgehog signaling, cancer stem cell, colon cancer, cancer organoid, PTCH1, HHAT, SHH

  7. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  8. Aneuploidy in stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martinez, Jorge; Bakker, Bjorn; Schukken, Klaske M; Simon, Judith E; Foijer, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine as well as for engineering of model systems to study diseases and develop new drugs. The discovery of protocols that allow for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) from somatic cells has brought this promise steps closer to

  9. Stem Cells in Neuroendocrinology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Donald; Christen, Yves

    2016-01-01

    This volume starts with an elementary introduction covering stem cell methodologies used to produce specific types of neurons, possibilities for their therapeutic use, and warnings of technical problems...

  10. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  11. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo, E-mail: jbyue@me.com

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  12. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  13. Epidermal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the outermost layer of the human skin and comprises a multilayered epithelium, the interfollicular epidermis, with associated hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and eccrine sweat glands. There are many origins of stem cells in the skin and skin appendages. These stem cells are localized in different part of the pilosebaseous units and also express many different genes. Epidermal stem cells in the pilosebaseous units not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and hair regeneration, but also contribute to repair of the epidermis after injury. In recent years, human induced pluripotent skin stem cells are produced from the epidermal cells such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts and melanocytes. These cells can be transdifferentiated to embriyonic stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells have potential applications in cell replacement therapy and regenerative medicine. These cells provide a means to create valuable tools for basic research and may also produce a source of patient-matched cells for regenerative therapies. In this review, we aimed an overview of epidermal stem cells for better understanding their functions in the skin. Skin will be main organ for using the epidermal cells for regenerative medicine in near future.

  14. Improved survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients of HLA-A3/11 absent for donor KIR3DL2 after non-T-cell depleted HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farhad shahsavar

    2011-08-01

    Conclusion: These data indicate that the absence of HLA class I ligand in the recipient for donor-inhibitory KIR can be a prognostic factor for transplantation outcomes in non-T-cell depleted HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and that the lack of HLA-A3/11 for donor KIR3DL2 can contribute to improved survival for patients with ALL.

  15. Prolonged hospitalization, primary refractory disease, performance status and age are prognostic factors for survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and transformed indolent lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arboe, Bente; Halgren Olsen, Maja; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine

    2017-01-01

    In patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is standard treatment. Here, we aim to identify factors associated with survival in patients undergoing ASCT. A total of 369 patients with relapsed DLBCL...... prior to conditioning therapy. Reconsideration of ASCT for those patients may be required in order to select the right patients for this toxic procedure....

  16. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  17. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  18. What are Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are undifferentiated self regenerating multi potential cells. There are three types of stem cells categories by the ability to form after cells and correlated with the body’s development process. Totipotent: these stem cells can form an entire organism such as fertilized egg. Ploripotent: ploripotent cells are those that can form any cell in the body but cannot form an entire organism such as developing embryo’s totipotent cells become ploripotent  Multipotent: Multi potent stem cells are those that can only form specific cells in the body such as blood cells based. Based on the sources of stem cells we have three types of these cells: Autologous: Sources of the patient own cells are (Autologous either the cells from patient own body or his or her cord blood. For this type of transplant the physician now usually collects the periphery rather than morrow because the procedure is easier on like a bane morrow harvest it take place outside of an operating room, and the patient does not to be under general unsetting . Allogenic: Sources of stem cells from another donore are primarily relatives (familial allogenic or completely unrelated donors. Xenogenic: In these stem cells from different species are transplanted e .g striatal porcine fetal mesan cephalic (FVM xenotransplants for Parkinson’s disease. On sites of isolation such as embryo, umbilical cord and other body tissues stem cells are named embnyonic, cord blood, and adult stem cells. The scope of results and clinical application of stem cells are such as: Neurodegenerative conditions (MS,ALS, Parkinson’s, Stroke, Ocular disorders- Glaucoma, retinitis Pigmentosa (RP, Auto Immune Conditions (Lupus, MS,R. arthritis, Diabetes, etc, Viral Conditions (Hepatitis C and AIDS, Heart Disease, Adrenal Disorders, Injury(Nerve, Brain, etc, Anti aging (hair, skin, weight control, overall well being/preventive, Emotional disorders, Organ / Tissue Cancers, Blood cancers, Blood diseases

  19.  IL-1β siRNA adenovirus benefits liver regeneration by improving mesenchymal stem cells survival after acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hucheng; Shi, Xiaolei; Yuan, Xianwen; Ding, Yitao

    2016-01-01

      Uncontrolled hapatic inflammatory response is regarded as the primary pathological mechanism of acute liver failure and impairs the regeneration of hepatocytes and stem cell grafts. Interleukin-1 plays a key role for activating immune and inflammatory response. Recently, siRNA has made quite a few progresses in treating inflammatory response. To assess the effect of IL-1? siRNA adenovirus on MSC and the therapeutic effect of MSC combined with IL-1? siRNA adenovirus in ALF. We implanted MSC or/and IL-1? siRNA adenovirus via the tail vein, using CCl4-induced ALF in a mice model. Mice were sacrificed at different time points. Blood samples and liver tissues were collected. Hepatic injury, liver regeneration, cytokines (CXCL1, IL-1?, IL-10, IL-6, VEGF and HGF), animal survival and vital MSC were assessed after cell transplantation. MSC combined with IL-1? siRNA reduced the inflammatory levels and prevented liver failure. These animals administrated with MSC and IL-1? siRNA also exhibited improved liver regeneration and increased survival rates. Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy revealed the number of vital MSC in ALF + MSC + IL-1? siRNA group were significantly more than that in ALF + MSC group. IL-1? siRNA adenovirus could enhance MSC ability of tissue regeneration through increasing its survival rate. Accordingly, combination of IL-1? siRNA adenovirus and MSC had a synergistic effect on acute liver failure.

  20. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  1. Neural Stem Cells Secreting Anti-HER2 Antibody Improve Survival in a Preclinical Model of HER2 Overexpressing Breast Cancer Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Deepak; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Morshed, Ramin A; Frank, Richard T; Yu, Dou; Zhang, Lingjiao; Spencer, Drew A; Kim, Julius W; Han, Yu; Yu, Dihua; Ahmed, Atique U; Aboody, Karen S; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer has been revolutionized by trastuzumab. However, longer survival of these patients now predisposes them to forming HER2 positive brain metastases, as the therapeutic antibodies cannot cross the blood brain barrier. The current oncologic repertoire does not offer a rational, nontoxic targeted therapy for brain metastases. In this study, we used an established human neural stem cell line, HB1.F3 NSCs and generated a stable pool of cells secreting a high amount of functional full-length anti-HER2 antibody, equivalent to trastuzumab. Anti-HER2Ab secreted by the NSCs (HER2Ab-NSCs) specifically binds to HER2 overexpressing human breast cancer cells and inhibits PI3K-Akt signaling. This translates to HER2Ab-NSC inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in vitro. Preclinical in vivo experiments using HER2Ab overexpressing NSCs in a breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) mouse model demonstrate that intracranial injection of HER2Ab-NSCs significantly improves survival. In effect, these NSCs provide tumor localized production of HER2Ab, minimizing any potential off-target side effects. Our results establish HER2Ab-NSCs as a novel, nontoxic, and rational therapeutic approach for the successful treatment of HER2 overexpressing BCBM, which now warrants further preclinical and clinical investigation. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  3. Skeletal (stromal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Kermani, Abbas Jafari; Zaher, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal (marrow stromal) stem cells (BMSCs) are a group of multipotent cells that reside in the bone marrow stroma and can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Studying signaling pathways that regulate BMSC differentiation into osteoblastic cells is a strategy....../preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1/Pref-1), the Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and intracellular kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stem Cells and Bone....

  4. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivu-Economescu, Mihaela; Rubach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are recognized as a new way to treat various diseases and injuries, with a wide range of health benefits. The goal is to heal or replace diseased or destroyed organs or body parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplantation. The current practical form of stem cell therapy is the hematopoietic stem cells transplant applied for the treatment of hematological disorders. There are over 2100 clinical studies in progress concerning hematopoietic stem cell therapies. All of them are using hematopoietic stem cells to treat various diseases like: cancers, leukemia, lymphoma, cardiac failure, neural disorders, auto-immune diseases, immunodeficiency, metabolic or genetic disorders. Several challenges are to be addressed prior to developing and applying large scale cell therapies: 1) to explain and control the mechanisms of differentiation and development toward a specific cell type needed to treat the disease, 2) to obtain a sufficient number of desired cell type for transplantation, 3) to overcome the immune rejection and 4) to show that transplanted cells fulfill their normal functions in vivo after transplants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Morin hydrate promotes inner ear neural stem cell survival and differentiation and protects cochlea against neuronal hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Jia, Zhanwei; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Xiumin

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network. Mechanotransduction of cochlea ex vivo culture and auditory brainstem responses threshold and distortion product optoacoustic emissions amplitude in mouse ototoxicity model were also measured following gentamicin treatment to investigate the protective role of morin hydrate against neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate improved viability and proliferation, neurosphere formation and neuronal differentiation of inner ear NSCs, and promoted in vitro neuronal network functions. In both ex vivo and in vivo ototoxicity models, morin hydrate prevented gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Morin hydrate exhibited potent properties in promoting growth and differentiation of inner ear NSCs into functional neurons and protecting from gentamicin ototoxicity. Our study supports its clinical potential in treating neuronal hearing loss. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  6. Gastric Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILLS, JASON C.; SHIVDASANI, RAMESH A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells. PMID:21144849

  7. Association of disparities in known minor histocompatibility antigens with relapse-free survival and graft-versus-host-disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Willemijn; Broen, Kelly; van der Velden, Walter J.F.M.; Greupink-Draaisma, Annelies; Adisty, Niken; Wouters, Yannick; Kester, Michel; Fredrix, Hanny; Jansen, Joop H.; van der Reijden, Bert; Falkenburg, J.H. Frederik; de Witte, Theo; Preijers, Frank; Schattenberg, Ton; Feuth, Ton; Blijlevens, Nicole M.; Schaap, Nicolaas; Dolstra, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can induce remission in patients with hematological malignancies due to graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. This immune-mediated anti-tumor effect, however, is often accompanied by detrimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Both GVT and GVHD are mediated by minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cells recognizing peptide products from polymorphic genes that differ between recipient and donor. In this study, we evaluated whether mismatches in a panel of seventeen MiHA are associated with clinical outcome after partial T cell-depleted allo-SCT. Comprehensive statistical analysis revealed that DNA mismatches for one or more autosomal-encoded MiHA was associated with increased relapse-free survival in sibling transplants, (P =0.04), particularly in patients suffering from multiple myeloma (P =0.02). Moreover, mismatches for the ubiquitous Y chromosome-derived MiHA resulted in a higher incidence of acute GVHD (grade 3–4; P =0.004), while autosomal MiHA mismatches, ubiquitous or restricted to hematopoietic cells, were not associated with severe GVHD. Finally, we demonstrated considerable differences between MiHA in their capability to induce in vivo T cell responses using dual-color tetramer analysis of peripheral blood samples collected post-SCT. Importantly, detection of MiHA-specific T cell responses was associated with improved relapse-free survival in sibling transplants (P =0.01). Our findings provide a rationale to further boost GVT immunity towards autosomal MiHA with a hematopoietic restriction to improve outcome after HLA-matched allo-SCT. PMID:23022467

  8. Long-term disease-free survival in patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Schetelig, Johannes; Fetscher, Sebastian; Reichle, Albrecht; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Beguin, Yves; Brunet, Salut; Caballero, Dolores; Majolino, Ignazio; Hagberg, Hans; Johnsen, Hans E; Kimby, Eva; Montserrat, Emilio; Stewart, Douglas; Copplestone, Adrian; Rosler, Wolf

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AIL) have a poor prognosis with conventional treatment. DESIGN AND METHODS: We initiated an EBMT-based survey studying the impact of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with AIL. Data on 29 patients, who were transplanted between 1992 and 1998 in 16 transplant centers, were collected on standardized documentation forms. RESULTS: The median age at transplant...

  9. Reduced Self-Diploidization and Improved Survival of Semi-cloned Mice Produced from Androgenetic Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells through Overexpression of Dnmt3b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenteng He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic haploid embryonic stem cells (AG-haESCs hold great promise for exploring gene functions and generating gene-edited semi-cloned (SC mice. However, the high incidence of self-diploidization and low efficiency of SC mouse production are major obstacles preventing widespread use of these cells. Moreover, although SC mice generation could be greatly improved by knocking out the differentially methylated regions of two imprinted genes, 50% of the SC mice did not survive into adulthood. Here, we found that the genome-wide DNA methylation level in AG-haESCs is extremely low. Subsequently, downregulation of both de novo methyltransferase Dnmt3b and other methylation-related genes was determined to be responsible for DNA hypomethylation. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of Dnmt3b in AG-haESCs could effectively improve DNA methylation level, and the high incidence of self-diploidization could be markedly rescued. More importantly, the developmental potential of SC embryos was improved, and most SC mice could survive into adulthood.

  10. Can Imaging Gene Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells be Successful in Large Animals?1

    OpenAIRE

    Choyke, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of objective and quantitative imaging approaches for tracking stem cell fate, including stem cell location, survival, engraftment, and differentiation, may lead to better patient stratification and eventual successful translation of cardiac stem cell therapy into the clinic.

  11. Stem cells and solid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor A; Schier, Stefanie; Wright, Nicholas A; Alison, Malcolm R

    2009-07-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in tissues that can develop solid tumours. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified for the first time identifying multipotential cells: a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here, we review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly cancer stem cells within solid tumours. We discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells and how they protect themselves from doing so and do they express unique markers that can be used to detect stem cells. We attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in stem cell biology and their potential for cancer therapy.

  12. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of steroidogenic cells from adult stem cells and pluripotent stem cells [Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Takashi; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Kaoru; Khan, Md Rafiqul Islam; Uwada, Junsuke; Umezawa, Akihiro; Taniguchi, Takanobu

    2016-11-30

    Steroid hormones are mainly produced in adrenal glands and gonads. Because steroid hormones play vital roles in various physiological processes, replacement of deficient steroid hormones by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is necessary for patients with adrenal and gonadal failure. In addition to HRT, tissue regeneration using stem cells is predicted to provide novel therapy. Among various stem cell types, mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into steroidogenic cells following ectopic expression of nuclear receptor (NR) 5A subfamily proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (also known as adrenal 4 binding protein) and liver receptor homolog-1, with the aid of cAMP signaling. Conversely, these approaches cannot be applied to pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, because of poor survival following cytotoxic expression of NR5A subfamily proteins. However, if pluripotent stem cells are first differentiated through mesenchymal lineage, they can also be differentiated into steroidogenic cells via NR5A subfamily protein expression. This approach offers a potential suitable cells for future regenerative medicine and gene therapy for diseases caused by steroidogenesis deficiencies. It represents a powerful tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in steroidogenesis. This article highlights our own and current research on the induction of steroidogenic cells from various stem cells. We also discuss the future direction of their clinical application.

  14. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L C M; Lezirovitz, K; Zanatta, D B; Strauss, B E; Mingroni-Netto, R C; Oiticica, J; Haddad, L A; Bento, R F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells) of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs) are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350 g) were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4) received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4) received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  15. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  16. Nonclinical safety strategies for stem cell therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Michaela E., E-mail: michaela_sharpe@yahoo.com [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom); Morton, Daniel [Exploratory Drug Safety, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc, Cambridge, 02140 (United States); Rossi, Annamaria [Investigative Toxicology, Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Ltd, Ramsgate Road, Sandwich, CT13 9NJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology, especially the development of the induced pluripotent stem cell techniques, have generated tremendous enthusiasm and efforts to explore the therapeutic potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Stem cell therapies are being considered for the treatment of degenerative diseases, inflammatory conditions, cancer and repair of damaged tissue. The safety of a stem cell therapy depends on many factors including the type of cell therapy, the differentiation status and proliferation capacity of the cells, the route of administration, the intended clinical location, long term survival of the product and/or engraftment, the need for repeated administration, the disease to be treated and the age of the population. Understanding the product profile of the intended therapy is crucial to the development of the nonclinical safety study design.

  17. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... and differences between mouse and human gland development with particular emphasis on the identity and localization of stem cells, and the influence of the surrounding microenvironment. It is concluded that while recent advances in the field have contributed immense insight into how the normal mammary gland...... develops and is maintained, significant discrepancies exist between the mouse and human gland which should be taken into consideration in current and future models of mammary stem cell biology....

  18. Reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combined with imatinib has comparable event-free survival and overall survival to long-term imatinib treatment in young patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanmin; Wang, Jiasheng; Luo, Yi; Shi, Jimin; Zheng, Weiyan; Tan, Yamin; Cai, Zhen; Huang, He

    2017-08-01

    The relative merits of reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (RIST) for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the first chronic phase (CP) in imatinib era have not been evaluated. The study was designed to compare the outcomes of combination therapy of RIST plus imatinib (RIST + IM) vs. imatinib (IM) alone for young patients with early CP (ECP) and late CP (LCP). Of the patients, 130 were non-randomly assigned to treatment with IM alone (n = 88) or RIST + IM (n = 42). The 10-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were comparable between RIST + IM and IM groups. LCP, high Sokal score, and no complete cytogenetic response at 3 months were adverse prognostic factors for survival, but only the time from diagnosis to IM was an independent predictor after multivariate analysis. For ECP, IM was similar to RIST + IM, with 10-year EFS rates of 77.2 vs. 81.6% (p = 0.876) and OS rates of 93.8 vs. 87.9% (p = 0.102), respectively. For LCP, both treatments resulted in similar survival, but more patients in the imatinib group experienced events (10-year EFS 40.8 vs. 66.7%, p = 0.047). The patients with higher EBMT risk scores had an inferior survival than those with lower scores (69.2 vs. 92.9%, p = 0.04). We concluded that RIST + IM was comparable to IM in terms of OS and EFS. However, RIST + IM was more affordable than IM alone in a 10-year scale. Thus, RIST + IM could be considered as an alternative treatment option, especially when the patients have low EBMT risk scores and demand a definite cure for CML.

  19. Stem cell heterogeneity revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marianne S; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    The skin forms a protective, water-impermeable barrier consisting of heavily crosslinked epithelial cells. However, the specific role of stem cells in sustaining this barrier remains a contentious issue. A detailed analysis of the interfollicular epidermis now proposes a model for how a composite...... of cells with different properties are involved in its maintenance....

  20. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimei Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF.

  1. Monosomal karyotype predicts poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chromosome 7 abnormal myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, M; de Wreede, L C; Schetelig, J; van Biezen, A; Volin, L; Maertens, J; Robin, M; Petersen, E; de Witte, T; Kröger, N

    2013-04-01

    Treatment algorithms for poor cytogenetic-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), defined by chromosome 7 abnormalities or complex karyotype (CK), include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We studied outcome of alloSCT in chromosome 7 abnormal MDS patients as this data are scarce in literature. We specifically focused on the impact of the extra presence of CK and monosomal karyotype (MK). The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database contained data on 277 adult MDS patients with a chromosome 7 abnormality treated with alloSCT. Median age at alloSCT was 45 years. Median follow-up of patients alive was 5 years. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 22% and 28%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, statistically significant predictors for worse PFS were higher MDS stages treated, but not in complete remission (CR) (hazards ratio (HR) 1.7), and the presence of CK (HR 1.5) or MK (HR 1.8). Negative predictive factors for OS were higher MDS stages treated, but not in CR (HR 1.8), and the presence of CK (HR 1.6) or MK (HR 1.7). By means of the cross-validated log partial likelihood, MK showed to have a better predictive value than CK. The results are relevant when considering alloSCT for higher-stage MDS patients having MK including a chromosome 7 abnormality.

  2. Resistance of subventricular neural stem cells to chronic hypoxemia despite structural disorganization of the germinal center and impairment of neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d’Anglemont de Tassigny X

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Xavier d'Anglemont de Tassigny,1,* M Salomé Sirerol-Piquer,2,3,* Ulises Gómez-Pinedo,4 Ricardo Pardal,1 Sonia Bonilla,1 Vivian Capilla-Gonzalez,2 Ivette López-López,1 Francisco Javier De la Torre-Laviana,1 José Manuel García-Verdugo,2,3 José López-Barneo1,3 1Medical Physiology and Biophysics Department, Institute of Biomedicine of Seville (IBiS, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital/CSIC/University of Seville, Seville, Spain; 2Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Network Center of Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED, Spain; 4Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, San Carlos Institute of Health Investigation, Madrid, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Chronic hypoxemia, as evidenced in de-acclimatized high-altitude residents or in patients with chronic obstructive respiratory disorders, is a common medical condition that can produce serious neurological alterations. However, the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is unknown. We have found that adult rodents exposed for several days/weeks to hypoxia, with an arterial oxygen tension similar to that of chronically hypoxemic patients, manifest a partially irreversible structural disarrangement of the subventricular neurogenic niche (subventricular zone characterized by displacement of neurons and myelinated axons, flattening of the ependymal cell layer, and thinning of capillary walls. Despite these abnormalities, the number of neuronal and oligodendrocyte progenitors, neuroblasts, and neurosphere-forming cells as well as the proliferative activity in subventricular zone was unchanged. These results suggest that neural stem cells and their undifferentiated progeny are resistant to hypoxia. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that severe chronic hypoxia decreases the survival of newly generated neurons and oligodendrocytes, with damage of myelin sheaths. These

  3. Artificial cell microencapsulated stem cells in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells, especially isolated from bone marrow, have been extensively investigated in recent years. Studies focus on their multiple plasticity oftransdifferentiating into various cell lineages and on their potential in cellular therapy in regenerative medicine. In many cases, there is the need for tissue engineering manipulation. Among the different approaches of stem cells tissue engineering, microencapsulation can immobilize stem cells to provide a favorable microenvironment for stem cells survival and functioning. Furthermore, microencapsulated stem cells are immunoisolated after transplantation. We show that one intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated bone marrow stem cells can prolong the survival of liver failure rat models with 90% of the liver removed surgically. In addition to transdifferentiation, bone marrow stem cells can act as feeder cells. For example, when coencapsulated with hepatocytes, stem cells can increase the viability and function of the hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Artificial Cell Microencapsulated Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine, Tissue Engineering and Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2012-01-01

    Adult stem cells, especially isolated from bone marrow, have been extensively investigated in recent years. Studies focus on their multiple plasticity of transdifferentiating into various cell lineages and on their potential in cellular therapy in regenerative medicine. In many cases, there is the need for tissue engineering manipulation. Among the different approaches of stem cells tissue engineering, microencapsulation can immobilize stem cells to provide a favorable microenvironment for stem cells survival and functioning. Furthermore, microencapsulated stem cells are immunoisolated after transplantation. We show that one intraperitoneal injection of microencapsulated bone marrow stem cells can prolong the survival of liver failure rat models with 90% of the liver removed surgically. In addition to transdifferentiation, bone marrow stem cells can act as feeder cells. For example, when coencapsulated with hepatocytes, stem cells can increase the viability and function of the hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20384219

  5. Resistance of subventricular neural stem cells to chronic hypoxemia despite structural disorganization of the germinal center and impairment of neuronal and oligodendrocyte survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    d’Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Sirerol-Piquer, M Salomé; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Pardal, Ricardo; Bonilla, Sonia; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; López-López, Ivette; De la Torre-Laviana, Francisco Javier; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; López-Barneo, José

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hypoxemia, as evidenced in de-acclimatized high-altitude residents or in patients with chronic obstructive respiratory disorders, is a common medical condition that can produce serious neurological alterations. However, the pathogenesis of this phenomenon is unknown. We have found that adult rodents exposed for several days/weeks to hypoxia, with an arterial oxygen tension similar to that of chronically hypoxemic patients, manifest a partially irreversible structural disarrangement of the subventricular neurogenic niche (subventricular zone) characterized by displacement of neurons and myelinated axons, flattening of the ependymal cell layer, and thinning of capillary walls. Despite these abnormalities, the number of neuronal and oligodendrocyte progenitors, neuroblasts, and neurosphere-forming cells as well as the proliferative activity in subventricular zone was unchanged. These results suggest that neural stem cells and their undifferentiated progeny are resistant to hypoxia. However, in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that severe chronic hypoxia decreases the survival of newly generated neurons and oligodendrocytes, with damage of myelin sheaths. These findings help explain the effects of hypoxia on adult neurogenesis and provide new perspectives on brain responsiveness to persistent hypoxemia. PMID:27774479

  6. The impact of chronic GVHD on survival of Patients with acute myeloid leukemia after non-T-cell depleted HLA-identical sibling peripheral blood stem cells transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farhad Shahsavar

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: These data indicate that the occurrence of cGVHD is an important predictor of outcome of non-T-cell depleted HLA-identical sibling allogeneic PBSCT, in those AML patients who develope cGVHD have a high chance of survival.

