WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving infant ahr

  1. Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Goldstein, Ricki F; Bann, Carla M; Hintz, Susan R; Patel, Ravi M; Smith, P Brian; Bell, Edward F; Rysavy, Matthew A; Duncan, Andrea F; Vohr, Betty R; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N; Higgins, Rosemary D; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-02-16

    Data reported during the past 5 years indicate that rates of survival have increased among infants born at the borderline of viability, but less is known about how increased rates of survival among these infants relate to early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. We compared survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at 22 to 24 weeks of gestation, as assessed at 18 to 22 months of corrected age, across three consecutive birth-year epochs (2000-2003 [epoch 1], 2004-2007 [epoch 2], and 2008-2011 [epoch 3]). The infants were born at 11 centers that participated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. The primary outcome measure was a three-level outcome - survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, or death. After accounting for differences in infant characteristics, including birth center, we used multinomial generalized logit models to compare the relative risk of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment, survival with neurodevelopmental impairment, and death. Data on the primary outcome were available for 4274 of 4458 infants (96%) born at the 11 centers. The percentage of infants who survived increased from 30% (424 of 1391 infants) in epoch 1 to 36% (487 of 1348 infants) in epoch 3 (Pneurodevelopmental impairment increased from 16% (217 of 1391) in epoch 1 to 20% (276 of 1348) in epoch 3 (P=0.001), whereas the percentage of infants who survived with neurodevelopmental impairment did not change significantly (15% [207 of 1391] in epoch 1 and 16% [211 of 1348] in epoch 3, P=0.29). After adjustment for changes in the baseline characteristics of the infants over time, both the rate of survival with neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) and the rate of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment (as compared with death) increased over time (adjusted relative risks, 1.27 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01 to 1.59] and 1

  2. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  3. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W.; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A.; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants. PMID:26357555

  4. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South. Africa. is study aimed ... Mortality as a result of prematurity is the major contributor to .... reported from a large cohort study that.

  5. Multidisciplinary surgical approach to a surviving infant with sirenomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, Antonio; Innocenti, Marco; Gelli, Riccardo; Pancani, Simone; Lo Piccolo, Roberto; Martin, Alessandra

    2006-07-01

    Sirenomelia is an extremely complex and rare malformation with different degrees of lower-extremities fusion associated with gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, vascular, cardiopulmonary, and central nervous system malformations. In the English literature, there are only 5 reports of infants surviving with this condition. In our case, a 2540-g female infant was born with normal vital signs, no facial dysmorphism, and a complete soft tissue fusion of the lower limbs, from perineum to ankles. Radiologic examinations revealed an intestinal atresia and a single pelvic kidney, with a unique ureter, 2 femurs, 2 tibias, 2 fibulas, and 2 feet (simpus dipus). At 7 months of age, a multidisciplinary surgical team achieved complete separation of the lower limbs, with independent vascular and nerve supplies. At the time of this writing, the infant was 28 months old and had a regular growth curve. Many future reconstructive surgeries have been planned to achieve an acceptable quality of life for this infant.

  6. Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries (TGA). DESIGN: Population-based data from 7 European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA...

  7. Improving the quality of survival for infants of birthweight Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-04

    To compare between eras the early care of extremely low birthweight (birthweight eras, 1979-1980 and 1985-1987. PATIENTS AND OUTCOMES: Mortality data to two years of age were available for all infants liveborn in non-level-III centres in the two eras (1979-1980, n = 106; 1985-1987, n = 129). In 1979-1980, 47 of 52 infants transferred to a level-III centre were transported by the Newborn Emergency Transport Service (NETS); in 1985-1987, all 49 infants transferred were transported by NETS. Data concerning the immediate care after birth and during transport to a level-III centre were available for all infants transferred by NETS. All survivors were assessed for sensorineural impairments and disabilities at two years of age, corrected for prematurity. In both eras, 18 children born outside and transferred to a level-III centre survived to two years of age. Survivors in both eras had almost identical mean birthweights and gestational ages. There were trends for more survivors to be referred by paediatricians--1979-1980, 61%; 1985-1987, 83%; odds ratio (OR), 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-12.4--and for quicker referral times to NETS in 1985-1987 (1979-1980, median 34.5 minutes after birth; 1985-1987, median 21.5 minutes after birth; z = 1.91, P = 0.056). It was possible only during 1985-1987 to monitor transcutaneous PO2 during transport. Durations of transport were similar in both eras. However, only in 1985-1987 was it possible in survivors to reduce significantly the inspired oxygen concentration during transport (median reductions in inspired oxygen, 1979-1980 3.5%; 1985-1987 20%; P = 0.028). Neurological impairment rates were substantially lower in survivors transported in the latter era (1979-1980 72% impaired; 1985-1987 22% impaired; OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04-0.52). Of the neurological impairments, fewer had severe developmental delay alone (1979-1980 22%; 1985-1987 0%; OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.018-0.46), and the rate of blindness was lower, but the latter difference

  8. Survival of infants and children born to women who died from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors favouring infant survival include nursing, up-bringing and breast-feeding by a surrogate mother (who is usually either the deceased's sister or mother), infant feeding with goat's or cow's milk, Immunization, hospital treatment of aliments, hospital delivery or maternal death in the hospital and finally when the caretaker ...

  9. A surviving infant with sirenomelia (Mermaid syndrome) associated with absent bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael P; Penington, Elizabeth C; Hutson, John M

    2003-08-01

    The authors report a case of a surviving infant with sirenomelia (Mermaid syndrome). The child is now 4 years of age. The authors believe that this is only the fourth reported case of an infant with sirenomelia surviving beyond the neonatal period and the first associated with absent bladder. The abnormal distal aorta shown in this case supports the theory that sirenomelia is an extreme form of caudal dysgenesis rather than occurring secondary to vascular steal.

  10. Lung Maturation: The Survival Miracle of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Jobe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased survival of very preterm infants is generally attributed to improved care strategies. This review develops the thesis that the features of abnormal pregnancies responsible for very preterm deliveries also provide an explanation of why very preterm infants often survive. A normal fetus born at 24 weeks is very unlikely to survive. However, pregnancies that result in deliveries at 24 weeks are generally highly abnormal, and may have been so for prolonged periods prior to the preterm deliveries. Inflammatory or vascular developmental abnormalities resulting in very preterm birth can alter fetal development in such a way that organ system maturation is induced. This is supported clinically by the relative lack of very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions such as antenatal corticosteroid treatment and postnatal surfactant treatment for infants with respiratory distress syndrome and gentle ventilation strategies maximize fetal adaptations to the abnormal fetal environment and improve outcomes.

  11. Improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes among extremely premature infants born near the limit of viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Smith, P Brian; Gustafson, Kathryn E; Malcolm, William; Ashley, Patricia; Cotten, C Michael; Goldberg, Ronald N; Goldstein, Ricki F

    2016-04-01

    Infants born near the limit of viability are at high risk for death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. It is unclear whether these outcomes have improved over the past 15 years. To determine if death and neurodevelopmental impairment have declined over the past 15 years in infants born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation. Retrospective cohort study. We identified infants born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation in our center in two epochs: 1998-2004 (Epoch 1) and 2005-2011 (Epoch 2). The primary outcome, death or neurodevelopmental impairment, was evaluated at 17-25 months' corrected gestational age with neurologic exams and Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Perinatal characteristics, major morbidities, and outcomes were compared between epochs. Birth weight and gestational age were similar between 170 infants in Epoch 1 and 187 infants in Epoch 2. Mortality was significantly lower in Epoch 2, 55% vs. 42% (p=0.02). Among surviving infants, late-onset sepsis (pNeurodevelopmental impairment among surviving infants declined from 68% in Epoch 1 to 47% in Epoch 2, p=0.02. Odds of death or NDI were significantly lower in Epoch 2 vs. Epoch 1, OR=0.31 (95% confidence interval; 0.16, 0.58). Risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment decreased over time in infants born at 22 to 24 weeks' gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those born weighing less ... an association between retinopathy of prematurity and poor weight gain. .... LGA = large for gestational age; SGA = small for gestational age; NEC = necrotising enterocolitis;.

  13. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  14. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks: Single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Asad; Abdellatif, Mohamed; Sharef, Sharef W; Fazalullah, Muhammad; Al-Senaidi, Khalfan; Khan, Ashfaq A; Ahmad, Masood; Kripail, Mathew; Abuanza, Mazen; Bataclan, Flordeliza

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23-26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. A total of 81 infants between 23-26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%), retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%), intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9%) and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4%) were the most common morbidities. The overall survival rate of infants between 23-26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  15. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  16. Changes in Survival and Neonatal Morbidity in Infants with a Birth Weight of 750 g or Less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, M. J.; Bruinse, H. W.; van der Heide-Jalving, M.; Termote, J. U. M.; de Vries, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Improvement in perinatal and neonatal care has resulted in increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Objectives: To describe survival and neonatal morbidity in a cohort of ELBW infants, to compare two consecutive 5-year periods, and compare appropriate (AGA) with

  17. Interaction of fish aryl hydrocarbon receptor paralogs (AHR1 and AHR2) with the retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, Rebeka R., E-mail: rmerson@ric.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Biology Department, Rhode Island College, 500 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2009-08-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. In some mammalian cell lines, TCDD induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which depends on an interaction between the AHR and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB). Mammals possess one AHR, whereas fishes possess two or more AHR paralogs that differ in the domains important for AHR-RB interactions in mammals. To test the hypothesis that fish AHR paralogs differ in their ability to interact with RB, we cloned RB cDNA from Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and studied the interactions of killifish RB protein with killifish AHR1 and AHR2. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, in vitro-expressed killifish RB coprecipitated with both AHR1 and AHR2. Consistent with these results, both killifish AHR1 and AHR2 interacted with RB in mammalian two-hybrid assays. These results suggest that both fish AHR1 and AHR2 paralogs may have the potential to influence cell proliferation through interactions with RB.

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization in Preterm Infants With Sepsis Is Associated With Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavashi, Vahid; Asadian, Simin; Taheri-Asl, Masoud; Keshavarz, Samaneh; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Microvascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathology of sepsis, leading to multi-organ failure, and death. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are critically involved in the maintenance of the vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, concentration of cEPCs in preterm infants with sepsis was determined to recognize whether the EPC mobilization would affect the clinical outcome of infantile sepsis. One hundred and thirty-three preterm infants (81 with sepsis and 52 without sepsis) were enrolled in this study. The release of EPCs in circulation was first quantified. Thereafter, these cells were cultivated and biological features of these cells such as, proliferation and colony forming efficiency were analyzed. The levels of chemoattractant cytokines were also measured in infants. In mouse models of sepsis, effects of VEGF and SDF-1 as well as anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 were evaluated in order to shed light upon the role which the EPC mobilization plays in the overall survival of septic animals. Circulating EPCs were significantly higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in the non-sepsis group. Serum levels of VEGF, SDF-1, and Angiopoietin-2 were also higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in control non-sepsis. In the animal experiments, injection of VEGF and SDF-1 prompted the mobilization of EPCs, leading to an improvement in survival whereas injection of anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 was associated with significant deterioration of survival. Overall, our results demonstrated the beneficial effects of EPC release in preterm infants with sepsis, with increased mobilization of these cells was associated with improved survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3299-3307, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera; Bakker, Marian K; Gener, Blanca; Abramsky, Lenore; Addor, Marie-Claude; Queisser-Luft, Annette

    2007-01-01

    To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries (TGA). Population-based data from 7 European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA and livebirth prevalence was 2.0 per 10,000 livebirths. The majority of infants were treated with prostaglandins (83%) and 57% had a catheter atrial septostomia performed. Arterial switch surgery was performed in 78 infants, other or unknown type of surgery was performed in 3 cases, and for 6 infants there was no information on surgery. At 1 year of age 69 infants were alive (71%) and 24 (25%) were dead (4 unknown). There were 10 deaths before surgery and 58% of all deaths took place during the first week. There was no statistically significant regional difference in mortality. Eight infants diagnosed prenatally all survived to 1 year and only 71% of infants diagnosed after birth survived (P = 0.08). Data on morbidity at 1 year of age was available for 57 infants. Fifty-one infants were reported with normal health and development. In this population-based study survival for liveborn infants with TGA is lower than in studies published from tertiary centers. Outcome for survivors at 1 year of age seems favorable.

  20. Characterization of MCF mammary epithelial cells overexpressing the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Patrick S; Li, Wen; Vogel, Christoph F; Matsumura, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports indicate the existence of breast cancer cells expressing very high levels of the Arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ubiquitous intracellular receptor best known for mediating toxic action of dioxin and related pollutants. Positive correlation between the degree of AhR overexpression and states of increasing transformation of mammary epithelial cells appears to occur in the absence of any exogenous AhR ligands. These observations have raised many questions such as why and how AhR is overexpressed in breast cancer and its physiological roles in the progression to advanced carcinogenic transformation. To address those questions, we hypothesized that AhR overexpression occurs in cells experiencing deficiencies in normally required estrogen receptor (ER) signaling, and the basic role of AhR in such cases is to guide the affected cells to develop orchestrated cellular changes aimed at substituting the normal functions of ER. At the same time, the AhR serves as the mediator of the cell survival program in the absence of ER signaling. We subjected two lines of Michigan Cancer Foundation (MCF) mammary epithelial cells to 3 different types ER interacting agents for a number of passages and followed the changes in the expression of AhR mRNA. The resulting sublines were analyzed for phenotypical changes and unique molecular characteristics. MCF10AT1 cells continuously exposed to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) developed sub-lines that show AhR overexpression with the characteristic phenotype of increased proliferation, and distinct resistance to apoptosis. When these chemically selected cell lines were treated with a specific AhR antagonist, 3-methoxy-4-nitroflavone (MNF), both of the above abnormal cellular characteristics disappeared, indicating the pivotal role of AhR in expressing those cellular phenotypes. The most prominent molecular characteristics of these AhR overexpressing MCF cells were found to be overexpression of ErbB2 and COX-2. Furthermore, we could

  1. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implication of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Su-Min; Iida, Midori; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2013-03-19

    To evaluate species- and isoform-specific responses to dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the red seabream ( Pagrus major ), we constructed a reporter gene assay system. Each expression plasmid of red seabream AHR1 (rsAHR1) and AHR2 (rsAHR2) together with a reporter plasmid containing red seabream CYP1A 5'-flanking region were transfected into COS-7 cells. The cells were treated with graded concentrations of seven DRC congeners including 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and PCB126. Both rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 exhibited dose-dependent responses for all the tested congeners. The rsAHR isoform-specific TCDD induction equivalency factors (rsAHR1- and rsAHR2-IEFs) were calculated on the basis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD relative potency derived from the dose-response of each congener. The rsAHR1-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, and HxCDF were estimated as 0.17, 0.29, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.27, respectively. For PCB126, no rsAHR1-IEF was given because of less than 10% 2,3,7,8-TCDD maximum response. The rsAHR2-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, HxCDF, and PCB126 were estimated as 0.38, 0.13, 1.5, 0.93, 0.20, and 0.0085, respectively. The rsAHR1/2-IEF profiles were different from WHO toxic equivalency factors for fish. In silico docking simulations supported that both rsAHRs have potentials to bind to these congeners. These results suggest that dioxin toxicities may be mediated by both rsAHRs in red seabreams.

  2. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wincent, Emma [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1050 (United States); Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.

  3. Maternal Obesity and Impaired Fetal and Infant Survival-One More Piece Added to the Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal obesity and increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality is well documented, but it has often been questioned whether the association is driven by obesity per se or by unmeasured factors such as insulin resistance or genes. In this issue of the Journal, Lindam...... et al. compared the body mass indices (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of women who had stillbirths and infant deaths with those of their sisters or of population controls. Significant excess risks of both outcomes were observed in obese women (body mass index ≥30), and associations were strongest when...... sister controls were used. Although this careful analysis adds to the existing evidence of a causal relationship between maternal obesity and impaired fetal and infant survival, a biological pathway has not yet been established. Additionally, we are in urgent need of effective tools to reduce obesity...

  4. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  5. Survival and morbidity of very low birth weight infant in a South American neonatal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rocío; D'Apremont, Ivonne; Domínguez, Angélica; Tapia, José L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze survival and relevant morbidity by gestational age (GA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (Neonatal Network (Red Neonatal Neocosur) between January 2001 and December 2011. Data on 8234 VLBW with a GA between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks were analyzed. Overall mortality was 26% (95% CI: 25.0-26.9), including 2.6% of deaths in the delivery room. Fact sheets for survival and morbidity for each week of gestation were developed based on collected data. Survival at discharge increased from 29% at 24 weeks of GA to 91% at 31 weeks of GA (p neonatal morbidity was inversely related to GA (p hemorrhage, and 4.6% periventricular leukomalacia. Among survivors, 47.3% had none of these five conditions. A tool for use in a clinical setting was developed based on updated regional data for establishing week-to-week survival and morbidity of newborn infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of GA. This information could be used to make decisions related to perinatal care and for counseling parents.

  6. Factors associated with the time to the first wheezing episode in infants: a cross-sectional study from the International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Gonzalez, Rosa M; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Perez-Fernandez, Virginia; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2016-01-21

    Male gender, asthmatic heredity, perinatal tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory infections have been associated with wheeze in the first years of life, among other risk factors. However, information about what factors modify the time to the first episode of wheeze in infants is lacking. The present study analyses which factors are associated with shorter time to the first episode of wheeze in infants. Parents of 11- to 24-month-old children were surveyed when attending their health-care centres for a control visit. They answered a questionnaire including the age in months when a first wheeze episode (if any) had occurred (outcome variable). The study was performed in 14 centres in Latin America (LA) and in 8 centres in Europe (EU) (at least 1,000 infants per centre). Factors known to be associated with wheezing in the cohort were included in a survival analysis (Cox proportional hazards model). Summary hazard ratios adjusted for all risk factors (aHR) were calculated using the meta-analysis approach with random effects. A total of 15,067 infants had experienced wheezing at least once, out of 35,049 surveyed. Male gender in LA (aHR 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.10, P=0.047), parental asthma in LA and EU (aHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.11, P=0.037), infant eczema in EU (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39, Passociated with a shorter period of time to the first episode. Breast feeding for at least 3 months was associated with a longer period, only in LA (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.96, Passociation.

  7. Infant Brain Tumors: Incidence, Survival, and the Role of Radiation Based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Andrew J.; McDonald, Mark W.; Chang, Andrew L.; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Results: Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to <2 CPM. For infants with medulloblastoma, desmoplastic histology and treatment with both surgery and upfront radiation were associated with improved survival, but on multivariate regression, only combined surgery and radiation remained associated with improved survival, with a hazard ratio for death of 0.17 compared with surgery alone (p = 0.005). For ATRTs, those treated with surgery and upfront radiation had a 12-month survival of 100% compared with 24.4% for those treated with surgery alone (p = 0.016). For ependymomas survival was higher in patients treated in more recent decades (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation

  8. Survival of the very-low-birth-weight infants after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelanetz, Anna S; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2004-05-01

    To assess whether advances in neonatal care in the last decade have altered the outcome of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Medical records of all VLBW infants (n=283, body weight (BW)=1066+/-281 g, gestational age (GA)=28.3+/-2.9 weeks) admitted to the NICU between 1999 and 2002 were reviewed. In all, 29 (10.25%) infants received CPR in the NICU. Only one of these infants survived. After adjusting for GA, the clinical variables significantly associated with the need for CPR in the NICU were (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI): pulmonary hemorrhage (7.89; 3.06 to 20.28), pulmonary air leak syndrome (23.90; 7.58 to 75.4), and delivery by Cesarian section (0.26; 0.1 to 0.66). The results were similar when the data were reanalyzed matching the 28 infants in the CPR group with 28 infants of identical GA in the non-CPR group. Survival rate for the infants who require CPR in the NICU remains extremely poor. This poor outcome needs to be discussed with parents and the option of the "do not resuscitate" (DNR) order may be appropriate for these infants, especially for those infants with multiple organ failure unresponsive to therapy.

  9. Intracranial tumors in infants: long-term functional outcome, survival, and its predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Shibu; Metrie, Mary; Dunham, Christopher; Sargent, Michael; Hukin, Juliette; Steinbok, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Intracranial tumors are rare in the first year of life. This study evaluates survival rates and functional outcomes of survivors at least 5 years after diagnosis and the predictors of this outcome. A retrospective chart review of all infants with a primary intracranial tumor was carried out. Radiology and pathology were re-reviewed. Outcome was assessed at 5 years or more after diagnosis using Bloom's categories (Bloom 1-2 = good outcome, the rest = poor outcome) and late effects severity scoring. Age, tumor location, size, extent of tumor resection, type of adjuvant therapy given, and WHO grade of tumor histology were evaluated as predictors of outcome. Among 35 infants, 20 (57%) survived, with 12 (34%) having a good outcome. Deficits among the survivors included neurological dysfunction in 14 (70%), visual impairment in 9 (45%), endocrine dysfunction in 5 (25%), and auditory disability in 3 (15%). Ten of the 20 survivors were either attending regular school or were engaged in a skilled job. At presentation, older age and an infratentorial location of the tumor are predictors of poor outcome. After histopathological diagnosis, the WHO grading of tumor is the only independent predictor of survival (p = 0.002) and functional outcome (p brain tumors (34%) had a good functional outcome and approximately a quarter of them (28%) were able to attend regular school or take up a skilled job. After tissue diagnosis, histological grade of tumor is the only independent predictor associated with outcome.

  10. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  11. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl- 3 H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinazolin-3-one) displaced 3 H-flunitrazepam (IC 50 = 82 nM) and 3 H-Ro 15-1877 (IC 50 = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED 50 of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED 50 = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines

  12. Infant brain tumors: incidence, survival, and the role of radiation based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Andrew J; McDonald, Mark W; Chang, Andrew L; Esiashvili, Natia

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 months of age. Between 1973 and 1986, the incidence of infant brain tumors increased from 16 to 40 cases per million (CPM), and from 1986 to 2006, the annual incidence rate averaged 35 CPM. Leading histologies by annual incidence in CPM were gliomas (13.8), medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (6.6), and ependymomas (3.6). The annual incidence was higher in whites than in blacks (35.0 vs. 21.3 CPM). Infants with low-grade gliomas had the highest observed survival, and those with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) or primary rhabdoid tumors of the brain had the lowest. Between 1979 and 1993, the annual rate of cases treated with radiation within the first 4 months from diagnosis declined from 20.5 CPM to incidence of infant brain tumors has been stable since 1986. Survival outcomes varied markedly by histology. For infants with medulloblastoma and ATRTs, improved survival was observed in patients treated with both surgery and early radiation compared with those treated with surgery alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival and neurologic outcome of infants with medulloblastoma treated with surgery and MOPP chemotherapy. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, T Z; van Eys, J; Dowell, R E; Cangir, A; Pack, B; Bruner, J M

    1987-07-15

    The results of treatment of infants with medulloblastoma using surgery and chemotherapy, without the use of radiation therapy, are reported. Both survival and outcome, in terms of growth, neurologic deficit, and intelligence are compared with the same parameters in children treated conventionally. Although preliminary, our results suggest that chemotherapy combined with surgery is a valid option for the treatment of infants with this type of neoplasm.

  14. Association of HIV diversity and survival in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The level of viral diversity in an HIV-infected individual can change during the course of HIV infection, reflecting mutagenesis during viral replication and selection of viral variants by immune and other selective pressures. Differences in the level of viral diversity in HIV-infected infants may reflect differences in viral dynamics, immune responses, or other factors that may also influence HIV disease progression. We used a novel high resolution melting (HRM assay to measure HIV diversity in Ugandan infants and examined the relationship between diversity and survival through 5 years of age.Plasma samples were obtained from 31 HIV-infected infants (HIVNET 012 trial. The HRM assay was used to measure diversity in two regions in the gag gene (Gag1 and Gag2 and one region in the pol gene (Pol.HRM scores in all three regions increased with age from 6-8 weeks to 12-18 months (for Gag1: P = 0.005; for Gag2: P = 0.006; for Pol: P = 0.016. Higher HRM scores at 6-8 weeks of age (scores above the 75(th percentile were associated with an increased risk of death by 5 years of age (for Pol: P = 0.005; for Gag1/Gag2 (mean of two scores: P = 0.003; for Gag1/Gag2/Pol (mean of three scores: P = 0.002. We did not find an association between HRM scores and other clinical and laboratory variables.Genetic diversity in HIV gag and pol measured using the HRM assay was typically low near birth and increased over time. Higher HIV diversity in these regions at 6-8 weeks of age was associated with a significantly increased risk of death by 5 years of age.

  15. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  16. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23–26 Weeks Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23–26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23–24 and 25–26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23–24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25–26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23–24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25–26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants. PMID:26955244

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) transcription factor regulates megakaryocytic polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Stephan; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-02-01

    We propose that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a novel transcriptional regulator of megakaryopoietic polyploidization. Functional evidence was obtained that AHR impacts in vivo megakaryocytic differentiation and maturation; compared to wild-type mice, AHR-null mice had lower platelet counts, fewer numbers of newly synthesized platelets, increased bleeding times and lower-ploidy megakaryocytes (Mks). AHR mRNA increased 3·6-fold during ex vivo megakaryocytic differentiation, but reduced or remained constant during parallel isogenic granulocytic or erythroid differentiation. We interrogated the role of AHR in megakaryopoiesis using a validated Mk model of megakaryopoiesis, the human megakaryoblastic leukaemia CHRF cell line. Upon CHRF Mk differentiation, AHR mRNA and protein levels increased, AHR protein shifted from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and AHR binding to its consensus DNA binding sequence increased. Protein and mRNA levels of the AHR transcriptional target HES1 also increased. Mk differentiation of CHRF cells where AHR or HES1 was knocked-down using RNAi resulted in lower ploidy distributions and cells that were incapable of reaching ploidy classes ≥16n. AHR knockdown also resulted in increased DNA synthesis of lower ploidy cells, without impacting apoptosis. Together, these data support a role for AHR in Mk polyploidization and in vivo platelet function, and warrant further detailed investigations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  19. Survival of Extremely Premature Infants at the Largest MOH Referral Hospital in UAE: Comparable Results to Developed Countries

    OpenAIRE

    YASEEN, Hakam; YASEEN, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the survival rate of extreme premature infants born between 2000 and 2008 at AL Qassimi hospital that is the largest Ministry of Health (MOH) referral hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods: This was an institutional review board approved retrospective study of the outcomes of pregnancies in women who were in labor and delivered between 23 and 25 weeks' completed gestation at Al Qassimi Hospital in the Emirate of Sharjah between January 1,2000 and De...

  20. Survival and growth of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant cereal as affected by composition, reconstitution liquid, and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chun; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-06-01

    Invasive infections caused by Enterobacter sakazakii have occurred predominantly in low-birth-weight neonates and infants younger than 2 months of age. However, infections have also occurred in healthy infants up to 8 months of age and in immunocompromised children up to 4 years of age. The ability of E. sakazakii to survive and grow in infant cereals as affected by composition of the cereal, composition of the reconstitution liquid, and temperature is unknown. A study was done to determine the survival and growth characteristics of E. sakazakii initially at populations of 0.005 and 0.52 CFU/ml of infant rice cereal, oatmeal cereal, or rice with mixed fruit cereal reconstituted with water, milk, or apple juice. Reconstituted cereals were stored at 4, 12, 21, and 30 degrees C, and populations were monitored for up to 72 h. Growth did not occur in reconstituted cereals stored at 4 degrees C or in cereals reconstituted with apple juice and stored at 12 degrees C. Populations (> or =1 CFU/ml) were detected in cereals reconstituted with water or milk and stored at 12, 21, and 30 degres C for 24, 8, and 4 h, respectively. The composition of infant cereals did not markedly affect the survival or growth of E. sakazakii in reconstituted cereals. Populations of E. sakazakii in reconstituted cereal decreased with increases in populations of mesophilic aerobic microflora up to 8 to 9 log CFU/ml, which was concurrent with decreases in pH. E. sakazakii, initially at 2.62 log CFU/ml of rice cereal reconstituted with apple juice (pH 4.32), survived at 40C for at least 14 days. The pathogen grew at 21 and 30 degrees C within 2 days and then decreased to undetectable levels (<1 CFU/10 ml) in cereal stored at 21 degrees C for 5 days or 30'C for 4 days. Initially, at 7.32 log CFU/ml, E. sakazakii was detected in rice cereal stored at 4 degrees C for 50 days. It is recommended that reconstituted infant cereals stored at 21 or 30 degrees C be discarded within 4 h after preparation or

  1. Teratogenic impact of dioxin-activated AHR in laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHR and ARNT are expressed in mouse and human palatal shelves and in the urinary tract of the mouse fetus. AHR expression, translocation to the nucleus, binding to DRE, and activation are required for mediation of TCDD-induction of CP and HN. Although the human palate requires a ...

  2. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    for which they were eligible. Infants with low gestational age, growth restriction, low Apgar scores, and who were born on the day of maternal admission to hospital were less likely to receive evidence based care. After adjustment, evidence based care was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (risk...... ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease in all deaths without an increase in severe morbidity if these interventions had been provided to all infants. CONCLUSIONS: More......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Prospective multinational...

  3. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Prospective multinational populat...

  4. Option A Improved HIV-free Infant Survival and Mother to Child HIV Transmission at 9–18 Months in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUZDUGAN, Raluca; KANG DUFOUR, Mi-Suk; MCCOY, Sandra I; WATADZAUSHE, Constancia; DIRAWO, Jeffrey; MUSHAVI, Angela; MUJURU, Hilda Angela; MAHOMVA, Agnes; KANGWENDE, Rugare Abigail; HAKOBYAN, Anna; MUGURUNGI, Owen; COWAN, Frances M; PADIAN, Nancy S

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the impact of Option A on HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in Zimbabwe. Design Serial cross-sectional community-based serosurveys. Methods We analyzed serosurvey data collected in 2012 and 2014 among mother-infant pairs from catchment areas (CAs) of 132 health facilities from 5 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Eligible infants (alive or deceased) were born 9–18 months before each survey to mothers ≥16 years old. We randomly selected mother-infant pairs and conducted questionnaires, verbal autopsies and collected blood samples. We estimated: 1) the HIV-free infant survival and MTCT rate within each CA and compared the 2012 and 2014 estimates using a paired t-test, 2) number of HIV infections averted due to the intervention. Results We analyzed 7,249 mother-infant pairs with viable maternal specimens collected in 2012 and 8,551 in 2014. The mean difference in the CA-level MTCT between 2014 and 2012 was −5.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI)=−8.1, −2.3, pOption A regimen. The association between HIV-free infant survival and duration of Option A implementation was not significant at the multivariate level (p=0.093). Conclusions We found a substantial and statistically significant increase in HIV-free survival and decrease in MTCT among infants aged 9–18 months following Option A rollout in Zimbabwe. This is the only impact evaluation of Option A and shows the effectiveness of Option A and Zimbabwe’s remarkable progress towards eMTCT. PMID:27058354

  5. Option A improved HIV-free infant survival and mother to child HIV transmission at 9-18 months in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; McCoy, Sandra I; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Mushavi, Angela; Mujuru, Hilda Angela; Mahomva, Agnes; Kangwende, Rugare Abigail; Hakobyan, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Cowan, Frances M; Padian, Nancy S

    2016-06-19

    We evaluated the impact of Option A on HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in Zimbabwe. Serial cross-sectional community-based serosurveys. We analyzed serosurvey data collected in 2012 and 2014 among mother-infant pairs from catchment areas of 132 health facilities from five of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Eligible infants (alive or deceased) were born 9-18 months before each survey to mothers at least 16 years old. We randomly selected mother-infant pairs and conducted questionnaires, verbal autopsies, and collected blood samples. We estimated the HIV-free infant survival and MTCT rate within each catchment area and compared the 2012 and 2014 estimates using a paired t test and number of HIV infections averted because of the intervention. We analyzed 7249 mother-infant pairs with viable maternal specimens collected in 2012 and 8551 in 2014. The mean difference in the catchment area level MTCT between 2014 and 2012 was -5.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval = -8.1, -2.3, P Option A regimen. The association between HIV-free infant survival and duration of Option A implementation was NS at the multivariate level (P = 0.093). We found a substantial and statistically significant increase in HIV-free survival and decrease in MTCT among infants aged 9-18 months following Option A rollout in Zimbabwe. This is the only evaluation of Option A and shows the effectiveness of Option A and Zimbabwe's remarkable progress toward eMTCT.

  6. 24-month HIV-free survival among infants born to HIV-positive women enrolled in Option B+ program in Kigali, Rwanda: The Kabeho Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Michelle M; Hoffman, Heather J; Ndatimana, Dieudonne; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Guay, Laura; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Bobrow, Emily A; Asiimwe, Anita; Mofenson, Lynne M

    2017-12-01

    Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision to all pregnant HIV-positive women ("Option B+") has been recommended by the World Health Organization since 2013, but there remain limited data on the effects of Option B+ on long-term HIV-free survival in breastfeeding HIV-exposed infants. The Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) study enrolled HIV-positive women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 2 weeks postpartum in 14 heath facilities implementing Option B+ in Kigali, Rwanda. Mother-child pairs in the longitudinal observational cohort were followed until 24 months postpartum, with HIV diagnostic testing at 6 weeks, and 9, 18 and 24 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate HIV transmission, survival, and HIV-free survival through 24 months. We enrolled 608 HIV-positive women in 2013-2014; birth outcome data were available for 600 women and 597 live-born infants. By 6 weeks, 11 infants had died and 3 infants had confirmed HIV infection (0.5% transmission; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-1.6). At 9 months, there were 9 additional deaths and 2 new infections (cumulative transmission 0.9%, 95% CI 0.4-2.2). At 18 months, there were 6 additional deaths and no new infant infections. At 24 months, there were no additional child deaths and 1 new infection (cumulative 2.2%, 95% CI 0.7-7.0), for an overall 24-month HIV-free survival of 93.2% (95% CI 89.5-95.6). Low transmission rates and high HIV-free survival at 24 months were achieved in breastfeeding infants of HIV-positive mothers receiving universal ART in urban health facilities in Rwanda, though vigilance on maintaining viral suppression for ART-experienced women is needed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Case report: long-term survival of an infant syndromic patient affected by atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, Piergiorgio; Maestro, Roberta; Giangaspero, Felice; Massimino, Maura; Sardi, Iacopo; Brenca, Monica; Giunti, Laura; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pollo, Bianca; Biassoni, Veronica; Genitori, Lorenzo; Antonelli, Manila

    2013-01-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) patients display a dismal median overall survival of less than 1 year. A consistent fraction of cases carries de-novo SMARCB1/INI1 constitutional mutations in the setting of the “rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome” and the outcome is worst in infant syndromic ATRT patients. We here describe a patient affected by mosaic Klinefelter syndrome and by rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome caused by constitutional SMARCB1/INI1 heterozygous mutation c.118C>T (Arg40X). Patient’s ATRT primary tumor occurred at 2 years of age concurrent with metastatic lesions. The patient was rendered without evidence of disease by combined surgery, high-dose poli-chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. At the onset of a spinal lesion 5.5 years later, both tumors were pathologically and molecularly evaluated at the national central pathology review board and defined as ATRT in a syndromic patient, with strong evidence of a clonal origin of the two lesions. The patient was then treated according to SIOP guidelines and is now alive without evidence of disease 24 months after the detection of metastatic disease and 90 months after the original diagnosis. The report underscores the current utility of multiple comprehensive approaches for the correct diagnosis and clinical management of patients affected by rare and atypical brain neoplasms. Successful local control of disease and achievement of long-term survival is possible in ATRT patients even in the setting of rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome, infant age at diagnosis and metastatic spread of disease, thus justifying the efforts for the management of this severe condition

  8. Evaluating the Impact of Zimbabwe's Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Program: Population-Level Estimates of HIV-Free Infant Survival Pre-Option A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; McCoy, Sandra I; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Petersen, Maya; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Mushavi, Angela; Mujuru, Hilda Angela; Mahomva, Agnes; Musarandega, Reuben; Hakobyan, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Cowan, Frances M; Padian, Nancy S

    2015-01-01

    We estimated HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates in Zimbabwe, some of the first community-based estimates from a UNAIDS priority country. In 2012 we surveyed mother-infant pairs residing in the catchment areas of 157 health facilities randomly selected from 5 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Enrolled infants were born 9-18 months before the survey. We collected questionnaires, blood samples for HIV testing, and verbal autopsies for deceased mothers/infants. Estimates were assessed among i) all HIV-exposed infants, as part of an impact evaluation of Option A of the 2010 WHO guidelines (rolled out in Zimbabwe in 2011), and ii) the subgroup of infants unexposed to Option A. We compared province-level MTCT rates measured among women in the community with MTCT rates measured using program monitoring data from facilities serving those communities. Among 8568 women with known HIV serostatus, 1107 (12.9%) were HIV-infected. Among all HIV-exposed infants, HIV-free infant survival was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88.7-92.7) and MTCT was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1). Sixty-six percent of HIV-exposed infants were still breastfeeding. Among the 762 infants born before Option A was implemented, 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1-92.5) were alive and HIV-uninfected at 9-18 months of age, and 9.1% (95%CI: 7.1-11.7) were HIV-infected. In four provinces, the community-based MTCT rate was higher than the facility-based MTCT rate. In Harare, the community and facility-based rates were 6.0% and 9.1%, respectively. By 2012 Zimbabwe had made substantial progress towards the elimination of MTCT. Our HIV-free infant survival and MTCT estimates capture HIV transmissions during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding regardless of whether or not mothers accessed health services. These estimates also provide a baseline against which to measure the impact of Option A guidelines (and subsequently Option B+).

  9. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  10. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  11. Unequal lifetimes: An example of infant and child survival in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina; oeppen, James; Jacobsen, Rune

    impact on all age-groups. Thus, besides individual frailty (Vaupel et al. 1979), access to clean water in the community and breastfeeding practices within the family are decisive for survival at the youngest ages. Some studies (Zaba and David 1996; Edvinsson et al. 2005; Bengtsson and Dribe 2010......In human populations, there is a strong negative association between life expectancy and the level of lifespan inequality (Smiths and Monden 2009; Vaupel et al. 2011). The distribution of lifespans is affected by several variables at different levels of aggregation, which may not have the same......, namely France during the 18th and the 19th centuries. The results show that total inequality in the distribution of lifespans has decreased as life expectancy has risen. In the past, most of the inequalities in the distribution of lifespans were due to mortality in the youngest age-groups. Excess urban...

  12. Spatial inequalities in infant survival at an early stage of the longevity revolution: A pan-European view across 5000+ regions and localities in 1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Klüsener

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spatial inequalities in human development are of great concern to international organisations and national governments. Demographic indicators like the infant mortality rate are important measures for determining these inequalities. Using demographic indicators over long time periods at relatively high levels of geographical detail, we can examine the long-term continuities and changes in spatial inequalities. Objective: This paper presents the initial outcomes of a larger project that aims to analyse spatial variation in infant survival across Europe over the last 100 years. In this paper, we focus on spatial disparities in infant survival in 1910. At that time, the longevity revolution was still at an early stage. We look at general spatial variation patterns within and across countries, and discuss some of the challenges related to the comparativeness of the data. Methods: We link official infant mortality data from more than 5,000 European regions and localities for the period around 1910 to a European historical GIS of administrative boundaries. The data are analysed using descriptive spatial analysis techniques. Results: In 1910, a number of countries in northern and western Europe led the longevity revolution in Europe, with the area of low infant mortality also extending into the northwestern parts of the German Empire. Other areas with low infant mortality levels included the Belgian region of Wallonia, most parts of Switzerland, as well as central and south-western France. In eastern and southern Europe, we find significant variation within and across countries, which might stem in part from data quality problems.

  13. Cluster-randomized study of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi in southern Tanzania: evaluation of impact on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria control in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of an anti-malarial drug, usually sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, at scheduled intervals, regardless of the presence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A pooled analysis of individually randomized trials reported that IPTi reduced clinical episodes by 30%. This study evaluated the effect of IPTi on child survival in the context of a five-district implementation project in southern Tanzania. [Trial registration: clinical trials.gov NCT00152204]. Methods After baseline household and health facility surveys in 2004, five districts comprising 24 divisions were randomly assigned either to receive IPTi (n = 12 or not (n = 12. Implementation started in March 2005, led by routine health services with support from the research team. In 2007, a large household survey was undertaken to assess the impact of IPTi on survival in infants aged two-11 months through birth history interviews with all women aged 13-49 years. The analysis is based on an "intention-to-treat" ecological design, with survival outcomes analysed according to the cluster in which the mothers lived. Results Survival in infants aged two-11 months was comparable in IPTi and comparison areas at baseline. In intervention areas in 2007, 48% of children aged 12-23 months had documented evidence of receiving three doses of IPTi, compared to 2% in comparison areas (P P = 0.31. Conclusion The lack of evidence of an effect of IPTi on survival could be a false negative result due to a lack of power or imbalance of unmeasured confounders. Alternatively, there could be no mortality impact of IPTi due to low coverage, late administration, drug resistance, decreased malaria transmission or improvements in vector control and case management. This study raises important questions for programme evaluation design.

  14. A dominant negative zebrafish Ahr2 partially protects developing zebrafish from dioxin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Lanham

    Full Text Available The toxicity by 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is thought to be caused by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. However, our understanding of how AHR activation by TCDD leads to toxic effects is poor. Ideally we would like to manipulate AHR activity in specific tissues and at specific times. One route to this is expressing dominant negative AHRs (dnAHRs. This work describes the construction and characterization of dominant negative forms of the zebrafish Ahr2 in which the C-terminal transactivation domain was either removed, or replaced with the inhibitory domain from the Drosophila engrailed repressor protein. One of these dnAhr2s was selected for expression from the ubiquitously active e2fα promoter in transgenic zebrafish. We found that these transgenic zebrafish expressing dnAhr2 had reduced TCDD induction of the Ahr2 target gene cyp1a, as measured by 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. Furthermore, the cardiotoxicity produced by TCDD, pericardial edema, heart malformation, and reduced blood flow, were all mitigated in the zebrafish expressing the dnAhr2. These results provide in vivo proof-of-principle results demonstrating the effectiveness of dnAHRs in manipulating AHR activity in vivo, and demonstrating that this approach can be a means for blocking TCDD toxicity.