  7. Survival, proliferation and differentiation enhancement of neural stem cells cultured in three-dimensional polyethylene glycol-RGD hydrogel with tenascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Pejman; Tiraihi, Taki; Ganji, Fariba; Darabi, Shehram; Taheri, Taher; Kazemi, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol hydrogel (PEG) conjugated with arginyl glycyl aspartic acid (RGD) (PEG-RGD) has been considered to be a scaffold in three-dimensional (3D) culture that improves neurite outgrowth; on the other hand, tenascin C controls neural growth and differentiation. In this study, the effect of a combined RGD and tenascin C mixture in 3D culture (3D-PEG-RGD-TnC) on the survival, growth and differentiation of neural stem cells. The viability of the culture has been evaluated by live/dead assay and the results show that the viability of NSCs in 3D-PEG-RGD-TnC is significantly higher than its value in 3D-PEG-RGD. The proliferation was evaluated by MTS test and was found to be slightly improved but statistically not significant. Accordingly, the differentiation was evaluated by immunoreactivity to nestin, neurofilament 68, neurofilament 160, neurofilament 200 and GFAP; and the expression of nestin, neuro D, musashi1, β-tubulin III, GFAP, MBP and Oct4 was studied using RT-PCR. The results showed enhancement of the differentiation of NSCs into the neuronal phenotype in 3D-PEG-RGD-TnC. The morphology of NSCs cultured in 3D-PEG-RGD-TnC showed neurite outgrowths and increase in the contact between the differentiated cells' extensions. The conclusion of this study was that NSC survival, proliferation and differentiation are enhanced when the cells are cultured in 3D-PEG-RGD-TnC. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable sca...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  10. CtIP-Specific Roles during Cell Reprogramming Have Long-Term Consequences in the Survival and Fitness of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gómez-Cabello

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acquired genomic instability is one of the major concerns for the clinical use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. All reprogramming methods are accompanied by the induction of DNA damage, of which double-strand breaks are the most cytotoxic and mutagenic. Consequently, DNA repair genes seem to be relevant for accurate reprogramming to minimize the impact of such DNA damage. Here, we reveal that reprogramming is associated with high levels of DNA end resection, a critical step in homologous recombination. Moreover, the resection factor CtIP is essential for cell reprogramming and establishment of iPSCs, probably to repair reprogramming-induced DNA damage. Our data reveal a new role for DNA end resection in maintaining genomic stability during cell reprogramming, allowing DNA repair fidelity to be retained in both human and mouse iPSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that reprogramming in a resection-defective environment has long-term consequences on stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

  11. Low immunogenicity of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Go; Ozaki, Masahiro; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kawabata, Soya; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Rei; Ookubo, Toshiki; Yastake, Kaori; Matsubayashi, Kohei; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-10-11

    Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord. In contrast, an allogeneic transplantation into subcutaneous tissue was rejected in all mice, and allogeneic cells transplanted into intact and injured spinal cords survived for 3 months in approximately 20% of mice. In addition, cell survival was increased after co-treatment with an immunosuppressive agent. Thus, the immunogenicity and post-transplantation immunological dynamics of iPSC-NSPCs resemble those of fetus-NSPCs.

  12. Novel anti-apoptotic microRNAs 582-5p and 363 promote human glioblastoma stem cell survival via direct inhibition of caspase 3, caspase 9, and Bim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Hunt Floyd

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor. Tumor initiation and recurrence are likely caused by a sub-population of glioblastoma stem cells, which may derive from mutated neural stem and precursor cells. Since CD133 is a stem cell marker for both normal brain and glioblastoma, and to better understand glioblastoma formation and recurrence, we looked for dys-regulated microRNAs in human CD133+ glioblastoma stem cells as opposed to CD133+ neural stem cells isolated from normal human brain. Using FACS sorting of low-passage cell samples followed by microRNA microarray analysis, we found 43 microRNAs that were dys-regulated in common in three separate CD133+ human glioblastomas compared to CD133+ normal neural stem cells. Among these were several microRNAs not previously associated with cancer. We then verified the microRNAs dys-regulated in glioblastoma using quantitative real time PCR and Taqman analysis of the original samples, as well as human GBM stem cell and established cell lines and many human specimens. We show that two candidate oncogenic microRNAs, miR-363 and miR-582-5p, can positively influence glioblastoma survival, as shown by forced expression of the microRNAs and their inhibitors followed by cell number assay, Caspase 3/7 assay, Annexin V apoptosis/fluorescence activated cell sorting, siRNA rescue of microRNA inhibitor treatment, as well as 3'UTR mutagenesis to show luciferase reporter rescue of the most successful targets. miR-582-5p and miR-363 are shown to directly target Caspase 3, Caspase 9, and Bim.

  13. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Tanyeli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Attemps to employ marrow stem cell for therapeutic purpose began in 1940’s. Marrow transplantation might be of use not only in irradiation protection, but also with therapeutic aim to marrow aplasia, leukemia and other diseases. The use and defining tissue antigens in humans were crucial to the improving of transplantation. The administration of methotrexate for GVHD improved the long term survival. Conditioning regimens for myeloablation designed according to diseases. Cord blood and peripheral blood stem cells were used for transplantion after 1980’s. Cord blood and bone marrow stem cell banks established to find HLA matched donor.

  14. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  15. Expression profiling of stem cell-related genes in neoadjuvant-treated gastric cancer: a NOTCH2, GSK3B and β-catenin gene signature predicts survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Bauer

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cell (CSC based gene expression signatures are associated with prognosis in various tumour types and CSCs are suggested to be particularly drug resistant. The aim of our study was first, to determine the prognostic significance of CSC-related gene expression in residual tumour cells of neoadjuvant-treated gastric cancer (GC patients. Second, we wished to examine, whether expression alterations between pre- and post-therapeutic tumour samples exist, consistent with an enrichment of drug resistant tumour cells. The expression of 44 genes was analysed in 63 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tumour specimens with partial tumour regression (10-50% residual tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by quantitative real time PCR low-density arrays. A signature of combined GSK3B(high, β-catenin (CTNNB1(high and NOTCH2(low expression was strongly correlated with better patient survival (p<0.001. A prognostic relevance of these genes was also found analysing publically available gene expression data. The expression of 9 genes was compared between pre-therapeutic biopsies and post-therapeutic resected specimens. A significant post-therapeutic increase in NOTCH2, LGR5 and POU5F1 expression was found in tumours with different tumour regression grades. No significant alterations were observed for GSK3B and CTNNB1. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a chemotherapy-associated increase in the intensity of NOTCH2 staining, but not in the percentage of NOTCH2. Taken together, the GSK3B, CTNNB1 and NOTCH2 expression signature is a novel, promising prognostic parameter for GC. The results of the differential expression analysis indicate a prominent role for NOTCH2 and chemotherapy resistance in GC, which seems to be related to an effect of the drugs on NOTCH2 expression rather than to an enrichment of NOTCH2 expressing tumour cells.

  16. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  17. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants Print A A A What's in this ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  18. Stem cells and transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingbo

    2008-05-09

    Stem cells can differentiate into a variety of cells to replace dead cells or to repair damaged tissues. Recent evidence indicates that stem cells are involved in the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis, an alloimmune initiated vascular stenosis that often results in transplant organ failure. Although the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis is not yet fully understood, recent developments in stem cell research have suggested novel mechanisms of vascular remodeling in allografts. For example, stem cells derived from the recipient may repair damaged endothelial cells of arteries in transplant organs. Further evidence suggests that stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells may be released from both bone marrow and non-bone marrow tissues. Vascular stem cells appear to replenish cells that died in donor vessels. Concomitantly, stem/progenitor cells may also accumulate in the intima, where they differentiate into smooth muscle cells. However, several issues concerning the contribution of stem cells to the pathogenesis of transplant arteriosclerosis are controversial, eg, whether bone marrow-derived stem cells can differentiate into smooth muscle cells that form neointimal lesions of the vessel wall. This review summarizes recent research on the role of stem cells in transplant arteriosclerosis, discusses the mechanisms of stem cell homing and differentiation into mature endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and highlights the controversial issues in the field.

  19. Stem cell therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K O Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.

  20. Fake news portrayals of stem cells and stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Murdoch, Blake; Caulfield, Timothy

    2017-10-01

    This study examines how stem cells and stem cell research are portrayed on websites deemed to be purveyors of distorted and dubious information. Content analysis was conducted on 224 articles from 2015 to 2016, compiled by searching with the keywords 'stem cell(s)' on a list of websites flagged for containing either 'fake' or 'junk science' news. Articles contained various exaggerated positive and negative claims about stem cells and stem cell science, health and science related conspiracy theories, and statements promoting fear and mistrust of conventional medicine. Findings demonstrate the existence of organized misinformation networks, which may lead the public away from accurate information and facilitate a polarization of public discourse.

  1. STEM CELL RESEARCH-CONCEPT AND CONTROVERSIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    about the right ethical and moral conclusions to be made. This article aims to define and .... anaemia, heart damage, corneal damage, etc. To be useful for transplant purposes, stem cells must be reproducibly made;. Produce extensively and generate sufficient tissues; differentiate into desired cell type(s); survive in recipient ...

  2. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  5. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  6. Information on Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Current Research » Focus on Research Focus on Stem Cell Research Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many ... they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple ...

  7. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI.

  8. Improved Survival and Initiation of Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Hepatocyte-Like Cells upon Culture in William's E Medium followed by Hepatocyte Differentiation Inducer Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Tomizawa

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte differentiation inducer (HDI lacks both glucose and arginine, but is supplemented with galactose and ornithine, and is added together with other reagents such as apoptosis inhibitor and oncostatin M. Although human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells initiate hepatocyte differentiation, most die within 7 days. In this study, we investigated both HDI and conventional media for their potential to improve cell survival.201B7 iPS cells were cultured in conventional media. This consisted of three cycles of 5-day culture in William's E (WE medium, followed by a 2-day culture in HDI.Expression levels of α-feto protein (AFP were higher in cells cultured in WE and in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/Nutrient F-12 Ham (DF12. 201B7 cells expressed the highest AFP and albumin (ALB when cultured in HDI for 2 days following 7-day culture in WE. After three cycles of 5-day culture in WE followed by 2 days in HDI, 201B7 cells expressed AFP and ALB 54 ± 2.3 (average ± standard deviation and 73 ± 15.1 times higher, respectively, than those cultured in ReproFF (feeder-free condition.201B7 cells survived culture in WE for 7 days followed HDI for 2 days. After three cycles of culture under these conditions, hepatocyte differentiation was enhanced, as evidenced by increased AFP and ALB expression.

  9. CTLA-4 polymorphisms and haplotype correlate with survival in ALL after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related HLA-haplotype-mismatched donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X-Y; Wang, Y; Li, G-X; Qin, Y-Z; Wang, F-R; Xu, L-P; Chen, H; Han, W; Wang, J-Z; Zhang, X-H; Chang, Y-J; Liu, K-Y; Jiang, Z-F; Huang, X-J

    2016-04-27

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been established as an effective treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. Disease relapse remains a major cause of transplant failure. T cell homeostasis is critical to determine the potency of the GVT effect. Recent studies have shown the association of the CTLA-4 polymorphisms with the outcome after HLA-identical sibling allogeneic HSCT. In this study, we focused on four CTLA-4 polymorphisms, and analyzed the impact of donor genotypes and haplotypes on the conditions of 152 acute leukemia patients (ALL 83) after related HLA-haplotype- mismatched transplantation. The four SNP genotypes (-1661, -318, CT60 and +49) were determined by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. ALL recipients of donors with +49 GG showed significantly lower OS (67.7 vs. 90.3 %, P = 0.015) than those with GA+AA. Multivariate analyses showed that +49 GG was an independent risk factor for OS (HR: 0.306, 95 % CI 0.111-0.842, P = 0.022) .23 ALL patients receiving mDLI showed significantly lower OS with +49 GG donor than those with GA+AA (30.0 vs. 83.1 %, P = 0.003). The haplotype analysis revealed only three haplotypes in the donor population -1661/-318/CT60/+49 i.e., ACGG, ACAA and GTGA, the frequencies were 64.1, 19.4 and 16.5 %, respectively. Donors with and without the ACGG/ACGG haplotype had the same effect on transplant outcomes as those with +49 GG and +49 GA+AA. In summary, the CTLA-4 +49 GG and the haplotype ACGG/ACGG reduced the overall survival in ALL after allo-HSCT from the related HLA-haplotype-mismatched donor, knowledge of the CTLA-4 polymorphism and haplotype may provide useful information for donor selection and individual application of immunosuppressive agents and immunotherapy.

  10. EGFR-mediated interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 contributes to formation and survival of cancer stem-like tumorspheres as a therapeutic target against EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Chia; Chou, Kuei-Fang; Wu, Cheng-Wen; Su, Nai-Wen; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Su, Ying-Wen; Chang, Jungshan; Ho, Ai-Sheng; Lin, Huan-Chau; Chen, Caleb Gon-Shen; Yang, Bi-Ling; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Chiang, Ya-Wen; Lim, Ken-Hong; Chang, Yi-Fang

    2018-02-01

    YM155, an inhibitor of interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 (ILF3), significantly suppresses cancer stemness property, implying that ILF3 contributes to cell survival of cancer stem cells. However, the molecular function of ILF3 inhibiting cancer stemness remains unclear. This study aimed to uncover the potential function of ILF3 involving in cell survival of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive lung stem-like cancer, and to investigate the potential role to improve the efficacy of anti-EGFR therapeutics. The association of EGFR and ILF3 in expression and regulations was first investigated in this study. Lung cancer A549 cells with deprivation of ILF3 were created by the gene-knockdown method and then RNAseq was applied to identify the putative genes regulated by ILF3. Meanwhile, HCC827- and A549-derived cancer stem-like cells were used to investigate the role of ILF3 in the formation of cancer stem-like tumorspheres. We found that EGFR induced ILF3 expression, and YM155 reduced EGFR expression. The knockdown of ILF3 reduced not only EGFR expression in mRNA and protein levels, but also cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that ILF3 may play an important role in contributing to cancer cell survival. Moreover, the knockdown and inhibition of ILF3 by shRNA and YM155, respectively, reduced the formation and survival of HCC827- and A549-derived tumorspheres through inhibiting ErbB3 (HER3) expression, and synergized the therapeutic efficacy of afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, against EGFR-positive A549 lung cells. This study demonstrated that ILF3 plays an oncogenic like role in maintaining the EGFR-mediated cellular pathway, and can be a therapeutic target to improve the therapeutic efficacy of afatinib. Our results suggested that YM155, an ILF3 inhibitor, has the potential for utilization in cancer therapy against EGFR-positive lung cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  12. Normal and leukemic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicci, P.G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hematopoietic stem cells have provided several critical insights in the biology of stem cells in general; as mature blood cells are generally short lived, stem cells are in fact required to guarantee, throughout the life of an organism, the replenishment of differentiated blood cells by the generation of multi-lineage progenitors and precursors committed to individual hematopoietic lineages. Similarly, acute myeloid leukemia has been considered as a model system to study cancer ste...

  13. Survival and Neurocognitive Outcomes After Cranial or Craniospinal Irradiation Plus Total-Body Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Leukemia Patients With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Agarwal, Rajni [Section of Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Modlin, Leslie A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gray, Christine C. [Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Harris, Jeremy P.; Million, Lynn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Kiamanesh, Eileen F. [Cancer Clinical Trials Office, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S., E-mail: sarah2@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement treated according to an institutional protocol with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and a component of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in addition to total-body irradiation (TBI) as preparative regimen. Methods and Materials: Forty-one pediatric ALL patients underwent SCT with TBI and received additional cranial irradiation or CSI because of CNS leukemic involvement. Prospective neurocognitive testing was performed before and after SCT in a subset of patients. Cox regression models were used to determine associations of patient and disease characteristics and treatment methods with outcomes. Results: All patients received a cranial radiation boost; median total cranial dose was 24 Gy. Eighteen patients (44%) received a spinal boost; median total spinal dose for these patients was 18 Gy. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for all patients was 67%. Those receiving CSI had a trend toward superior DFS compared with those receiving a cranial boost alone (hazard ratio 3.23, P=.14). Patients with isolated CNS disease before SCT had a trend toward superior DFS (hazard ratio 3.64, P=.11, 5-year DFS 74%) compared with those with combined CNS and bone marrow disease (5-year DFS 59%). Neurocognitive testing revealed a mean post-SCT overall intelligence quotient of 103.7 at 4.4 years. Relative deficiencies in processing speed and/or working memory were noted in 6 of 16 tested patients (38%). Pre- and post-SCT neurocognitive testing revealed no significant change in intelligence quotient (mean increase +4.7 points). At a mean of 12.5 years after transplant, 11 of 13 long-term survivors (85%) had completed at least some coursework at a 2- or 4-year college. Conclusion: The addition of CSI to TBI before SCT in pediatric ALL with CNS involvement is effective and well-tolerated. Craniospinal irradiation plus TBI is worthy

  14. Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing YIN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs, including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2. Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients.

  15. Stem cell factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNiece, I K; Briddell, R A

    1995-07-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is the ligand for the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, which is expressed on both primitive and mature hematopoietic progenitor cells. In vitro, SCF synergizes with other growth factors, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3 to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells of the lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. In vivo, SCF also synergizes with other growth factors and has been shown to enhance the mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells in combination with G-CSF. In phase I/II clinical studies administration of the combination of SCF and G-CSF resulted in a two- to threefold increase in cells that express the CD34 antigen compared with G-CSF alone. Other potential clinical uses include ex vivo expansion protocols and in vitro culture for gene therapy.

  16. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut Selver, Özlem; Yağcı, Ayşe; Eğrilmez, Sait; Gürdal, Mehmet; Palamar, Melis; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Ateş, Utku; Veral, Ali; Güven, Çağrı; Wolosin, Jose Mario

    2017-10-01

    The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane) for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells) is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice using

  17. Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency and Treatment with Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Barut Selver

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cornea is the outermost tissue of the eye and it must be transparent for the maintenance of good visual function. The superficial epithelium of the cornea, which is renewed continuously by corneal stem cells, plays a critical role in the permanence of this transparency. These stem cells are localized at the cornea-conjunctival transition zone, referred to as the limbus. When this zone is affected/destroyed, limbal stem cell deficiency ensues. Loss of limbal stem cell function allows colonization of the corneal surface by conjunctival epithelium. Over 6 million people worldwide are affected by corneal blindness, and limbal stem cell deficiency is one of the main causes. Fortunately, it is becoming possible to recover vision by autologous transplantation of limbal cells obtained from the contralateral eye in unilateral cases. Due to the potential risks to the donor eye, only a small amount of tissue can be obtained, in which only 1-2% of the limbal epithelial cells are actually limbal stem cells. Vigorous attempts are being made to expand limbal stem cells in culture to preserve or even enrich the stem cell population. Ex vivo expanded limbal stem cell treatment in limbal stem cell deficiency was first reported in 1997. In the 20 years since, various protocols have been developed for the cultivation of limbal epithelial cells. It is still not clear which method promotes effective stem cell viability and this remains a subject of ongoing research. The most preferred technique for limbal cell culture is the explant culture model. In this approach, a small donor eye limbal biopsy is placed as an explant onto a biocompatible substrate (preferably human amniotic membrane for expansion. The outgrowth (cultivated limbal epithelial cells is then surgically transferred to the recipient eye. Due to changing regulations concerning cell-based therapy, the implementation of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in accordance with Good Laboratory

  18. Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes survive and mature in the mouse heart and transiently improve function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laake, Linda W.; Passier, Robert; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine; Verkleij, Arie J.; Lips, Daniel J.; Freund, Christian; den Ouden, Krista; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien; Korving, Jeroen; Tertoolen, Leon G.; van Echteld, Cees J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Mummery, Christine L.

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of the myocardium by transplantation of cardiomyocytes is an emerging therapeutic strategy. Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) form cardiomyocytes readily but until recently at low efficiency, so that preclinical studies on transplantation in animals are only just beginning. Here, we

  19. Monosomal karyotype predicts poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chromosome 7 abnormal myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M. van; Wreede, L.C. de; Schetelig, J.; Biezen, A. van; Volin, L.; Maertens, J.; Robin, M.; Petersen, E.; Witte, T.J.M. de; Kroger, N.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment algorithms for poor cytogenetic-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), defined by chromosome 7 abnormalities or complex karyotype (CK), include allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). We studied outcome of alloSCT in chromosome 7 abnormal MDS patients as this data are scarce in

  20. Characterizing the radioresponse of pluripotent and multipotent human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L Lan

    Full Text Available The potential capability of stem cells to restore functionality to diseased or aged tissues has prompted a surge of research, but much work remains to elucidate the response of these cells to genotoxic agents. To more fully understand the impact of irradiation on different stem cell types, the present study has analyzed the radioresponse of human pluripotent and multipotent stem cells. Human embryonic stem (ES cells, human induced pluripotent (iPS cells, and iPS-derived human neural stem cells (iPS-hNSCs cells were irradiated and analyzed for cell survival parameters, differentiation, DNA damage and repair and oxidative stress at various times after exposure. While irradiation led to dose-dependent reductions in survival, the fraction of surviving cells exhibited dose-dependent increases in metabolic activity. Irradiation did not preclude germ layer commitment of ES cells, but did promote neuronal differentiation. ES cells subjected to irradiation exhibited early apoptosis and inhibition of cell cycle progression, but otherwise showed normal repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Cells surviving irradiation also showed acute and persistent increases in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that were significant at nearly all post-irradiation times analyzed. We suggest that stem cells alter their redox homeostasis to adapt to adverse conditions and that radiation-induced oxidative stress plays a role in regulating the function and fate of stem cells within tissues compromised by radiation injury.

  1. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spheroid Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Cesarz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional 2D adherent cell culture, 3D spheroidal cell aggregates, or spheroids, are regarded as more physiological, and this technique has been exploited in the field of oncology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs cultured in spheroids have enhanced anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and tissue reparative/regenerative effects with improved cell survival after transplantation. Cytoskeletal reorganization and drastic changes in cell morphology in MSC spheroids indicate a major difference in mechanophysical properties compared with 2D culture. Enhanced multidifferentiation potential, upregulated expression of pluripotency marker genes, and delayed replicative senescence indicate enhanced stemness in MSC spheroids. Furthermore, spheroid formation causes drastic changes in the gene expression profile of MSC in microarray analyses. In spite of these significant changes, underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways triggering and sustaining these changes are largely unknown.

  3. Thrombopoietin expands hematopoietic stem cells after transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Norma; Priestley, Greg; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Kaushansky, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that thrombopoietin (TPO) contributes to the development of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), supporting their survival and proliferation in vitro. To determine whether TPO supports the impressive expansion of HSC observed following transplantation, we transplanted normal marrow cells into lethally irradiated Tpo–/– and Tpo+/+ mice and quantified HSC self-renewal and expansion and hematopoietic progenitor cell homing. Although essentially identical numbers of...