  15. Changes in perinatal care and survival in very preterm and extremely preterm infants in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anthony, S.; Ouden, L.D.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Gravenhorst, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in obstetrical and neonatal care for very preterm and extremely preterm infants between 1983 and 1995 in The Netherlands and to evaluate the effect of those changes. Study design: Data on all very preterm or VLBW infants from the linked national obstetrical and

  16. The anticonvulsant action of AHR-11748 on kindled amygdaloid seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F

    1987-03-01

    The anticonvulsant effectiveness of AHR-11748 (3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-1-azetidinecarboxamide) was evaluated in the kindled amygdaloid seizure model in rats. Doses of AHR-11748 that did not cause prestimulation toxicity significantly attenuated elicited afterdischarge durations and the severity of the accompanying behavioral convulsive response in previously kindled rats. AHR-11748 (25-100 mg/kg i.p.) was evaluated at 30 min in previously kindled rats using both threshold (20 microA increments) and suprathreshold (400 microA) paradigms. AHR-11748 (50-100.mg/kg) reduced suprathreshold elicited after discharges and seizure severity. Utilizing a suprathreshold kindling paradigm, the maximum anticonvulsant effectiveness for the 100 mg/kg i.p. dose of AHR-11748 was seen at 180 min. AHR-11748 significantly elevated seizure thresholds only at the 100 mg/kg dose. AHR-11748 (25-100 mg/kg) significantly reduced the severity of threshold elicited seizures. When AHR-11748 (50 and 100 mg/kg i.p.) was administered daily during kindling acquisition, the number of daily trials necessary to complete kindling significantly increased. A reduction in both the duration and the severity of the responses induced by the daily stimulations during the acquisition period was seen with AHR-11748 treatment. This study has demonstrated that AHR-11748 significantly modifies both the acquisition of kindling and the fully kindled amygdaloid seizures at doses that do not cause behavioral toxicity.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrients on infant survival: analysis of data from MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Persson, Lars Åke; Ahmed, Shakil; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Absence of cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses limits the relevance of large-scale nutrition interventions in low-income countries. We analyzed if the effect of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) on infant survival represented value for money compared to invitation to food supplementation at usual time in pregnancy combined with iron-folic acid. Outcome data, infant mortality (IM) rates, came from MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, ISRCTN16581394). In MINIMat, women were randomized to early (E around 9 weeks of pregnancy) or usual invitation (U around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μgm of folic acid. In MINIMat, EMMS significantly reduced IM compared to UFe60F (U plus 60 mg iron 400 μgm Folic acid). We present incremental CE ratios for incrementing UFe60F to EMMS. Costing data came mainly from a published study. By incrementing UFe60F to EMMS, one extra IM could be averted at a cost of US$907 and US$797 for NGO run and government run CNCs, respectively, and at US$1024 for a hypothetical scenario of highest cost. These comparisons generated one extra life year (LY) saved at US$30, US$27, and US$34, respectively. Incrementing UFe60F to EMMS in pregnancy seems worthwhile from health economic and public health standpoints. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab; ISRCTN16581394 ; Date of registration: Feb 16, 2009.

  18. Structural hierarchy controlling dimerization and target DNA recognition in the AHR transcriptional complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Lee, Woojong; Jiang, Li; Molugu, Kaivalya; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Yitong; Park, Sanghyun; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Xing, Yongna (UW)

    2017-04-10

    he aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) belongs to the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) family transcription factors and mediates broad responses to numerous environmental pollutants and cellular metabolites, modulating diverse biological processes from adaptive metabolism, acute toxicity, to normal physiology of vascular and immune systems. The AHR forms a transcriptionally active heterodimer with ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator), which recognizes the dioxin response element (DRE) in the promoter of downstream genes. We determined the crystal structure of the mammalian AHR–ARNT heterodimer in complex with the DRE, in which ARNT curls around AHR into a highly intertwined asymmetric architecture, with extensive heterodimerization interfaces and AHR interdomain interactions. Specific recognition of the DRE is determined locally by the DNA-binding residues, which discriminates it from the closely related hypoxia response element (HRE), and is globally affected by the dimerization interfaces and interdomain interactions. Changes at the interdomain interactions caused either AHR constitutive nuclear localization or failure to translocate to nucleus, underlying an allosteric structural pathway for mediating ligand-induced exposure of nuclear localization signal. These observations, together with the global higher flexibility of the AHR PAS-A and its loosely packed structural elements, suggest a dynamic structural hierarchy for complex scenarios of AHR activation induced by its diverse ligands.

  19. FENO and AHR mannitol in patients referred to an out-of-hospital asthma clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    between FENO and AHR to mannitol in unselected individuals with possible asthma. METHODS: A real-life study on patients with possible asthma referred to a specialized asthma clinic. Data on asthma history, FEV(1), FENO, atopy, smoking, treatment and AHR to mannitol were collected. RESULTS: In 217...

  20. Genetic and pharmacological analysis identifies a physiological role for the AHR in epidermal differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H. van den; Podolsky, M.A.; Smits, J.P.H.; Cui, X.; John, C.; Gowda, K.; Desai, D.; Amin, S.G.; Schalkwijk, J.; Perdew, G.H.; Glick, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by xenobiotics is known to affect epidermal differentiation and skin barrier formation. The physiological role of endogenous AHR signaling in keratinocyte differentiation is not known. We used murine and human skin models to address the hypothesis

  1. Conceptual Layout of an AHR Building and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong-Soo; Chae, Hee-Taek; Park, Cheol

    2007-01-01

    A research reactor has been widely utilized in various fields such as industry, engineering, medicine, life science, environment etc., and now application fields are gradually being expanded together with the development of technology. The utilization of research reactor is related to necessary and essential technologies of IT, NT, BT, ET and ST. KAERI has considerable experiences on research reactor technology through the TRIGA MK II, TRIGA MK III, and the HANARO. They have largely contributed to the development of nuclear technology and lead to the nuclear industry. Through the design, construction, operation and utilization of these research reactors, lots of human resources have been developed and the basic and applied technologies in nuclear research fields have been developed step by step. In particular, the HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) of 30MWth, which began to operate from 1995, is a landmark and a nuclear milestone in Korea. The design, construction and operation of the HANARO has allowed for a large progress in the research reactor technology. The active uses of many experimental facilities in the HANARO have enhanced the advancement of nuclear technology and spread the benefits of nuclear R and D results. KAERI is preparing for another leap, i.e., incorporating the experience and nuclear technology accumulated during the design, construction, operation and utilization of the HANARO. KAERI also has human resources who have comprehensive experiences in the design, construction, commissioning, operation and utilization of a research reactor through the HANARO project. Hence, based on such considerable experience and human resource, an advanced HANARO research reactor (AHR) is being developed by KAERI for the future needs of research reactors. Its overall concept is basically similar with the HANARO, but a much improved one. The AHR will be a light water cooled and heavy water moderated and reflected pool type research reactor with

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Zimbabwe’s Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Program: Population-Level Estimates of HIV-Free Infant Survival Pre-Option A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdugan, Raluca; McCoy, Sandra I.; Watadzaushe, Constancia; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Petersen, Maya; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Mushavi, Angela; Mujuru, Hilda Angela; Mahomva, Agnes; Musarandega, Reuben; Hakobyan, Anna; Mugurungi, Owen; Cowan, Frances M.; Padian, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We estimated HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) rates in Zimbabwe, some of the first community-based estimates from a UNAIDS priority country. Methods In 2012 we surveyed mother-infant pairs residing in the catchment areas of 157 health facilities randomly selected from 5 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Enrolled infants were born 9–18 months before the survey. We collected questionnaires, blood samples for HIV testing, and verbal autopsies for deceased mothers/infants. Estimates were assessed among i) all HIV-exposed infants, as part of an impact evaluation of Option A of the 2010 WHO guidelines (rolled out in Zimbabwe in 2011), and ii) the subgroup of infants unexposed to Option A. We compared province-level MTCT rates measured among women in the community with MTCT rates measured using program monitoring data from facilities serving those communities. Findings Among 8568 women with known HIV serostatus, 1107 (12.9%) were HIV-infected. Among all HIV-exposed infants, HIV-free infant survival was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88.7–92.7) and MTCT was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.9–11.1). Sixty-six percent of HIV-exposed infants were still breastfeeding. Among the 762 infants born before Option A was implemented, 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1–92.5) were alive and HIV-uninfected at 9–18 months of age, and 9.1% (95%CI: 7.1–11.7) were HIV-infected. In four provinces, the community-based MTCT rate was higher than the facility-based MTCT rate. In Harare, the community and facility-based rates were 6.0% and 9.1%, respectively. Conclusion By 2012 Zimbabwe had made substantial progress towards the elimination of MTCT. Our HIV-free infant survival and MTCT estimates capture HIV transmissions during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding regardless of whether or not mothers accessed health services. These estimates also provide a baseline against which to measure the impact of Option A guidelines (and subsequently Option B+). PMID:26248197

  3. Determinants of Survival in Low Birth Weight Infants at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in the South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwochi U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW babies account for a large number of neonatal deaths globally, with over 90% of these occurring in developing countries with low resources. Identifying factors that determine survival in these sub-groups of babies in such a low-resource setting will help clinicians prioritize care and improve outcomes. This study aims to bridge some knowledge gaps in this regard. This was a 45-month prospective study carried out at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH, Enugu, Nigeria. All eligible newborns weighing between 500g and and lt;2500g that were seen in this period were enrolled and monitored. Data collected were analysed with SPSS Version 24, and significant associations identified using logistic regression models. A total of 166 LBW neonates were enrolled, and 68.2% of them survived. Asphyxia and episodes recurrent apnoea were recorded at least once in 78.8% and 68.4% of the babies respectively, with about two-thirds requiring respiratory support at one time or the other. Survival in these LBW newborns was negatively associated with gestational age at birth of less than 32 weeks (OR 0.17; CI 0.03-0.50; P and lt;0.01 as well as with episodes of recurrent apnoea (OR 0.07; CI 0.02-0.34; P and lt;0.01. However, intra-uterine exposure to malaria was associated with a 15 times higher likelihood of survival (OR 15.41; CI 2.22-106.91; P=0.01. No significant associations was found between survival and attendances to antenatal care, mode of delivery, birth weight and a number of neonatal morbidities like necrotizing enterocolitis, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, septicaemia, anaemia and neonatal jaundice. Survival rate among low birth weight neonates in a low resource setting is decreased with delivery at less than 32 weeks completed gestation as well as recurrent episodes of apnoea, but is increased with in-utero exposure to malaria.

  4. AhrC and Eep Are Biofilm Infection-Associated Virulence Factors in Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiton, Pascale S.; Barnes, Aaron M. T.; Manias, Dawn A.; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N.; Kohler, Petra L.; Spaulding, Adam R.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Dunny, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. The pathogenesis of many E. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. To identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for E. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insertions or in-frame deletions in biofilm-associated loci: ahrC, argR, atlA, opuBC, pyrC, recN, and sepF. Only the ahrC mutant was significantly attenuated in endocarditis. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator AhrC and the protease Eep, which we showed previously to be an endocarditis virulence factor, are also required for full virulence in murine CAUTI. Therefore, AhrC and Eep can be classified as enterococcal biofilm-associated virulence factors. Loss of ahrC caused defects in early attachment and accumulation of biofilm biomass. Characterization of ahrC transcription revealed that the temporal expression of this locus observed in wild-type cells promotes initiation of early biofilm formation and the establishment of endocarditis. This is the first report of AhrC serving as a virulence factor in any bacterial species. PMID:23460519

  5. Comparison of the Reactor Core Characteristics of the AHR and the OPAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, C.; Chae, Hee Taek

    2008-09-15

    The AHR (Advanced HANARO research Reactor) was designed using the experiences from the design, operation and utilization of HANARO. Its neutronic performance was compared to that of the OPAL with a 20 MW power which started its operation recently in Australia. As the OPAL does not have any in-core irradiation hole, a modified core model of the AHR, in which an in-core irradiation hole was changed into a fuel channel, was used for the comparison. For a clean, unperturbed core condition with all fresh fuels in the core and no irradiation holes in the reflector region, the maximum thermal neutron flux (E{sub n}<0.625 eV) in the AHR reaches 4.41x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s and that in the OPAL reaches 3.96x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s in the reflector region. The maximum flux in the AHR is 10.3% higher than that in the OPAL. The thermal flux region above 4.0x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s is widely distributed in the reflector of the AHR, but is not observed at all in the reflector of the OPAL. The uranium loading of the AHR core is 45.7 kgU, which is 16.3% higher than the 39.3 kgU of OPAL. For a clean core state, the excess reactivity of the AHR is higher than that of the OPAL. The assembly-average discharge burnup in the OPAL is estimated to be 49.1%U-235 whereas that in the AHR is 62.4%U-235. The difference for the discharge burnup is significant. For the conditions with the same cycle length of 30 days, the number of fuel assemblies consumed in the AHR is only 3/4 that of the OPAL.

  6. Constitutive expression of the AHR signaling pathway in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line and modulation by dioxin-like PCB and other AHR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Manzini, Livio; Carletti, Monica; Nebbia, Carlo

    2015-01-05

    Environmental pollutants, such as dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, benzo(a) pyrene (B[a]P), and flavonoids are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands and may be excreted in dairy milk. The expression of AHR-target genes, particularly those involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, and their modulation by two DL-PCBs, B[a]P, and β-naphthoflavone was investigated in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV). As assessed by quantitative PCR, BME-UV cells expressed a functional AHR signaling pathway. All the AHR ligands induced a concentration-related increase in the transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1, known to be implicated in the bioactivation of several xenobiotics. Conversely, genes encoding for antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, like quinone oxidoreductase or glutathione S-transferase A2, were not affected or even depressed. This study demonstrates the occurrence and the modulation by different AHR-ligands of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism in BME-UV cells, with the potential generation of (re) active metabolites that may damage mammary tissue and/or affect animal or human health via the contaminated milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    . The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of this study was to compare the actual...... was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk > Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and /or intake of marine......-PCBs; ii) The inverse association between the integrated serum AhR transactivity and sum of POPs might be explained by the higher level of compounds antagonizing the AhR function probably due to selective POP bioaccumulation in the food chain....

  8. Comparison of the Reactor Core Characteristics of the AHR and the OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Lee, Byung Chul; Park, C.; Chae, Hee Taek

    2008-09-01

    The AHR (Advanced HANARO research Reactor) was designed using the experiences from the design, operation and utilization of HANARO. Its neutronic performance was compared to that of the OPAL with a 20 MW power which started its operation recently in Australia. As the OPAL does not have any in-core irradiation hole, a modified core model of the AHR, in which an in-core irradiation hole was changed into a fuel channel, was used for the comparison. For a clean, unperturbed core condition with all fresh fuels in the core and no irradiation holes in the reflector region, the maximum thermal neutron flux (E n 14 n/cm 2 s and that in the OPAL reaches 3.96x10 14 n/cm 2 s in the reflector region. The maximum flux in the AHR is 10.3% higher than that in the OPAL. The thermal flux region above 4.0x10 14 n/cm 2 s is widely distributed in the reflector of the AHR, but is not observed at all in the reflector of the OPAL. The uranium loading of the AHR core is 45.7 kgU, which is 16.3% higher than the 39.3 kgU of OPAL. For a clean core state, the excess reactivity of the AHR is higher than that of the OPAL. The assembly-average discharge burnup in the OPAL is estimated to be 49.1%U-235 whereas that in the AHR is 62.4%U-235. The difference for the discharge burnup is significant. For the conditions with the same cycle length of 30 days, the number of fuel assemblies consumed in the AHR is only 3/4 that of the OPAL

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the Lactococcus lactis ArgR and AhrC regulons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Martinussen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that direct protein-protein. interaction between the two regulators ArgR and AhrC in Lactococcus lactis is required for arginine-dependent repression of the biosynthetic argC promoter and the activation of the catabolic arcA promoter. Here, we establish the global...... ArgR and AhrC regulons by transcriptome analyses and show that both regulators are dedicated to the control of arginine metabolism in L. lactis....

  10. Characterization testing of a 40 Ahr bipolar nickel hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gahn, Randall F.

    1989-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop NiH2 bipolar technology to a point where it can be used efficiently in space flight, testing of a second 40 Ahr, 10-cell bipolar battery has begun. This battery has undergone extensive characterization testing to determine the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure. The fundamental design of this actively cooled bipolar battery is the same as the first battery. Most of the individual components, however, are from different manufacturers. Different testing procedures as well as certain unique battery characteristics make it difficult to directly compare the two sets of results. In general, the performance of this battery throughout characterization produced expected results. The main differences seen between the first and second batteries occurred during the high-rate discharge portion of the test matrix. The first battery also had poor high-rate discharge results, although better than those of the second battery. Minor changes were made to the battery frame design used for the first battery in an attempt to allow better gas access to the reaction sites for the second build and hopefully improve performance. The changes, however, did not improve the performance of the second battery and could have possibly contributed to the poorer performance that was observed. There are other component differences that could have contributed to the poorer performance of the second battery. The H2 electrode in the second battery was constructed with a Goretex backing which could have limited the high-rate current flow. The gas screen in the second battery had a larger mesh which again could have limited the high-rate current flow. Small scale 2 x 2 batteries are being tested to evaluate the effects of the component variations.

  11. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  12. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  13. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Tzou, Wen-Shyong [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Marine Bioenvironment and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chin-Hwa, E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Marine Bioenvironment and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  14. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Tzou, Wen-Shyong; Hu, Chin-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  15. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  18. AHR2 morpholino knockdown reduces the toxicity of total particulate matter to zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarsky, Andrey, E-mail: andrey.massarsky@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bone, Audrey J. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Dong, Wu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); School of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia Provincial Key Laboratory for Toxicants and Animal Disease, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia 028000 (China); Hinton, David E. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Prasad, G.L. [RAI Services Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27101 (United States); Di Giulio, Richard T. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The zebrafish embryo has been proposed as a ‘bridge model’ to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. Previous studies showed that exposure to total particulate matter (TPM) led to adverse effects in developing zebrafish, and suggested that the antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways play important roles. This study investigated the roles of these two pathways in mediating TPM toxicity. The study consisted of four experiments. In experiment I, zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 h post fertilization (hpf) until 96 hpf to TPM{sub 0.5} and TPM{sub 1.0} (corresponding to 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL equi-nicotine units) in the presence or absence of an antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine/NAC) or a pro-oxidant (buthionine sulfoximine/BSO). In experiment II, TPM exposures were performed in embryos that were microinjected with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), AHR2, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), or CYP1B1 morpholinos, and deformities were assessed. In experiment III, embryos were exposed to TPM, and embryos/larvae were collected at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf to assess several genes associated with the antioxidant and AHR pathways. Lastly, experiment IV assessed the activity and protein levels of CYP1A and CYP1B1 after exposure to TPM. We demonstrate that the incidence of TPM-induced deformities was generally not affected by NAC/BSO treatments or Nrf2 knockdown. In contrast, AHR2 knockdown reduced, while CYP1A or CYP1B1 knockdowns elevated the incidence of some deformities. Moreover, as shown by gene expression the AHR pathway, but not the antioxidant pathway, was induced in response to TPM exposure, providing further evidence for its importance in mediating TPM toxicity. - Highlights: • Total particulate matter (TPM) is the particulate phase of cigarette smoke. • Zebrafish is proposed as a ‘bridge model’ to study the effects of TPM. • We investigate the roles of antioxidant and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathways.

  19. HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Anna M.; Ayisi, John G.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Otieno, Juliana A.; Kager, Piet A.; Lal, Renu B.; Steketee, Richard W.; Nahlen, Bernard L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria in sub-Saharan Africa are associated with poor pregnancy outcome and infant survival. We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women.