  4. Stem cell tracking by nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Chiara; Erratico, Silvia; Razini, Paola; Fiori, Fabrizio; Rustichelli, Franco; Torrente, Yvan; Belicchi, Marzia

    2010-03-12

    Advances in stem cell research have provided important understanding of the cell biology and offered great promise for developing new strategies for tissue regeneration. The beneficial effects of stem cell therapy depend also by the development of new approachs for the track of stem cells in living subjects over time after transplantation. Recent developments in the use of nanotechnologies have contributed to advance of the high-resolution in vivo imaging methods, including positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and X-Ray computed microtomography (microCT). This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Frank P

    2004-09-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that every tissue contains stem cells. Our understanding of the biology of stem cells reveals that these cell populations have a critical role in the homeostasis and repair of tissues. Besides the local stem cell niches, additional compartments in the body such as the bone marrow may serve as reservoirs for stem cell populations. On more extensive tissue damage, and guided by local repair responses, "reparative" cell populations are mobilized from more distant stem cell reservoirs and migrate to the site of injury, thereby contributing in many aspects of local tissue repair. Osteoarthritis has long been regarded as an imbalance between destructive and reparative processes. The lack of repair of the weight-bearing articular cartilage and the associated subchondral bone changes are considered of critical importance in the progression of the disease. Recent findings indicate a depletion and/or functional alteration of mesenchymal stem cell populations in osteoarthritis. These preliminary data suggest that in joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, it is of importance to investigate further the involvement of the stem cell pool in the mechanisms contributing to joint homeostasis and driving disease progression. In view of the emerging body of evidence pointing to a potential therapeutic utility of stem cell technology, it is not surprising that local delivery of mesenchymal stem cells has been explored as a therapeutic approach in animal models of osteoarthritis. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  6. Can mesenchymal stem cells improve spermatogonial stem cell transplantation efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, P; Van Saen, D; Goossens, E

    2017-01-01

    Improved treatments have led to an increased survival rate in cancer patients. However, in pre-pubertal boys, these gonadotoxic treatments can result in the depletion of the spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) pool causing lifelong infertility. SSC transplantation has been proposed as a promising technique to preserve the fertility of these patients. In mice, this technique has resulted in live-born offspring, but the efficiency of colonization remained low. This could be because of a deficient microenvironment, leading to apoptosis of the transplanted SSCs. Interestingly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), being multipotent and easy to isolate and multiply in vitro, are nowadays successfully and widely used in regenerative medicine. Here, we shortly review the current understanding of MSC and SSC biology, and we hypothesize that a combined MSC-SSC transplantation might improve the efficiency of SSC colonization and differentiation as paracrine factors from MSCs may contribute to the SSC niche. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Stem cells in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-01-01

    The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...

  8. Imaging stem cell implant for cellular-based therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Dennis, James E; Gerson, Stanton L

    2008-08-01

    Stem cell-based cellular therapy represents a promising outlook for regenerative medicine. Imaging techniques provide a means for noninvasive, repeated, and quantitative tracking of stem cell implant or transplant. From initial deposition to the survival, migration and differentiation of the transplant/implanted stem cells, imaging allows monitoring of the infused cells in the same live object over time. The current review briefly summarizes and compares existing imaging methods for cell labeling and imaging in animal models. Several studies performed by our group using different imaging techniques are described, with further discussion on the issues with these current imaging approaches and potential directions for future development in stem cell imaging.

  9. Aging, metabolism and stem cells: Spotlight on muscle stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-04-15

    All tissues and organs undergo a progressive regenerative decline as they age. This decline has been mainly attributed to loss of stem cell number and/or function, and both stem cell-intrinsic changes and alterations in local niches and/or systemic environment over time are known to contribute to the stem cell aging phenotype. Advancing in the molecular understanding of the deterioration of stem cell cells with aging is key for targeting the specific causes of tissue regenerative dysfunction at advanced stages of life. Here, we revise exciting recent findings on why stem cells age and the consequences on tissue regeneration, with a special focus on regeneration of skeletal muscle. We also highlight newly identified common molecular pathways affecting diverse types of aging stem cells, such as altered proteostasis, metabolism, or senescence entry, and discuss the questions raised by these findings. Finally, we comment on emerging stem cell rejuvenation strategies, principally emanating from studies on muscle stem cells, which will surely burst tissue regeneration research for future benefit of the increasing human aging population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wnt Signaling in Stem Cells and Tumor Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Wnt signaling cascade is critically important in stem cell biology, both in homeostatic maintenance and repair and regeneration of tissues and organs, through their respective somatic stem cells (SSCs). However, aberrant Wnt signaling is associated with a wide array of tumor types and Wnt signaling is important in the so-termed cancer stem cell/tumor-initiating cell (CSC/TIC) population. The ability to safely therapeutically target the Wnt signaling pathway offers enormous promise. However, just like the Sword of Damocles, significant risks and concerns regarding targeting such a critical pathway in normal stem cell maintenance and tissue homeostasis remain ever present. With this in mind, we review our current understanding of the role of Wnt signaling in SSCs and CSC/TICs and the potential to pharmacologically manipulate these endogenous stem cell populations (both normal and tumor). Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  12. Delivery Strategies for Stem Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Glotzbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Before stem cell-based therapies can become a clinical reality, technologies for cell delivery must be developed that can control differentiation and pluripotency, maintain a hospitable environment for cell survival and function, and provide a structural framework for regenerative healing of the target tissue. Insights gained from developmental and stem cell biology should guide the design of devices and techniques to facilitate stem cell-based therapies. Several strategies have been developed for surgical delivery of stem cells, including synthetic and biologic matrices for cell seeding, complex biochemical delivery devices for maintenance and modulation of stem cell properties, and smart constructs with the ability to adapt to the dynamic in vivo environment after implantation. In aggregate, surgical delivery of complex stem cell-seeded constructs has the potential to revolutionize surgical therapies for a wide range of diseases in order to provide a more regenerative platform for tissue and organ healing.

  13. Bioprinting for stem cell research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439

  14. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  15. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  16. Counting stem cells : methodological constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bystrykh, Leonid V.; Verovskaya, Evgenia; Zwart, Erik; Broekhuis, Mathilde; de Haan, Gerald

    The number of stem cells contributing to hematopoiesis has been a matter of debate. Many studies use retroviral tagging of stem cells to measure clonal contribution. Here we argue that methodological factors can impact such clonal analyses. Whereas early studies had low resolution, leading to

  17. Stem cells in endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Kumar M, Madhu Varma K, Kalyan Satish R, Manikya kumar Nanduri.R, Murali Krishnam Raju S, Mohan rao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. Serving as a sort of repair system for the body, they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. However, progress in stem cell biology and tissue engineering may present new options for replacing heavily damaged or lost teeth, or even individual tooth structures. The goal of this review is to discuss the potential impact of dental pulp stem cells on regenerative endodontics.

  18. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail: prmrocco@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  19. Saving Stem Cells after Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine Y

    2017-12-07

    Inflammatory signals can activate hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but how HSCs regain quiescence after stress is unclear. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Chen et al. (2017) delineate an elegant histamine-dependent feedback mechanism through which myeloid bone marrow cells restore quiescence of myeloid-biased HSCs, with implications for blood disorders, aging, and immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implanted spike wave electric stimulation promotes survival of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and functional recovery in the spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenliang; Zhao, Hua; Xie, Bin; Liu, Haichun; Chen, Yunzhen; Jiao, Guangjun; Wang, Hongliang

    2011-03-10

    Transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) into the injured spinal cord may provide therapeutic benefit, but its application is limited by their poor survival and low differentiation rate into neurons. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been reported to promote survival and differentiation of the BMSCs. Therefore we investigated whether implanted spike wave ES could improve survival of BMSCs after transplantation and result in functional improvement in animals with spinal cord injury. Our results showed that the number and ratio of survived BMSCs near the lesion site were significantly increased in the BMSCs+ES-treated group as compared to BMSCs transplantation or ES treatment alone group. Furthermore, results from BBB scales, SSEP and DTI demonstrated a significant improved functional recovery in the BMSCs+ES group. This indicated that implanted spike wave ES could promote the bioactivity of BMSCs and their survival. This represents a new therapeutic potential of the combination of BMSCs transplantation with implanted spike wave ES to treat spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gastrointestinal stem cell up-to-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract depends on stem cells with properties of self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential gastric, intestinal, colonic stem cells new markers and the signaling pathways provide hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. This review provides an overview of the different types of stem cells, focusing on tissue-restricted adult stem cells.

  2. Mesenchymal stem cells improve mouse non-heart-beating liver graft survival by inhibiting Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-Fas/FasL-caspase3 pathway regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver transplantation is the optimal treatment option for end-stage liver disease, but organ shortages dramatically restrict its application. Donation after cardiac death (DCD is an alternative approach that may expand the donor pool, but it faces challenges such as graft dysfunction, early graft loss, and cholangiopathy. Moreover, DCD liver grafts are no longer eligible for transplantation after their warm ischaemic time exceeds 30 min. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been proposed as a promising therapy for treatment of certain liver diseases, but the role of MSCs in DCD liver graft function remains elusive. Methods In this study, we established an arterialized mouse non-heart-beating (NHB liver transplantation model, and compared survival rates, cytokine and chemokine expression, histology, and the results of in vitro co-culture experiments in animals with or without MSC infusion. Results MSCs markedly ameliorated NHB liver graft injury and improved survival post-transplantation. Additionally, MSCs suppressed Kupffer cell apoptosis, Th1/Th17 immune responses, chemokine expression, and inflammatory cell infiltration. In vitro, PGE2 secreted by MSCs inhibited Kupffer cell apoptosis via TLR4-ERK1/2-caspase3 pathway regulation. Conclusion Our study uncovers a protective role for MSCs and elucidates the underlying immunomodulatory mechanism in an NHB liver transplantation model. Our results suggest that MSCs are uniquely positioned for use in future clinical studies owing to their ability to protect DCD liver grafts, particularly in patients for whom DCD organs are not an option according to current criteria.

  3. Transplantation and tracking of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in a pig model of myocardial infarction: assessment of cell survival, engraftment, and distribution by hybrid single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of sodium iodide symporter transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Christian; Zweigerdt, Robert; Schwanke, Kristin; Olmer, Ruth; Ghadri, Jelena-Rima; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Müller, Ennio; Küest, Silke M; Cohrs, Susan; Schibli, Roger; Kronen, Peter; Hilbe, Monika; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk; Haverich, Axel; Hoerstrup, Simon; Lüscher, Thomas F; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Landmesser, Ulf; Martin, Ulrich

    2012-07-24

    Evaluation of novel cellular therapies in large-animal models and patients is currently hampered by the lack of imaging approaches that allow for long-term monitoring of viable transplanted cells. In this study, sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transgene imaging was evaluated as an approach to follow in vivo survival, engraftment, and distribution of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives in a pig model of myocardial infarction. Transgenic hiPSC lines stably expressing a fluorescent reporter and NIS (NIS(pos)-hiPSCs) were established. Iodide uptake, efflux, and viability of NIS(pos)-hiPSCs were assessed in vitro. Ten (±2) days after induction of myocardial infarction by transient occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, catheter-based intramyocardial injection of NIS(pos)-hiPSCs guided by 3-dimensional NOGA mapping was performed. Dual-isotope single photon emission computed tomographic/computed tomographic imaging was applied with the use of (123)I to follow donor cell survival and distribution and with the use of (99m)TC-tetrofosmin for perfusion imaging. In vitro, iodide uptake in NIS(pos)-hiPSCs was increased 100-fold above that of nontransgenic controls. In vivo, viable NIS(pos)-hiPSCs could be visualized for up to 15 weeks. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that hiPSC-derived endothelial cells contributed to vascularization. Up to 12 to 15 weeks after transplantation, no teratomas were detected. This study describes for the first time the feasibility of repeated long-term in vivo imaging of viability and tissue distribution of cellular grafts in large animals. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating vascular differentiation and long-term engraftment of hiPSCs in a large-animal model of myocardial infarction. NIS(pos)-hiPSCs represent a valuable tool to monitor and improve current cellular treatment strategies in clinically relevant animal models.

  4. A Comparison of Culture Characteristics between Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Dental Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul Hidayat; Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Azlina, Ahmad; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Hamid, Suzina Sheikh Abdul

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, the field of stem cell biology is of major interest among researchers due to its broad therapeutic potential. Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialised cell types. Stem cells can be classified into two main types: adult stem cells (adult tissues) and embryonic stem cells (embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development). This review will discuss two types of adult mesenchymal stem cells, dental stem cells and amniotic stem cells, with respect to their differentiation lineages, passage numbers and animal model studies. Amniotic stem cells have a greater number of differentiation lineages than dental stem cells. On the contrary, dental stem cells showed the highest number of passages compared to amniotic stem cells. For tissue regeneration based on animal studies, amniotic stem cells showed the shortest time to regenerate in comparison with dental stem cells.

  5. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  6. Tracking stem cells for cardiovascular applications in vivo: focus on imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingli; Azene, Nicole; Xu, Yi; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2011-08-01

    Despite rapid translation of stem cell therapy into clinical practice, the treatment of cardiovascular disease using embryonic stem cells, adult stem and progenitor cells or induced pluripotent stem cells has not yielded satisfactory results to date. Noninvasive stem cell imaging techniques could provide greater insight into not only the therapeutic benefit, but also the fundamental mechanisms underlying stem cell fate, migration, survival and engraftment in vivo. This information could also assist in the appropriate choice of stem cell type(s), delivery routes and dosing regimes in clinical cardiovascular stem cell trials. Multiple imaging modalities, such as MRI, PET, SPECT and CT, have emerged, offering the ability to localize, monitor and track stem cells in vivo. This article discusses stem cell labeling approaches and highlights the latest cardiac stem cell imaging techniques that may help clinicians, research scientists or other healthcare professionals select the best cellular therapeutics for cardiovascular disease management.

  7. More than Tiny Sacks: Stem Cell Exosomes as Cell-free Modality for Cardiac Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Raj; Khan, Mohsin

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy provides immense hope for regenerating the pathological heart yet has been marred by issues surrounding the effectiveness, unclear mechanisms and survival of the donated cell population in the ischemic myocardial milieu. Poor survival and engraftment coupled to inadequate cardiac commitment of the adoptively transferred stem cells compromises the improvement in cardiac function. Various alternative approaches to enhance the efficacy of stem cell therapies and to overcome issues with cell therapy have been employed with varied success. Cell free components such as exosomes enriched in proteins, mRNAs and miRs characteristic of parental stem cells represent a potential approach for treating cardiovascular diseases. Recently, exosomes from different kinds of stem cells have been effectively employed to promote cardiac function in the pathological heart. The aim of this review is to summarize current research efforts on stem cell exosomes including their potential benefits and limitations in order to develop a potentially viable therapy for cardiovascular problems. PMID:26838317

  8. Stem Cells for Cardiac Repair: Status, Mechanisms, and New Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Mingliang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the end stage of heart disease, the current treatments only slow worsening of heart failure. Stem cells have the potential of self-renewal and differentiation. It is expected to replace and repair damaged myocardium. But many clinical trials have shown that the stem cell therapy of heart failure is modest or not effective. The possible causes for the limited effects of stem cell in curing heart failure are the stem cells which have been transplanted into the ischemic heart muscle may suffer low survival rate, affected by inflammatory molecules, proapoptotic factor, and lack of nutrients and oxygen, and then the stem cells which home and have been completely transplanted to the site of myocardial infarction become very small. Therefore, through preconditioning of stem cells and appropriate choice of genes for mesenchymal stem cell modification to improve the survival rate of stem cells, ability in homing and promoting angiogenesis may become the newly effective strategies for the application of stem cells therapy in heart failure.

  9. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44......+ EOC stem cells in ovarian cancer tumors and progression-free survival. EOC stem cells exist as clusters located close to the stroma forming the cancer stem cell "niche". 17.1% of the samples reveled high number of CD44+ EOC stem cells (>20% positive cells). In addition, the number of CD44+ EOC stem...... cells was significantly higher in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (FIGO I/II), and it was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.026). This study suggests that quantification of the number of EOC stem cells in the tumor can be used as a predictor of disease and could...

  10. Thrombopoietin and hematopoietic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, Carolyn A; Metcalf, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the cytokine that is chiefly responsible for megakaryocyte production but increasingly attention has turned to its role in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs are required to initiate the production of all mature hematopoietic cells, but this differentiation needs to be balanced against self-renewal and quiescence to maintain the stem cell pool throughout life. TPO has been shown to support HSC quiescence during adult hematopoiesis, with the loss of TPO s...

  11. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  12. Matrix control of stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Ram, Sharona; Artym, Vira; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2006-08-25

    A key challenge in stem cell research is to learn how to direct the differentiation of stem cells toward specific fates. In this issue of Cell, Engler et al. (2006) identify a new factor regulating stem cell fate: the elasticity of the matrix microenvironment. By changing the stiffness of the substrate, human mesenchymal stem cells could be directed along neuronal, muscle, or bone lineages.

  13. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental stem cells--characteristics and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojic, Sanja; Volarevic, Vladislav; Ljujic, Biljana; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2014-06-01

    Soft dental tissues have been identified as easily accessible sources of multipotent postnatal stem cells. Dental stem cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) capable of differentiating into at least three distinct cell lineages: osteo/odontogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic. They express various markers including those specific for MSC, embryonic stem cells and neural cells. Five different types of dental stem cells have been isolated from mature and immature teeth: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle progenitor cells. Dental stem cells may be used in dental tissue engineering including dental, enamel and periodontal tissue regeneration. They could also be used as a promising tool in potential treatment of neurodegenerative, ischemic and immune diseases.

  15. Myocardial infarction and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ananda Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent loss of cardiomyocytes and scar tissue formation after myocardial infarction (MI results in an irreversible damage to the cardiac function. Cardiac repair (replacement, restoration, and regeneration is, therefore, essential to restore function of the heart following MI. Existing therapies lower early mortality rates, prevent additional damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of further heart attacks. However, there is need for treatment to improve the infarcted area by replacing the damaged cells after MI. Thus, the cardiac tissue regeneration with the application of stem cells may be an effective therapeutic option. Recently, interest is more inclined toward myocardial regeneration with the application of stem cells. However, the potential benefits and the ability to improve cardiac function with the stem cell-based therapy need to be further addressed. In this review, we focus on the clinical applications of stem cells in the cardiac repair.

  16. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Fujimaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  17. Characterization, isolation, and differentiation of murine skin cells expressing hematopoietic stem cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Simone; Schmidt, Uwe; Vaculik, Christine; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2006-10-01

    As the phenotype of adult dermal stem cells is still elusive, and the hematopoietic stem cell is one of the best-characterized stem cells in the body, we tested dermal cell suspensions, sections, and wholemounts in newborn and adult mice for hematopoietic stem cell marker expression. Phenotypic analysis revealed that a small population of CD45(+) cells and a large population of CD45(-) cells expressed CD34, CD117, and stem cell antigen-1 molecules. When cultivated in selected media supplemented with hematopoietic cytokines, total dermal cells, lineage(-), and/or highly enriched phenotypically defined cell subsets produced hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic colonies. When injected into lethally irradiated recipient mice, a small percentage of newborn dermal cells was able to migrate into hematopoietic tissues and the skin and survived through the 11-month monitoring period. Our ability to isolate a candidate autologous stem cell pool will make these cells ideal vehicles for genetic manipulation and gene therapy.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  19. Fetal stem-cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiblad, Eleonor; Westgren, Magnus

    2008-02-01

    Fetal stem-cell transplantation is an attractive approach to the treatment of a variety of hematological, metabolic and immunological diseases before birth. The possibility of delivering a large number of cells in an early stage of life, and of taking advantage of normal fetal stem-cell migration and development, is promising. During fetal life, the capacity to mount an immune response to allogeneic cells is impaired compared with adult life. This provides an opportunity to induce tolerance to alloantigens without the need for myeloablation, although there are possible immune barriers to foreign cells in the fetus.

  20. Neuroproteomics in stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Susanne; Mix, Eilhard; Hoffrogge, Raimund; Lünser, Katja; Völker, Uwe; Rolfs, Arndt

    2007-11-01

    The term "proteome" is used to describe the entire complement of proteins in a given organism or in a system at a given time. Proteome analysis in neuroscience, also called "neuroproteomics" or "neuromics" is in its initial stage, and shows a deficit of studies in the context of brain development. It is the main objective of this review to illustrate the potential of neuroproteomics as a tool to unravel the differentiation of neural stem or progenitor cells to terminally differentiated neurons. Experimental results regarding the rat striatal progenitor model cell line ST14A are presented to illustrate the large rearrangements of the proteome during the differentiation process of neural progenitor cells and their modification by neurotrophic factors like the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Thereby native stem cells and cells transfected with GDNF gene were investigated at the proliferative state and at seven time points up to 72 h after induction of differentiation. In addition, the immortalized human fetal midbrain stem cell line ReNcell VM was analyzed in order to detect stem cell differentiation associated changes of the protein profile. This review gives also an outlook on technical improvements and perspectives of application of neural stem cell proteomics. Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stem cell evolutionary paradigm and cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Z

    2017-09-01

    Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique". Similarly, the diversification of these single-cell eukaryotes and acquiring of complex life cycle allowed/conditioned by the increase of O2 in atmosphere (and consequently in the water environment) represents a prototype for the phenomenon of commitment/differentiation. This point of view allowed to predict the ex-vivo behavior of stem cells with respect to the O2 availability and metabolic profile which enabled to conceive the successful protocols of stem cell expansion and ex vivo conditioning based on "respecting" this relationship between the anaerobiosis and stemness. In this review, the basic elements of this paradigm and a possible application in cell engineering were discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belicchi, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Cancedda, R. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Cedola, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Gavina, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Komlev, V.S. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); Institute for Physical Chemistry of Ceramics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ozernaya 48, 119361 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Renghini, C. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Rustichelli, F., E-mail: f.rustichelli@univpm.i [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  3. Laminin α5 substrates promote survival, network formation and functional development of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyysalo, Anu; Ristola, Mervi; Mäkinen, Meeri E-L; Häyrynen, Sergei; Nykter, Matti; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    Laminins are one of the major protein groups in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and specific laminin isoforms are crucial for neuronal functions in the central nervous system in vivo. In the present study, we compared recombinant human laminin isoforms (LN211, LN332, LN411, LN511, and LN521) and laminin isoform fragment (LN511-E8) in in vitro cultures of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neurons. We showed that laminin substrates containing the α5-chain are important for neuronal attachment, viability and network formation, as detected by phase contrast imaging, viability staining, and immunocytochemistry. Gene expression analysis showed that the molecular mechanisms involved in the preference of hPSC-derived neurons for specific laminin isoforms could be related to ECM remodeling and cell adhesion. Importantly, the microelectrode array analysis revealed the widest distribution of electrophysiologically active neurons on laminin α5 substrates, indicating most efficient development of neuronal network functionality. This study shows that specific laminin α5 substrates provide a controlled in vitro culture environment for hPSC-derived neurons. These substrates can be utilized not only to enhance the production of functional hPSC-derived neurons for in vitro applications like disease modeling, toxicological studies, and drug discovery, but also for the production of clinical grade hPSC-derived cells for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Green tea EGCG enhances cardiac function restoration through expression of survival signaling in DM rats with autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Pan, Lung-Fa; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Liou, Jeffery; Padma, V Vijaya; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-05-25

    The present study tests a hypothesis that cardioprotective effects mediated by autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) in rats afflicted with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), may be synergistically enhanced by oral treatment with green tea epigallocatechin gallat (ECCG). Wistar rats were divided into sham, DM, DM+ADSC (autologous transplanted 1x106 cells/rat) and DM+ADSC+E (E, green tea oral administration EGCG). Heart tissues were isolated for all rats and investigations were performed after 2-months treatment. In the groups of sham, DM and DM+ADSC, we can find that DM induces cardiac-dysfunction (sham and DM) and autologous transplantation of ADSC can partially recover cardiac functions (DM and DM+ADSC) in DM rats. Compared to DM+ADSC, significant improvement in cardiac-functions can be observed in DM+ADSC+E in echocardiographic data, histological observations and even in cellular protein expression. Oral administration of green tea EGCG and autologous transplantation of ADSC show synergistically beneficial effects on diabetic cardiacmyopathy in DM rats. Copyright © 2016, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Imaging cardiac stem cell transplantation using radionuclide labeling techniques: clinical applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezaic, Luka; Haddad, François; Vrtovec, Bojan; Wu, Joseph C

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is emerging as a potential new therapy for patients with advanced heart failure. In recent years, advances in molecular imaging have allowed monitoring of stem cell homing and survival. In this review article, we will discuss the clinical application and future directions of stem cell imaging in advanced heart failure.

  6. Surviving the crash: T-cell homeostasis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOSHIBA

    Spatial and temporal elements. – Cellular sites for the integration of cell death and survival cues. – Spatial regulation of Notch activity for cell survival. Page 4. Cell survival is determined by the availability and uptake of nutrients live dead. Activated T-cells. T-cells. Page 5. dead wildtype. Bax active -6A7. Nucleus – H33342.

  7. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field.

  8. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  9. Dental Stem Cell in Tooth Development and Advances of Adult Dental Stem Cell in Regenerative Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jiali; Xu, Xin; Lin, Jiong; Fan, Li; Zheng, Yuting; Kuang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are considered as a promising treatment for many clinical usage such as tooth regeneration, bone repairation, spinal cord injury, and so on. However, the ideal stem cell for stem cell-based therapy still remains to be elucidated. In the past decades, several types of stem cells have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs) and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), which may be a good source for stem cell-based therapy in certain disease, especially when they origin from neural crest is considered. In this review, the specific characteristics and advantages of the adult dental stem cell population will be summarized and the molecular mechanisms of the differentiation of dental stem cell during tooth development will be also discussed.

  10. Children with relapsed or refractory nephroblastoma: favorable long-term survival after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illhardt, T; Ebinger, M; Schwarze, C P; Feuchtinger, T; Furtwängler, R; Schlegel, P G; Klingebiel, T; Greil, J; Beck, J F; Handgretinger, R; Lang, P

    2014-11-01

    High-dose chemotherapy (HDC) with autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) is a treatment option for pediatric patients with relapsed nephroblastoma. We present long term results of 9 patients treated between 1993 and 2013 at our center. Reinduction therapy was carried out according to GPOH and SIOP recommendations. The conditioning regimen consisted of carboplatin (1 200 mg/m²), etoposide (800 mg/m² or 40 mg/kg) and melphalan (180 mg/m²). Purging of the grafts with immunomagnetic CD34 positive selection was performed in 5 patients. 8 of 9 Patients (90%) are alive without evidence of disease after a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Leukocyte engraftment occurred after a median of 10 days (range 8-12). Median numbers of 667/µl CD3+, 329/µl CD4+, 369/µl CD8+T cells and 949/µl B cells were reached after 180 days. No negative impact of CD34 selection was observed. No transplantation-related death occurred. Acute toxicity comprised mucositis III°-IV° in all and veno-occlusive disease in one patient. Long term effects probably related to treatment occurred in 3/7 evaluable patients and comprised hearing impairment, reduced renal phosphate reabsorption, mild creatinine elevation and hypothyroidism (n=1, each). Thus, in our experience HDC with ASCR is an effective treatment of recurrent or refractory nephroblastoma with acceptable side effects. However, a randomized trial proving its efficiency with a high level of evidence is needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  12. Stem cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestein, Marjolijn

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and mesenchymal stromal (MSC) cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hematopoietic stem cells are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal

  13. International Society for Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell and Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology , included in Professional Resources. Online Now View All 16 November, 2017 Isolation and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Human Fetal and iPSC-Derived Cone Photoreceptor Cells 16 ...

  14. Stem cells: Concepts and prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Regenerative therapy for organ dysfunction is a rapidly growing domain and involves application of multiple enabling technologies incorporating stem cells, genes and growth factors that can acceler- ate the recovery of a failing organ through cell and tissue regeneration within the organ. Several strategies are currently ...

  15. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, M.M.; Meijer, C.; de Bock, G.H.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Groen, H.J.M.; Timens, W.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Hiltermann, T.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, and even with localized (limited) disease, the 5-year survival has only been around 20%. Elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with a worse prognosis, and markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and

  16. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of markers of cancer stem cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in small cell lung cancer is not known. We retrospectively studied these markers in the biopsy tissue of patients with small cell lung cancer and correlated them with overall survival and the strongest

  17. Human stem cell ethics: beyond the embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy

    2008-06-05

    Human embryonic stem cell research has elicited powerful debates about the morality of destroying human embryos. However, there are important ethical issues related to stem cell research that are unrelated to embryo destruction. These include particular issues involving different types of cells used, the procurement of such cells, in vivo use of stem cells, intellectual property, and conflicts of interest.

  18. Stem cells' exodus: a journey to immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-28

    Stem cell niches provide a regulatory microenvironment that retains stem cells and promotes self-renewal. Recently in Developmental Cell, Rinkevich et al. (2013) showed that cell islands (CIs) of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate, provide niches for maintaining cycling stem cells that migrate from degenerated CIs to newly formed buds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased survival of human free fat grafts with varying densities of human adipose-derived stem cells and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Li, Feng; Li, Jie; Wang, Hang; Zheng, Xiaohui; Long, Jie; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    The high absorption rate of transplanted fat has limited the application of autogenous fat grafts in the clinical setting. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on fat regeneration by investigating the impact of PRP and conditioned medium on the biological characteristics of ASCs. Fat grafts were prepared with ASCs at densities of 107 /ml, 106 /ml, 105 /ml, 104 /ml and 0/ml with and without PRP and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Liquid overflow method, haematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine the fat grafts. The residual fat volume of the 105 /ml ASC + PRP group was significantly higher than that of other treatment conditions after 90 days. Furthermore, histological examination revealed that in 105 /ml ASCs-treated grafts normal adipocyte area and capillary formation were increased dramatically compared with other treatment conditions. It is concluded that fat grafts consisting of PRP and 105 /ml ASCs constitute an ideal transplant strategy, which may result in decreased absorption and accelerated fat regeneration. This simple and reliable method could provide a valuable and needed tool in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  1. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  2. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells and the Ontogeny of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world today and is poised to claim approximately 1 billion lives during the 21st century. A major challenge in treating this and other cancers is the intrinsic resistance to conventional therapies demonstrated by the stem/progenitor cell that is responsible for the sustained growth, survival, and invasion of the tumor. Identifying these stem cells in lung cancer and defining the biologic processes necessary for their existence is paramou...

  4. Stem Cell Transplantation for Neuroprotection in Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar V. Borlongan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. However, the optimal conditions of stem cell use are still being determined. Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy.

  5. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Prospects and Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relapse and organ toxicity. Sadly, because of these limitations, sickle cell anaemia, which is ... In this, the Federal. Government should provide adequate funding. Keywords: Stem cell, Transplantation, Nigeria. ... 11 Stem Cell Sources. 1. Bone marrow stem cells: Marrow is usually obtained from the donor's posterior iliac.

  6. European stem cell research in legal shackles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.G.; de Vries, S.A.; Geijsen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brustle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent

  7. Emerging molecular approaches in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Amritha; Vrana, Kent

    2009-04-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple adult cell types. Although substantial progress has been made over the last decade in understanding stem cell biology, recent technological advances in molecular and systems biology may hold the key to unraveling the mystery behind stem cell self-renewal and plasticity. The most notable of these advances is the ability to generate induced pluripotent cells from somatic cells. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of molecular similarities and differences among various stem cell types. Moreover, we survey the current state of systems biology and forecast future needs and direction in the stem cell field.

  8. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  9. Improved survival of multiple myeloma patients with late relapse after high-dose treatment and stem cell support, a population-based study of 348 patients in Denmark in 1994-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias W; Andersen, Niels F

    2010-01-01

    To analyse if patients with early relapse after high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support (HDT) benefit from new treatment strategies in a population-based setting.......To analyse if patients with early relapse after high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support (HDT) benefit from new treatment strategies in a population-based setting....

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... free Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a ...

  14. Ethics and Governance of Stem Cell Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Donald; Rathjen, Peter; Rathjen, Joy; Nicol, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines the ethical principles and governance frameworks for stem cell banks. Good governance of stem cell banks should balance facilitation of the clinical use of stem cells with the proper respect and protection of stem cell sample providers and stem cell recipients and ensure compliance with national regulatory requirements to foster public trust in the use of stem cell technology. Stem cell banks must develop with regard to the science, the needs of scientists, and the requirements of the public, which will benefit from this science. Given the international reach of this promising research and its clinical application, it is necessary for stem cell bank governance frameworks to be harmonized across jurisdictions.

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... employee, Serena Marshall, as she takes you through her blood stem cell donation experience at the National ... 31,594 views 10:58 AML Survivor meets her German stem cell donor for the first time ...

  16. Molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell aging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, K. Lenhard

    2010-01-01

    "There is growing evidence that adult stem cells age. This process can result in alterations in the number and function of stem cells, leading to distinct phenotypic outcomes in different organ systems...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ...

  19. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... see the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  20. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it free Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  3. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozkan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative therapy for primary immunodeficiency diseases. Early diagnosis, including prenatally, and early transplantation improve HSCT outcomes. Survival rates improve with advances in the methods of preparing hosts and donor cells, and in supportive and conditioning regimes.

  4. Therapeutic Application of Pluripotent Stem Cells: Challenges and Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Martin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem-cell-based therapies are considered to be promising and innovative but complex approaches. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs combine the advantages of adult stem cells with the hitherto unique characteristics of embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Major progress has already been achieved with regard to reprogramming technology, but also regarding targeted genome editing and scalable expansion and differentiation of iPSCs and ESCs, in some cases yielding highly enriched preparations of well-defined cell lineages at clinically required dimensions. It is noteworthy, however, that for many applications critical requirements such as the targeted specification into distinct cellular subpopulations and a proper cell maturation remain to be achieved. Moreover, current hurdles such as low survival rates and insufficient functional integration of cellular transplants remain to be overcome. Nevertheless, PSC technologies obviously have come of age and matured to a stage where various clinical applications of PSC-based cellular therapies have been initiated and are conducted.

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, WA|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413648613; Türktas, Z; Duckers, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Until recently bone marrow was perceived to be the only significant reservoir of stem cells in the body. However, it is now recognized that there are other and perhaps even more abundant sources, which include adipose tissue. Subcutaneous fat is readily available in most patients, and can easily be

  6. Dental Tissue — New Source for Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Vladimir; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have been isolated from many tissues and organs, including dental tissue. Five types of dental stem cells have been established: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, periodontal ligament stem cells, and dental follicle progenitor cells. The main characteristics of dental stem cells are their potential for multilineage differentiation and self-renewal capacity. Dental stem cells can differentiate into odontoblasts, adipo...

  7. Culture of Mouse Neural Stem Cell Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Currle, D. Spencer; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kolski-Andreaco, Aaron; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2007-01-01

    Primary neural stem cell cultures are useful for studying the mechanisms underlying central nervous system development. Stem cell research will increase our understanding of the nervous system and may allow us to develop treatments for currently incurable brain diseases and injuries. In addition, stem cells should be used for stem cell research aimed at the detailed study of mechanisms of neural differentiation and transdifferentiation and the genetic and environmental signals that direct the...

  8. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  9. Road for understanding cancer stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Erzik, Can

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that stem cells are susceptive to carcinogenesis and, consequently, can be the origin of many cancers. Recently, the neoplastic potential of stem cells has been supported by many groups showing the existence of subpopulations with stem cell characteristics ......, help us both in the identification and characterization of cancer stem cells and in the further development of therapeutic strategies including tissue engineering...

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells promote liver regeneration and prolong survival in small-for-size liver grafts: involvement of C-Jun N-terminal kinase, cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been highlighted recently for treatment of acute or chronic liver injury, by possibly differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells, reducing inflammation, and enhancing tissue repair. Despite recent progress, exact mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we attempted to explore whether and how MSCs protected hepatocytes and stimulated allograft regeneration in small-for-size liver transplantation (SFSLT. METHODS: SFSLT model was established with a 30% partial liver transplantation (30PLT in rats. The differentiation potential and characteristics of bone marrow derived MSCs were explored in vitro. MSCs were infused transvenously immediately after graft implantation in therapy group. Expressions of apoptosis-, inflammatory-, anti-inflammatory-, and growth factor-related genes were measured by RT-PCR, activities of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB were analyzed by EMSA, and proliferative responses of the hepatic graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: MSCs were successfully induced into hepatocyte-like cells, osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. MSCs therapy could not only alleviate ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation to promote liver regeneration, but also profoundly improve one week survival rate. It markedly up-regulated the mRNA expressions of HGF, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, and CXCR2, however, down-regulated TNF-α. Increased activities of AP-1 and NF-κB, as well as elevated expressions of p-c-Jun, cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, were also found in MSCs therapy group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that MSCs therapy promotes hepatocyte proliferation and prolongs survival in SFSLT by reducing ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation, and sustaining early increased expressions of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, Cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

  11. Pluripotent Stem Cells for Schwann Cell Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    Tissue engineering of Schwann cells (SCs) can serve a number of purposes, such as in vitro SC-related disease modeling, treatment of peripheral nerve diseases or peripheral nerve injury, and, potentially, treatment of CNS diseases. SCs can be generated from autologous stem cells in vitro by

  12. Stem/Progenitor cells in vascular regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-06-01

    A series of studies has been presented in the search for proof of circulating and resident vascular progenitor cells, which can differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells and pericytes in animal and human studies. In terms of pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, iPS, and partial-iPS cells, they display a great potential for vascular lineage differentiation. Development of stem cell therapy for treatment of vascular and ischemic diseases remains a major challenging research field. At the present, there is a clear expansion of research into mechanisms of stem cell differentiation into vascular lineages that are tested in animal models. Although there are several clinical trials ongoing that primarily focus on determining the benefits of stem cell transplantation in ischemic heart or peripheral ischemic tissues, intensive investigation for translational aspects of stem cell therapy would be needed. It is a hope that stem cell therapy for vascular diseases could be developed for clinic application in the future.

  13. Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Xu; Jia Luo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and ...

  14. The immune response of stem cells in subretinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Bikun; Huang, Bing

    2015-09-14

    Stem cell transplantation is a potential curative treatment for degenerative diseases of the retina. Among cell injection sites, the subretinal space (SRS) is particularly advantageous as it is maintained as an immune privileged site by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. Thus, the success of subretinal transplantation depends on maintenance of RPE integrity. Moreover, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have negligible immunogenicity and in fact are immunosuppressive. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive drugs are not necessary for subretinal transplantation of stem cells if the blood-retinal barrier is not breached during surgery. The immunogenicity of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) appears more complex, and requires careful study before clinical application. Despite low rates of graft rejection in animal models, survival rates for ESCs, MSCs, and iPSCs in retina are generally poor, possibly due to resident microglia activated by cell transplantation. To improve graft survival in SRS transplantation, damage to the blood-retinal barrier must be minimized using appropriate surgical techniques. In addition, agents that inhibit microglial activation may be required. Finally, immunosuppressants may be required, at least temporarily, until the blood-retinal barrier heals. We review surgical methods and drug regimens to enhance the likelihood of graft survival after SRS transplantation.

  15. College Students' Conceptions of Stem Cells, Stem Cell Research, and Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…

  16. Nine Things to Know About Stem Cell Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Toggle Nav Nine Things To Know About Stem Cell Treatments Home > Stem Cells and Medicine > Nine Things ... Know About Stem Cell Treatments Many clinics offering stem cell treatments make claims that are not supported by ...

  17. Retinal stem cells and potential cell transplantation treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chi Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The retina, histologically composed of ten delicate layers, is responsible for light perception and relaying electrochemical signals to the secondary neurons and visual cortex. Retinal disease is one of the leading clinical causes of severe vision loss, including age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt's disease, and retinitis pigmentosa. As a result of the discovery of various somatic stem cells, advances in exploring the identities of embryonic stem cells, and the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, cell transplantation treatment for retinal diseases is currently attracting much attention. The sources of stem cells for retinal regeneration include endogenous retinal stem cells (e.g., neuronal stem cells, Müller cells, and retinal stem cells from the ciliary marginal zone and exogenous stem cells (e.g., bone mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. The success of cell transplantation treatment depends mainly on the cell source, the timing of cell harvesting, the protocol of cell induction/transplantation, and the microenvironment of the recipient's retina. This review summarizes the different sources of stem cells for regeneration treatment in retinal diseases and surveys the more recent achievements in animal studies and clinical trials. Future directions and challenges in stem cell transplantation are also discussed.

  18. Setting FIRES to Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Grietz

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this lesson is to present the basic scientific knowledge about stem cells, the promise of stem cell research to medicine, and the ethical considerations and arguments involved. One of the challenges of discussing stem cell research is that the field is constantly evolving and the most current information changes almost daily. Few…

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... 3:22 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ... 11:58 Stem Cell Transplant Procedure | Stem Cell Treatment | Bone Marrow Transplant - ...

  20. Brain tumor stem cell dancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Bozzuto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Issues regarding cancer stem cell (CSC movement are important in neurosphere biology as cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may have significant impacts on CSC differentiation and contribute to the heterogeneity of the neurosphere. Aims. Despite the growing body of literature data on the biology of brain tumor stem cells, floating CSC-derived neurospheres have been scarcely characterized from a morphological and ultrastructural point of view. Results. Here we report a morphological and ultrastructural characterization performed by live imaging and scanning electron microscopy. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM CSC-derived neurospheres are heterogeneous and are constituted by cells, morphologically different, capable of forming highly dynamic structures. These dynamic structures are regulated by not serendipitous cell-cell interactions, and they synchronously pulsate following a cyclic course made of "fast" and "slow" alternate phases. Autocrine/paracrine non canonical Wnt signalling appears to be correlated with the association status of neurospheres. Conclusions. The results obtained suggest that GBM CSCs can behave both as independents cells and as "social" cells, highly interactive with other members of its species, giving rise to a sort of "multicellular organism".

  1. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  2. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  3. Stimulation of hematopoiesis in vivo by stem cell factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R G; Briddell, R A; Appelbaum, F R; McNiece, I K

    1994-05-01

    The ligand for c-kit, known as stem cell factor, mast cell growth factor, or kit ligand, plays a central role in normal hematopoietic stem cell, melanocyte, and gametocyte development and function during embryogenesis and in adult life. In vitro, stem cell factor promotes the survival of hematopoietic progenitors and enhances their proliferation in response to specific growth factors. Administration of recombinant soluble stem cell factor to rodents, dogs, and baboons produces a broad array of effects on hematopoiesis, though not all lineages are equally stimulated. At doses of more than 100 micrograms/kg/d stem cell factor stimulates neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, basophilia, and reticulocytosis and increases mast cells in multiple tissues. In vivo mast cell activation can occur. Marrow cellularity is increased and progenitor cells are increased in marrow, spleen, and blood, and marrow-repopulating cells are increased in the circulation of stem cell factor-treated animals. Stem cell factor synergizes with other hematopoietic growth factors in vivo. Low-dose stem cell factor, 25 micrograms/kg/d, that does not elicit a detectable biological response, enhances the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in vivo, increasing the neutrophilia and circulation of progenitor and marrow-repopulating cells above that which is achieved with either factor alone. In phase I human trials, dose-limiting toxicities, related to mast cell activation, were reached at 25 to 50 micrograms/kg/d of recombinant human stem cell factor. At these doses, progenitor and long-term culture-initiating cells are increased in marrow and increases in circulating levels of progenitor cells of multiple types are observed. Phase I-II trials of low-dose stem cell factor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor show that the combination increases the circulation of CD34+ cells and colony-forming progenitor cells. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic role of stem

  4. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  5. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  6. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Thalassemia and Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarelli, Guido; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid

    2012-01-01

    The globally widespread single-gene disorders β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA) can only be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). HSCT treatment of thalassemia has substantially improved over the last two decades, with advancements in preventive strategies, control of transplant-related complications, and preparative regimens. A risk class–based transplantation approach results in disease-free survival probabilities of 90%, 84%, and 78% for class 1, 2, and 3 thalassemia patients, respectively. Because of disease advancement, adult thalassemia patients have a higher risk for transplant-related toxicity and a 65% cure rate. Patients without matched donors could benefit from haploidentical mother-to-child transplantation. There is a high cure rate for children with SCA who receive HSCT following myeloablative conditioning protocols. Novel non-myeloablative transplantation protocols could make HSCT available to adult SCA patients who were previously excluded from allogeneic stem cell transplantation. PMID:22553502

  7. Thrombopoietin and hematopoietic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Carolyn A

    2011-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the cytokine that is chiefly responsible for megakaryocyte production but increasingly attention has turned to its role in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs are required to initiate the production of all mature hematopoietic cells, but this differentiation needs to be balanced against self-renewal and quiescence to maintain the stem cell pool throughout life. TPO has been shown to support HSC quiescence during adult hematopoiesis, with the loss of TPO signaling associated with bone marrow failure and thrombocytopenia. Recent studies have shown that constitutive activation mutations in Mpl contribute to myeloproliferative disease. In this review, we will discuss TPO signaling pathways, regulation of TPO levels and the role of TPO in normal hematopoiesis and during myeloproliferative disease. PMID:21478671

  8. Ovarian Carcinoma Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    b- myb , is also highly expressed in both FNAR cells (3.33-fold) and human 1 ovarian carcinoma [37]. 2 High levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a...AW916991 3.56 Thioredoxin AW140607 3.07 Stathmin BF281472 3.23 b- myb RGIAC37 3.33 Gene Expression Profiling of FNAR Cells 8 9 10 25 1 2 3 4

  9. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Kiani; Mohammad Reza Rasti Sani

    2014-01-01

    There is great interest worldwide in discovering and developing a permanent source of tissues which would be capable of generating any cell type and which would avoid the problem of transplant rejection. Stem cells are cells that can specialize into the many different cells found in the human body. The ethical objections concerning stem cells have focused primarily on their source. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research offers great promise of cures for otherwise incurable conditions: s...

  10. Polymer microarray technology for stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Robert; Jia, Jia; Mei, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in developing soluble factors (e.g., small molecules and growth factors) to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activity has limited the realization of the enormous potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to a large number of materials properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties of materials) that can affect stem cell fate. This makes it challenging to design biomaterials to direct stem cell behavior. To address this, polymer microarray technology has been developed to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. In this article, we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in tissue engineering and disease modeling. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing chemically defined media to direct stem cells into a desired phenotype. However, the current lack of the suitable synthetic materials to regulate stem cell activities has been limiting the realization of the potential of stem cells. This can be attributed to the number of variables in material properties (e.g., chemical structures and physical properties) that can affect stem cells. Polymer microarray technology has shown to be a powerful tool to rapidly identify materials for a variety of stem cell applications. Here we summarize recent developments in polymer array technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Klotho, stem cells, and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ao Bian,1,2 Javier A Neyra,3 Ming Zhan,4 Ming Chang Hu1,3 1Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Department of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 4Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders. Keywords: aging, cell senescence, klotho, stem cells, Wnt  

  12. Stem Cell Therapy for Congestive Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz E

    2011-01-01

    engraft in sufficient numbers to differentiate to the cardiac myocytes and restore functionality in these akinetic areas. Hematopoietic stem cells consist can differentiate to skeletal and myocardial cells when cultured under appropriate conditions [4]. Strauer et al [5] reported that intracoronary bone marrow stem cell therapy improves ventricular performance, quality of life and survival in patients with chronic heart failure. Hamano et al [6] showed in 5 patients that autologous bone marrow cells can be injected safely during a by-pass operation into areas of ischemic myocardium. Brehm et al [7] have treated 23 patients with acute cardiac infarction using autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells. Ozbaran et al [8] transplanted peripheral blood stem cells into areas of injury with open-heart surgery in six patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. There are also meta-analysis on ongoing clinical trials performed. Abdel-Latif et al [9] described a statistically significant improvement in ejection fraction, reduction in infarct size and left ventricular end-systolic volume in 18 patients treated with either unseparated bone marrow cells, bone marrow mesenchymal and mobilized peripheral blood cells. Martin-Rendon et al ­­ focused on 13 randomized studies encompassing 811 participants on bone marrow therapy for post acute infarction. Improvement in LVEF, decrease in left ventricular and systolic and end diastolic volumes and infarct size were observed. The reason for choice of intravenous route was being the standard way of giving hematopoietic stem cells by hematologists. We tried to decide the availibility of this route for indications other than hematological diseases. Although trapping of stem cells in the pulmonary vascular bed is a drawback of intravenous route and the question of whether the patient would have been more benefited by intracoronary or intramyocardial route remains unanswered, we think intravenous route may still have some role according to our own

  13. Magnetic cryopreservation for dental pulp stem cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Guo-Wei; Shiung, Jau-Nan; Huang, Yen-Hua; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Yang, Jen-Chang; Yang, Wei-Chung Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic cryopreservation has been successfully used for tooth banking with satisfactory implantation outcomes, suggesting that the method preserves human periodontal ligament cells and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs...