  20. Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Lisa G; Bassani, Diego G; Nyaga, Lucy; Njagi, Isaac; Wanjiku, Catherine; Thiruchselvam, Thulasi; Macharia, William; Minhas, Ripudaman S; Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Lakhani, Amyn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Armstrong, Robert; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-09-08

    Each year, more than 200 million children under the age of 5 years, almost all in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), fail to achieve their developmental potential. Risk factors for compromised development often coexist and include inadequate cognitive stimulation, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, infection and complications of being born low birthweight and/or premature. Moreover, many of these risk factors are closely associated with newborn morbidity and mortality. As compromised development has significant implications on human capital, inexpensive and scalable interventions are urgently needed to promote neurodevelopment and reduce risk factors for impaired development. This cluster randomized trial aims at evaluating the impact of volunteer community health workers delivering either an integrated neonatal survival kit, an early stimulation package, or a combination of both interventions, to pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy, compared to the current standard of care in Kwale County, Kenya. The neonatal survival kit comprises a clean delivery kit (sterile blade, cord clamp, clean plastic sheet, surgical gloves and hand soap), sunflower oil emollient, chlorhexidine, ThermoSpot(TM), Mylar infant sleeve, and a reusable instant heater. Community health workers are also equipped with a portable hand-held electric scale. The early cognitive stimulation package focuses on enhancing caregiver practices by teaching caregivers three key messages that comprise combining a gentle touch with making eye contact and talking to children, responsive feeding and caregiving, and singing. The primary outcome measure is child development at 12 months of age assessed with the Protocol for Child Monitoring (Infant and Toddler version). The main secondary outcome is newborn mortality. This study will provide evidence on effectiveness of delivering an innovative neonatal survival kit and/or early stimulation package to pregnant women in Kwale County

  1. Characterization testing of a 40 AHR bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gemeiner, Russel P.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive characterization testing has been done on a second 40 amp-hour (Ahr), 10-cell bipolar nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery to study the effects of such operating parameters as charge and discharge rates, temperature, and pressure, on capacity, Ahr and watt-hour (Whr) efficiencies, end-of-charge (EOC) and mid-point discharge voltages. Testing to date has produced many interesting results, with the battery performing well throughout all of the test matrix except during the high-rate (5C and 10C) discharges, where poorer than expected results were observed. The exact cause of this poor performance is, as yet, unknown. Small scale 2 x 2 inch battery tests are to be used in studying this problem. Low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life testing at a 40 percent depth of discharge (DOD) and 10 C is scheduled to follow the characterization testing.

  2. AHR prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3 differentiation to natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tiffany; Briercheck, Edward L.; Freud, Aharon G.; Trotta, Rossana; McClory, Susan; Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen; Deng, Youcai; Cole, Jordan; Harrison, Nicholas; Mao, Charlene; Zhang, Jianying; Benson, Don M.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34-CD117+CD94- immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) types that includes interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ IFN-gamma-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES) and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET). Hence, AHR is a transcription factor that prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells. PMID:24953655

  3. Event-free survival of infants and toddlers enrolled in the HR-NBL-1/SIOPEN trial is associated with the level of neuroblastoma mRNAs at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrias, Maria V; Parodi, Stefano; Tchirkov, Andrei; Lammens, Tim; Vicha, Ales; Pasqualini, Claudia; Träger, Catarina; Yáñez, Yania; Dallorso, Sandro; Varesio, Luigi; Luksch, Roberto; Laureys, Genevieve; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Canete, Adela; Pöetschger, Ulrike; Ladenstein, Ruth; Burchill, Susan A

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether levels of neuroblastoma mRNAs in bone marrow and peripheral blood from stage M infants (≤12 months of age at diagnosis, MYCN amplified) and toddlers (between 12 and 18 months, any MYCN status) predict event-free survival (EFS). Bone marrow aspirates and peripheral blood samples from 97 infants/toddlers enrolled in the European High-Risk Neuroblastoma trial were collected at diagnosis in PAXgene ™ blood RNA tubes. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction according to standardized procedures. Bone marrow tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) levels in the highest tertile were associated with worse EFS; hazard ratios, adjusted for age and MYCN status, were 1.5 and 1.8 respectively. Expression of both TH and PHOX2B in the highest tertile predicted worse outcome (p = 0.015), and identified 20 (23%) infants/toddlers with 5-year EFS of 20% (95%CI: 4%-44%). Prognostic significance was maintained after adjusting for over-fitting bias (p = 0.038), age and MYCN status. In peripheral blood, PHOX2B levels in the highest tertile predicted a two-fold increased risk of an event (p = 0.032), and identified 23 (34%) infants/toddlers with 5-year EFS of 29% (95%CI: 12%-48%). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed the prognostic value of combined TH and PHOX2B in bone marrow and of PHOX2B in peripheral blood during the first year of follow-up. High levels of bone marrow TH and PHOX2B and of peripheral blood PHOX2B at diagnosis allow early identification of a group of high-risk infant and toddlers with neuroblastoma who may be candidates for alternative treatments. Integration with additional biomarkers, as well as validation in additional international trials is warranted. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. ITE Suppresses Angiogenic Responses in Human Artery and Vein Endothelial Cells: Differential Roles of AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Zou, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Zhou, Chi; Zheng, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor is involved in regulation of many essential biological processes including vascular development and angiogenesis. 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) is an AhR ligand, which regulates immune responses and cancer cell growth. However, the roles of the ITE/AhR pathway in mediating placental angiogenesis remains elusive. Here, we determined if ITE affected placental angiogenic responses via AhR in human umbilical vein (HUVECs) and artery endothelial (HUAECs) cells in vitro. We observed that ITE dose- and time-dependently inhibited proliferation and viability of HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas it inhibited migration of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. While AhR siRNA significantly suppressed AhR protein expression in HUVECs and HUAECs, it attenuated the ITE-inhibited angiogenic responses of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. Collectively, ITE suppressed angiogenic responses of HUAECs and HUVECs, dependent and independent of AhR, respectively. These data suggest that ITE may regulate placental angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acromegaly Is More Severe in Patients With AHR or AIP Gene Variants Living in Highly Polluted Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavo, S; Ragonese, M; Puglisi, S; Romeo, P D; Torre, M L; Alibrandi, A; Scaroni, C; Occhi, G; Ceccato, F; Regazzo, D; De Menis, E; Sartorato, P; Arnaldi, G; Trementino, L; Trimarchi, F; Ferrau, F

    2016-04-01

    An increased prevalence of acromegaly was found some years ago in a highly polluted area in North-Eastern Sicily, where high concentration of nonmethane hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and cadmium was found. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway has a key role in detoxification of these compounds and in tumorigenesis. We correlated the occurrence of AHR and/or AHR-interacting protein (AIP) gene variants with acromegaly severity according to pollution exposition. This was an observational, perspective study conducted over 7 years in four Italian referral centers for pituitary diseases in which 210 patients with acromegaly were enrolled between 2008 and 2015. Genetic screening of patients for AHR and AIP variants. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data of patients with and without AIP and/or AHR gene variants, living in polluted (high-risk for health, [HR]) or nonpolluted (NP) areas of five Italian regions were evaluated and compared. Among the 23 patients from HR areas, nine showed AHR or AIP variants. Mean IGF-I levels and pituitary tumor diameter were significantly higher in these nine patients (HR/VAR+) than in the other 14 (HR/VAR−) and in the 187 from NP areas (44 NP/VAR+). Somatostatin analogs significantly decreased mean GH and IGF-I levels in patients from NP areas and in HR/VAR− (GH P acromegaly, increased pituitary tumor size, and somatostatin analog resistance in patients living in HR areas.

  6. An Assessment of Technical and Production Risks of Candidate Low-Cost Attitude/Heading Reference Systems(AHRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel; Burgess, Malcolm; Hammers, William

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of technical and production risks of candidate low-cost attitude/heading reference systems (AHRS) for use in the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) airplanes. A low-cost AHRS is a key component of modem "glass cockpit" flight displays for General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The technical capabilities of several candidate low-cost AHRS were examined and described along with the technical issues involved with using all solid-state components for attitude measurement. An economic model was developed which describes the expected profit, rate of return, and volume requirements for the manufacture of low-cost AHRS for GA aircraft in the 2000 to 2020 time frame. The model is the result of interviews with GA airframe manufacturers, avionics manufacturers and historical analysis of avionics of similar complexity. The model shows that a manufacturer will break even after three years of AHRS production, realizing an 18 percent rate of return (23 percent profit) on an investment of $3.5M over the 20 year period. A start-up production estimate showed costs of $6-12M for a new company to build and certify an AHRS from scratch, considered to be a high-risk proposition, versus $0.25-0.75M for an experienced avionics manufacturer to manufacture a design under license, a low-risk proposition.

  7. AhR Activation Underlies the CYP1A Autoinduction by A-998679 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Liguori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 (3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl benzonitrile, was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound’s plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95% and 100 mg/kg (80%. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver, and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity.

  8. Immunological characterization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) knockout rat in the presence and absence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S.; Chen, Weimin; Li, Jinpeng; Crawford, Robert B.; Bach, Anthony; D’Ingillo, Shawna; Kovalova, Natalia; Suarez-Martinez, Jose E.; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.; Harrill, Joshua A.; Budinsky, Robert; Rowlands, J. Craig; Thomas, Russell S.

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been extensively characterized for the essential role it plays in mediating the toxic responses elicited by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Despite similarities across animal species, species-specific differences exist in the profile of toxicity and sensitivity to TCDD owing, in part, to differences in the AHR. Newer reports have implicated the importance of AHR in the development and regulation of the immune system. Our present studies seek to further explore the essential role of AHR in lymphoid tissue composition, B cell function and the immunological responses after TCDD administration using the recently established AHR KO rats. Comprehensive immune cell phenotyping showed a decrease in the CD8 + T cell, CD11c + populations and an increase in NKT cells in 3-week-old AHR KO rats compared to the WT controls. The lipopolysaccharide-induced IgM response and proliferation was markedly suppressed in the WT but not in the AHR KO B cells in the presence of TCDD. However, the percentage of LPS-activated IgM + B cells was significantly higher in the AHR KO B cells as compared to that of WT suggesting the role of AHR in regulating the IgM response. The use of an AHR antagonist further alluded to the endogenous role of AHR in regulating B cell responses in the rat. Overall, the studies report for the first time, comprehensive immune cell phenotyping of the AHR KO rat and the endogenous role of AHR in the regulation of B cell function in the rat.

  9. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes. (orig.)

  10. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.

  11. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, John D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long–Evans (Turku/AB; L–E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 μg/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose–response analysis, none had an ED 50 equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10–100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L–E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L–E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L–E), Nqo1 (L–E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: • NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules following

  12. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, John D., E-mail: john.watson@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Prokopec, Stephenie D., E-mail: stephenie.prokopec@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Smith, Ashley B., E-mail: ashleyblaines@gmail.com [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Okey, Allan B., E-mail: allan.okey@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: paul.boutros@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long–Evans (Turku/AB; L–E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 μg/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose–response analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10–100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L–E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L–E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L–E), Nqo1 (L–E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: • NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules

  13. Trastuzumab use during pregnancy: long-term survival after locally advanced breast cancer and long-term infant follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jurandyr M de; Brito, Luiz G O; Moises, Elaine C D; Amorim, Andréa C; Rapatoni, Liane; Carrara, Hélio H A; Tiezzi, Daniel G

    2016-04-01

    Here, we describe the case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced breast cancer 8 years ago. Her treatment course was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by mastectomy and then adjuvant radiotherapy and trastuzumab (TTZ). During the use of adjuvant targeted therapy, an incidental pregnancy was diagnosed. Four years later, she developed bone and cerebral metastases, and since then, she has received courses of TTZ, capecitabine, lapatinib, and radiotherapy with intermittent control of the disease. Her 7-year-old son presents a normal physical and long-term neurological developmental curve according to specialized evaluation. This case is unique for several reasons: the patient received the highest dose of TTZ yet described during pregnancy (4400 mg); there has been a long period of disease-free survival after treatment for locally advanced breast cancer and long overall survival despite successive disease progressions during the metastatic phase of the disease (97 months), and there was a monitored pediatric follow-up period (7 years).

  14. A MEMS-based Adaptive AHRS for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Hussain, Dil Muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tracking is a challenging task for marine applications. An attitude determination system should estimate the wave disturbances on the ship body accurately. To achieve this, an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, composed...... of three-axis gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer, is developed for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA). In this paper, the attitude determination algorithm is improved using an adaptive mechanism that tunes the attitude estimator parameters based on an estimation of ship motion frequency...

  15. Binding Mode and Structure-Activity Relationships of ITE as an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolciami, Daniela; Gargaro, Marco; Cerra, Bruno; Scalisi, Giulia; Bagnoli, Luana; Servillo, Giuseppe; Fazia, Maria Agnese Della; Puccetti, Paolo; Quintana, Francisco J; Fallarino, Francesca; Macchiarulo, Antonio

    2018-02-06

    Discovered as a modulator of the toxic response to environmental pollutants, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has recently gained attention for its involvement in various physiological and pathological pathways. AhR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by a large array of chemical compounds, which include metabolites of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism as endogenous ligands of the receptor. Among these, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) has attracted interest in the scientific community, being endowed with nontoxic, immunomodulatory, and anticancer AhR-mediated functions. So far, no information about the binding mode and interactions of ITE with AhR is available. In this study, we used docking and molecular dynamics to propose a putative binding mode of ITE into the ligand binding pocket of AhR. Mutagenesis studies were then instrumental in validating the proposed binding mode, identifying His 285 and Tyr 316 as important key residues for ligand-dependent receptor activation. Finally, a set of ITE analogues was synthesized and tested to further probe molecular interactions of ITE to AhR and characterize the relevance of specific functional groups in the chemical structure for receptor activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tissue levels of AhR and sex steroid receptors in breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the incidence of breast fibroadenoma is growing in the last two decades in Tehran. This study aimed to compare the AhR levels in premenopausal breast cancer and breast fibroadnemo with appropriate normal groups. Possible associations of AhR with lifestyle and reproductive risk factors and other fundamental genes of breast cancer and reproductive disorders were the other major goals of present study. To conduct the comparisons all possible reproductive, environmental and lifestyle risk factors of mentioned diseases were recorded in 100 breast cancer, 100 breast fibroadenoma and compared with 400 women in normal group from 2009 to 2011. AhR overexpression in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced reproductive disorders. The AhR overexpression was contributed to ER-/PgR- immunophenotype in malignant tissues. Weight gain (after 18 and after pregnancy, long term (>5yrs OCP consumption, smoking, severe stress ,history of ovarian cysts, hormonal deregulations, living near PAHs producing sources, were correlated with increased risk of breast cancer and reproductive disorders and were correlated with elevated tissue levels of AhR. It seems that increased risk of breast cancer and other reproductive tumours in Tehran may be the result of exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Long term exposure to environmental estrogens can increase the tissue levels of AhR and deregulate the expression pattern of sex steroid receptors and other genes in target tissues.

  17. Unexpected effects of absorbed normal rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin on survival of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R

    1988-01-01

    In the course of using the infant rat model to determine the ability of various rabbit antisera to protect against challenge by Haemophilus influenzae type b we made two unexpected observations. In these experiments 4-day-old rats were inoculated s.c. on the dorsum with either rabbit serum or physiological buffers (sham serum) and then were challenged the next day with H. influenzae type b injected i.p. Bacteremia, as a marker for disease, was measured 24 h later on day 6. We observed the following. (i) Pre-immune, i.e., normal rabbit serum, containing minimal levels of antibodies to outer membrane proteins and depleted of antibodies to capsule and lipopolysaccharide, nevertheless significantly (P less than 0.01) protected the rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b when compared to a sham inoculation of buffer; (ii) In the absence of a serum inoculation on day 4 (a buffer was used as a sham serum inoculation), the levels of bacteremia obtained after inoculation with bacteria on day 5 depended upon the composition of the buffer in which the H. influenzae inoculum was suspended. Use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) resulted in higher levels of bacteremia than PBS containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA) (P less than 0.001), i.e. the BSA apparently acted to protect the rats from H. influenzae infection. In fact the use of PBS-BSA as an inoculum buffer masked the protective effect noted above of the absorbed normal rabbit serum.

  18. Disruption of contact inhibition in rat liver epithelial cells by various types of AhR ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondracek, J.; Chramostova, K.; Kozubik, A. [Institute of Biophysics, Brno (Czech Republic); Krcmar, P.; Machala, M. [Veterinary Research Institute, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-09-15

    The maintenance of a balance between cell gain and cell loss is essential for proper liver function. The exact role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis of liver cells remains unclear, since ligand-dependent activation of AhR has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest, proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis, depending on the cellular model used. AhR can directly interact with retinoblastoma protein in hepatic cells, forming protein complexes that can efficiently block cell cycle progression by inducing G1 arrest, or to induce the expression of inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, such as p271. On the other hand, it has been suggested that AhR could play a stimulatory role in cell proliferation, either directly or by mediating a release from contact inhibition. It is now generally accepted that progenitor cells exist in the liver, are activated in various liver diseases and can form a potential target cell population for both tumor initiating and tumor promoting chemicals4. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) has been found to release rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition by upregulating cyclin A expression and cyclin A/cdk2 activity. Our previous studies have shown that a number of AhR ligands5,6 can stimulate proliferation of confluent of rat liver epithelial ''stem-like'' WB-F344 cells. Such mechanism could play a role in liver tumor promotion. In the present study, we used flavonoid compounds that have been reported to act either as pure agonists, such as beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), or as partial/complete antagonists of AhR - alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) and 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone (3'M4'NF), in order to investigate effects of AhR agonists/antagonists on confluent rat liver epithelial cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of model flavonoids on the release of rat liver epithelial cells from contact inhibition, and on inducibility of

  19. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew D; Galligan, Thomas M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Moore, Brandon C; Wilkinson, Philip M; Guillette, Louis J; Parrott, Benjamin B

    2017-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today. Little is known regarding the effects that long-term chronic exposures to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds might have on the development and subsequent health of offspring from exposed individuals, nor is much known regarding AHR expression in reptilians. Here, we characterize AHR and CYP1A gene expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying differential exposures to environmental contaminants. Both age- and tissue-dependent patterning of AHR isoform expression are detected. We characterize two downstream transcriptional targets of the AHR, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, and describe conserved elements of their genomic architecture. When comparisons across different sites are made, hepatic expression of CYP1A2, a direct target of the AHR, appears elevated in embryos from a site associated with a dioxin point source and previously characterized PCB contamination. Elevated CYP1A2 expression is not persistent, as site-specific variation was absent in juveniles originating from field-collected eggs but reared under lab conditions. Our results illustrate the patterning of AHR gene expression in a long-lived environmental model species, and indicate a potential contemporary influence of historical contamination. This research presents a novel opportunity to link

  20. TCDD-induced transcriptional profiles in different mouse strains that have an identical AhR genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing; Suzuki, Junko S.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Ministry of the Environment, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo (Japan); Lin, Tinmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Wisconsin, MA (United States). School of Pharmacy and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that is known to cause hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. A characteristic feature in the toxicity of TCDD is exceptionally large differences in susceptibility among animal species or even strains belonging to the same species. These strain differences in susceptibility to TCDD have now been elucidated to be due to the difference in ligand binding affinity or transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Actually the C57BL/6 type AhR (AhR{sup b}) showed 6-fold higher ligand binding affinity than the DBA/2 type AhR (AhR{sup d}). The H/W rat AhR has a C-terminal truncation of the transactivating domain compared to the L-E rat AhR. On the other hand, there is considerable species variability in response sensitivity to TCDD that cannot be ascribed simply to polymorphisms of the AhR gene. A non-AhR gene susceptibility loci for hepatic porphyria has been observed in mice treated with iron compounds prior to TCDD injection by using a quantitative trait locus analysis of an F2 intercross between susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant DBA/2 stains. In the rat, a gene B with Han/Wistar type AhR is likely to be involved in resistance to TCDD lethality. These observations suggest that other modulating genes, so-called ''modifier genes'', have profound effects on the AhR-mediated gene expression phenotype. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the AhR coding region, the BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mouse strains are clustered together on a single branch. In the present study, we try to confirm the existence of modifiers by using microarray analysis to examine hepatic gene expression after TCDD exposure in BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice. To recognize the existence of a modifier besides the AhR, it is a prerequisite experimental condition that the analyzed strains have an identical AhR genotype. Therefore, we selected BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice as the model

  1. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian

    2016-10-01

    Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel AHRS Inertial Sensor-Based Algorithm for Wheelchair Propulsion Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bruce Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, athletes, teams, and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training in order to find a competitive advantage. The use of inertial sensors has been proposed as a cost effective and adaptable measurement device for monitoring wheelchair kinematics; however, the outcomes are dependent on the reliability of the processing algorithms. Though there are a variety of algorithms that have been proposed to monitor wheelchair propulsion in court sports, they all have limitations. Through experimental testing, we have shown the Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS-based algorithm to be a suitable and reliable candidate algorithm for estimating velocity, distance, and approximating trajectory. The proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive, agnostic of wheel camber, not sensitive to sensor placement, and can be embedded for real-time implementations. The research is conducted under Griffith University Ethics (GU Ref No: 2016/294.

  4. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AhR and SHP regulate phosphatidylcholine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in the one-carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chae; Seok, Sunmi; Byun, Sangwon; Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Grace; Xie, Wen; Ma, Jian; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2018-02-07

    Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are critical determinants of hepatic lipid levels, but how their levels are regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Pemt and Gnmt, key one-carbon cycle genes regulating PC/SAM levels, are downregulated after feeding, leading to decreased PC and increased SAM levels, but these effects are blunted in small heterodimer partner (SHP)-null or FGF15-null mice. Further, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is translocated into the nucleus by insulin/PKB signaling in the early fed state and induces Pemt and Gnmt expression. This induction is blocked by FGF15 signaling-activated SHP in the late fed state. Adenoviral-mediated expression of AhR in obese mice increases PC levels and exacerbates steatosis, effects that are blunted by SHP co-expression or Pemt downregulation. PEMT, AHR, and PC levels are elevated in simple steatosis patients, but PC levels are robustly reduced in steatohepatitis-fibrosis patients. This study identifies AhR and SHP as new physiological regulators of PC/SAM levels.