  14. Stem-cell therapy for neurologic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of research on stem cell therapy for various diseases, an important need was felt in the field of neurological diseases. While congenital lesion may not be amenable to stem cell therapy completely, there is a scope of partial improvement in the lesions and halt in further progression. Neuro degenerative lesions like Parkinson′s disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have shown improvement with stem cell therapy. This article reviews the available literature and summarizes the current evidence in the various neurologic diseases amenable to stem cell therapy, the plausible mechanism of action, ethical concerns with insights into the future of stem cell therapy.

  15. Gametogenesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Mitinori; Miyauchi, Hidetaka

    2016-06-02

    The germ cell lineage originates early in development and undergoes a series of complex developmental processes that culminate in the generation of fully matured gametes, the spermatozoa and the oocytes. Remarkably, researchers have been recapitulating these developmental pathways using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). With further studies, including those involving non-human primate models, human gametogenesis may be fully reconstituted from PSCs, which would profoundly facilitate our understanding of human germ cell development and infertility. Here we discuss groundbreaking studies that lay the foundation for this achievement, the current state of the field, and challenges for deriving gametes from hPSCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive proteomic characterization of stem cell-derived extracellular matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Naba, Alexandra; Larson, Benjamin L; Zhou, Fangheng; Prijić, Miralem; Whittaker, Charles A; Del Rosario, Amanda; Langer, Robert; Hynes, Richard O; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-06-01

    In the stem-cell niche, the extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a structural support that additionally provides stem cells with signals that contribute to the regulation of stem-cell function, via reciprocal interactions between cells and components of the ECM. Recently, cell-derived ECMs have emerged as in vitro cell culture substrates to better recapitulate the native stem-cell microenvironment outside the body. Significant changes in cell number, morphology and function have been observed when mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were cultured on ECM substrates as compared to standard tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS). As select ECM components are known to regulate specific stem-cell functions, a robust characterization of cell-derived ECM proteomic composition is critical to better comprehend the role of the ECM in directing cellular processes. Here, we characterized and compared the protein composition of ECM produced in vitro by bone marrow-derived MSC, adipose-derived MSC and neonatal fibroblasts from different donors, employing quantitative proteomic methods. Each cell-derived ECM displayed a specific and unique matrisome signature, yet they all shared a common set of proteins. We evaluated the biological response of cells cultured on the different matrices and compared them to cells on standard TCPS. The matrices lead to differential survival and gene-expression profiles among the cell types and as compared to TCPS, indicating that the cell-derived ECMs influence each cell type in a different manner. This general approach to understanding the protein composition of different tissue-specific and cell-derived ECM will inform the rational design of defined systems and biomaterials that recapitulate critical ECM signals for stem-cell culture and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for future histocompatible stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan; Barington, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell therapy based on the safe and unlimited self-renewal of human pluripotent stem cells is envisioned for future use in tissue or organ replacement after injury or disease. A gradual decline of regenerative capacity has been documented among the adult stem cell population in some body organs...... a developmental lineage, would facilitate the transplantation of organ/tissue-specific adult stem cells or terminally differentiated somatic cells to improve the function of diseased organs or tissues in an individual. Here, we present an overview of various experimental cell therapy technologies based on the use...... during the aging process. Recent progress in human somatic cell nuclear transfer and inducible pluripotent stem cell technologies has shown that patient-derived nuclei or somatic cells can be reprogrammed in vitro to become pluripotent stem cells, from which the three germ layer lineages can be generated...

  18. Stem cells and repair of lung injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randell Scott H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fueled by the promise of regenerative medicine, currently there is unprecedented interest in stem cells. Furthermore, there have been revolutionary, but somewhat controversial, advances in our understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells likely play key roles in the repair of diverse lung injuries. However, due to very low rates of cellular proliferation in vivo in the normal steady state, cellular and architectural complexity of the respiratory tract, and the lack of an intensive research effort, lung stem cells remain poorly understood compared to those in other major organ systems. In the present review, we concisely explore the conceptual framework of stem cell biology and recent advances pertinent to the lungs. We illustrate lung diseases in which manipulation of stem cells may be physiologically significant and highlight the challenges facing stem cell-related therapy in the lung.

  19. Stem cell facelift: between reality and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Saad, Dibo A

    2013-03-01

    Stem cells are "big business" throughout medical technology, and their potential application in cosmetic procedures is no exception. One of the latest nonsurgical facial treatments (and new catchphrases) in plastic surgery is the "stem cell facelift." It is evident from the currently available scientific literature that the use of stem cell therapy for facial rejuvenation is limited to the theoretical induction of skin tightening and can in no way be equated to a facelift. In fact, what is advertised and promoted as a new and original technique of stem cell facelifting is mostly stem cell-enriched lipofilling. Despite encouraging data suggesting that adult stem cells hold promise for future applications, the data from clinical evidence available today do not substantiate the marketing and promotional claims being made to patients. To claim that the "stem cell facelift" is a complete facial rejuvenation procedure surgery is unethical.

  20. Stem Cells, Science, and Public Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, J. Benjamin; Robert, Jason Scott

    2012-01-01

    These are interesting days in the scientific, social, and political debates about human embryonic stem cell research. Pluripotent stem cells--cells that can, in principle, give rise to the body's full range of cell types--were previously derivable only from human embryos that were destroyed in the process. Now, a variety of somatic cell types can…

  1. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    , deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis.......After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related...

  2. Stem cells in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Russell N; Cameron, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Patients with acute liver failure are a particularly challenging group, with unique difficulties faced in treatment decisions. Life-saving therapy is available, but organ shortage, delays in transplantation, and complications in management result in a high mortality in this group of patients even after transplant. Any pharmacologic intervention that improved outcomes in this population of critically ill patients would be of great benefit. Based on available evidence, different scenarios of participation of HSCs in liver recovery are conceivable. Encouraging HSCs to differentiate into hepatocytes or supply paracrine and cellular level support to accelerate ongoing local repair mechanisms and assist a failing liver with inadequate mass and functional capacity might be directed to occur effectively in humans. Evidence within small animal models of liver injury and observations within the human population suggest that this might also be encouraged. The use of pharmacologic agents to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells is well established and effectively used in a different population of patients. As such, extending the use of these drugs, such as plerixafor, to the human population has a sound basis. However, there is a need for clarification of the mechanisms by which these cells exert their effect as well as which specific population of cells is involved in the regenerative process. To be clinically relevant in scenarios of acute liver failure, stem cell mobilizing strategies would have to impact survival when administered well after injury. Applications in other settings may also prove useful. Limits to liver resection exist where the size of the future liver remnant governs the extent of resection possible. Preexisting functional impairment may be restrictive, and strategies involving stem cells may assist the future liver remnant in both normal and functionally impaired livers. Benefit has already been reported from treatment with G-CSF in other injured tissues

  3. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but...

  4. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    dominant role over some oncogene function.In addition, we recently reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs)- stem cell like cells in tumors that have stem ... cell properties and tumor initiating ability- retain epigenetic memories of their cells of origin (Chow et al., 2014). We showed that CSCs derived from

  5. Redox regulation of plant stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jian; Dong, Zhicheng; Wu, Haijun; Tian, Zhaoxia; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-10-02

    Despite the importance of stem cells in plant and animal development, the common mechanisms of stem cell maintenance in both systems have remained elusive. Recently, the importance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in priming stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied in animals. Here, we show that different forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have antagonistic roles in plant stem cell regulation, which were established by distinct spatiotemporal patterns of ROS-metabolizing enzymes. The superoxide anion (O2·-) is markedly enriched in stem cells to activate WUSCHEL and maintain stemness, whereas H2O2 is more abundant in the differentiating peripheral zone to promote stem cell differentiation. Moreover, H2O2 negatively regulates O2·- biosynthesis in stem cells, and increasing H2O2 levels or scavenging O2·- leads to the termination of stem cells. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for ROS-mediated control of plant stem cell fate and demonstrate that the balance between O2·- and H2O2 is key to stem cell maintenance and differentiation. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. Autophagy Supports Breast Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance by Regulating IL6 Secretion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maycotte, Paola; Jones, Kenneth L; Goodall, Megan L; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Thorburn, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... The autophagy is thought to be a critical process for cancer stem cell (CSC) or tumor-initiating cell maintenance but the mechanisms by which autophagy supports survival of CSCs remain poorly understood...

  7. Therapeutic potential of adult stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol

    2006-01-01

    cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...... is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...

  8. Therapeutic application of multipotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sichani, Laleh Shiri

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy is an emerging fields in the treatment of various diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and neoplastic diseases. Stem cells are an integral tool for cell therapy. Multipotent stem cells are an important class of stem cells which have the ability to self-renew through...... been showed that multipotent stem cells exert their therapeutic effects via inhibition/activation of a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways. Although the advantages of multipotent stem cells are numerous, further investigation is still necessary to clarify the biology and safety of these cells...... before they could be considered as a potential treatment for different types of diseases. This review summarizes different features of multipotent stem cells including isolation, differentiation, and therapeutic applications....

  9. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  10. Mechanotransduction in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Zhang, Yueling; Ye, Rui; Zheng, Yingcheng; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Juan

    2013-09-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which arose about a decade ago, proposes that tumor growth is sustained by a subpopulation of highly malignant cells. These cells, termed CSCs, are capable of extensive self-renewal that contributes to metastasis and treatment resistance. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target CSCs should be developed for improving outcomes of cancer patients. Recent progress has highlighted the importance of physical properties of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction pathway in cancer cells during cancer development. On the other hand, the significance of CXCR1, an upstream signal of FAK/PI3K/Akt has been revealed in CSCs. FAK/PI3K/Akt is a key signal mediator in mechanotransduction pathway. Therefore, mechanotransduction could be a new target for CSCs, and would be an innovative way to treat cancer by inhibiting FAK/PI3K/Akt. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Stepwise development of hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The cellular ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs remains poorly understood because their isolation from and their identification in early developing small embryos are difficult. We attempted to dissect early developmental stages of HSCs using an in vitro mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation system combined with inducible HOXB4 expression. Here we report the identification of pre-HSCs and an embryonic type of HSCs (embryonic HSCs as intermediate cells between ESCs and HSCs. Both pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs were isolated by their c-Kit(+CD41(+CD45(- phenotype. Pre-HSCs did not engraft in irradiated adult mice. After co-culture with OP9 stromal cells and conditional expression of HOXB4, pre-HSCs gave rise to embryonic HSCs capable of engraftment and long-term reconstitution in irradiated adult mice. Blast colony assays revealed that most hemangioblast activity was detected apart from the pre-HSC population, implying the early divergence of pre-HSCs from hemangioblasts. Gene expression profiling suggests that a particular set of transcripts closely associated with adult HSCs is involved in the transition of pre-HSC to embryonic HSCs. We propose an HSC developmental model in which pre-HSCs and embryonic HSCs sequentially give rise to adult types of HSCs in a stepwise manner.

  12. Therapeutic potential of dental stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalisserry, Elna Paul; Nam, Seung Yun; Park, Sang Hyug; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities. The dental stem cells represent a gold standard for neural-crest-derived bone reconstruction in humans and can be used for the repair of body defects in low-risk autologous therapeutic strategies. The bioengineering technologies developed for tooth regeneration will make substantial contributions to understand the developmental process and will encourage future organ replacement by regenerative therapies in a wide variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and heart. The concept of developing tooth banking and preservation of dental stem cells is promising. Further research in the area has the potential to herald a new dawn in effective treatment of notoriously difficult diseases which could prove highly beneficial to mankind in the long run. PMID:28616151

  13. Therapeutic potential of dental stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalisserry, Elna Paul; Nam, Seung Yun; Park, Sang Hyug; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell biology has become an important field in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering therapy since the discovery and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells. Stem cell populations have also been isolated from human dental tissues, including dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth, stem cells from apical papilla, dental follicle progenitor cells, and periodontal ligament stem cells. Dental stem cells are relatively easily obtainable and exhibit high plasticity and multipotential capabilities. The dental stem cells represent a gold standard for neural-crest-derived bone reconstruction in humans and can be used for the repair of body defects in low-risk autologous therapeutic strategies. The bioengineering technologies developed for tooth regeneration will make substantial contributions to understand the developmental process and will encourage future organ replacement by regenerative therapies in a wide variety of organs such as the liver, kidney, and heart. The concept of developing tooth banking and preservation of dental stem cells is promising. Further research in the area has the potential to herald a new dawn in effective treatment of notoriously difficult diseases which could prove highly beneficial to mankind in the long run.

  14. Engineering Stem Cells for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Perry T.; Han, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by a number of useful properties, including their ability to migrate, differentiate, and secrete a variety of therapeutic molecules such as immunomodulatory factors. As such, numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have utilized stem cell-based therapies and demonstrated their tremendous potential for the treatment of various human diseases and disorders. Recently, efforts have focused on engineering stem cells in order to further enhance their innate abilities as well as to confer them with new functionalities, which can then be used in various biomedical applications. These engineered stem cells can take on a number of forms. For instance, engineered stem cells encompass the genetic modification of stem cells as well as the use of stem cells for gene delivery, nanoparticle loading and delivery, and even small molecule drug delivery. The present Review gives an in-depth account of the current status of engineered stem cells, including potential cell sources, the most common methods used to engineer stem cells, and the utilization of engineered stem cells in various biomedical applications, with a particular focus on tissue regeneration, the treatment of immunodeficiency diseases, and cancer. PMID:25772134

  15. Proteasome expression and activity in cancer and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2017-03-01

    Proteasome is a multi-protein organelle that participates in cellular proteostasis by destroying damaged or short-lived proteins in an organized manner guided by the ubiquitination signal. By being in a central place in the cellular protein complement homeostasis, proteasome is involved in virtually all cell processes including decisions on cell survival or death, cell cycle, and differentiation. These processes are important also in cancer, and thus, the proteasome is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Cancers include a variety of cells which, according to the cancer stem cell theory, descend from a small percentage of cancer stem cells, alternatively termed tumor-initiating cells. These cells constitute the subsets that have the ability to propagate the whole variety of cancer and repopulate tumors after cytostatic therapies. Proteasome plays a role in cellular processes in cancer stem cells, but it has been found to have a decreased function in them compared to the rest of cancer cells. This article will discuss the transcriptional regulation of proteasome sub-unit proteins in cancer and in particular cancer stem cells and the relationship of the proteasome with the pluripotency that is the defining characteristic of stem cells. Therapeutic opportunities that present from the understanding of the proteasome role will also be discussed.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity rely on rare populations of somatic stem cells endowed with the potential to self-renew and differentiate. During aging, many tissues show a decline in regenerative potential coupled with a loss of stem cell function. Cells including somatic stem cells have evolved a series of checks and balances to sense and repair cellular damage to maximize tissue function. However, during aging the mechanisms that protect normal cell function begin to fail. In this review, we will discuss how common cellular mechanisms that maintain tissue fidelity and organismal lifespan impact somatic stem cell function. We will highlight context-dependent changes and commonalities that define aging, by focusing on three age-sensitive stem cell compartments: blood, neural, and muscle. Understanding the interaction between extrinsic regulators and intrinsic effectors that operate within different stem cell compartments is likely to have important implications for identifying strategies to improve health span and treat age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24439814

  17. Stem cell therapy to treat heart ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Qayyum, Abbas; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2014-01-01

    (CABG), morbidity and mortality is still high in patients with CAD. Along with PCI and CABG or in patients without options for revascularization, stem cell regenerative therapy in controlled trials is a possibility. Stem cells are believed to exert their actions by angiogenesis and regeneration...... of cardiomyocytes. Recently published clinical trials and meta-analysis of stem cell studies have shown encouraging results with increased left ventricle ejection fraction and reduced symptoms in patients with CAD and heart failure. There is some evidence of mesenchymal stem cell being more effective compared...... to other cell types and cell therapy may be more effective in patients with known diabetes mellitus. However, further investigations are warranted....

  18. Advances in Stem Cell Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Rusudan K.; DiPersio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Use of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)–mobilized peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) has largely replaced bone marrow (BM) as a source of stem cells for both autologous and allogeneic cell transplantation. With G-CSF alone, up to 35% of patients are unable to mobilize sufficient numbers of CD34 cells/kg to ensure successful and consistent multi-lineage engraftment and sustained hematopoietic recovery. To this end, research is ongoing to identify new agents or combinations which will lead to the most effective and efficient stem cell mobilization strategies, especially in those patients who are at risk for mobilization failure. We describe both established agents and novel strategies at various stages of development. The latter include but are not limited to drugs that target the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, S1P agonists, VCAM/VLA-4 inhibitors, parathyroid hormone, proteosome inhibitors, Groβ, and agents that stabilize HIF. While none of the novel agents have yet gained an established role in HPC mobilization in clinical practice, many early studies exploring these new pathways show promising results and warrant further investigation. PMID:24476957

  19. Cytokines regulating hematopoietic stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng C; Lodish, Harvey F

    2008-07-01

    Regulation of the multiple fates of hematopoietic stem cells - including quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation, apoptosis, and mobilization from the niche - requires the cooperative actions of several cytokines and other hormones that bind to receptors on these cells. In this review we discuss recent advances in the identification of novel hematopoietic stem cell supportive cytokines and the mechanisms by which they control hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions. Several extrinsic factors that stimulate ex-vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells were recently identified by a number of experimental approaches, including forward genetic screening and transcriptional profiling of supportive stromal cells. Recent experiments in which multiple cytokine signaling pathways are activated or suppressed in hematopoietic stem cells reveal the complexity of signal transduction and cell-fate choice in hematopoietic stem cells in vivo and in vitro. The study of genetically modified mice and improvements in the in-vitro hematopoietic stem cell culture system will be powerful tools to elucidate the functions of cytokines that regulate hematopoietic stem cell function. These will further reveal the complex nature of the mechanisms by which extrinsic factors regulate signal transduction and cell-fate decisions of hematopoietic stem cells.

  20. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  1. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  2. Programming Retinal Stem Cells into Cone Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    to program human stem cells directly into cones. Using RNA -seq, we identified several genes that are upregulated in advance of the earliest...reverse vision loss. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cone photoreceptor, retina, retinal stem cell, Otx2, Onecut1, Blimp1, RNA -seq., transcription factors, and...sequential activation of OTX2, BLIMP1, and ONECUT1 are sufficient to program hES cell-derived retinal stem cells into transplant- competent cones

  3. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  4. Autonomous behavior of hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, LM; Akkerman, [No Value; Weersing, E; Ausema, A; Dontje, B; Van Zant, G; de Haan, G

    2000-01-01

    Objective. Mechanisms that affect the function of primitive hematopoietic stem cells with long-term proliferative potential remain largely unknown. Here we assessed whether properties of stem cells are cell-extrinsically or cell-autonomously regulated. Materials and Methods. We developed a model in

  5. Transforming ocular surface stem cell research into successful clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender S Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has only been a quarter of a century since the discovery of adult stem cells at the human corneo-scleral limbus. These limbal stem cells are responsible for generating a constant and unending supply of corneal epithelial cells throughout life, thus maintaining a stable and uniformly refractive corneal surface. Establishing this hitherto unknown association between ocular surface disease and limbal dysfunction helped usher in therapeutic approaches that successfully addressed blinding conditions such as ocular burns, which were previously considered incurable. Subsequent advances in ocular surface biology through basic science research have translated into innovations that have made the surgical technique of limbal stem cell transplantation simpler and more predictable. This review recapitulates the basic biology of the limbus and the rationale and principles of limbal stem cell transplantation in ocular surface disease. An evidence-based algorithm is presented, which is tailored to clinical considerations such as laterality of affliction, severity of limbal damage and concurrent need for other procedures. Additionally, novel findings in the form of factors influencing the survival and function of limbal stem cells after transplantation and the possibility of substituting limbal cells with epithelial stem cells of other lineages is also discussed. Finally this review focuses on the future directions in which both basic science and clinical research in this field is headed.

  6. Transforming ocular surface stem cell research into successful clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Virender S; Jain, Rajat; Basu, Sayan; Bagadi, Anupam B; Sureka, Shraddha; Mariappan, Indumathi; MacNeil, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    It has only been a quarter of a century since the discovery of adult stem cells at the human corneo-scleral limbus. These limbal stem cells are responsible for generating a constant and unending supply of corneal epithelial cells throughout life, thus maintaining a stable and uniformly refractive corneal surface. Establishing this hitherto unknown association between ocular surface disease and limbal dysfunction helped usher in therapeutic approaches that successfully addressed blinding conditions such as ocular burns, which were previously considered incurable. Subsequent advances in ocular surface biology through basic science research have translated into innovations that have made the surgical technique of limbal stem cell transplantation simpler and more predictable. This review recapitulates the basic biology of the limbus and the rationale and principles of limbal stem cell transplantation in ocular surface disease. An evidence-based algorithm is presented, which is tailored to clinical considerations such as laterality of affliction, severity of limbal damage and concurrent need for other procedures. Additionally, novel findings in the form of factors influencing the survival and function of limbal stem cells after transplantation and the possibility of substituting limbal cells with epithelial stem cells of other lineages is also discussed. Finally this review focuses on the future directions in which both basic science and clinical research in this field is headed. PMID:24492499

  7. Role of glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor in salivary gland stem cell response to irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xiaohong; Varendi, Kärt; Maimets, Martti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Recently, stem cell therapy has been proposed to allow regeneration of radiation damaged salivary glands. It has been suggested that glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of mice salivary gland stem cells (mSGSCs). The purpose of this study...... was to investigate the role of GDNF in the modulation of mSGSC response to irradiation and subsequent salivary gland regeneration. Methods Salivary gland sphere derived cells of Gdnf hypermorphic (Gdnfwt/hyper) and wild type mice (Gdnfwt/wt) were irradiated (IR) with γ-rays at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy. mSGSC survival...

  8. Cretaceous stem chondrichthyans survived the end-Permian mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Guillaume; Adnet, Sylvain; Cavin, Lionel; Cappetta, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Cladodontomorph sharks are Palaeozoic stem chondrichthyans thought to go extinct at the end-Permian mass extinction. This extinction preceded the diversification of euselachians, including modern sharks. Here we describe an outer-platform cladodontomorph shark tooth assemblage from the Early Cretaceous of southern France, increasing the fossil record of this group by circa 120 million years. Identification of this material rests on new histological observations and morphological evidence. Our finding shows that this lineage survived mass extinctions most likely by habitat contraction, using deep-sea refuge environments during catastrophic events. The recorded gap in the cladodontomorph lineage represents the longest gap in the fossil record for an extinct marine vertebrate group. This discovery demonstrates that the deep-sea marine diversity, poorly known during most of the fish evolutionary history, contains essential data for a complete understanding of the long-term evolution of marine fish paleobiodiversity.

  9. Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Lorico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of tumors are organized in a hierarchy of heterogeneous cell populations, with only a small proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs capable of sustaining tumor formation and growth, giving rise to differentiated cells, which form the bulk of the tumor. Proof of the existence of CSC comes from clinical experience with germ-cell cancers, where the elimination of a subset of undifferentiated cells can cure patients (Horwich et al., 2006, and from the study of leukemic cells (Bonnet and Dick, 1997; Lapidot et al., 1994; and Yilmaz et al., 2006. The discovery of CSC in leukemias as well as in many solid malignancies, including breast carcinoma (Al-Hajj et al. 2003; Fang et al., 2005; Hemmati et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2005; Lawson et al., 2007; Li et al., 2007; Ricci-Vitiani et al., 2007; Singh et al., 2003; and Xin et al., 2005, has suggested a unifying CSC theory of cancer development. The reported general insensitivity of CSC to chemotherapy and radiation treatment (Bao et al., 2006 has suggested that current anticancer drugs, which inhibit bulk replicating cancer cells, may not effectively inhibit CSC. The clinical relevance of targeting CSC-associated genes is supported by several recent studies, including CD44 targeting for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (Jin et al., 2006, CD24 targeting for treatment of colon and pancreatic cancer (Sagiv et al., 2008, and CD133 targeting for hepatocellular and gastric cancer (Smith et al., 2008. One promising approach is to target CSC survival signaling pathways, where leukemia stem cell research has already made some progress (Mikkola et al., 2010.