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  7. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spink, Barbara C.; Bloom, Michael S.; Wu, Susan; Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus; Ding, Xinxin; Spink, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC) n , located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC) 2 alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC) n alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC) n was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC) n alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC) 2 was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC) n short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC) 2 allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC) n , where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC) n microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC) 2 was lower than that of (GGGGC) 4 • The frequency of (GGGGC) 2 in lung cancer patients was 8-fold higher than in neonates • The

  8. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  9. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhan [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Bu, Yongjun [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Liu, Xiaozhuan [Medical College, Henan University of Science & Technology, 471023 (China); Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong [The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, 450052 (China); Yu, Zengli, E-mail: zly@zzu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, 453003 (China); School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 450001 (China)

    2016-05-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  10. TCDD promoted EMT of hFPECs via AhR, which involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhan; Bu, Yongjun; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Wang, Xugang; Zhang, Guofu; Wang, Erhui; Ding, Shibin; Liu, Yongfeng; Shi, Ruling; Li, Qiaoyun; Fu, Jianhong; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    One critical step of second palatal fusion is the newly formed medial epithelia seam (MES) disintegration, which involves apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell migration. Although the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces cleft palate at high rates, little is known about the effects of TCDD exposure on the fate of palatal epithelial cells. By using primary epithelial cells isolated from human fetal palatal shelves (hFPECs), we show that TCDD increased cell proliferation and EMT, as demonstrated by increased the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin14) and enhanced the mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), but had no effect on cell migration and apoptosis. TCDD exposure led to a dose-dependent increase in Slug protein expression. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that TCDD promoted AhR to form a protein complex with Slug. ChIP assay confirmed that TCDD exposure recruited AhR to the xenobiotic responsive element of Slug promoter. Knockdown of AhR by siRNA remarkably weakened TCDD-induced binding of AhR to the XRE promoter of slug, thereby suppressed TCDD-induced vimentin. Further experiment showed that TCDD stimulated EGFR phosphorylation did not influence the TGFβ3/Smad signaling; whereas TCDD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 with no effect on activation of JNK. By using varieties of inhibitors, we confirmed that TCDD promoted proliferation and EMT of hFPECs via activation of EGFR/ERK pathway. These data make a novel contribution to the molecular mechanism of cleft palate by TCDD. - Highlights: • TCDD exposure promoted cell proliferation and EMT of hFPECs; • AhR signaling was activated and required for TCDD-induced EMT; • TCDD-mediated EMT of hFPECs involved the activation of EGFR/ERK signaling; • TCDD exposure had no effect on TGFβ3/Smad pathway.

  11. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cavallini

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy, an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group, who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb, were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  12. The AhR Ligand, TCDD, Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity Differently in Androgen-Sensitive versus Castration-Resistant Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghotbaddini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reported biological effects of TCDD include induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, wasting syndrome and tumor promotion. TCDD elicits most of its effects through binding the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. TCDD induced degradation of AhR has been widely reported and requires ubiquitination of the protein. The rapid depletion of AhR following TCDD activation serves as a mechanism to modulate AhR mediated gene induction. In addition to inducing AhR degradation, TCDD has been reported to induce degradation of hormone receptors. The studies reported here, evaluate the effect of TCDD exposure on androgen receptor (AR expression and activity in androgen-sensitive LNCaP and castration-resistant C4-2 prostate cancer cells. Our results show that TCDD exposure does not induce AhR or AR degradation in C4-2 cells. However, both AhR and AR are degraded in LNCaP cells following TCDD exposure. In addition, TCDD enhances AR phosphorylation and induces expression of AR responsive genes in LNCaP cells. Our data reveals that TCDD effect on AR expression and activity differs in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell models.

  13. Binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the AhR from various species is essentially irreversible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohonowych, J.; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread, persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that includes the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related chemicals. Exposure to these compounds results in a variety of biochemical and toxic effects, the majority of which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent activator of the AhR and AhR-dependent effects. Interestingly, while a related class of compounds, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can bind to and activate the AhR, and produce many of the same biological effects as HAHs, they do not cause HAH-like toxicity. This can be due to differences between these two classes of compounds with respect to their AhR binding affinity, metabolic stability, and/or gene expression. PAHs have a lower affinity for the AhR5 and, unlike TCDD, can be readily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition to its high affinity for the AhR, TCDD has been shown to stabilize the rat AhR receptor against thermal inactivation and to persistently bind the rat receptor. This persistent occupancy may also contribute to the differential toxicity of HAHs and PAHs. In addition to its biological and toxicological implications, the apparent lack of significant dissociation of TCDD from the AhR also impacts the design and interpretation of competitive binding experiments which assume traditional receptor-ligand equilibrium binding kinetics where binding is reversible and equilibrium of ligand:receptor complex is reached when rates of association and dissociation are equal. In this study we have further examined whether this persistent occupancy is a characteristic of the AhR among different species.

  14. Low levels of the AhR in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-derived lung cells increases COX-2 protein by altering mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A; Traboulsi, Hussein; Hecht, Emelia; Zhang, Yelu; Guerrina, Necola; Matthews, Jason; Nair, Parameswaran; Eidelman, David H; Hamid, Qutayba; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2017-01-01

    Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for COPD, by destabilizing the Cox-2 transcript by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). Whether reduced AhR expression is responsible for heightened COX-2 in COPD is not known. Here, we investigated the expression of COX-2 as well as the expression of miR-146a, a miRNA known to regulate COX-2 levels, in primary lung fibroblasts derived from non-smokers (Normal) and smokers (At Risk) with and without COPD. To confirm the involvement of the AhR, AhR knock-down via siRNA in Normal lung fibroblasts and MLE-12 cells was employed as were A549-AhRko cells. Basal expression of COX-2 protein was higher in COPD lung fibroblasts compared to Normal or Smoker fibroblasts but there was no difference in Cox-2 mRNA. Knockdown of AhR in lung structural cells increased COX-2 protein by stabilizing the Cox-2 transcript. There was less induction of miR-146a in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts but this was not due to the AhR. Instead, we found that RelB, an NF-κB protein, was required for transcriptional induction of both Cox-2 and miR-146a. Therefore, we conclude that the AhR controls COX-2 protein via mRNA stability by a mechanism independent of miR-146a. Low levels of the AhR may therefore contribute to the heightened inflammation common in COPD patients.

  15. Contraceptive use, birth spacing, and child survival in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    To reduce infant mortality through improved family planning, a better understanding of the factors driving contraceptive use and how this decision affects infant survival is needed. Using dynamic panel-data models of infant deaths, birth intervals, and contraceptive use, this study analyzes the

  16. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  17. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  18. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  19. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Concept of AHRS Algorithm Designed for Platform Independent Imu Attitude Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Rapiński, Jacek; Pelc-Mieczkowska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, along with the advancement of technology one can notice the rapid development of various types of navigation systems. So far the most popular satellite navigation, is now supported by positioning results calculated with use of other measurement system. The method and manner of integration will depend directly on the destination of system being developed. To increase the frequency of readings and improve the operation of outdoor navigation systems, one will support satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS ect.) with inertial navigation. Such method of navigation consists of several steps. The first stage is the determination of initial orientation of inertial measurement unit, called INS alignment. During this process, on the basis of acceleration and the angular velocity readings, values of Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) are calculated allowing for unambiguous orientation of the sensor coordinate system relative to external coordinate system. The following study presents the concept of AHRS (Attitude and heading reference system) algorithm, allowing to define the Euler angles.The study were conducted with the use of readings from low-cost MEMS cell phone sensors. Subsequently the results of the study were analyzed to determine the accuracy of featured algorithm. On the basis of performed experiments the legitimacy of developed algorithm was stated.

  1. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, ITE induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abron, Jessicca D; Singh, Narendra P; Mishra, Manoj K; Price, Robert L; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Singh, Udai P

    2018-04-19

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we investigated if nontoxic ligand of AhR, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), can attenuate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our studies demonstrated that in mice that received ITE treatment, in-vivo colitis pathogenesis, including a decrease in body weight, was significantly reversed along with the systemic and intestinal inflammatory cytokines. ITE increased the expression of Tregs in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and colon lamina propria lymphocytes (cLPL) of mice with colitis when compared to controls. This induction of Tregs was reversed by AhR antagonist treatment in-vitro. ITE treatment also increased dendritic cells (DCs; CD11c+) and decreased F4/80+ (macrophage) from the spleen, MLNs and cLPL in mice with colitis. ITE also reversed the systemic and intestinal frequency of CD4+T cells during colitis and suppressed inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-6 and IL-1 as well as induced IL-10 levels. These findings suggest that ITE attenuates colitis through induction of Tregs and reduction in inflammatory CD4+ T cells and cytokines. Thus, our work demonstrates that the nontoxic endogenous AhR ligand ITE, may serve as a therapeutic modality to treat IBD.

  2. Khellin and visnagin differentially modulate AHR signaling and downstream CYP1A activity in human liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Vrzal

    Full Text Available Khellin and visnagin are two furanochromones that can be frequently found in ethnomedical formulations in Asia and the Middle East. Both compounds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, therefore modern medicine uses these compounds or structurally related derivatives for treatment of vitiligo, bronchial asthma and renal colics. Despite their frequent usage, the potential toxic properties of visnagin and khellin are not well characterized up-to-now. Many natural compounds modulate the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1, which is well-known to bioactivate pro-carcinogens. The expression of this enzyme is controlled by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a ligand-activated transcription factor and regulator of drug metabolism. Here, we investigated the influence of both furanochromones on AHR signaling in human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. Both compounds transactivated xenobiotic response element (XRE-driven reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner and induced CYP1A1 transcription in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes. The latter was abolished in presence of a specific AHR antagonist. CYP1A enzyme activity assays done in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes revealed an inhibition of enzyme activity by both furanochromones, which may become relevant regarding the metabolism of xenobiotics and co-administered therapeutic drugs. The observed induction of several other members of the AHR gene battery, whose gene products are involved in regulation of cell growth, differentiation and migration, indicates that a further toxicological characterization of visnagin and khelllin is urgently required in order to minimize potential drug-drug interactions and other toxic side-effects that may occur during therapeutic usage of these furanochromones.

  3. Contribution of maternal ART and breastfeeding to 24-month survival in HIV-exposed uninfected children: an individual pooled analysis of African and Asian studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Shino; Rollins, Nigel; Jourdain, Gonzague; Humphrey, Jean; Kourtis, Athena P; Hoffman, Irving; Essex, Max; Farley, Tim; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Gray, Glenda; Kuhn, Louise; Shapiro, Roger; Leroy, Valériane; Bollinger, Robert C; Onyango-Makumbi, Carolyne; Lockman, Shahin; Marquez, Carina; Doherty, Tanya; Dabis, François; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Le Coeur, Sophie; Rolland, Matthieu; Joly, Pierre; Newell, Marie-Louise; Becquet, Renaud

    2017-12-21

    Increasing numbers of HIV-infected pregnant women receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Studies suggested that HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children face higher mortality than HIV-unexposed children, but evidence mostly relates to the pre-ART era, breastfeeding of limited duration and considerable maternal mortality. Maternal ART and prolonged breastfeeding under cover of ART may improve survival, although this has not been reliably quantified. Individual data on 19,219 HEU children from 21 PMTCT trials/cohorts undertaken 1995-2015 in Africa and Asia were pooled and the association between 24-month mortality and maternal/infant factors quantified using random-effects Cox proportional hazards models accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Adjusted attributable fractions of risks computed using the predict function in the R package "frailtypack" estimate the relative contribution of risk factors to overall mortality in HEU children. Cumulative incidence of death was 5.5% (95%CI: 5.1-5.9) by age 24 months. Low birth weight (LBWART (aHR: 0.5) was significantly associated with lower mortality. At population level, LBW accounted for 16.2% of child deaths by 24 months, never breastfeeding for 10.8%, mother not receiving ART for 45.6%, and maternal death for 4.3%; these factors combined explained 63.6% of deaths by age 24 months. Survival of HEU children could be substantially improved if public health strategies provided all mothers living with HIV with ART and supported optimal infant feeding and care for LBW neonates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Transcription Factor AHR Prevents the Differentiation of a Stage 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Subset to Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Hughes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34−CD117+CD94− immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC types that include interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1-positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here, we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes the differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ interferon (IFN-γ-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET. Hence, we demonstrate the lineage plasticity of human ILCs by identifying AHR as a transcription factor that prevents IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells.

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and its endogenous agonist – indoxyl sulfate in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kamiński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The indoxyl sulfate (IS, indoxyl sulphate is the end product of dietary tryptophan degradation by indole pathway and significantly higher serum and tissue concentrations of this compound is observed in patients with impaired renal function. Despite the high albumin binding affinity, the remaining free fraction of IS has a number of biological effects related to the generation of oxidative stress andactivation of signaling pathways related to NF-кB, p53 protein, STAT3, TGF-β and Smad2/3. IS induces the inflammatory process, exerts nephrotoxic activity and is also a factor impairing the cardiovascular system.Its high concentrations are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular incidents, whose frequency is significantly higher in patients with chronic kidney disease. Evaluation of the mechanisms that underlie the high reactivity of indoxyl sulfate and its biological effects showed that this compound is an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. This receptor plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis Moreover, AhR exerts high transcriptional activity, so ligands of obciążethis receptor may exert different biological effects. The following paper describes the role of indoxyl sulfate as AhR ligand in the context of the excessive accumulation, which appears as one of the symptoms associated with chronic kidney disease.

  7. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET A receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET A receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and β-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET A receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice

  8. Hexachlorobenzene stimulates uroporphyria in low affinity AHR mice without increasing CYP1A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, Nadia; Trask, Heidi S.; Robinson, Susan W.; Sinclair, Jacqueline F.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Smith, Andrew G.; Sinclair, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), causes hepatic uroporphyrin (URO) accumulation (uroporphyria) in humans and animals. CYP1A2 has been shown to be necessary in the development of uroporphyria in mice. Using mice expressing the low affinity form of the AH receptor (AHRd), we investigated whether the enhancement of uroporphyria by HCB involves an obligatory increase in CYP1A2 as measured by specific enzyme assays and immunoblotting. We compared the ability of HCB, in combination with iron dextran and the porphyrin precursor, 5-aminolevulinate (ALA), to cause uroporphyria in a strain of mice (C57BL/6) which expresses the high affinity form of the receptor (AHRb 1 ), with three strains of mice (SWR and two 129 sublines) expressing the low affinity AHRd. In C57BL/6 mice, HCB-enhanced uroporphyria was associated with a doubling of CYP1A2. HCB treatment produced uroporphyria in iron-loaded mice expressing AHRd, even though there was little or no increase in CYP1A2. Cyp1a2(-/-) mice in a 129 background were completely resistant to HCB-induced uroporphyria, and female Hfe(-/-) 129 mice, in which the levels of hepatic CYP1A2 were half of those of the male levels, responded poorly. The effect of exogenous iron, administered in the form of iron dextran, on HCB enhancement of uroporphryia could be replicated utilizing the endogenous hepatic iron accumulated in 129 Hfe(-/-) mice. In conclusion, some minimal basal expression of CYP1A2 is essential for HCB-mediated enhancement of uroporphyria, but increases in CYP1A2 above that level are not essential

  9. Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenrui; Fang, Daiqiong; Shi, Ding; Bian, Xiaoyuan; Li, Lanjuan

    2018-01-01

    It is well demonstrated that being married is associated with a better prognosis in multiple types of cancer. However, whether the protective effect of marital status varied across race/ethnicity and gender in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the roles of race/ethnicity and gender in this relationship. We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database during 2004-2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan-Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs) and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married) was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13-1.39; P married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality.

  10. Nutritional recommendations for the late-preterm infant and the preterm infant after hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; O'Connor, Deborah L; Wang, Danhua; Rigo, Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Early nutritional support of preterm infants is critical to life-long health and well being. Numerous studies have demonstrated that preterm infants are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity, including disturbances in brain development. To date, much attention has focused on enhancing the nutritional support of very low and extremely low birth weight infants to improve survival and quality of life. In most countries, preterm infants are sent home before their expected date of term birth for economic or other reasons. It is debatable whether these newborns require special nutritional regimens or discharge formulas. Furthermore, guidelines that specify how to feed very preterm infants after hospital discharge are scarce and conflicting. On the other hand, the late-preterm infant presents a challenge to health care providers immediately after birth when decisions must be made about how and where to care for these newborns. Considering these infants as well babies may place them at a disadvantage. Late-preterm infants have unique and often-unrecognized medical vulnerabilities and nutritional needs that predispose them to greater rates of morbidity and hospital readmissions. Poor or inadequate feeding during hospitalization may be one of the main reasons why late-preterm infants have difficulty gaining weight right after birth. Providing optimal nutritional support to late premature infants may improve survival and quality of life as it does for very preterm infants. In this work, we present a review of the literature and provide separate recommendations for the care and feeding of late-preterm infants and very preterm infants after discharge. We identify gaps in current knowledge as well as priorities for future research. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  13. Effects of marital status on survival of hepatocellular carcinoma by race/ethnicity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu W

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wenrui Wu,1,2 Daiqiong Fang,1,2 Ding Shi,1,2 Xiaoyuan Bian,1,2 Lanjuan Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: It is well demonstrated that being married is associated with a better prognosis in multiple types of cancer. However, whether the protective effect of marital status varied across race/ethnicity and gender in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the roles of race/ethnicity and gender in this relationship.Patients and methods: We identified eligible patients from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database during 2004–2012. Overall and cancer-specific survival differences across marital status were compared by Kaplan–Meier curves. We also estimated crude hazard ratios (CHRs and adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for marital status associated with survival by race/ethnicity and gender in Cox proportional hazard models.Results: A total of 12,168 eligible patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma were included. We observed that married status was an independent protective prognostic factor for overall and cancer-specific survival. In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, the AHR of overall mortality (unmarried vs married was highest for Hispanic (AHR =1.25, 95% CI, 1.13–1.39; P<0.001 and lowest for Asian or Pacific Islander (AHR =1.13; 95% CI, 1.00–1.28; P=0.042. Stratified by gender, the AHR was higher in males (AHR =1.27; 95% CI, 1.20–1.33; P<0.001.Conclusion: We demonstrated that married patients obtained better survival advantages. Race/ethnicity and gender could influence the magnitude of associations between marital status and risk of mortality. Keywords: primary hepatocellular

  14. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xingguo, E-mail: chengx@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Vispute, Saurabh G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei [Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xingguo; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Liu, Jie; Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression

  16. Improvement of outcome for infants of birth weight under 1000 g. The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The two year outcome of extremely low birth-weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight 500 to 999 g), born in the state of Victoria over two distinct eras, 1979-80 and 1985-7, were compared. In the 1979-80 era, 25.4% of the ELBW infants survived to 2 years of age; only 12.5% of liveborn ELBW infants survived to 2 years with no neurological disabilities. In the 1979-80 era, ELBW infants born outside the level III centres in the state were significantly disadvantaged in both mortality and neurological morbidity. By 1985-7, the two year survival rate of ELBW infants rose significantly from 25.4% to 37.9%. By 1985-7, the proportion of ELBW infants who survived to 2 years free of neurological disabilities increased from 12.5% to 26.2%. Despite the improved survival, the absolute number of 2 year old children survivors with severe neurological disabilities remained constant at 8/year in both eras. By 1985-7, fewer ELBW infants were born outside the level III centres, their survival rate remained lower, but the severe neurological disability rate in survivors was no longer significantly higher. There has been a concomitant improvement in both survival and reduction in neurological morbidity.

  17. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  18. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  19. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Binns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  20. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Xianghong; Hachisuka, Junichi; Chiba, Takahito; Esaki, Hitokazu; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus species widely used as an anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and hypoglycemic agent. It has been shown that OFI extract (OFIE) inhibits oxidative stress in animal models of diabetes and hepatic disease; however, its antioxidant mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that OFIE exhibited potent antioxidant activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the downstream antioxidant enzyme quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes challenged with tumor necrosis factor α or benzo[α]pyrene. The antioxidant capacity of OFIE was canceled in NRF2 knockdown keratinocytes. OFIE exerted this NRF2-NQO1 upregulation through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Moreover, the ligation of AHR by OFIE upregulated the expression of epidermal barrier proteins: filaggrin and loricrin. OFIE also prevented TH2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of filaggrin and loricrin expression in an AHR-dependent manner because it was canceled in AHR knockdown keratinocytes. Antioxidant OFIE is a potent activator of AHR-NRF2-NQO1 signaling and may be beneficial in treating barrier-disrupted skin disorders.

  1. Structure of the C-terminal effector-binding domain of AhrC bound to its corepressor l-arginine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, James A.; Baumberg, Simon; Stockley, Peter G.; Phillips, Simon E. V.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain hexameric core of AhrC, with bound corepressor (l-arginine), has been solved at 1.95 Å resolution. Binding of l-arginine results in a rotation between the two trimers of the hexamer, leading to the activation of the DNA-binding state. The arginine repressor/activator protein (AhrC) from Bacillus subtilis belongs to a large family of multifunctional transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of bacterial arginine metabolism. AhrC interacts with operator sites in the promoters of arginine biosynthetic and catabolic operons, acting as a transcriptional repressor at biosynthetic sites and an activator of transcription at catabolic sites. AhrC is a hexamer of identical subunits, each having two domains. The C-terminal domains form the core of the protein and are involved in oligomerization and l-arginine binding. The N-terminal domains lie on the outside of the compact core and play a role in binding to 18 bp DNA operators called ARG boxes. The C-terminal domain of AhrC has been expressed, purified and characterized, and also crystallized as a hexamer with the bound corepressor l-arginine. Here, the crystal structure refined to 1.95 Å is presented

  2. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  3. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies regions on 7p21 (AHR and 15q24 (CYP1A2 as determinants of habitual caffeine consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C Cornelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first genome-wide association study of habitual caffeine intake. We included 47,341 individuals of European descent based on five population-based studies within the United States. In a meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and eigenvectors of population variation, two loci achieved genome-wide significance: 7p21 (P = 2.4 × 10(-19, near AHR, and 15q24 (P = 5.2 × 10(-14, between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Both the AHR and CYP1A2 genes are biologically plausible candidates as CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and AHR regulates CYP1A2.

  4. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR leads to reciprocal epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 expression and amelioration of experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra P Singh

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+ but not AhR (-/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment.These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.

  5. Novel cellular targets of AhR underlie alterations in neutrophilic inflammation and iNOS expression during influenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head Wheeler, Jennifer L.; Martin, Kyle C.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2012-01-01

    The underlying reasons for variable clinical outcomes from respiratory viral infections remain uncertain. Several studies suggest that environmental factors contribute to this variation, but limited knowledge of cellular and molecular targets of these agents hampers our ability to quantify or modify their contribution to disease and improve public health. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environment sensing transcription factor that binds many anthropogenic and natural chemicals. The immunomodulatory properties of AhR ligands are best characterized with extensive studies of changes in CD4+ T cell responses. Yet, AhR modulates other aspects of immune function. We previously showed that during influenza virus infection, AhR activation modulates neutrophil accumulation in the lung, and this contributes to increased mortality in mice. Enhanced levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in infected lungs are observed during the same timeframe as AhR-mediated increased pulmonary neutrophilia. In this study, we evaluated whether these two consequences of AhR activation are causally linked. Reciprocal inhibition of AhR-mediated elevations in iNOS and pulmonary neutrophilia reveal that, although they are contemporaneous, they are not causally related. We show using Cre/loxP technology that elevated iNOS levels and neutrophil number in the infected lung result from separate, AhR-dependent signaling in endothelial and respiratory epithelial cells, respectively. Studies using mutant mice further reveal that AhR-mediated alterations in these innate responses to infection require a functional nuclear localization signal and DNA binding domain. Thus, gene targets of AhR in non-hematopoietic cells are important new considerations for understanding AhR-mediated changes in innate anti-viral immunity. PMID:23233726

  6. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  8. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  9. Current insights in brain protection for the sick newborn infant

    OpenAIRE

    KOOI E.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modern antenatal and postnatal strategies in brain protection for both preterm and term born infants. It is known, that the two most common causes of neonatal brain injury are prematurity and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the term born infant. Approximately one in nine babies is born before term. Nowadays these preterm born infants more often survive the neonatal period due to developments in treatment options in the last decades. They are how...

  10. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 No. 2. Dysphagia in children is ever-increasing, mostly due to the improved survival rate of infants and children with life-threatening ... infants presented with feeding difficulties secondary to other conditions such as LBW and prematurity, ... or under-nutrition, severe irritability during feeding, history of ..... Learning, 2001.

  11. The history of infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Barros Filho, Antônio Azevedo

    2010-01-01

    To retrace the history of infant nutrition with the objective of better understanding breastfeeding. Bibliographic searches were run on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and the Internet. Encyclopedias, scientific textbooks and books for the general public, in addition to literature, art and history, were also used. Texts on child care from several different periods were consulted, in addition to the history of medicine and recent scientific articles on infant nutrition. During the preindustrial period, customs varied little and the likelihood of survival was linked to breastfeeding or its substitution by a wetnurse's milk. Where this was not possible, infants were given animal milk, pre-chewed foods or paps that were poor in nutrients and contaminated, which caused high mortality rates. There was nothing that could successfully substitute breastfeeding and the survival of the species was dependent on breastfeeding. Once the industrial revolution had started, women who had been accustomed to breastfeeding went to work in factories, stimulating the search for alternative infant nutrition. Consumption of animal milk and formulae (diluted, flour-based, powdered milk) and premature introduction of complementary foods compromised children's health. The feminist movement and the contraceptive pill caused a fall in birth rates. Manufacturers in search of profits developed modified formulae and invested in advertising. Society reacted with breastfeeding support movements. Nowadays, the advantages of breastmilk are recognized and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months, to be supplemented with other foods from this age on and continued until at least 2 years of age. Infant nutrition, whether natural or artificial, has always been determined and conditioned by the social value attributed to breastfeeding.

  12. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-12-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10(-6)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10(-9)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β.

  13. Aromatic hydrocarbons upregulate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and induce changes in actin cytoskeleton. Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Mejia-Garcia, A.; Sanchez-Ocampo, E.M.; Castro-Munozledo, F.; Hernandez-Munoz, R.; Elizondo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in several cellular functions including glycolysis, membrane transport, microtubule assembly, DNA replication and repair, nuclear RNA export, apoptosis, and the detection of nitric oxide stress. Therefore, modifications in the regulatory ability and function of GAPDH may alter cellular homeostasis. We report here that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and β-naphthoflavone, which are well-known ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), increase GAPDH mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, respectively. These compounds fail to induce GAPDH transcription in an AhR-null mouse model, suggesting that the increase in GAPDH level is dependent upon AhR activation. To analyse the consequences of AhR ligands on GAPDH function, mice were treated with TCDD and the level of liver activity of GAPDH was determined. The results showed that TCDD treatment increased GAPDH activity. On the other hand, treatment of Hepa-1 cells with β-naphthoflavone leads to an increase in microfilament density when compared to untreated cultures. Collectively, these results suggest that AhR ligands, such as polycyclic hydrocarbons, can modify GAPDH expression and, therefore, have the potential to alter the multiple functions of this enzyme.

  14. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC 50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox-2.

  15. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A; Denison, Michael S; Bonati, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  16. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Corrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms

  17. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  18. Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Frank

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis can cause healthcare-associated biofilm infections, including those of orthopedic devices. Treatment of enterococcal prosthetic joint infection is difficult, in part, due to biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. We previously showed that the E. faecalis OG1RF genes ahrC and eep are in vitro biofilm determinants and virulence factors in animal models of endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. In this study, we evaluated the role of these genes in a rat acute foreign body osteomyelitis model and in in vitro biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Osteomyelitis was established for one week following the implantation of stainless steel orthopedic wires inoculated with E. faecalis strains OG1RF, ΩahrC, and ∆eep into the proximal tibiae of rats. The median bacterial loads recovered from bones and wires did not differ significantly between the strains at multiple inoculum concentrations. We hypothesize that factors present at the infection site that affect biofilm formation, such as the presence or absence of shear force, may account for the differences in attenuation in the various animal models we have used to study the ΩahrC and ∆eep strains. No differences among the three strains were observed in the planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tetracycline. These findings suggest that neither ahrC nor eep directly contribute to E. faecalis biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Notably, the experimental evidence that the biofilm attachment mutant ΩahrC displays biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance suggests that surface colonization alone is sufficient for E. faecalis cells to acquire the biofilm antimicrobial resistance phenotype.

  19. Analysis of sensory processing in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Thais Invenção; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Martinez, Cláudia Maria Simões; Tudella, Eloisa

    2016-12-01

    Premature birth suggests condition of biological vulnerability, predisposing to neurological injuries, requiring hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, which, while contributing to increase the survival rates, expose infants to sensory stimuli harmful to the immature organism. To evaluate the sensory processing at 4 and 6months' corrected age. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample of 30 infants divided into an experimental group composed of preterm infants (n=15), and a control group composed of full-term infants (n=15). The infants were assessed using the Test of Sensory Functions in Infants. The preterm infants showed poor performance in the total score of the test in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and reactivity to vestibular stimulation. When groups were compared, significant differences in the total score (p=0.0113) and in the reactivity to tactile deep pressure (psensory processing. These changes were most evident in reactivity to tactile deep pressure and vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  1. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  2. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  3. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  4. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  5. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  6. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Julie; Josse, Rozenn; Lambert, Carine; Antherieu, Sebastien; Laurent, Veronique; Loyer, Pascal; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, Andre

    2010-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 μM PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  7. AHR over-expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical and molecular assessments in a series of Italian acromegalic patients with a long-term follow-up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Mian

    Full Text Available Acromegaly reportedly carries an increased risk of malignant and benign thyroid tumors, with a prevalence of thyroid cancer of around 3-7%. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR interacting protein (AIP have been identified in familial forms of acromegaly. The molecular and endocrine relationships between follicular thyroid growth and GH-secreting pituitary adenoma have yet to be fully established. Our aim was to study the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC in acromegaly, focusing on the role of genetic events responsible for the onset of thyroid cancer.Germline mutations in the AIP gene were assessed in all patients; BRAF and H-N-K RAS status was analyzed by direct sequencing in thyroid specimens, while immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the protein expression of AIP and AHR. A set of PTCs unrelated to acromegaly was also studied.12 DTCs (10 papillary and 2 follicular carcinomas were identified in a cohort of 113 acromegalic patients. No differences in GH/IGF-1 levels or disease activity emerged between patients with and without DTC, but the former were older and more often female. BRAF V600E was found in 70% of the papillary thyroid cancers; there were no RAS mutations. AIP protein expression was similar in neoplastic and normal cells, while AHR protein was expressed more in PTCs carrying BRAF mutations than in normal tissue, irrespective of acromegaly status.The prevalence of DTC in acromegaly is around 11% and endocrinologists should bear this in mind, especially when examining elderly female patients with uninodular goiter. The DTC risk does not seem to correlate with GH/IGF-1 levels, while it may be associated with BRAF mutations and AHR over-expression. Genetic or epigenetic events probably play a part in promoting thyroid carcinoma.

  8. TCDD and a putative endogenous AhR ligand, ITE, elicit the same immediate changes in gene expression in mouse lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Ellen C; Welle, Stephen L; Gasiewicz, Thomas A

    2010-03-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates toxicity of several classes of xenobiotics and also has important physiological roles in differentiation, reproduction, and immunity, although the endogenous ligand(s) mediating these functions is/are as yet unidentified. One candidate endogenous ligand, 2-(1'H-indolo-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), is a potent AhR agonist in vitro, activates the murine AhR in vivo, but does not induce toxicity. We hypothesized that ITE and the toxic ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), may modify transcription of different sets of genes to account for their different toxicity. To test this hypothesis, primary mouse lung fibroblasts were exposed to 0.5muM ITE, 0.2nM TCDD, or vehicle for 4 h, and total gene expression was evaluated using microarrays. After this short-term and low-dose treatment, several hundred genes were changed significantly, and the response to ITE and TCDD was remarkably similar, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Induced gene sets included the expected battery of AhR-dependent xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, as well as several sets that reflect the inflammatory role of lung fibroblasts. Real time quantitative RT-qPCR assay of several selected genes confirmed these microarray data and further suggested that there may be kinetic differences in expression between ligands. These data suggest that ITE and TCDD elicit an analogous change in AhR conformation such that the initial transcription response is the same. Furthermore, if the difference in toxicity between TCDD and ITE is mediated by differences in gene expression, then it is likely that secondary changes enabled by the persistent TCDD, but not by the shorter lived ITE, are responsible.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  10. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Benjamin J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Rojas, Itzel Y. [Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Hazlett, Haley F. [Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Department of Immunology & Microbiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Nemani, Krishnamurthy V. [Department of Radiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Trask, Heidi W.; West, Rachel J. [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Lupien, Leslie E. [Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Collins, Alan J. [Department of Immunology & Microbiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding

  11. Inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor prevents Western diet-induced obesity. Model for AHR activation by kynurenine via oxidized-LDL, TLR2/4, TGFβ, and IDO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Benjamin J.; Rojas, Itzel Y.; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S.; Hazlett, Haley F.; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Trask, Heidi W.; West, Rachel J.; Lupien, Leslie E.; Collins, Alan J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly urgent global problem, yet, little is known about its causes and less is known how obesity can be effectively treated. We showed previously that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a role in the regulation of body mass in mice fed Western diet. The AHR is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates genes involved in a number of biological pathways, including xenobiotic metabolism and T cell polarization. This study was an investigation into whether inhibition of the AHR prevents Western diet-based obesity. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control and Western diets with and without the AHR antagonist α-naphthoflavone or CH-223191, and a mouse hepatocyte cell line was used to delineate relevant cellular pathways. Studies are presented showing that the AHR antagonists α-naphthoflavone and CH-223191 significantly reduce obesity and adiposity and ameliorates liver steatosis in male C57Bl/6J mice fed a Western diet. Mice deficient in the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) were also resistant to obesity. Using an AHR-directed, luciferase-expressing mouse hepatocyte cell line, we show that the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) signaling pathway via PI3K and NF-κB and the toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) signaling pathway stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoproteins via NF-κB, each induce luciferase expression; however, TLR2/4 signaling was significantly reduced by inhibition of IDO1. At physiological levels, kynurenine but not kynurenic acid (both tryptophan metabolites and known AHR agonists) activated AHR-directed luciferase expression. We propose a hepatocyte-based model, in which kynurenine production is increased by enhanced IDO1 activity stimulated by TGFβ1 and TLR2/4 signaling, via PI3K and NF-κB, to perpetuate a cycle of AHR activation to cause obesity; and inhibition of the AHR, in turn, blocks the cycle's output to prevent obesity. The AHR with its broad ligand binding

  12. Attentional prioritization of infant faces is limited to own-race infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hodsoll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that infant faces capture attention automatically, presumably to elicit caregiving behavior from adults and leading to greater probability of progeny survival. Elsewhere, evidence demonstrates that people show deficiencies in the processing of other-race relative to own-race faces. We ask whether this other-race effect impacts on attentional attraction to infant faces. Using a dot-probe task to reveal the spatial allocation of attention, we investigate whether other-race infants capture attention.South Asian and White participants (young adults aged 18-23 years responded to a probe shape appearing in a location previously occupied by either an infant face or an adult face; across trials, the race (South Asian/White of the faces was manipulated. Results indicated that participants were faster to respond to probes that appeared in the same location as infant faces than adult faces, but only on own-race trials.Own-race infant faces attract attention, but other-race infant faces do not. Sensitivity to face-specific care-seeking cues in other-race kindenschema may be constrained by interracial contact and experience.

  13. Phytomonitoring and phytoremediation of agrochemicals and related compounds based on recombinant cytochrome P450s and aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Inui, Hideyuki; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2011-04-13

    Molecular mechanisms of metabolism and modes of actions of agrochemicals and related compounds are important for understanding selective toxicity, biodegradability, and monitoring of biological effects on nontarget organisms. It is well-known that in mammals, cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) monooxygenases metabolize lipophilic foreign compounds. These P450 species are inducible, and both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) combined with a ligand. Gene engineering of P450 and NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (P450 reductase) was established for bioconversion. Also, gene modification of AhRs was developed for recombinant AhR-mediated β-glucronidase (GUS) reporter assay of AhR ligands. Recombinant P450 genes were transformed into plants for phytoremediation, and recombinant AhR-mediated GUS reporter gene expression systems were each transformed into plants for phytomonitoring. Transgenic rice plants carrying CYP2B6 metabolized the herbicide metolachlor and remarkably reduced the residues in the plants and soils under paddy field conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying recombinant guinea pig (g) AhR-mediated GUS reporter genes detected PCB126 at the level of 10 ng/g soils in the presence of biosurfactants MEL-B. Both phytomonitoring and phytoremediation plants were each evaluated from the standpoint of practical uses.

  14. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives. PMID:27820957

  15. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdaw Tachbele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0% were censored and 35 (10.0% died. Twenty-two (62.9% of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21% at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72, a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51, and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86 or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27 functional status, World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45, and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97. CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  16. [Treatment outcome, survival and their risk factors among new tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Sow, M S; Touré, A; Diallo, O H; Kaba, I; Bah, B; Diallo, T H; Diallo, M S; Guilavogui, T; Sow, O Y

    2017-11-01

    Mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients remains high in Africa. The study aimed to estimate survival and associated factors in a cohort of TB/HIV co-infected patients who started tuberculosis treatment during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry, Guinea. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2015. TB patients with HIV co-infection were enrolled at the University Hospital of Conakry. Survival and risk factors were analyzed according to Kaplan-Meier's method, log-rank test and Cox's regression. Data from 573 patients were analyzed. From these, 86 (15.0%) died before the end of treatment, 52% occurring within eight weeks of treatment onset. Survival at 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the beginning of the TB treatment was 92%, 86% and 83%, respectively. Independent risk factors associated with death were in the cell CD4 <200 cells/mm 3 [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 2.25; 95% CI (confidence intervals): 1.16-4.37], opportunistic infections other than TB [AHR: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.39-6.02], and comorbidities [AHR: 4.12; 95% CI: 2.10-8.10]. An increase of one unit in hemoglobin [AHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75-0.91] was protective of death. TB/HIV co-infected patients had a higher fatality rate during treatment of tuberculosis. Prevention of opportunistic infections, anemia and proper management of tuberculosis treatment in early comorbidities may improve survival for TB/HIV co-infected patients in restoring immune function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Suppression of WIF-1 through promoter hypermethylation causes accelerated proliferation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) overexpressing MCF10AT1 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dalei; Wong, Patrick; Li, Wen; Vogel, Christoph F.; Matsumura, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZ) causes proliferation suppression and ERα recovery. → AZ down-regulates Wnt/β-catenin pathway mainly by increasing WIF-1 expression. → Both ERα and AhR have some effects on DNA methylation in breast cancer cells. → Artificial overexpression of ERα in ER negative cells increases WIF-1 expression. → WIF-1 promoter hypermethylation is one of the major causes for accelerated proliferation. -- Abstract: The cause for increased cell proliferation in AHR overexpressing breast cancer cells still remains unknown. Here we studied the molecular basis of aggressive cell proliferation of an AHR overexpressing and ERα functionally down-regulated MCF10AT1 cell line, designated as P20E, in comparison to a matched sub-line, P20C with normal AHR expression and ERα function. We found that a 4-day treatment of P20E cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZ) caused a significant suppression of cell proliferation. Such an effect of AZ was accompanied with the significant recovery of ERα function. Among diagnostic markers of AZ-induced cellular changes we found conspicuous up-regulation of mRNA expression of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1), particularly in P20E. The possibility of AZ-induced demethylation on the promoter of WIF-1 gene was confirmed through methylation specific PCR assay. Such AZ-induced changes in P20E cells were also accompanied with the decrease in the binding of nuclear proteins to the 32 P labeled TRE (TCF response element) and the reduced accumulation of β-catenin protein in the cell nucleus, indicating the importance of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in maintaining the increased cell proliferation in P20E line over P20C line. The importance of WIF-1 in this regard has been validated by transfecting cells with siRNA against WIF-1, which caused an increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, artificial overexpression of ERα in both P20E as well as MDA-MB-231 cells increased the mRNA expression of WIF-1. Together these

  18. Role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 CYP1C genes in the reduced mesencephalic vein blood flow caused by activation of AHR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Akira; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Harano, Ryo; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo; Teraoka, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes various signs of toxicity in early life stages of vertebrates through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We previously reported a sensitive and useful endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in zebrafish, namely a decrease in blood flow in the dorsal midbrain, but downstream genes involved in the effect are not known. The present study addressed the role of zebrafish cytochrome P450 1C (CYP1C) genes in association with a decrease in mesencephalic vein (MsV) blood flow. The CYP1C subfamily was recently discovered in fish and includes the paralogues CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, both of which are induced via AHR2 in zebrafish embryos. We used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO or morpholino) to block initiation of translation of the target genes. TCDD-induced mRNA expression of CYP1Cs and a decrease in MsV blood flow were both blocked by gene knockdown of AHR2. Gene knockdown of CYP1C1 by two different morpholinos and CYP1C2 by two different morpholinos, but not by their 5 nucleotide-mismatch controls, was effective in blocking reduced MsV blood flow caused by TCDD. The same CYP1C-MOs prevented reduction of blood flow in the MsV caused by β-naphthoflavone (BNF), representing another class of AHR agonists. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mRNA expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 was induced by TCDD most strongly in branchiogenic primordia and pectoral fin buds. In situ hybridization using head transverse sections showed that TCDD increased the expression of both CYP1Cs in endothelial cells of blood vessels, including the MsV. These results indicate a potential role of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in the local circulation failure induced by AHR2 activation in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo. - Research Highlights: → We examine the roles of zebrafish CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 in TCDD developmental toxicity. → TCDD induces mRNA expression of both CYP1Cs in the mesencephalic vein. → Knockdown of each

  19. Infant mortality and causes of infant deaths in rural Ethiopia: a population-based cohort of 3684 births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldearegawi, Berhe; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ashebir, Yemane; Haile, Fisaha; Mulugeta, Afework; Eshetu, Frehiwot; Spigt, Mark

    2015-08-11

    Ethiopia has made large-scale healthcare investments to improve child health and survival. However, there is insufficient population level data on the current estimates of infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country. The aim of this study was to measure infant mortality rate, investigate risk factors for infant deaths and identify causes of death in a rural population of northern Ethiopia. Live births to a cohort of mothers under the Kilite Awlaelo Health and Demographic Surveillance System were followed up to their first birthday or death, between September 11, 2009 and September 10, 2013. Maternal and infant characteristics were collected at baseline and during the regular follow-up visit. Multiple-Cox regression was used to investigate risk factors for infant death. Causes of infant death were identified using physician review verbal autopsy method. Of the total 3684 infants followed, 174 of them died before their first birthday, yielding an IMR of 47 per 1000 live births (95 % CI: 41, 54) over the four years of follow-up. About 96 % of infants survived up to their first birthday, and 56 % of infant deaths occurred during the neonatal period. Infants born to mothers aged 15-19 years old had higher risk of death (HR = 2.68, 95 % CI: 1. 74, 4.87) than those born to 25-29 years old. Infants of mothers who attained a secondary school and above had 56 % lower risk of death (HR = 0.44, 95 % CI: 0.24, 0.81) compared to those whose mothers did not attend formal education. Sepsis, prematurity and asphyxia and acute lower respiratory tract infections were the commonest causes of death. The IMR for the four-year period was lower than the national and regional estimates. Our findings suggest the need to improve the newborn care, and empower teenagers to delay teenage pregnancy and attain higher levels of education.