  10. Transplantation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Monica N; Hall, John K; Cadwallader, Adam B; Pawlikowski, Bradley T; Doles, Jason D; Elston, Tiffany L; Olwin, Bradley B

    2017-01-01

    Transplanting adult stem cells provides a stringent test for self-renewal and the assessment of comparative engraftment in competitive transplant assays. Transplantation of satellite cells into mammalian skeletal muscle provided the first critical evidence that satellite cells function as adult muscle stem cells. Transplantation of a single satellite cell confirmed and extended this hypothesis, providing proof that the satellite cell is a bona fide adult skeletal muscle stem cell as reported by Sacco et al. (Nature 456(7221):502-506). Satellite cell transplantation has been further leveraged to identify culture conditions that maintain engraftment and to identify self-renewal deficits in satellite cells from aged mice. Conversion of iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) to a satellite cell-like state, followed by transplantation, demonstrated that these cells possess adult muscle stem cell properties as reported by Darabi et al. (Stem Cell Rev Rep 7(4):948-957) and Mizuno et al. (FASEB J 24(7):2245-2253). Thus, transplantation strategies involving either satellite cells derived from adult muscles or derived from iPSCs may eventually be exploited as a therapy for treating patients with diseased or failing skeletal muscle. Here, we describe methods for isolating dispersed adult mouse satellite cells and satellite cells on intact myofibers for transplantation into recipient mice to study muscle stem cell function and behavior following engraftment .

  11. [Progress in microencapsulation of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li; Wang, Shibin

    2010-12-01

    For the regenerative therapy of refractory diseases, stem cells have become an excellent source of seed cells due to their strong self-renewal and multi-differentiation abilities. Microcapsules can provide a three-dimensional growth environment with a good immunoisolation and biocompatibility for cells, and the microencapsulation of stem cells provides a new technical support for large-scale cell culture with high activities in vitro and long-term preservation, consequently opening up a new alternative for cell transplantation. In this review, we first outlined the development of microencapsulation, then introduced the present materials and methods for the microencapsulation of stem cells and its immunoisolation, and discussed the progress in microencapsulation technology, various types of stem cell used in recent years in details. Finally, we addressed perspectives of stem cell microencapsulation technology.

  12. Two-photon imaging of stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchugonova, A.; Gorjup, E.; Riemann, I.; Sauer, D.; König, K.

    2008-02-01

    A variety of human and animal stem cells (rat and human adult pancreatic stem cells, salivary gland stem cells, dental pulpa stem cells) have been investigated by femtosecond laser 5D two-photon microscopy. Autofluorescence and second harmonic generation have been imaged with submicron spatial resolution, 270 ps temporal resolution, and 10 nm spectral resolution. In particular, NADH and flavoprotein fluorescence was detected in stem cells. Major emission peaks at 460nm and 530nm with typical mean fluorescence lifetimes of 1.8 ns and 2.0 ns, respectively, were measured using time-correlated single photon counting and spectral imaging. Differentiated stem cells produced the extracellular matrix protein collagen which was detected by SHG signals at 435 nm.

  13. Of Microenvironments and Mammary Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2007-06-01

    In most adult tissues there reside pools of stem and progenitor cells inside specialized microenvironments referred to as niches. The niche protects the stem cells from inappropriate expansion and directs their critical functions. Thus guided, stem cells are able to maintain tissue homeostasis throughout the ebb and flow of metabolic and physical demands encountered over a lifetime. Indeed, a pool of stem cells maintains mammary gland structure throughout development, and responds to the physiological demands associated with pregnancy. This review discusses how stem cells were identified in both human and mouse mammary glands; each requiring different techniques that were determined by differing biological needs and ethical constraints. These studies together create a robust portrait of mammary gland biology and identify the location of the stem cell niche, elucidate a developmental hierarchy, and suggest how the niche might be manipulated for therapeutic benefit.

  14. Stem Cell Therapy in Pediatric Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Torabian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged tissues in different organs like myocardium, lung, wound healing, and others are developing. In addition, the use of stem cells in the treatment and improving symptoms of neurological diseases such as autism are known. Many epigenetic and immunological studies on effects of stem cells have been performed. The action of stem cells in tissue repair is a need for further studies. The role of these cells in the secretion of hormones and growth factors in the niche, induction of cell division and differentiation in local cells and differentiation of stem cells in damaged tissue is the samples of effects of tissue repair by stem cells.Cognitive disorders, epilepsy, speech and language disorders, primary sensory dysfunction, and behavioral challenges are symptoms of non-neuromotor dysfunction in half of pediatrics with CP. Occupational therapy, oral medications, and orthopedic surgery for supportive and rehabilitative approaches are part of Conventional remedy for cerebral palsy. This paper summarizes the clinical world wide experience about stem cell based therapeutic procedures for pediatric neurological disorders.

  15. Stem cell therapy in pediatric neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Torabian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric neurological disorders including muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury are defined as a heterogenous group of diseases, of which some are known to be genetic. The two significant features represented for stem cells, leading to distinguish them from other cell types are addressed as below: they can renew themselves besides the ability to differentiate into cells with special function as their potency. Researches about the role of stem cells in repair of damaged tissues in different organs like myocardium, lung, wound healing, and others are developing. In addition, the use of stem cells in the treatment and improving symptoms of neurological diseases such as autism are known. Many epigenetic and immunological studies on effects of stem cells have been performed. The action of stem cells in tissue repair is a need for further studies. The role of these cells in the secretion of hormones and growth factors in the niche, induction of cell division and differentiation in local cells and differentiation of stem cells in damaged tissue is the samples of effects of tissue repair by stem cells.Cognitive disorders, epilepsy, speech and language disorders, primary sensory dysfunction, and behavioral challenges are symptoms of non-neuromotor dysfunction in half of pediatrics with CP. Occupational therapy, oral medications, and orthopedic surgery for supportive and rehabilitative approaches are part of Conventional remedy for cerebral palsy. This paper summarizes the clinical world wide experience about stem cell based therapeutic procedures for pediatric neurological disorders.

  16. Stem cells in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Francesca; Fernandez, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Tumors constitute complex ecosystems with multiple interactions among neoplastic cells displaying various phenotypes and functions and where the tumoral niche is built with an active participation of the host environment that also impacts the malignant progression of the tumor cells. Irrespective of the cell of origin of prostate adenocarcinoma, mounting evidences support the existence of a hierarchy within neoplastic prostate cells that contributes to the heterogeneity of these tumors. At the origin of this hierarchy are small populations of tumor cells with high self-renewal potential and also capable of generating progeny tumor cells that lose self-renewal properties as they acquire more differentiated phenotypes. These cancer stem cells (CSC) depend on active gene networks that confer them with their self-renewal capacity through symmetrical divisions whereas they can also undergo asymmetrical division and differentiation either as stochastic events or in response to environmental cues. Although new experimental evidences indicate that this is can be a reversible process, thus blurring the distinction between CSCs and non-CSCs, the former are considered as the drivers of tumor growth and evolution, and thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Of particular importance in prostate cancer, CSCs may constitute the repository population of androgen-insensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells responsible for castration-resistant and chemotherapy-insensitive tumors, thus their identification and quantification in primary and metastatic neoplasms could play important roles in the management of this disease.

  17. Stem Cell Therapy Advances in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Songlin

    2017-12-28

    Stem cell therapy is a promising method for the treatment of patients with a wide range of diseases and injuries. With increasing government funds for scientific research in China, stem cell research in China has developed rapidly. The number and quality of publications have increased substantially in the past 5 years. Extensive, high-quality studies have been performed in China in the areas of cell reprograming, stem cell homeostasis, gene modifications, and immunomodulation. Translation studies, including basic and preclinical investigations, have also increased. About 100 stem cell banks have been established in China and 10 stem cell drugs are currently in the approval process. More than 400 stem cell-based clinical trials have been registered in China. With continued state funding, advanced biotechnical support, and the development of regulatory standards for the clinical application of stem cells, further innovations are expected, leading to a boom in stem cell therapy. This review highlights recent achievements of stem cell research in China and discusses future prospects.

  18. Application of Graphene Based Nanotechnology in Stem Cells Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanshan; Zeng, Yongxiang; Yang, Shuying; Qin, Han; Cai, He; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    The past several years have witnessed significant advances in stem cell therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Graphene, with its unique properties such as high electrical conductivity, elasticity and good molecule absorption, have potential for creating the next generation of biomaterials. This review summarizes the interrelationship between graphene and stem cells. The analysis of graphene when applied on mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells, periodontal ligament stem cells, human adipose-derived stem cells and cancer stem cells, and how graphene influences cell behavior and differentiation are discussed in details.

  19. Increased mitochondrial apoptotic priming of human regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kazuyuki; Kim, Haesook T; Bascug, O R Gregory; Kawano, Yutaka; Ryan, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Ken-ichi; Davids, Matthew S; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T; Cutler, Corey; Armand, Philippe; Alyea, Edwin P; Blazar, Bruce R; Antin, Joseph H; Soiffer, Robert J; Letai, Anthony; Ritz, Jerome

    2014-09-01

    CD4 regulatory T cells play a critical role in establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The recovery and maintenance of regulatory T cells is dependent on homeostatic factors including the generation of naïve regulatory T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells, the proliferation and expansion of mature regulatory T cells, and the survival of regulatory T cells in vivo. In this study, quantitation of mitochondrial apoptotic priming was used to compare susceptibility of regulatory T cells, conventional CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells to intrinsic pathway apoptosis in 57 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 25 healthy donors. In healthy donors, regulatory T cells are more susceptible to mitochondrial priming than conventional T cells. Mitochondrial priming is increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in all T-cell subsets and particularly in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Regulatory T cells express high levels of CD95 and are also more susceptible than conventional T cells to apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. However, CD95 expression and extrinsic pathway apoptosis is not increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Decreased expression of BCL2 and increased expression of BIM, a mitochondrial cell death activator protein, in regulatory T cells contributes to increased mitochondrial priming in this T-cell subset but additional factors likely contribute to increased mitochondrial priming following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Optimizing stem cells for cardiac repair: Current status and new frontiers in regenerative cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Shant; Lévesque, Thierry; Noiseux, Nicolas

    2017-01-26

    Cell therapy has the potential to improve healing of ischemic heart, repopulate injured myocardium and restore cardiac function. The tremendous hope and potential of stem cell therapy is well understood, yet recent trials involving cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases have yielded mixed results with inconsistent data thereby readdressing controversies and unresolved questions regarding stem cell efficacy for ischemic cardiac disease treatment. These controversies are believed to arise by the lack of uniformity of the clinical trial methodologies, uncertainty regarding the underlying reparative mechanisms of stem cells, questions concerning the most appropriate cell population to use, the proper delivery method and timing in relation to the moment of infarction, as well as the poor stem cell survival and engraftment especially in a diseased microenvironment which is collectively acknowledged as a major hindrance to any form of cell therapy. Indeed, the microenvironment of the failing heart exhibits pathological hypoxic, oxidative and inflammatory stressors impairing the survival of transplanted cells. Therefore, in order to observe any significant therapeutic benefit there is a need to increase resilience of stem cells to death in the transplant microenvironment while preserving or better yet improving their reparative functionality. Although stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes has been observed in some instance, the prevailing reparative benefits are afforded through paracrine mechanisms that promote angiogenesis, cell survival, transdifferentiate host cells and modulate immune responses. Therefore, to maximize their reparative functionality, ex vivo manipulation of stem cells through physical, genetic and pharmacological means have shown promise to enable cells to thrive in the post-ischemic transplant microenvironment. In the present work, we will overview the current status of stem cell therapy for ischemic heart disease, discuss the most recurring

  1. Angiomyeloproliferative Lesions Following Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Thirabanjasak, Duangpen; Tantiwongse, Kavirach; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2010-01-01

    Some reports suggest that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation holds potential for treatment of renal diseases such as lupus nephritis, but the safety of delivering various stem cell types (hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and endothelial precursors) is not well established. Here, we report a case of lupus nephritis treated by direct renal injection of autologous stem cells recovered from peripheral blood. The patient developed masses at the sites of injection and hematuria. We suspe...

  2. Potentials of Stem Cell Therapy-Curiosities Ignited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2009-01-01

    using a Novel Scaffold by Dr.Deedepiya Devaprasad and many other works presented.This issue will ignite the dormant seed of Curiosity in the readers’ mind to further explore the dimensional possibilities of Stem Cell applications in treating the diseases that are a challenge to the survival of a Healthy human race Happy reading!

  3. Targeting cancer stem cells: emerging role of Nanog transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mong-Lien Wang,1 Shih-Hwa Chiou,2,3 Cheng-Wen Wu1,4–61Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Institute of Biomedical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The involvement of stemness factors in cancer initiation and progression has drawn much attention recently, especially after the finding that introducing four stemness factors in somatic cells is able to reprogram the cells back to an embryonic stem cell-like state. Following accumulating data revealing abnormal elevated expression levels of key stemness factors, like Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, in several types of cancer stem cells; the importance and therapeutic potential of targeting these stemness regulators in cancers has turned to research focus. Nanog determines cell fate in both embryonic and cancer stem cells; activating Nanog at an inappropriate time would result in cancer stem cells rather than normal pluripotent stem cells or differentiated somatic cells. Upregulated Nanog is correlated with poor survival outcome of patients with various types of cancer. The discoveries of downstream regulatory pathways directly or indirectly mediated by Nanog indicate that Nanog regulates several aspects of cancer development such as tumor cell proliferation, self-renewal, motility, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, immune evasion, and drug-resistance, which are all defined features for cancer stem cells. The current review paper illustrates the central role of Nanog in the regulatory networks of cancer malignant development and stemness acquirement, as well as in the communication between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma. Though a more defined model is needed to test the

  4. Hemopoietic stem cell mobilization in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Molendijk

    1987-01-01

    textabstractIn mice hemopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells are almost totally confined to the bone marrow and spleen. Only small numbers can be detected in the peripheral blood. Relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) modulating the circulation and mobilization of stem cells. At

  5. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mead

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapies are being explored extensively as treatments for degenerative eye disease, either for replacing lost neurons, restoring neural circuits or, based on more recent evidence, as paracrine-mediated therapies in which stem cell-derived trophic factors protect compromised endogenous retinal neurons from death and induce the growth of new connections. Retinal progenitor phenotypes induced from embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (ESCs/iPSCs and endogenous retinal stem cells may replace lost photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells and restore vision in the diseased eye, whereas treatment of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs has so far been reliant on mesenchymal stem cells (MSC. Here, we review the properties of non-retinal-derived adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells (NSCs, MSC derived from bone marrow (BMSC, adipose tissues (ADSC and dental pulp (DPSC, together with ESC/iPSC and discuss and compare their potential advantages as therapies designed to provide trophic support, repair and replacement of retinal neurons, RPE and glia in degenerative retinal diseases. We conclude that ESCs/iPSCs have the potential to replace lost retinal cells, whereas MSC may be a useful source of paracrine factors that protect RGC and stimulate regeneration of their axons in the optic nerve in degenerate eye disease. NSC may have potential as both a source of replacement cells and also as mediators of paracrine treatment.

  6. Spermatogonial stem cells in the bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aponte, P.M

    2009-01-01

    In the testis a complex process, called spermatogenesis, generates millions of spermatozoa per day. At the start of this process there are spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that have the ability to divide either into new stem cells (self-renewal) or daughter cells committed to develop into

  7. Stem cells: Biology and clinical potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... between apoptosis and self renewal. Yale J. Biol. Med. 82: 7-18. Alhadlaq A, Mao JJ (2004). Mesenchymal stem cells: isolation and therapeutics. Stem Cells Dev. 13: 436-448. Allan LE, Petit GH, Brundin P (2010). Cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease: problems and perspectives. Curr. Opin. Neurol.

  8. Chimeric animal models in human stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Joel C; Boulland, Jean-Luc; Halasi, Gabor; Kasumacic, Nedim

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.

  9. Proteomics Applications in Dental Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Tian, Weidong; Song, Jinlin

    2017-07-01

    At present, the existence of a variety of dental derived stem cells has been documented. These cells displayed promising clinical application potential not only for teeth and its surrounding tissue regeneration, but also for other tissues, such as nerve and bone regeneration. Proteomics is an unbiased, global informatics tool that provides information on all protein expression levels as well as post-translational modification in cells or tissues and is applicable to dental derived stem cells research. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to study the global proteome, secrotome, and membrane proteome of dental derived stem cells. Here, we present an overview of the proteomics studies in the context of stem cell research. Particular attention is given to dental derived stem cell types as well as current challenges and opportunities. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1602-1610, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stem cell biology and the plasticity polemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Peter J; Dooner, Gerri; Colvin, Gerald; Abedi, Mehrdad

    2005-04-01

    Characterization of a cord blood derived unrestricted somatic stem cell (USSC) with capacity to differentiate into hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues in the absence of cell fusion has highlighted the great potential of stem cell plasticity. A great variety of stem cell types have been defined and even the most pure marrow stem cells are highly heterogeneous. Data suggest that stem cells may exist in a continuum with continually and reversibly changing phenotype. These cells also possess a capacity to produce lung, liver, skin, and skeletal muscle under conditions of tissue injury. Arguments raised against the significance of adult marrow to nonmarrow conversions including the importance of cell fusion appear fallacious. We are at the beginning of an exciting and burgeoning field of research with great clinical potential.

  11. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  13. Nanomaterials for Engineering Stem Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerativitayanan, Punyavee; Carrow, James K; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2015-08-05

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has stimulated the development of multifunctional biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Synergistic interactions between nanomaterials and stem cell engineering offer numerous possibilities to address some of the daunting challenges in regenerative medicine, such as controlling trigger differentiation, immune reactions, limited supply of stem cells, and engineering complex tissue structures. Specifically, the interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment play key roles in controlling stem cell fate, which underlines therapeutic success. However, the interactions between nanomaterials and stem cells are not well understood, and the effects of the nanomaterials shape, surface morphology, and chemical functionality on cellular processes need critical evaluation. In this Review, focus is put on recent development in nanomaterial-stem cell interactions, with specific emphasis on their application in regenerative medicine. Further, the emerging technologies based on nanomaterials developed over the past decade for stem cell engineering are reviewed, as well as the potential applications of these nanomaterials in tissue regeneration, stem cell isolation, and drug/gene delivery. It is anticipated that the enhanced understanding of nanomaterial-stem cell interactions will facilitate improved biomaterial design for a range of biomedical and biotechnological applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... made recently in the field of stem cell biology, researchers now have improved tools to define novel populations of stem cells, examine them ex vivo using conditions that promote self-renewal, track them into recipients, and determine whether they can contribute to the repair of damaged tissues...

  15. Epigenetics of solid cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is an emerging science that can help to explain carcinogenesis. The possibility that carcinogenesis may originate in a stem cell process was proposed recently. Stem cells are generated and contribute to tumor formation during the process of tumor development. This chapter focuses on the role of epigenetics and genetics in stem cell formation, different theories about the origin of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and epigenetic mechanisms that occur in solid CSCs. Potential applications of knowledge gained through this field and future prospects for cancer treatment also are discussed.

  16. Single-cell sequencing in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2016-04-15

    Cell-to-cell variation and heterogeneity are fundamental and intrinsic characteristics of stem cell populations, but these differences are masked when bulk cells are used for omic analysis. Single-cell sequencing technologies serve as powerful tools to dissect cellular heterogeneity comprehensively and to identify distinct phenotypic cell types, even within a 'homogeneous' stem cell population. These technologies, including single-cell genome, epigenome, and transcriptome sequencing technologies, have been developing rapidly in recent years. The application of these methods to different types of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells, has led to exciting new findings in the stem cell field. In this review, we discuss the recent progress as well as future perspectives in the methodologies and applications of single-cell omic sequencing technologies.

  17. Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Wayne E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle cells and are being investigated for their utility in cell-based transplantation therapy. Yet, adequate methods to track transplanted MSCs in vivo are limited, precluding functional studies. Quantum Dots (QDs offer an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins to label and track cells in vitro and in vivo. These nanoparticles are resistant to chemical and metabolic degradation, demonstrating long term photostability. Here, we investigate the cytotoxic effects of in vitro QD labeling on MSC proliferation and differentiation and use as a cell label in a cardiomyocyte co-culture. Results A dose-response to QDs in rat bone marrow MSCs was assessed in Control (no-QDs, Low concentration (LC, 5 nmol/L and High concentration (HC, 20 nmol/L groups. QD yield and retention, MSC survival, proinflammatory cytokines, proliferation and DNA damage were evaluated in MSCs, 24 -120 hrs post QD labeling. In addition, functional integration of QD labeled MSCs in an in vitro cardiomyocyte co-culture was assessed. A dose-dependent effect was measured with increased yield in HC vs. LC labeled MSCs (93 ± 3% vs. 50% ± 15%, p 90% of QD labeled cells were viable in all groups, however, at 120 hrs increased apoptosis was measured in HC vs. Control MSCs (7.2% ± 2.7% vs. 0.5% ± 0.4%, p Conclusion Fluorescent QDs label MSC effectively in an in vitro co-culture model. QDs are easy to use, show a high yield and survival rate with minimal cytotoxic effects. Dose-dependent effects suggest limiting MSC QD exposure.

  18. Haploidentical transplantation using T cell replete peripheral blood stem cells and myeloablative conditioning in patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies who lack conventional donors is well tolerated and produces excellent relapse-free survival: results of a prospective phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Scott R; Sizemore, Connie A; Sanacore, Melissa; Zhang, Xu; Brown, Stacey; Holland, H Kent; Morris, Lawrence E; Bashey, Asad

    2012-12-01

    Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) provides an opportunity for nearly all patients to benefit from HSCT. We conducted a trial of haploidentical T cell replete allografting using a busulfan-based myeloablative preparative regimen, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) as the graft source, and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (Cy). Eligibility was limited to patients at high risk of relapse after nonmyeloablative haploidentical bone marrow transplant (BMT). Twenty patients were enrolled in the study (11 with relapsed/refractory disease and 9 who underwent transplantation while in remission and considered standard risk). Donor engraftment occurred in all 20 patients with full donor T cell and myeloid chimerism by day +30. The cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 30% and 10%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 35%. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 1 year was 10% for all patients and 0% for standard-risk patients. With a median follow-up of 20 months, the estimated 1-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 69% and 50%, respectively, for all patients, and 88% and 67% for standard-risk patients. Myeloablative haploidentical HSCT is associated with excellent rates of engraftment, GVHD, NRM, and DFS, and is a valid option in patients with high-risk malignancies who lack timely access to a conventional donor. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Media presentation and public understanding of stem cells and stem cell research in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Vicsek, Lilla; Gergely, Júlia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project which examined media coverage and audience perceptions of stem cells and stem cell research in Hungary, using focus groups and a media analysis. A background study was also conducted on the Hungarian legal, social and political situation linked to stem cell research, treatment and storage. Our data shows how stem cell research/treatments were framed by the focus group members in terms of medical results/cures and human interest stories – mirroring the ...

  20. Current Biosafety Considerations in Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavinejad, Masoumeh; Andrews, Peter W.; Shoraki, Elham Kargar

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells can be valuable model systems for drug discovery and modelling human diseases as well as to investigate cellular interactions and molecular events in the early stages of development. Controlling the differentiation of stem cells into specific germ layers provides a potential source of highly specialized cells for therapeutic applications. In recent years, finding individual properties of stem cells such as their ultimate self-renewal capacity and the generation of particular cell lines by differentiation under specific culture conditions underpins the development of regenerative therapies. These futures make stem cells a leading candidate to treat a wide range of diseases. Nevertheless, as with all novel treatments, safety issues are one of the barriers that should be overcome to guarantee the quality of a patient’s life after stem cell therapy. Many studies have pointed to a large gap in our knowledge about the therapeutic applications of these cells. This gap clearly shows the importance of biosafety concerns for the current status of cell-based therapies, even more than their therapeutic efficacy. Currently, scientists report that tumorigenicity and immunogenicity are the two most important associated cell-based therapy risks. In principle, intrinsic factors such as cell characteristics and extrinsic elements introduced by manufacturing of stem cells can result in tumor formation and immunological reactions after stem cell transplantation. Therapeutic research shows there are many biological questions regarding safety issues of stem cell clinical applications. Stem cell therapy is a rapidly advancing field that needs to focus more on finding a comprehensive technology for assessing risk. A variety of risk factors (from intrinsic to extrinsic) should be considered for safe clinical stem cell therapies. PMID:27540533

  1. Stem cells in the human breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Polyak, Kornelia

    2010-01-01

    The origins of the epithelial cells participating in the development, tissue homeostasis, and cancer of the human breast are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests a role for adult tissue-specific stem cells in these processes. In a hierarchical manner, these generate the two main...... mammary cell lineages, producing an increasing number of cells with distinct properties. Understanding the biological characteristics of human breast stem cells and their progeny is crucial in attempts to compare the features of normal stem cells and cancer precursor cells and distinguish these from...... nonprecursor cells and cells from the bulk of a tumor. A historical overview of research on human breast stem cells in primary tissue and in culture reveals the progress that has been made in this area, whereas a focus on the cell-of-origin and reprogramming that occurs during neoplastic conversion provides...

  2. Stem cells in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jeong Min [Department of Preventive and Social Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Chul; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Hwang, Yu-Shik [Department of Maxillofacial Biomedical Engineering and Institute of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mantalaris, Anathathios, E-mail: yshwang@khu.ac.k [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Bone tissue engineering has been one of the most promising areas of research, providing a potential clinical application to cure bone defects. Recently, various stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs), adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have received extensive attention in the field of bone tissue engineering due to their distinct biological capability to differentiate into osteogenic lineages. The application of these stem cells to bone tissue engineering requires inducing in vitro differentiation of these cells into bone forming cells, osteoblasts. For this purpose, efficient in vitro differentiation towards osteogenic lineage requires the development of well-defined and proficient protocols. This would reduce the likelihood of spontaneous differentiation into divergent lineages and increase the available cell source for application to bone tissue engineering therapies. This review provides a critical examination of the various experimental strategies that could be used to direct the differentiation of ESC, BM-MSC, UCB-MSC, ADSC, MDSC and DPSC towards osteogenic lineages and their potential applications in tissue engineering, particularly in the regeneration of bone. (topical review)

  3. Cell therapy of congenital corneal diseases with umbilical mesenchymal stem cells: lumican null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keratoplasty is the most effective treatment for corneal blindness, but suboptimal medical conditions and lack of qualified medical personnel and donated cornea often prevent the performance of corneal transplantation in developing countries. Our study aims to develop alternative treatment regimens for congenital corneal diseases of genetic mutation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human mesenchymal stem cells isolated from neonatal umbilical cords were transplanted to treat thin and cloudy corneas of lumican null mice. Transplantation of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells significantly improved corneal transparency and increased stromal thickness of lumican null mice, but human umbilical hematopoietic stem cells failed to do the same. Further studies revealed that collagen lamellae were re-organized in corneal stroma of lumican null mice after mesenchymal stem cell transplantation. Transplanted umbilical mesenchymal stem cells survived in the mouse corneal stroma for more than 3 months with little or no graft rejection. In addition, these cells assumed a keratocyte phenotype, e.g., dendritic morphology, quiescence, expression of keratocyte unique keratan sulfated keratocan and lumican, and CD34. Moreover, umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improved host keratocyte functions, which was verified by enhanced expression of keratocan and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 3A1 in lumican null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Umbilical mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for congenital corneal diseases involving keratocyte dysfunction. Unlike donated corneas, umbilical mesenchymal stem cells are easily isolated, expanded, stored, and can be quickly recovered from liquid nitrogen when a patient is in urgent need.

  4. Insight on stem cell preconditioning and instructive biomaterials to enhance cell adhesion, retention, and engraftment for tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Muhammad; Jung, Youngmee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Stem cells are a promising solution for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the limited survival and engraftment of transplanted cells due to a hostile ischemic environment is a bottleneck for effective utilization and commercialization. Within this environment, the majority of transplanted cells undergo apoptosis prior to participating in lineage differentiation and cellular integration. Therefore, in order to maximize the clinical utility of stem/progenitor cells, strategies must be employed to increase their adhesion, retention, and engraftment in vivo. Here, we reviewed key strategies that are being adopted to enhance the survival, retention, and engraftment of transplanted stem cells through the manipulation of both the stem cells and the surrounding environment. We describe how preconditioning of cells or cell manipulations strategies can enhance stem cell survival and engraftment after transplantation. We also discuss how biomaterials can enhance the function of stem cells for effective tissue regeneration. Biomaterials can incorporate or mimic extracellular function (ECM) function and enhance survival or differentiation of transplanted cells in vivo. Biomaterials can also promote angiogenesis, enhance engraftment and differentiation, and accelerate electromechanical integration of transplanted stem cells. Insight gained from this review may direct the development of future investigations and clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Migratory properties of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thomas; Entschladen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells raise great expectations in regenerative medicine due to their capacity to regenerate damaged tissues, thereby restoring organ tissue integrity and functionality. Even though it is not yet clear how mesenchymal stem cells are guided to injured tissue it is generally assumed that the directed migration of these cells is facilitated by the same soluble factors that also recruit immune competent cells to inflamed tissue areas. Tumor tissue represents another type of (chronically) inflamed tissue and because of that mesenchymal stem cells are highly attracted. Although some data indicate that esenchymal stem cells might have a beneficial effect on tumor growth due to anti-tumor effects the plethora of data suggest that tumor tissue recruited mesenchymal stem cells rather promote tumor growth and metastasis formation. Nonetheless, the enhanced tumor tropism of mesenchymal stem cells makes them ideal candidates for novel anti-cancer strategies. Like Trojan Horses genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells will deliver their deadly cargo, such as anti-tumor cytokines or oncolytic viruses, into cancerous tissues, thereby destroying the tumor form within. In this chapter we will summarize the current concepts of genetic modification of mesenchymal stem cells for future anti-cancer therapies.

  6. Stem cell monitoring with a direct or indirect labeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The molecular imaging techniques allow monitoring of the transplanted cells in the same individuals over time, from early localization to the survival, migration, and differentiation. Generally, there are two methods of stem cell labeling: direct and indirect labeling methods. The direct labeling method introduces a labeling agent into the cell, which is stably incorporated or attached to the cells prior to transplantation. Direct labeling of cells with radionuclides is a simple method with relatively fewer adverse events related to genetic responses. However, it can only allow short-term distribution of transplanted cells because of the decreasing imaging signal with radiodecay, according to the physical half-lives, or the signal becomes more diffuse with cell division and dispersion. The indirect labeling method is based on the expression of a reporter gene transduced into the cell before transplantation, which is then visualized upon the injection of an appropriate probe or substrate. In this review, various imaging strategies to monitor the survival and behavior change of transplanted stem cells are covered. Taking these new approaches together, the direct and indirect labeling methods may provide new insights on the roles of in vivo stem cell monitoring, from bench to bedside.

  7. Engineering Concepts in Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Mishra, Sachin; Singh, Satnam; Pei, Ming; Gulyas, Balazs; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman

    2017-09-13

    The field of regenerative medicine integrates advancements made in stem cells, molecular biology, engineering, and clinical methodologies. Stem cells serve as a fundamental ingredient for therapeutic application in regenerative medicine. Apart from stem cells, engineering concepts have equally contributed to the success of stem cell based applications in improving human health. The purpose of various engineering methodologies is to develop regenerative and preventive medicine to combat various diseases and deformities. Explosion of stem cell discoveries and their implementation in clinical setting warrants new engineering concepts and new biomaterials. Biomaterials, microfluidics, and nanotechnology are the major engineering concepts used for the implementation of stem cells in regenerative medicine. Many of these engineering technologies target the specific niche of the cell for better functional capability. Controlling the niche is the key for various developmental activities leading to organogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Biomimetic understanding not only helped to improve the design of the matrices or scaffolds by incorporating suitable biological and physical components, but also ultimately aided adoption of designs that helped these materials/devices have better function. Adoption of engineering concepts in stem cell research improved overall achievement, however, several important issues such as long-term effects with respect to systems biology needs to be addressed. Here, in this review the authors will highlight some interesting breakthroughs in stem cell biology that use engineering methodologies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell assays and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the many types of adult, or better, somatic, stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (marrow-derived stromal cells, MSC are those more versatile in changing their phenotype during differentiation: from smooth muscle, adipocyte, bone and cartilage cells to name a few. In addition, they are present in large number in adults and relatively easy to isolate and colture. All these features simply explain the already large number of application that their use allow in rigenerative medicine, not to tell about researches in which they play a crucial role in understanding the meaning of stemness and stem cell niche and the other several conceptual paradigms framing the fascinating field of stem cell biology. Having clear in mind this situation.....

  9. Epidermal Stem Cells in Orthopaedic Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Zhen, Gehua; Tsai, Shin-Yi; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, great advances have been made in epidermal stem cell studies at the cellular and molecular level. These studies reported various subpopulations and differentiations existing in the epidermal stem cell. Although controversies and unknown issues remain, epidermal stem cells possess an immune-privileged property in transplantation together with easy accessibility, which is favorable for future clinical application. In this review, we will summarize the biological characteristics of epidermal stem cells, and their potential in orthopedic regenerative medicine. Epidermal stem cells play a critical role via cell replacement, and demonstrate significant translational potential in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases, including treatment for wound healing, peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury, and even muscle and bone remodeling. PMID:23727934

  10. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Property Of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells And Peripheral Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells That Differentiated Both Group To Cardiac Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jabari F; Mohammadnejad J; Yavari K

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is the soft live tissue inside a tooth. Dental pulp contains stem cells, known as Dental Pulp Stem Cells. The finest Dental Pulp Stem Cells are found in a baby teeth or milk teeth. The stem cells from the milk teeth are ‘mesenchymal’ type of cells. cells that have the ability to generate a wide variety of cell types like chondrocytes, osteoblasts and adipocytes. To isolate high-quality human dental pulp stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell resear...

  12. The potential application of stem cell in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Suardita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are generally defined as cells that have the capacity to self-renewal and differentiate to specialize cell. There are two kinds of stem cell, embryonic stem cell and adult stem cells. Stem cell therapy has been used to treat diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart diseases, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Stem cells were found in dental pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone marrow. Because of their potential in medical therapy, stem cells were used to regenerate lost or damage teeth and periodontal structures. This article discusses the potential application of stem cells for dental field.

  13. Clonogenicity: holoclones and meroclones contain stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte M Beaver

    Full Text Available When primary cultures of normal cells are cloned, three types of colony grow, called holoclones, meroclones and paraclones. These colonies are believed to be derived from stem cells, transit-amplifying cells and differentiated cells respectively. More recently, this approach has been extended to cancer cell lines. However, we observed that meroclones from the prostate cancer cell line DU145 produce holoclones, a paradoxical observation as meroclones are thought to be derived from transit-amplifying cells. The purpose of this study was to confirm this observation and determine if both holoclones and meroclones from cancer cell lines contain stem cells. We demonstrated that both holoclones and meroclones can be serially passaged indefinitely, are highly proliferative, can self-renew to form spheres, are serially tumorigenic and express stem cell markers. This study demonstrates that the major difference between holoclones and meroclones derived from a cancer cell line is the proportion of stem cells within each colony, not the presence or absence of stem cells. These findings may reflect the properties of cancer as opposed to normal cells, perhaps indicating that the hierarchy of stem cells is more extensive in cancer.

  14. [Clinical applications of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in stem cell therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Li; Jiaozi, Fangteng; Shi, Yu; Yuming, Zhao; Lihong, Ge

    2017-10-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are one category of dental stem cells. They belong to ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. As an ideal stem cell source, SHED possess great potential in stem cell therapy. This review demonstrates the biological characteristics and advantages of SHED in stem cell therapy and discusses its multiple functions in tissue regeneration and repair, including multiple differentiation potentiality, cell secretion of cytokines, and immunomodulatory ability. Furthermore, this article introduces the main findings regarding the potential clinical applications of SHED to a variety of diseases. This article demonstrates research progress in dentin-pulp regeneration, maxillofacial bone regeneration, and treatment of nervous system and immune system diseases with SHED for stem cell transplantation.

  15. Transplantation of neurotrophin-3-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yuzhen; Yang, Libin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Hongxing; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to be therapeutic in the repair of spinal cord injury. However, the low survival rate of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo remains a problem. Neurotrophin-3 promotes motor neuron survival and it is hypothesized that its transfection can enhance the therapeutic effect. We show that in vitro transfection of neurotrophin-3 gene increases the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the region of spinal ...

  16. [Role of stem cell transplantation in treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzenbach, R; Theurich, S; Schlaak, M

    2017-09-01

    Within the heterogeneous group of cutaneous T‑cell lymphomas (CTCL) the therapeutic options for advanced and progressive forms are particularly limited. The therapeutic value of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in CTCL was analyzed. A literature search using the keywords "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation" and "cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma" was performed in PubMed. Studies between 1990 and 2017 were taken into account. The studies identified were analyzed for relevance and being up to date. After reviewing the currently available literature no prospective randomized studies were found. Wu et al. showed a superiority of allogeneic transplantation in a comparison of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation for cutaneous lymphoma. The graft-versus-lymphoma effect plays a significant role in a prolonged progression-free survival after allogeneic transplantation. By using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen, stem cell transplantation can also be an option for elderly patients. The most extensive long-term data after allogeneic stem cell transplantation were reported by Duarte et al. in 2014. Autologous stem cell transplantation does not currently represent a therapeutic option, whereas allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma, using a non-myeloablative conditioning scheme, does represent a therapeutic option. However, there is no consensus on the appropriate patients and the right timing. Morbidity and mortality of complications should be taken into account. Thus, this procedure is currently subject to an individual case decision.

  17. The ageing haematopoietic stem cell compartment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, Hartmut; de Haan, Gerald; Florian, M. Carolina

    Stem cell ageing underlies the ageing of tissues, especially those with a high cellular turnover. There is growing evidence that the ageing of the immune system is initiated at the very top of the haematopoietic hierarchy and that the ageing of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) directly contributes

  18. Stem cells: Biology and clinical potential

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... Stem cell technology has developed rapidly in recent years to the point that we can now envisage its future use in a variety of therapeutic areas. This review seeks to summarize the types and sources of stem cells that may be utilized in this way, their pattern of development, their plasticity in terms of.

  19. A MODEL FOR POSTRADIATION STEM CELL KINETICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    In polycythemic rats observed for 17 days postradiation (300 R, 250 KVP X-rays) it was noted that stem cell release diminished to 8 percent of the...correlate these findings with a kinetic model of erythropoiesis. It was suggested that the initial depression in stem cell release might be due to cellular

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 7,934 views 32:25 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon Louw ... 19. Children's Health 40,015 views 49:19 How to become a potential blood stem cell donor ...

  1. Stem Cell Research and Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eve, David J.; Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.; Klasko, Stephen K.; Sanberg, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are being touted as the greatest discovery for the potential treatment of a myriad of diseases in the new millennium, but there is still much research to be done before it will be known whether they can live up to this description. There is also an ethical debate over the production of one of the most valuable types of stem cell: the…

  2. Molecular regulation of human hematopoietic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, P.L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peter van Galen focuses on understanding the determinants that maintain the stem cell state. Using human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as a model, processes that govern self-renewal and tissue regeneration were investigated. Specifically, a role for microRNAs in balancing the human HSC

  3. Representations of stem cell clinics on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenova, Kalina; Reshef, Amir; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    The practice of travelling abroad to receive unproven and unregulated stem cell treatments has become an increasingly problematic global phenomenon known as 'stem cell tourism'. In this paper, we examine representations of nine major clinics and providers of such treatments on the microblogging network Twitter. We collected and conducted a content analysis of Twitter posts (n = 363) by these establishments and by other users mentioning them, focusing specifically on marketing claims about treatment procedures and outcomes, discussions of safety and efficacy of stem cell transplants, and specific representations of patients' experiences. Our analysis has shown that there were explicit claims or suggestions of benefits associated with unproven stem cell treatments in approximately one third of the tweets and that patients' experiences, whenever referenced, were presented as invariably positive and as testimonials about the efficacy of stem cell transplants. Furthermore, the results indicated that the tone of most tweets (60.2 %) was overwhelmingly positive and there were rarely critical discussions about significant health risks associated with unproven stem cell therapies. When placed in the context of past research on the problems associated with the marketing of unproven stem cell therapies, this analysis of representations on Twitter suggests that discussions in social media have also remained largely uncritical of the stem cell tourism phenomenon, with inaccurate representations of risks and benefits for patients.

  4. Stem Cell Research: Applications In Haematological Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematopoietic Stem Cell Trans-plantation is a medical procedure in the field of haematology and oncology that involves transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC). It is most often performed for people with diseases of the blood or bone narrow or certain types of cancers.

  5. Skeletal stem cells in space and time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice...

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells in oral reconstructive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C; Sørensen, J A; Kassem, M

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated clinical outcomes following intraoperative use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in various oral reconstructive procedures. PubMed was searched without language restrictions from 2000 to 2011 using the search words stem cell, oral surgery, tissue engineering, sinus lift...

  7. Stem Cell Transplants in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cell transplants are procedures that restore blood-forming stem cells in cancer patients who have had theirs destroyed by very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Learn about the types of transplants and side effects that may occur.

  8. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... 514 views 3:28 Cancer symptom pains - Pancreatic Cancer - Duration: 2:54. ... 2:54 Calum's stem cell donation for Anthony Nolan - Duration: 3:35. Anthony ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... her German stem cell donor for the first time in Germany. #priceless - Duration: 1:04. Jacque Brohawn ... Bone Marrow Transplant Patient Information: Chapter 3 - What Are Stem Cells - Duration: 3:58. HenryFordTV 20,159 ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video will automatically play next. Up next Stem cell donation: Step by step - Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 8,779 views 3:35 My Friend the Stem Cell Donor - Duration: 4:41. Annabelle Monks 6,482 ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a former NCI employee, Serena Marshall, as she takes you through her blood stem cell donation experience ... Match 29,769 views 3:28 PBSC (Peripheral blood stem cell) Harvest - Duration: 2:55. bmdpsg 5,299 ... Loading... Working... Sign in to add ...

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods a...

  14. Brain Metastasis-Initiating Cells: Survival of the Fittest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohini Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases (BMs are the most common brain tumor in adults, developing in about 10% of adult cancer patients. It is not the incidence of BM that is alarming, but the poor patient prognosis. Even with aggressive treatments, median patient survival is only months. Despite the high rate of BM-associated mortality, very little research is conducted in this area. Lack of research and staggeringly low patient survival is indicative that a novel approach to BMs and their treatment is needed. The ability of a small subset of primary tumor cells to produce macrometastases is reminiscent of brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs or cancer stem cells (CSCs hypothesized to form primary brain tumors. BTICs are considered stem cell-like due to their self-renewal and differentiation properties. Similar to the subset of cells forming metastases, BTICs are most often a rare subpopulation. Based on the functional definition of a TIC, cells capable of forming a BM could be considered to be brain metastasis-initiating cells (BMICs. These putative BMICs would not only have the ability to initiate tumor growth in a secondary niche, but also the machinery to escape the primary tumor, migrate through the circulation, and invade the neural niche.

  15. Cancer Stem Cells: Repair Gone Awry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rangwala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because cell turnover occurs in all adult organs, stem/progenitor cells within the stem-cell niche of each tissue must be appropriately mobilized and differentiated to maintain normal organ structure and function. Tissue injury increases the demands on this process, and thus may unmask defective regulation of pathways, such as Hedgehog (Hh, that modulate progenitor cell fate. Hh pathway dysregulation has been demonstrated in many types of cancer, including pancreatic and liver cancers, in which defective Hh signaling has been linked to outgrowth of Hh-responsive cancer stem-initiating cells and stromal elements. Hence, the Hh pathway might be a therapeutic target in such tumors.

  16. Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Wang; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Yulin; Li, Lisha

    2017-06-01

    Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate. We discuss the unsolved problems and future directions of biomaterial stiffness in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Artificial gametes from stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Míguez-Forjan, Jose Manuel; Simón, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The generation of artificial gametes is a real challenge for the scientific community today. In vitro development of human eggs and sperm will pave the way for the understanding of the complex process of human gametogenesis and will provide with human gametes for the study of infertility and the onset of some inherited disorders. However, the great promise of artificial gametes resides in their future application on reproductive treatments for all these people wishing to have genetically related children and for which gamete donation is now their unique option of parenthood. This is the case of infertile patients devoid of suitable gametes, same sex couples, singles and those fertile couples in a high risk of transmitting serious diseases to their progeny. In the search of the best method to obtain artificial gametes, many researchers have successfully obtained human germ cell-like cells from stem cells at different stages of differentiation. In the near future, this field will evolve to new methods providing not only viable but also functional and safe artificial germ cells. These artificial sperm and eggs should be able to recapitulate all the genetic and epigenetic processes needed for the correct gametogenesis, fertilization and embryogenesis leading to the birth of a healthy and fertile newborn.

  18. Hematopoietic cell differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and potentially differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature hematopoietic cells in the presence of a suitable culture system. Establishment of pluripotent stem cells provides a comprehensive model to study early hematopoietic development and has emerged as a powerful research tool to explore regenerative medicine. Nowadays, HSC transplantation and hematopoietic cell transfusion have successfully cured some patients, especially in malignant hematological diseases. Owing to a shortage of donors and a limited number of the cells, hematopoietic cell induction from pluripotent stem cells has been regarded as an alternative source of HSCs and mature hematopoietic cells for intended therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells are therefore extensively utilized to facilitate better understanding in hematopoietic development by recapitulating embryonic development in vivo, in which efficient strategies can be easily designed and deployed for the generation of hematopoietic lineages in vitro. We hereby review the current progress of hematopoietic cell induction from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23796405

  19. Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells: What they are and what they do Stem cells and derived products offer great promise for new medical treatments. Learn about stem cell types, current and possible uses, ethical issues, and ...

  20. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Transplantation and Oral Health Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Untitled Document Key Points_ ... See YourDentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  1. Imaging: Guiding the Clinical Translation of Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Patricia K.; Lan, Feng; Wang, Yongming; Wu, Joseph C.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have been touted as the holy grail of medical therapy with promises to regenerate cardiac tissue, but it appears the jury is still out on this novel therapy. Using advanced imaging technology, scientists have discovered that these cells do not survive nor engraft long-term. In addition, only marginal benefit has been observed in large animal studies and human trials. However, all is not lost. Further application of advanced imaging technology will help scientists unravel the mysteries of stem cell therapy and address the clinical hurdles facing its routine implementation. In this review, we will discuss how advanced imaging technology will help investigators better define the optimal delivery method, improve survival and engraftment, and evaluate efficacy and safety. Insights gained from this review may direct the development of future preclinical investigations and clinical trials. PMID:21960727

  2. Molecular Biology of Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oishi, Naoki; Yamashita, Taro; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    .... The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is based primarily on the clinical and experimental observations that indicate the existence of a subpopulation of cells with the capacity to self-renew and differentiate as well as show increased...

  3. Spermatogonial stem cells: Progress and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Komeya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years ago, the transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs from a mouse to other recipient mice was shown to be feasible, which clearly demonstrated the functional identity of SSCs. Since then, several important new findings and other technical developments have followed, which included a new hypothesis on their cell kinetics and spermatogonial hierarchy in the testis, a culture method allowing their self-renewal and proliferation, a testis tissue organ culture method, which induced their complete differentiation up to sperm, and the in vitro induction of germ cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. These advancements reinforced or advanced our understanding of this unique cell. Nonetheless, there are many unresolved questions in the study of spermatogonial stem cells and a long road remains until these cells can be used clinically in reproductive medicine.