  20. Attachment Figure's Regulation of Infant Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2017-01-01

    Altricial infants (i.e., requiring parental care for survival), such as humans and rats, form an attachment to their caregiver and receive the nurturing and protections needed for survival. Learning has a strong role in attachment, as is illustrated by strong attachment formed to non-biological caregivers of either sex. Here we summarize and integrate results from animal and human infant attachment research that highlights the important role of social buffering (social presence) of the stress response by the attachment figure and its effect on infant processing of threat and fear through modulation of the amygdala. Indeed, this work suggests the caregiver switches off amygdala function in rodents, although recent human research suggests a similar process in humans and nonhuman primates. This cross-species analysis helps provide insight and unique understanding of attachment and its role in the neurobiology of infant behavior within attachment.

  1. Music therapy with hospitalized infants-the art and science of communicative musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Stephen; Shoemark, Helen; Črnčec, Rudi; Newnham, Carol; Paul, Campbell; Prior, Margot; Coward, Sean; Burnham, Denis

    2012-07-01

    Infants seek contingent, companionable interactions with others. Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), while receiving care that optimizes their chances of survival, often do not have the kind of interactions that are optimal for their social development. Live music therapy (MT) with infants is an intervention that aims for contingent, social interaction between therapist and infant. This study, with a limited numbers of infants, examined the effectiveness of an MT intervention in the NICU at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne. Two groups of late pre-term and full-term infants were recruited to the study; one was given MT and the other was not. A healthy group of infants not given MT served as an additional control. The effect of MT was indexed using two measures reflecting infant social engagement: the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI) and the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). Results suggest that the MT intervention used at The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne supports infants' neurobehavioral development. In particular, hospitalized infants who received MT were better able to maintain self-regulation during social interaction with an adult, were less irritable and cried less, and were more positive in their response to adult handling, when compared with infants who did not receive the intervention. These are important prerequisites for social interaction and development. Further and larger scale research using MT with this population is indicated. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of sugary beverages with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Fayth L.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The role of consumption of added sugars in cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) is unclear. We examined associations between sugary beverages and susceptibility to UADT cancer as well as overall survival among UADT cancer patients. Methods The association between dietary added sugar and susceptibility to UADT cancers or overall survival among 601 UADT cancer cases was evaluated using data from a population-based case–control study conducted in Los Angeles County. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for cancer susceptibility, and Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) with 95 % CIs for survival, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results A total of 248 deaths were observed during follow-up (median 12.1 years). A positive association was observed with consumption of grams of sugar from beverages, including soft drinks and fruit juices, and poorer survival among UADT cancer cases (aHR, Q4 vs. Q1:1.88; 95 % CI 1.29, 2.72; p for trend = 0.002), as well as servings of sugary beverages (aHR, Q4 vs. Q1: 95 % CI 1.97, 95 % CI 1.32–2.93). This was due largely to consumption of sugars from soft drinks. Particularly, high consumption of sugary beverages was associated with poorer survival among esophageal cancer cases, driven by squamous cancers. No association was observed between sugary beverages and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion These findings suggest that consumption of sugary beverages may decrease survival associated with UADT cancers. Additional studies should be conducted to examine survival among cancer patients consuming high amounts of added or refined sugars. Such studies may highlight prognostic factors for UADT cancers. PMID:27539643

  4. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  5. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  6. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  7. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  8. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Dual Nature of Early-Life Experience on Somatosensory Processing in the Human Infant Brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Maitre, N.L.; Key, A.P.; Chorna, O.D.; Slaughter, J.C.; Matusz, P.J.; Wallace, M.T.; Murray, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of...

  10. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus from a marine Superfund site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franks Diana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A, a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126 exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf and larvae (15 dpf from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH Superfund site (PCB-resistant and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive. Results Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing. Conclusions The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish.

  11. A rapid and reagent-free bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists using autobioluminescent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Young, Anna; Marr, Enolia; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven; Close, Dan

    2018-02-01

    An autonomously bioluminescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter was developed in this study for the simple and rapid detection of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. This recombinant yeast reporter was based on a synthetic bacterial luciferase reporter gene cassette (lux) that can produce the luciferase as well as the enzymes capable of self-synthesizing the requisite substrates for bioluminescent production from endogenous cellular metabolites. As a result, bioluminescent signal production is generated continuously and autonomously without cell lysis or exogenous reagent addition. By linking the expression of the autobioluminescent lux reporter cassette to AhR activation via the use of a dioxin-responsive promoter, the S. cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter emitted a bioluminescent signal in response to DLC exposure in a dose-responsive manner. The model dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), could be detected within 4 h with a half maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of ~ 8.1 nM and a lower detection limit of 500 pM. The autobioluminescent response of BLYAhS to other AhR agonists, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), polychlorinated bisphenyl congener 126 (PCB-126) and 169 (PCB-169), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and β-naphthoflavone (bNF), were also characterized in this study. The non-destructive and reagent-free nature of the BLYAhS reporter assay facilitated near-continuous, automated signal acquisition without additional hands-on effort and cost, providing a simple and cost-effective method for rapid DLC detection.

  12. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 μM βNF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na + /K + -ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by βNF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to βNF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism

  13. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nault, Rance, E-mail: naultran@msu.edu [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Abdul-Fattah, Hiba [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Moon, Thomas W. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 μM βNF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by βNF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to βNF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  14. ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placenta via the activation of AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanming; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Qian; He, Qizhi; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular remodeling in the placenta is essential for normal fetal development. The previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, an environmental toxicant) induces the intrauterine fetal death in many species via the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the current study, we compared the effects of 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) and TCDD on the vascular remodeling of rat placentas. Pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 15 were randomly assigned into 5 groups, and were exposed to a single dose of 1.6 and 8.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) ITE, 1.6 and 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD, or an equivalent volume of the vehicle, respectively. The dams were sacrificed on GD20 and the placental tissues were gathered. The intrauterine fetal death was observed only in 8.0 µg/kg bw TCDD-exposed group and no significant difference was seen in either the placental weight or the fetal weight among all these groups. The immunohistochemical and histological analyses revealed that as compared with the vehicle-control, TCDD, but not ITE, suppressed the placental vascular remodeling, including reduced the ratio of the placental labyrinth zone to the basal zone thickness (at least 0.71 fold of control), inhibited the maternal sinusoids dilation and thickened the trophoblastic septa. However, no marked difference was observed in the density of fetal capillaries in the labyrinth zone among these groups, although significant differences were detected in the expression of angiogenic growth factors between ITE and TCDD-exposed groups, especially Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), Endoglin, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). These results suggest ITE and TCDD differentially regulate the vascular remodeling of rat placentas, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors and their receptors, which in turn may alter the blood flow in the late gestation and partially resulted in

  15. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  16. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Zwol, Annelies; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Fetter, Willem P. F.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low- birth- weight infants on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. Design: Follow- up study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: All surviving infants who

  17. The outcome at 12 months of very-Iow-birth-weight infants ventilated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-07-07

    Jul 7, 1995 ... ventilated VLBW infants from rural and urban areas. Of these, 69% ... The incidence of abnormal motor development in the .... complete audiometric assessment was undertaken at 9 ..... ROP) survive, the number of infants blind because of ROP .... conditions show a cognitive decline during the second year.

  18. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  19. Musical training and empathy positively impact adults’ sensitivity to infant distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults’ ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults’ perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training.

  20. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  1. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  2. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses.The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed.Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  3. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; De Curtis, Mario; Goulet, Olivier; Hernell, Olle; Koletzko, Berthold; Lafeber, Harry N; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2006-05-01

    Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed available evidence on feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge. Close monitoring of growth during hospital stay and after discharge is recommended to enable the provision of adequate nutrition support. Measurements of length and head circumference, in addition to weight, must be used to identify those preterm infants with poor growth that may need additional nutrition support. Infants with an appropriate weight for postconceptional age at discharge should be breast-fed when possible. When formula-fed, such infants should be fed regular infant formula with provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Infants discharged with a subnormal weight for postconceptional age are at increased risk of long-term growth failure, and the human milk they consume should be supplemented, for example, with a human milk fortifier to provide an adequate nutrient supply. If formula-fed, such infants should receive special postdischarge formula with high contents of protein, minerals and trace elements as well as an long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply, at least until a postconceptional age of 40 weeks, but possibly until about 52 weeks postconceptional age. Continued growth monitoring is required to adapt feeding choices to the needs of individual infants and to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding.

  4. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bajpai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up. Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for 350 cells/mm3, functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal, and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for 60 kg were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Early dyadic patterns of mother-infant interactions and outcomes of prematurity at 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada-Guex, Margarita; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Borghini, Ayala; Moessinger, Adrien; Muller-Nix, Carole

    2006-07-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental and socioemotional outcomes. The quality of the early mother-infant relationship has been noted as 1 of the factors that may exacerbate or soften the potentially adverse impact of preterm birth, particularly concerning the infant's later competencies and development. The first purpose of the study was to identify at 6 months of corrected age whether there were specific dyadic mother-infant patterns of interaction in preterm as compared with term mother-infant dyads. The second purpose was to examine the potential impact of these dyadic patterns on the infant's behavioral and developmental outcomes at 18 months of corrected age. During a 12-month period (January-December 1998), all preterm infants who were compliance, difficult, and passivity). At 18 months, behavioral outcomes of the children were assessed on the basis of a semistructured interview of the mother, the Symptom Check List. The Symptom Check List explores 4 groups of behavioral symptoms: sleeping problems, eating problems, psychosomatic symptoms, and behavioral and emotional disorders. At the same age, developmental outcomes were evaluated using the Griffiths Developmental Scales. Five areas were evaluated: locomotor, personal-social, hearing and speech, eye-hand coordination, and performance. Among the possible dyadic patterns of interaction, 2 patterns emerge recurrently in mother-infant preterm dyads: a "cooperative pattern" with a sensitive mother and a cooperative-responsive infant (28%) and a "controlling pattern" with a controlling mother and a compulsive-compliant infant (28%). The remaining 44% form a heterogeneous group that gathers all of the other preterm dyads and is composed of 1 sensitive mother-passive infant; 10 controlling mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant; and 10 unresponsive mothers with a cooperative, difficult, or passive infant. Among the term control

  6. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance.

  7. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1), AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) and CYP1 family monooxygenase mRNAs and their activity in chicken ovarian follicles following in vitro exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos, Piotr A; Błachuta, Małgorzata; Hrabia, Anna; Grzegorzewska, Agnieszka K; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-09-02

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of TCDD and luteinizing hormone (LH) on mRNA expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1), AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), and the CYP1 family monooxygenases (CYP1A4, CYP1A5, CYP1B1), and to assess the basal and TCDD-induced activity of these enzymes in chicken ovarian follicles. White (WF) and yellowish (YF) prehierarchical follicles and fragments of the theca (TL) and granulosa (GL) layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were exposed to TCDD (10nM), ovine LH (oLH; 10ng/mL) or a combination of TCDD (10nM) and oLH (10ng/mL), and increasing doses of TCDD (0.01-100nM). AHR1 and ARNT1 mRNA transcripts were found in all examined follicles. The effect of TCDD and oLH on AHR1 and ARNT1 mRNA expression depended on the maturational state of the follicle. CYP1A4 was predominantly expressed in the GL of the F3-F1 follicles; in comparison with the WF, a higher level of CYP1A5 mRNA was found both in the GL and TL of F3-F1 follicles. Alternatively, the highest level of CYP1B1 mRNA was noticed in the WF follicles. In different developmental stages of the follicle TCDD and oLH induced a different CYP1 isoform. TCDD increased EROD and MROD activities in all the investigated ovarian follicles. In conclusion, AHR1 and ARNT1 mRNA expression indicate that the chicken ovary is a target tissue for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds. The expression of CYP1-family genes and TCDD-inducible EROD and MROD activities in ovarian follicles suggest the possibility of xenobiotic detoxification in the chicken ovary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kynurenine promotes the goblet cell differentiation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells by modulating Wnt, Notch and AhR signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo-Hung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Eun-Jin; Kim, Da-Jeong; Hwang, Won-Bhin

    2018-04-01

    Various amino acids regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we examined the ability of HT-29 cells to differentiate into goblet cells in RPMI and DMEM which are largely different in the amounts of numerous amino acids. Most of the HT-29 cells differentiated into goblet cells downregulating the stem cell marker Lgr5 when cultured in DMEM, but remained undifferentiated in RPMI. The goblet cell differentiation in DMEM was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 which is the initial enzyme in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (KN) pathway, whereas tryptophan and KN induced goblet cell differentiation in RPMI. The levels of Notch1 and its activation product Notch intracytoplasmic domain in HT-29 cells were lower in DMEM than those in RPMI and were increased by 1-MT in both media. HT-29 cells grown in both media expressed β-catenin at the same level on day 2 when goblet cell differentiation was not observed. β-catenin expression, which was increased by 1-MT in both media, was decreased by KN. DMEM reduced Hes1 expression while enhancing Hath1 expression. Finally, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation moderately induced goblet cell differentiation. Our results suggest that KN promotes goblet cell differentiation by regulating Wnt, Notch, and AhR signals and expression of Hes1 and Hath1.

  9. Rural/Urban Differences in Child Growth and Survival in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Tim B.; Forste, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In Bolivia, a third of rural children are stunted, and rural infants are twice as likely to die before age 2 than urban infants. National survey data indicate child survival and development are related to maternal education and literacy, community sanitation practices, access to health care, and socioeconomic status. Parental knowledge about…

  10. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  11. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  12. Transient hypothyroxinaemia associated with developmental delay in very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Brand, R.; Brande, J.L. van den

    1992-01-01

    In 563 surviving very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) and/or very low birthweight (<1500 g) infants the relationship between neonatal thyroxine concentration and psychomotor development at 2 years of age (corrected for preterm birth) was studied. A significant association was found between low

  13. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW), gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT), and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms.

  14. Auditory maturation and congenital hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Coenraad (Saskia)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe number of preterm births has increased over the past decades as a result of increasing maternal age and in vitro fertilization (1). At the same time the survival of preterm infants has increased due to advances in perinatal and neonatal care. For example, antenatal corticosteroids

  15. The nursing care of the infant receiving bubble CPAP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Krista M; Mainous, Rosalie O

    2008-04-01

    There are increasing numbers of low birth-weight and premature infants surviving with conditions such as chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia due to complications of assisted mechanical ventilation and other factors. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used as an alternative respiratory treatment to prevent and manage lung disease in preterm infants since the 1970s. Evidence has demonstrated the usefulness of CPAP in the delivery room, as a rescue therapy, as an extubation tool, and a method for managing apnea of prematurity. Bubble CPAP is a unique, simple, inexpensive way of providing continuous positive pressure to infants. Some background and training in the setup, care, and evaluation of the infant on bubble CPAP is essential for positive outcomes.

  16. Infants delivered in maternity homes run by traditional birth attendants in urban Nigeria: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Inem, Victor A; Abosede, Olayinka A

    2011-06-01

    We explored factors associated with traditional maternity/herbal homes (TMHs) run by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) compared with hospital or home delivery in Lagos, Nigeria, and found that infants delivered at TMHs were less likely to have severe hyperbilirubinemia compared with infants delivered in hospitals or residential homes. These infants were also less likely to be preterm compared with those delivered in hospitals or undernourished compared with infants delivered in residential homes. We concluded that infants delivered at TMHs who survive are unlikely to be at greater risks of some adverse perinatal outcomes than those delivered in hospitals or family homes.

  17. Neonatal morbidity and early outcome of very preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions. The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm infants remain very vulnerable group of population, and interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm babies include tertiary interventions such as regionalized care, transportation in uterus, and treatment with antenatal steroids.

  18. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  20. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  2. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  3. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  4. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  5. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  6. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  7. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  8. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  9. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  10. A population-based study of effect of multiple birth on infant mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. Methods We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using univariable and multivariable survival regression procedure with Weibull hazard function, controlling for child's sex, birth order, prenatal care, delivery assistance; mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level; household living conditions and several other risk factors. Results Children born multiple births were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as infants born singleton (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.19 holding other factors constant. Maternal education and household asset index were associated with lower risk of infant mortality. Conclusion Multiple births are strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Nigeria independent of other risk factors. Mother's education played a protective role against infant death. This evidence suggests that improving maternal education may be key to improving child survival in Nigeria. A well-educated mother has a better chance of satisfying important factors that can improve infant survival: the quality of infant feeding, general care, household sanitation, and adequate use of preventive and curative health services.

  11. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  12. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  13. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mundy, Lukas J., E-mail: lukas.mundy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jones, Stephanie P., E-mail: stephanie.jones@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Chiu, Suzanne, E-mail: suzanne.chiu@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Klein, Jeff, E-mail: jeffery@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Konstantinov, Alex, E-mail: alex@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Potter, Dave, E-mail: dpotter@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, in combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of

  14. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, Gillian E.; Mundy, Lukas J.; Crump, Doug; Jones, Stephanie P.; Chiu, Suzanne; Klein, Jeff; Konstantinov, Alex; Potter, Dave; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, in combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of toxicity than CYP

  15. NEONATAL MORBIDITY AND EARLY OUTCOME OF VERY PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions.The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s < 30 weeks’ gestation, who were admitted to the NICU. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 102 infants with gestational age less than 30 weeks’ gestation, hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Clinical University Center Sarajevo, from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2010. Parameters taken at admission were: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, excess base and CRIB score. Early outcome is considered as a survival at discharge or common preterm morbidities presented during hospitalizationResults: The mean BW of evaluated preterm infants was 1086 ± 250 g, the mean GA27.89 ± 1.97, Apgar score 5.41 ± 1.76, excess base at admission 6.39 ± 1.74 and mean CRIB score 3.72 ± 3.16. The overall survival rate was 70.5%. Selected outcomes at discharge were: RDS with 70.5% infants treated with natural surfactant, PDA treated with NSAIDS (23.5%, brain injury ( ≥ grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the mostfrequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm

  16. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  17. Follow up assessment of very preterm infants at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, Martin de

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous with the improved survival of very preterm and low birth weight infants, the awareness increased that not all survive without sequelae. Mild developmental disturbances that interfere with the acquisition of everyday skills and normal learning appeared to be very frequent and were not

  18. Growth in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, endocrine and pulmonary aspects : clinical and follow-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Huijsman (Marianne)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the last decades important advances in neonatal intensive care have been made leading to an increased survival of especially very preterm infants. Major changes in survival rate have been attributed to the use of antenatal steroids and surfactant in the

  19. Perturbation effect of reduced graphene oxide quantum dots (rGOQDs) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Hui; Sun, Tai; Niu, Aping; Tang, Yu-Mei; Deng, Shun; Luo, Wei; Xu, Qun; Wei, Dapeng; Pei, De-Sheng

    2017-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) has been widely used in enormous fields, however, the inherent molecular mechanism of GQDs for potential risks in biological system is still elusive to date. In this study, the outstanding reduced graphene quantum dots (rGOQDs) with the QY as high as 24.62% were successfully synthesized by the improved Hummers method and DMF hydrothermal treatment approach. The rGOQDs were N-doped photoluminescent nanomaterials with functional groups on the surface. The fluorescent bio-imaging was performed by exposing zebrafish in different concentrations of the as-prepared rGOQDs, and the distribution of rGOQDs was successfully observed. Moreover, the developmental toxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated to further investigate the potential hazard of rGOQDs. The result indicated that rGOQDs were responsible for the dose-dependent abnormalities on the development of zebrafish. Since the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that the expression of cyp1a was the highest expression in the selected genes and significantly up-regulated 8.49 fold in zebrafish, the perturbation of rGOQDs on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway was investigated by using the Tg(cyp1a:gfp) zebrafish for the first time. The results demonstrated that rGOQDs significantly increased the green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression promoted by cyp1a in a dose-dependent manner, which was also further confirmed by the western blotting. This study offered an opportunity to reveal the potential hazards of in vivo bio-probes, which provided a valuable reference for investigating the graphene-based materials on the disturbance of AhR pathway in biological organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  1. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  2. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival......PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). RESULTS: A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were...