  4. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  5. Application of Stem Cells in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andreas; van Griensven, Martijn; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research plays an important role in orthopedic regenerative medicine today. Current literature provides us with promising results from animal research in the fields of bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. While early clinical results are already published for bone and cartilage repair, the data about tendon repair is limited to animal studies. The success of these techniques remains inconsistent in all three mentioned areas. This may be due to different application techniques varying from simple mesenchymal stem cell injection up to complex tissue engineering. However, the ideal carrier for the stem cells still remains controversial. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of current basic research and clinical data concerning stem cell research in bone, tendon, and cartilage repair. Furthermore, a focus is set on different stem cell application techniques in tendon reconstruction, cartilage repair, and filling of bone defects. PMID:22550505

  6. Stem Cell-based Therapies for Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Colm; Jerkic, Mirjana; Laffey, John G

    2017-12-01

    Sepsis is a life-threatening syndrome resulting in shock and organ dysfunction stemming from a microbial infection. Sepsis has a mortality of 40% and is implicated in half of all in-hospital deaths. The host immune response to microbial infection is critical, with early-phase sepsis characterized by a hyperinflammatory immune response, whereas the later phase of sepsis is often complicated by suppression. Sepsis has no treatment, and management remains supportive.Stem cells constitute exciting potential therapeutic agents for sepsis. In this review, we examine the rationale for stem cells in sepsis, focusing on mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which currently demonstrate the greatest therapeutic promise. We examine the preclinical evidence base and evaluate potential mechanisms of action of these cells that are important in the setting of sepsis. We discuss early-phase clinical trials and critically appraise translational barriers to the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in patients with sepsis.

  7. Stem cells: A boon in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a remarkable interest in stem cells within the dental and medical community mainly because of their capability of self-renewal and multiple lineage differentiation. Due to its multipotent properties, stem cells have been employed in the regeneration of body parts and curing various diseases. Stem cells have been isolated from oral and maxillofacial region including tooth, gingiva, periodontium and oral mucosa. Stem cell research and therapy may be used as an alternative to current conventional methods of restoring tooth and craniofacial defects. The objective of this literature review is to provide an overview of the different types of stem cells and their origin and characteristics features and its applications in dentistry. The literature search included PubMed, other indexed journals, and online material.

  8. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  9. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  10. Stem cells in dentistry: A study regarding awareness of stem cells among dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitroda, Parita K; Katti, Girish; Attar, Nikhat M; Shahbaz, Syed; Sreenivasarao, G; Patil, Ambika

    2017-01-01

    Dental stem cell, a type of adult stem cell, exhibits multipotent differentiation capacity and is drawing worldwide attention because of its numerous applications. The advances in applications of dental stem cells seem to be unsurpassed in the near future, for which specialized skills and knowledge in this arena are of prime significance. Hence, there is a need to acquire more knowledge about dental stem cells to obtain maximum benefits from it in the coming years. Dental stem cells in India are still at the budding stage, and there seems to be limited awareness regarding dental stem cells. This study aimed to assess the awareness of stem cells among the dental professionals. The present study was a questionnaire-based study of dental professionals (MDS, BDS, postgraduates, and interns) of three different institutions. Results showed that 95.2% of dental professionals are aware of the terminology dental stem cells and 53.9% of them are aware of various applications of dental stem cells. Chi-square test showed a significant correlation between the sources of information, source of dental stem cells, and clinical applications in relation to the academic qualification of the dental professionals. This study revealed a good level of awareness among the dental professionals, and it also showed the need to spread more knowledge about the advances in applications, storage, banking, and guidelines related to dental stem cells.

  11. Stem Cell Therapy for Fanconi Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Shuo

    2017-07-08

    Stem cell therapy is the administration of stem cells to a patient to treat or prevent a disease. Since stem cells possess the long-term self-renewal capacity and provide daughter cells that differentiate into the specialized cells of each tissue, stem cell therapy will theoretically improve the disease condition for the lifetime of the patient. As the most widely used stem cell therapy, bone marrow transplantation is the treatment of choice for many kinds of blood disorders, including anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and rare immunodeficiency diseases. For the fatal genetic blood disorder Fanconi anemia, allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has remained the only curative treatment. But the recent advances in stem cell and gene therapy fields may provide promising opportunities for an alternative or even better management of Fanconi anemia. Many of these new ideas and opportunities are also useful for treating other blood diseases that affect hematopoietic stem cells, such as sickle cell anemia, severe combined immunodeficiencies, and beta-thalassemias. In this chapter, these advances along with their challenges and limitations will be thoroughly discussed.

  12. Allogeneic split-skin grafting in stem cell transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Kyrre Berg; Vindeløv, Lars; Schmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: We present a unique case of a bone marrow stem cell transplanted (BMT) patient with cutaneous chronic Graft versus Host Disease (cGvHD) who underwent successful allogeneic split-thickness skin graft (STSG) transplantation. BMT had previously been carried out due to myelodysplasia and non......). Allogeneic skin grafts are known to be acutely rejected. Successful allogeneic STSG has only been reported in sporadic cases of identical twins (isotransplantation). This case is the first to demonstrate what works in theory: the immune system of a stem cell transplanted patient with 100% or mixed stable...... donor chimaerism will not recognise skin from the stem cell donor as foreign. Due to advances in haematology, the number of BMT patients and their long-term survival is expected to increase. cGvHD, predisposing to skin problems and ulcerations, complicates up to 70% of cases of BMT. In BMT patients...

  13. Stem cells in court: historical trends in US legal cases related to stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Andreia Martins; Turner, Leigh

    2017-04-01

    Using two legal research platforms, we identified 193 stem-cell-related legal cases that were decided in US courts. Classifying the cases by category, we examined historical trends in the types of legal cases related to stem cells. Major types of cases involved plaintiffs seeking to overturn denial of health insurance coverage decisions, disputes related to intellectual property, false advertising, breaches of contract, exposure to hazardous agents, regulatory decisions, stem cell procedures and professional standard of care, use of stems cells in research, and public funding of embryonic stem cell research. Analysis of court decisions provides insight into contemporary and historical legal issues related to stem cells and reveals the breadth of stem-cell-related cases now being decided by US courts.

  14. Single-cell analysis reveals a stem-cell program in human metastatic breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Devon A.; Bhakta, Nirav R.; Kessenbrock, Kai; Prummel, Karin D.; Yu, Ying; Takai, Ken; Zhou, Alicia; Eyob, Henok; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Wang, Chih-Yang; Yaswen, Paul; Goga, Andrei; Werb, Zena

    2015-01-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the molecular and genetic basis of cancer, metastasis remains the cause of >90% of cancer-related mortality1. Understanding metastasis initiation and progression is critical to developing new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent metastatic disease. Prevailing theories hypothesize that metastases are seeded by rare tumour cells with unique properties, which may function like stem cells in their ability to initiate and propagate metastatic tumours2–5. However, the identity of metastasis-initiating cells in human breast cancer remains elusive, and whether metastases are hierarchically organized is unknown2. Here we show at the single-cell level that early stage metastatic cells possess a distinct stem-like gene expression signature. To identify and isolate metastatic cells from patient-derived xenograft models of human breast cancer, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based assay, which allowed us to enumerate metastatic cells in mouse peripheral tissues. We compared gene signatures in metastatic cells from tissues with low versus high metastatic burden. Metastatic cells from low-burden tissues were distinct owing to their increased expression of stem cell, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, pro-survival, and dormancy-associated genes. By contrast, metastatic cells from high-burden tissues were similar to primary tumour cells, which were more heterogeneous and expressed higher levels of luminal differentiation genes. Transplantation of stem-like metastatic cells from low-burden tissues showed that they have considerable tumour-initiating capacity, and can differentiate to produce luminal-like cancer cells. Progression to high metastatic burden was associated with increased proliferation and MYC expression, which could be attenuated by treatment with cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. These findings support a hierarchical model for metastasis, in which metastases are

  15. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  16. Regenerative medicine for the kidney: renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Akito; Nakasatomi, Masao; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2014-01-01

    The kidney has the capacity for regeneration and repair after a variety of insults. Over the past few decades, factors that promote repair of the injured kidney have been extensively investigated. By using kidney injury animal models, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic growth factors, transcription factors, and extracellular matrix in this process has been examined. The identification of renal stem cells in the adult kidney as well as in the embryonic kidney is an active area of research. Cell populations expressing putative stem cell markers or possessing stem cell properties have been found in the tubules, interstitium, and glomeruli of the normal kidney. Cell therapies with bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have been highly effective for the treatment of acute or chronic renal failure in animals. Embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also utilized for the construction of artificial kidneys or renal components. In this review, we highlight the advances in regenerative medicine for the kidney from the perspective of renotropic factors, renal stem/progenitor cells, and stem cell therapies and discuss the issues to be solved to realize regenerative therapy for kidney diseases in humans.

  17. Current overview on dental stem cells applications in regenerative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Ramta; Jain, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Teeth are the most natural, noninvasive source of stem cells. Dental stem cells, which are easy, convenient, and affordable to collect, hold promise for a range of very potential therapeutic applications. We have reviewed the ever-growing literature on dental stem cells archived in Medline using the following key words: Regenerative dentistry, dental stem cells, dental stem cells banking, and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. Relevant articles covering topics related to dental...

  18. C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Predict Steroid-Refractory Disease, Treatment-Related Mortality, and Overall Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minculescu, Lia; Kornblit, Brian Thomas; Friis, Lone Smidstrups; Schiødt, Ida; Petersen, Soeren Lykke; Andersen, Niels Smedegaard; Sengeloev, Henrik

    2017-10-23

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a cause of excessive morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Primary treatment consists of high-dose corticosteroids, but a small group of patients develop steroid-refractory disease, and their prognosis is especially poor. There is experimental evidence that coexisting inflammation aggravates aGVHD. Because C-reactive protein (CRP) is a systemic inflammatory marker, we aimed to investigate whether plasma CRP concentrations at the diagnosis of aGVHD can predict the risk of failing first-line therapy and developing steroid-refractory disease. We retrospectively studied 461 patients who underwent HSCT between 2010 and 2015. aGVHD grade II-IV was diagnosed in 148 patients (32%). CRP level and total white blood cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts were available for all patients at the time of aGVHD diagnosis. According to local protocol, patients with failed response to high-dose steroid therapy (2 mg/kg) were treated with the TNF-α inhibitor infliximab and categorized as having steroid-refractory disease. Of 148 patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, 28 (19%) developed steroid-refractory disease. In these patients, plasma CRP concentration at diagnosis ranged between refractory disease compared with those who responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.93; P = .001). This translated into significantly increased transplantation-related mortality and decreased overall survival in the patients with high CRP levels. Total white blood cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts were not associated with steroid resistance in the patients with aGVHD. These results suggest that CRP level at diagnosis is a valid predictor of the development of steroid-refractory disease in patients who develop grade II-IV aGVHD after HSCT. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Stem-Like Cells in Bone Sarcomas: Implications for Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Parker Gibbs

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone sarcomas are a clinically and molecularly heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by varying degrees of mesenchymal differentiation. Despite advances in medical and surgical management, survival rates for high-grade tumors have remained static at 50% to 70%. Tumor stem cells have been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of other heterogeneous, highly malignant tumors. We demonstrate here the existence of a small subpopulation of self-renewing bone sarcoma cells that are capable of forming suspended spherical, clonal colonies, also called “sarcospheres,” in anchorage-independent, serum-starved conditions. These bone sarcoma cells as well as tissue specimens express activated STAT3 and the marker genes of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells, Oct 3/4 and Nanog. Expression levels of Oct 3/4 and Nanog are greater in sarcospheres than in adherent cultures. A subset of bone sarcoma cells displays several surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD105, and CD44 as well as attributes of mesodermal, ectodermal, and endodermal differentiation. Although previously documented in brain and breast tumors, our results support the extension of the cancer stem cell hypothesis to include tumors of mesenchymal lineage. Furthermore, they suggest the participation of ES cell homeobox proteins in non-germ cell tumorigenesis.

  20. Fundamental Principles of Stem Cell Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.

  1. Characterization of companion animal pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Y Z; Kafarnik, C; Guest, D J

    2017-07-05

    Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to grow indefinitely in culture and differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers. These properties underpin their potential to be used in regenerative medicine. Originally derived from early embryos, pluripotent stem cells can now be derived by reprogramming an adult cell back to a pluripotent state. Companion animals such as horses, dogs, and cats suffer from many injuries and diseases for which regenerative medicine may offer new treatments. As many of the injuries and diseases are similar to conditions in humans the use of companion animals for the experimental and clinical testing of stem cell and regenerative medicine products would provide relevant animal models for the translation of therapies to the human field. In order to fully utilize companion animal pluripotent stem cells robust, standardized methods of characterization must be developed to ensure that safe and effective treatments can be delivered. In this review we discuss the methods that are available for characterizing pluripotent stem cells and the techniques that have been applied in cells from companion animals. We describe characteristics which have been described consistently across reports as well as highlighting discrepant results. Significant steps have been made to define the in vitro culture requirements and drive lineage specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in companion animal species. However, additional basic research to compare pluripotent stem cell types and define characteristics of pluripotency in companion animal species is still required. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Current perspectives on imaging cardiac stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joseph C; Abraham, M Roselle; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2010-05-01

    Molecular imaging is a new discipline that makes possible the noninvasive visualization of cellular and molecular processes in living subjects. In the field of cardiovascular regenerative therapy, imaging cell fate after transplantation is a high priority in both basic research and clinical translation. For cell-based therapy to truly succeed, we must be able to track the locations of delivered cells, the duration of cell survival, and any potential adverse effects. The insights gathered from basic research imaging studies will yield valuable insights into better designs for clinical trials. This review highlights the different types of stem cells used for cardiovascular repair, the development of various imaging modalities to track their fate in vivo, and the challenges of clinical translation of cardiac stem cell imaging in the future.

  3. Improving stem cell engraftment to enhance functional efficacy in cardiovascular disease: where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Thi-Van Bui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy for repairing damaged tissue. A growing body of research shows that stem cells work effectively in several diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hepatic disease, and diabetes. It has been shown that stem cells not only differentiate into functional cells and replace dead cells, but also release growth factors and cytokines which can recruit autologous cells. The most significant barrier to achieve clinical relevance of this treatment mode is the poor survival rate of injected cells. To improve transplantation and enhance functional outcome, investigations of gene transfection (overexpression of anti-apoptotic and antioxidant proteins, growth factor supplementation, and scaffolding matrices are being conducted. In this review, we will focus on methods to increase cell survival in stem cell transplantation as a novel treatment for cardiovascular disease.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy J Mary

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adult bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells offer the potential to open a new frontier in medicine. Regenerative medicine aims to replace effete cells in a broad range of conditions associated with damaged cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon and ligament. However the normal process of immune rejection of mismatched allogeneic tissue would appear to prevent the realisation of such ambitions. In fact mesenchymal stem cells avoid allogeneic rejection in humans and in animal models. These finding are supported by in vitro co-culture studies. Three broad mechanisms contribute to this effect. Firstly, mesenchymal stem cells are hypoimmunogenic, often lacking MHC-II and costimulatory molecule expression. Secondly, these stem cells prevent T cell responses indirectly through modulation of dendritic cells and directly by disrupting NK as well as CD8+ and CD4+ T cell function. Thirdly, mesenchymal stem cells induce a suppressive local microenvironment through the production of prostaglandins and interleukin-10 as well as by the expression of indoleamine 2,3,-dioxygenase, which depletes the local milieu of tryptophan. Comparison is made to maternal tolerance of the fetal allograft, and contrasted with the immune evasion mechanisms of tumor cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are a highly regulated self-renewing population of cells with potent mechanisms to avoid allogeneic rejection.

  5. The bone marrow stem cell niche grows up: mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages move in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehninger, Armin; Trumpp, Andreas

    2011-03-14

    Stem cell niches are defined as the cellular and molecular microenvironments that regulate stem cell function together with stem cell autonomous mechanisms. This includes control of the balance between quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation, as well as the engagement of specific programs in response to stress. In mammals, the best understood niche is that harboring bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Recent studies have expanded the number of cell types contributing to the HSC niche. Perivascular mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages now join the previously identified sinusoidal endothelial cells, sympathetic nerve fibers, and cells of the osteoblastic lineage to form similar, but distinct, niches that harbor dormant and self-renewing HSCs during homeostasis and mediate stem cell mobilization in response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

  6. Prevalence of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells Correlates with Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dahl Steffensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44+ EOC stem cells in ovarian cancer tumors and progression-free survival. EOC stem cells exist as clusters located close to the stroma forming the cancer stem cell “niche”. 17.1% of the samples reveled high number of CD44+ EOC stem cells (>20% positive cells. In addition, the number of CD44+ EOC stem cells was significantly higher in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (FIGO I/II, and it was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P=0.026. This study suggests that quantification of the number of EOC stem cells in the tumor can be used as a predictor of disease and could be applied for treatment selection in early-stage ovarian cancer.

  7. Immune roles of dendritic cells in stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liao, Wenwei; Liu, Furong; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiaoshun; Hu, Anbin

    2017-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and initial stimulators for immune response. DCs can shape their functions based on their immune states, which are crucial for the balance of immunity and tolerance to preserve homeostasis. In the immune response involved in stem cell transplantation, DCs also play important roles in inducing immune tolerance and antitumor immunity. After the rapid development of stem cell transplantation technology in recent years, the risks of graft rejection, tumor recurrence, and tumorigenicity are still present after stem cell transplantation. It is important to understand the mechanisms of DC-mediated immune tolerance and stimulation during stem cell transplantation. In this review, we will summarize and analyze the regulatory mechanisms of DCs in stem cell transplantation and their application in clinical settings. It may help to promote the innovation in basic theories and therapeutic approaches of stem cell transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  9. Stem cells in neurology - current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chary Ely Marquez Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS restoration is an important clinical challenge and stem cell transplantation has been considered a promising therapeutic option for many neurological diseases. Objective : The present review aims to briefly describe stem cell biology, as well as to outline the clinical application of stem cells in the treatment of diseases of the CNS. Method : Literature review of animal and human clinical experimental trials, using the following key words: “stem cell”, “neurogenesis”, “Parkinson”, “Huntington”, “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis”, “traumatic brain injury”, “spinal cord injury”, “ischemic stroke”, and “demyelinating diseases”. Conclusion : Major recent advances in stem cell research have brought us several steps closer to their effective clinical application, which aims to develop efficient ways of regenerating the damaged CNS.

  10. Engineering nanoscale stem cell niche: direct stem cell behavior at cell-matrix interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Gordon, Andrew; Qian, Weiyi; Chen, Weiqiang

    2015-09-16

    Biophysical cues on the extracellular matrix (ECM) have proven to be significant regulators of stem cell behavior and evolution. Understanding the interplay of these cells and their extracellular microenvironment is critical to future tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, both of which require a means of controlled differentiation. Research suggests that nanotopography, which mimics the local, nanoscale, topographic cues within the stem cell niche, could be a way to achieve large-scale proliferation and control of stem cells in vitro. This Progress Report reviews the history and contemporary advancements of this technology, and pays special attention to nanotopographic fabrication methods and the effect of different nanoscale patterns on stem cell response. Finally, it outlines potential intracellular mechanisms behind this response. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Oxidative Stress in Stem Cell Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Yingxia; Wong, Nai-Kei; Xiao, Jia; So, Kwok-Fai

    2017-09-01

    Stem cell aging is a process in which stem cells progressively lose their ability to self-renew or differentiate, succumb to senescence or apoptosis, and eventually become functionally depleted. Unresolved oxidative stress and concomitant oxidative damages of cellular macromolecules including nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates have been recognized to contribute to stem cell aging. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species and insufficient cellular antioxidant reserves compromise cell repair and metabolic homeostasis, which serves as a mechanistic switch for a variety of aging-related pathways. Understanding the molecular trigger, regulation, and outcomes of those signaling networks is critical for developing novel therapies for aging-related diseases by targeting stem cell aging. Here we explore the key features of stem cell aging biology, with an emphasis on the roles of oxidative stress in the aging process at the molecular level. As a concept of cytoprotection of stem cells in transplantation, we also discuss how systematic enhancement of endogenous antioxidant capacity before or during graft into tissues can potentially raise the efficacy of clinical therapy. Finally, future directions for elucidating the control of oxidative stress and developing preventive/curative strategies against stem cell aging are discussed.

  12. Generating Rho-0 Cells Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández-Moreno

    Full Text Available The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr, incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA more safely than by using EtBr.Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP were used; 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells were used as reference control. For generation of Rho-0 hMSCs, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with each tested reagent. Total DNA was isolated and mtDNA content was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Phenotypic characterization and gene expression assays were performed to determine whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs maintain the same stem properties as untreated 3a6 hMSCs. To evaluate whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs had a phenotype similar to that of 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, apoptotic levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm were measured by flow cytometry and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated using a SeaHorse XFp Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The differentiation capacity of 3a6 and 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs was evaluated using real-time PCR, comparing the relative expression of genes involved in osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis.The results showed the capacity of the 3a6 cell line to deplete its mtDNA and to survive in culture with uridine. Of all tested drugs, Stavudine (dt4 was the most effective in producing 3a6-Rho cells. The data indicate that hMSC Rho-0 cells continue to express the characteristic MSC cell surface receptor pattern. Phenotypic characterization showed that 3a6 Rho-0 cells resembled 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, indicating that hMSC Rho-0 cells are Rho-0 cells. While the adipogenic capability was higher in 3a6 Rho-0 cells than in 3a6 cells, the osteogenic and chondrogenic capacities were lower

  13. Generating Rho-0 Cells Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Gallardo, M Esther; Dalmao-Fernández, Andrea; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Garesse, Rafael; Blanco, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The generation of Rho-0 cells requires the use of an immortalization process, or tumor cell selection, followed by culture in the presence of ethidium bromide (EtBr), incurring the drawbacks its use entails. The purpose of this work was to generate Rho-0 cells using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with reagents having the ability to remove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) more safely than by using EtBr. Two immortalized hMSC lines (3a6 and KP) were used; 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells were used as reference control. For generation of Rho-0 hMSCs, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with each tested reagent. Total DNA was isolated and mtDNA content was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Phenotypic characterization and gene expression assays were performed to determine whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs maintain the same stem properties as untreated 3a6 hMSCs. To evaluate whether 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs had a phenotype similar to that of 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptotic levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were measured by flow cytometry and mitochondrial respiration was evaluated using a SeaHorse XFp Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The differentiation capacity of 3a6 and 3a6 Rho-0 hMSCs was evaluated using real-time PCR, comparing the relative expression of genes involved in osteogenesis, adipogenesis and chondrogenesis. The results showed the capacity of the 3a6 cell line to deplete its mtDNA and to survive in culture with uridine. Of all tested drugs, Stavudine (dt4) was the most effective in producing 3a6-Rho cells. The data indicate that hMSC Rho-0 cells continue to express the characteristic MSC cell surface receptor pattern. Phenotypic characterization showed that 3a6 Rho-0 cells resembled 143B.TK-Rho-0 cells, indicating that hMSC Rho-0 cells are Rho-0 cells. While the adipogenic capability was higher in 3a6 Rho-0 cells than in 3a6 cells, the osteogenic and chondrogenic capacities were lower. Among the

  14. State of the Art in Stem Cell Research: Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, and Transdifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria de Peppo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells divide by asymmetric division and display different degrees of potency, or ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types. Owing to their unique regenerative capacity, stem cells have generated great enthusiasm worldwide and represent an invaluable tool with unprecedented potential for biomedical research and therapeutic applications. Stem cells play a central role in the understanding of molecular mechanisms regulating tissue development and regeneration in normal and pathological conditions and open large possibilities for the discovery of innovative pharmaceuticals to treat the most devastating diseases of our time. Not least, their intrinsic characteristics allow the engineering of functional tissues for replacement therapies that promise to revolutionize the medical practice in the near future. In this paper, the authors present the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells and new developments of transdifferentiation technologies and explore some of the biomedical applications that this emerging technology is expected to empower.

  15. Muscle Stem Cells: A Model System for Adult Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelison, Ddw; Perdiguero, Eusebio

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, originally termed satellite cells for their position adjacent to differentiated muscle fibers, are absolutely required for the process of skeletal muscle repair and regeneration. In the last decade, satellite cells have become one of the most studied adult stem cell systems and have emerged as a standard model not only in the field of stem cell-driven tissue regeneration but also in stem cell dysfunction and aging. Here, we provide background in the field and discuss recent advances in our understanding of muscle stem cell function and dysfunction, particularly in the case of aging, and the potential involvement of muscle stem cells in genetic diseases such as the muscular dystrophies.

  16. Immunological characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Vasconcellos Machado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bone marrow is the main source, mesenchymal stem cells have already been isolated from various other tissues, such as the liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, peripheral blood and de