  3. Mortality, neonatal morbidity and two year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia G de Waal

    Full Text Available Extremely preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal mortality and adverse outcome. Survival rates are slowly improving, but increased survival may come at the expense of more handicaps.Prospective population-based cohort study of all infants born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation in The Netherlands in 2007. 276 of 345 (80% infants were born alive. Early neonatal death occurred in 96 (34.8% live born infants, including 61 cases of delivery room death. 29 (10.5% infants died during the late neonatal period. Survival rates for live born infants at 23, 24, 25 and 26 weeks of gestation were 0%, 6.7%, 57.9% and 71% respectively. 43.1% of 144 surviving infants developed severe neonatal morbidity (retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or severe brain injury. At two years of age 70.6% of the children had no disability, 17.6% was mild disabled and 11.8% had a moderate-to-severe disability. Severe brain injury (p = 0.028, retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3 (p = 0.024, low gestational age (p = 0.019 and non-Dutch nationality of the mother (p = 0.004 increased the risk of disability.52% of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007 survived. Surviving infants had less severe neonatal morbidity compared to previous studies. At two years of age less than 30% of the infants were disabled. Disability was associated with gestational age and neonatal morbidity.

  4. Pareidolia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  5. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  6. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  7. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  8. The evolution of clinical trials for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotecha, R S; Gottardo, N G; Kees, U R; Cole, C H

    2014-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants has a significantly inferior outcome in comparison with older children. Despite initial improvements in survival of infants with ALL since establishment of the first pediatric cooperative group ALL trials, the poor outcome has plateaued in recent years. Historically, infants were treated on risk-adapted childhood ALL protocols. These studies were pivotal in identifying the need for infant-specific protocols, delineating prognostic categories and the requirement for a more unified approach between study groups to overcome limitations in accrual because of low incidence. This subsequently led to the development of collaborative infant-specific studies. Landmark outcomes have included the elimination of cranial radiotherapy following the discovery of intrathecal and high-dose systemic therapy as a superior and effective treatment strategy for central nervous system disease prophylaxis, with improved neurodevelopmental outcome. Universal prospective identification of independent adverse prognostic factors, including presence of a mixed lineage leukemia rearrangement and young age, has established the basis for risk stratification within current trials. The infant-specific trials have defined limits to which conventional chemotherapeutic agents can be intensified to optimize the balance between treatment efficacy and toxicity. Despite variations in therapeutic intensity, there has been no recent improvement in survival due to the equilibrium between relapse and toxicity. Ultimately, to improve the outcome for infants with ALL, key areas still to be addressed include identification and adaptation of novel prognostic markers and innovative therapies, establishing the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission, treatment strategies for relapsed/refractory disease and monitoring and timely intervention of late effects in survivors. This would be best achieved through a single unified

  9. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...

  10. The clinical use of near infrared spectroscopy-monitored cerebral oxygen saturation and extraction in the preterm infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, P.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Survival of extremely preterm infants has greatly improved over the last decades. Despite this, perinatal brain damage with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is still affecting a considerable number of these infants. Although the etiology of brain damage is multifactorial and even partly unknown,

  11. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  12. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  13. Early infant diagnosis and post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV- exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Recent scientific evidence suggests that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among infants exposed perinatally to HIV has beneficial effects on their health and survival, and may even induce remission. This has led to the roll-out of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and early treatment. Also, there is talk of using ART as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission. EID involves carrying out diagnostic tests before initiating ART. In India, current programme design of centralised diagnosis has been resulting in poor access to diagnosis and treatment. To save the lives of HIV-infected infants, it is important to prevent delay. Another issue to be kept in mind is that the results of HIV tests may turn negative after the initiation of ART. This could be due to viral remission induced by ART or false positive initial results. Differentiating between the two is difficult. To deal with such cases, we need to develop a clinical algorithm and tools for capacity-building in counselling. The use of ART as PEP is expected to encounter further challenges. Between ART as PEP and EID, the later has advantages from an ethical perspective. There is a need to address the ethical issues within the EID programme by strengthening the current mechanisms for protecting the rights of HIV-exposed infants.

  14. The Health Rationale for Family Planning: Timing of Births and Child Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations, New York, NY. Population Div.

    Among the most influential findings from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) were those linking fertility patterns to child survival, in particular the findings concerning the high infant and child mortality for children born after a short birth interval. This study examined the relations between fertility and child survival based on more recent data…

  15. Refining Stimulus Parameters in Assessing Infant Speech Perception Using Visual Reinforcement Infant Speech Discrimination: Sensation Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Kristin M; Baca, Rosalinda; Dudas, Emily; Fredrickson, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Speech perception measures have long been considered an integral piece of the audiological assessment battery. Currently, a prelinguistic, standardized measure of speech perception is missing in the clinical assessment battery for infants and young toddlers. Such a measure would allow systematic assessment of speech perception abilities of infants as well as the potential to investigate the impact early identification of hearing loss and early fitting of amplification have on the auditory pathways. To investigate the impact of sensation level (SL) on the ability of infants with normal hearing (NH) to discriminate /a-i/ and /ba-da/ and to determine if performance on the two contrasts are significantly different in predicting the discrimination criterion. The design was based on a survival analysis model for event occurrence and a repeated measures logistic model for binary outcomes. The outcome for survival analysis was the minimum SL for criterion and the outcome for the logistic regression model was the presence/absence of achieving the criterion. Criterion achievement was designated when an infant's proportion correct score was >0.75 on the discrimination performance task. Twenty-two infants with NH sensitivity participated in this study. There were 9 males and 13 females, aged 6-14 mo. Testing took place over two to three sessions. The first session consisted of a hearing test, threshold assessment of the two speech sounds (/a/ and /i/), and if time and attention allowed, visual reinforcement infant speech discrimination (VRISD). The second session consisted of VRISD assessment for the two test contrasts (/a-i/ and /ba-da/). The presentation level started at 50 dBA. If the infant was unable to successfully achieve criterion (>0.75) at 50 dBA, the presentation level was increased to 70 dBA followed by 60 dBA. Data examination included an event analysis, which provided the probability of criterion distribution across SL. The second stage of the analysis was a

  16. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  17. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  18. Risk Factors for Mortality among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Following Antiretroviral Therapy in Southwestern Ethiopia: An Assessment through Survival Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinberu Seyoum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART treatment. However, HIV patients in resource-poor settings are still dying, even if they are on ART treatment. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Southwestern Ethiopia. Method: A non-concurrent retrospective cohort study which collected data from the clinical records of adult HIV/AIDS patients, who initiated ART treatment and were followed between January 2006 and December 2010, was conducted, to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH. Survival times (i.e., the time from the onset of ART treatment to the death or censoring and different characteristics of patients were retrospectively examined. A best-fit model was chosen for the survival data, after the comparison between native semi-parametric Cox regression and parametric survival models (i.e., exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic. Result: A total of 456 HIV patients were included in the study, mostly females (312, 68.4%, with a median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range (IQR: 23–37 years. Estimated follow-up until December 2010 accounted for 1245 person-years at risk (PYAR and resulted in 66 (14.5% deaths and 390 censored individuals, representing a median survival time of 34.0 months ( IQR: 22.8–42.0 months. The overall mortality rate was 5.3/100 PYAR: 6.5/100 PYAR for males and 4.8/100 PYAR for females. The Weibull survival model was the best model for fitting the data (lowest AIC. The main factors associated with mortality were: baseline age (>35 years old, AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1, baseline weight (AHR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90–0.97, baseline WHO stage IV (AHR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.2–14.2, and low adherence to ART treatment (AHR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–7.1. Conclusion: An effective reduction in HIV/AIDS mortality could be achieved through timely ART

  19. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  20. [Changes in the outcome for infants, with birth weight under 500 grams, at our department (First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University, Budapest)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Péter; Jeager, Judit; Harmath, Ágnes; Berecz, Botond; Kollár, Tímea; Pete, Barbara; Magyar, Zsófia; Rigó, János; Romicsné Görbe, Éva

    2015-03-08

    The mortality and morbidity of extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight below 1000 grams) are different from low birth weight and term infants. The Centers for Disease Control statistics from the year 2009 shows that the mortality of preterm infants with a birth weight less than 500 grams is 83.4% in the United States. In many cases, serious complications can be expected in survivals. The aim of this retrospective study was to find prognostic factors which may improve the survival of the group of extremely low birth weight infants (<500 grams). Data of extremely low birth weight infants with less than 500 grams born at the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University between January 1, 2006 and June 1, 2012 were analysed, and mortality and morbidity of infants between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 (period I) were compared those found between January 1, 2009 and June 1, 2012 (period II). Statistical analysis was performed with probe-t, -F and -Chi-square. Survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants less than 500 grams in period 1 and II was 26.31% and 55.17%, respectively (p = 0.048), whereas the prevalence of complications were not significantly different between the period examined. The mean gestational age of survived infants (25.57 weeks) was higher than the gestational age of infants who did not survive (24.18 weeks) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0045). Education of the team of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, professional routine and technical conditions may improve the survival chance of preterm infants. The use of treatment protocols, conditions of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and steroid prophylaxis may improve the survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants.

  1. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  2. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  3. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is on the changing table. Consider the following important safety tips: Be aware of poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, ... middle of the back seat. It is very important for the driver to pay attention to driving, not playing with the infant. If you need ...

  4. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  5. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  6. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a

  7. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  8. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  9. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  11. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C

    1999-06-01

    In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.

  12. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  13. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  14. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  15. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung

    2001-01-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants

  16. [Extremely Low Birthweight Infants in Iceland. Health and development.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgsdóttir, Ingibjœrg; Sæmundsen, Evald; Símonardóttir, Ingibjœrg; Halldórsson, Jónas G; Egilson, Snæfríður Thorn; Leósdóttir, Thornóra; Ingvarsdóttir, Brynhildur; Sindrason, Einar; Dagbjartsson, Atli

    2003-01-01

    Survival of extremely low birthweight infants (BWastma (p=0.001), convulsions (p=0.001), difficulties in swallowing (p=0.001) and weight gaining (p=0.005). At five years of age significantly more ELBW children born in 1991-95 compared to control children had abnormal general physical examination (pinfants born in 1982-90 and 1991-95 are similar regarding problems during pregnancy, birth and newborn period. The proportion of children with disabilities is similar in both periods although survival was significantly increased. When compared to matched control children, ELBW children born in 1991-95 suffer significantly more longterm health and developmental problems.

  17. Gender imbalance in infant mortality: a cross-national study of social structure and female infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Kana; Crenshaw, Edward M

    2006-01-01

    Sex differentials in infant mortality vary widely across nations. Because newborn girls are biologically advantaged in surviving to their first birthday, sex differentials in infant mortality typically arise from genetic factors that result in higher male infant mortality rates. Nonetheless, there are cases where mortality differentials arise from social or behavioral factors reflecting deliberate discrimination by adults in favor of boys over girls, resulting in atypical male to female infant mortality ratios. This cross-national study of 93 developed and developing countries uses such macro-social theories as modernization theory, gender perspectives, human ecology, and sociobiology/evolutionary psychology to predict gender differentials in infant mortality. We find strong evidence for modernization theory, human ecology, and the evolutionary psychology of group process, but mixed evidence for gender perspectives.

  18. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  19. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  20. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Syed E.; Srivastava, Anurag; Shrotriya, Ved P.; Mishra, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of ...

  1. Auditory maturation and congenital hearing loss in NICU infants

    OpenAIRE

    Coenraad, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe number of preterm births has increased over the past decades as a result of increasing maternal age and in vitro fertilization (1). At the same time the survival of preterm infants has increased due to advances in perinatal and neonatal care. For example, antenatal corticosteroids for women with threatened preterm delivery, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide have now become standard therapy (1). Unfortunately, these improvements sometimes come at a...

  2. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  3. Intraoperative closure of infant multiple muscular ventricular septal defects with Amplatzer occluder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinfen; Gao Wei; Zhu Zhongqun; Chen Huiwen; Zhang Yuqi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To report the preliminary experience of intraoperative hybrid therapy for closure of multiple muscular ventricular septal defects (VSD) in a small infant. Methods: After median sternotomy, a AGA Amplatzer occluder was introduced through right ventricular surface to close 2 muscular ventricular septal defects under transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Results: The infant survived after the treatment without residual shunting, and rehabilitated rapidly. Conclusions: Intraoperative hybrid therapy with combined surgical technique and interventional procedure for closure of multiple muscular VSD in small infant is a safe and effective method. (authors)

  4. Seeking explanations for high levels of infant mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1987-01-01

    Data from the Fertility Module of the 1979 Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey of Pakistan were analyzed to determine which of 4 factors were primarily responsible for the high infant mortality rate. The factors examined were poverty, childbearing and childrearing practices, distribution of health care and lack of individual attention given to children due to ignorance. These items were presented in a discussion format. Infant mortality in Pakistan is high at about 125-140/1000, for a country with mid-level per capita income. Income was not a good indicator of child mortality, primarily because it was difficult to determine, particularly in rural areas where non-cash income predominates. Wealth and status were good indicators of child survival. Child-rearing practices were somewhat important, as judged by birth order, breastfeeding duration and gender. Childbearing practices as shown by spacing were important determinants of survival. Health care facilities were somewhat important, indicated by higher mortality in rural areas. Rural neonates die from tetanus due to lack of immunization, or later from diarrheal disease due to lack of potable water or poor weaning practices. Maternal education was a strong indicator of survival, much more so than paternal education. Similarly, female heads of households increased survival, probably because they control financial allocations. The study suggested that rather than attempting to eliminate poverty overall, improvements in maternal education, nutrition, health care facilities and their use, and childbearing and child-rearing methods would do more to improve child survival in Pakistan.

  5. The attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Katie; Marlow, Neil; Edgley, Alison; Porock, Davina

    2012-08-01

    The paper is a report of a study of the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards extremely preterm infants. Alongside advancing survival at extremely preterm gestational ages, ethical debates concerning the provision of invasive care have proliferated in light of the high morbidity. Despite nurses being the healthcare professionals who work closest with the infant and their family, their potential influence is usually ignored when determining how parents come to decisions about future care for their extremely premature infant. A Q methodology was employed to explore the attitudes of neonatal nurses towards caring for extremely preterm infants. Data were collected between 2007 and 2008 and analysed using PQMethod and Card Content Analysis. Thirty-six nurses from six neonatal units in the United Kingdom participated. Although there was consensus around the professional role of the nurse, when faced with the complexities of neonatal nursing three distinguishing factors emerged: the importance of parental choice in decision-making, the belief that technology should be used to assess response to treatment, and the belief that healthcare professionals should undertake difficult decisions. Neonatal nurses report unexpected difficulties in upholding their professionally defined role through highly complex and ever varied decision-making processes. Recognition of individual attitudes to the care of extremely preterm infants and the role of the family in the face of difficult decisions should facilitate more open communication between the nurse and the parents and improve the experience of both the nurse and the family during these emotional situations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  7. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  8. Preterm Infants With Biliary Atresia: A Nationwide Cohort Analysis From The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wessel, Daan B E; Boere, Thomas; Hulzebos, Christian V; de Kleine, Ruben H J; Verkade, Henkjan J; Hulscher, Jan B F

    2017-10-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) occurs in 0.54 of 10.000 of overall live births in the Netherlands. BA has an unfavorable prognosis: Netherlands. Retrospective study including Dutch preterm infants treated for BA. Parameters included gestational age, congenital anomalies, age at KPE, days between first symptoms, and KPE and referral interval (first hospital to KPE). Outcome parameters were clearance of jaundice (COJ) and (transplant-free) survival. Data are presented as medians (ranges). Included 28 preterm infants (13 boys/15 girls) between March 1988 and December 2015. The incidence of BA was 1.06 of 10.000 preterm live births. Gestational age was 34.8 (27.3-36.9) weeks. Congenital anomalies were present in 11 of 28 (39%) infants. Time between first symptoms and KPE was 57 (9-138) days. Referral interval was 28 (8-86) days. Age at KPE was 70 (35-145) days. COJ was achieved in 23% of cases. Four-year transplant-free survival rate was 21%. Four-year overall survival was 61%. BA has a higher incidence in the preterm population compared to the overall BA population. The outcome of BA in preterm infants is poor, regarding COJ and (transplant-free) survival. We speculate that timely recognition of BA-related signs and symptoms in preterm infants will improve prognosis.

  9. Changing outcome for infants of birth-weight 500-999 g born outside level 3 centres in Victoria. The Victorian Infant Collaborative Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study of extremely low birth-weight (ELBW, birth weight 500-999 g) infants born in Victoria was to determine the changes between 3 distinct eras; 1979-80, 1985-87, and 1991-2, in the proportions who were born outside level 3 perinatal centres (outborn), the proportions of outborn infants who were transferred after birth to a level 3 neonatal unit, the survival rate for outborn infants, and sensorineural impairment and disability rates in outborn survivors. The proportion of ELBW livebirths who were outborn fell significantly over successive eras, from 30.2% (106 of 351) in 1979-80, to 23.0% (129 of 560) in 1985-87, and to 15.6% (67 of 429) in 1991-92. Between 1979-80 and 1985-87, the proportions who were outborn fell predominantly in those of birth-weight from 800-999 g, whereas between 1985-87 and 1991-92 the proportions who were outborn fell predominantly in those of birth weight 500-799 g. The proportions of outborn infants who were transferred after birth to a level 3 neonatal unit were similar in the 3 eras, at 49.1%, 38.0% and 41.2%, respectively. The survival rates for outborn infants were lower in each era than for infants born in a level 3 perinatal centre. Only 1 outborn infant not transferred after birth to a level-3 unit survived in any era. The survival rates for infants transferred after birth were similar in the first 2 eras, but rose significantly in 1991-92 (34.6%, 36.7% and 60.7%, respectively). The rates of sensorineural impairments and disabilities in survivors fell significantly between the first 2 eras, and remained low in the last era. It is pleasing that the proportion of tiny babies who were outborn fell significantly over time, reflecting increased referral of high-risk mothers to level 3 perinatal centres before birth. For ELBW outborn infants, survival prospects free of substantial disability are reasonable, but not as good as for those born in level 3 perinatal centres.

  10. Surgical quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmani, Gaurav S; Wang, Chi-Hsiung; Kim, Ki Wan; Howington, John A; Krantz, Seth B

    2018-07-01

    Very few studies have examined the quality of wedge resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Using the National Cancer Database, we evaluated whether the quality of wedge resection affects overall survival in patients with early disease and how these outcomes compare with those of patients who receive stereotactic radiation. We identified 14,328 patients with cT1 to T2, N0, M0 disease treated with wedge resection (n = 10,032) or stereotactic radiation (n = 4296) from 2005 to 2013 and developed a subsample of propensity-matched wedge and radiation patients. Wedge quality was grouped as high (negative margins, >5 nodes), average (negative margins, ≤5 nodes), and poor (positive margins). Overall survival was compared between patients who received wedge resection of different quality and those who received radiation, adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Among patients who underwent wedge resection, 94.6% had negative margins, 44.3% had 0 nodes examined, 17.1% had >5 examined, and 3.0% were nodally upstaged; 16.7% received a high-quality wedge, which was associated with a lower risk of death compared with average-quality resection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.82). Compared with stereotactic radiation, wedge patients with negative margins had significantly reduced hazard of death (>5 nodes: aHR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.58; ≤5 nodes: aHR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.60-0.70). There was no significant survival difference between margin-positive wedge and radiation. Lymph nodes examined and margins obtained are important quality metrics in wedge resection. A high-quality wedge appears to confer a significant survival advantage over lower-quality wedge and stereotactic radiation. A margin-positive wedge appears to offer no benefit compared with radiation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  12. Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol J.

    A total of 20 infants 8 months of age were videotaped in dyads with each parent during 10 minutes of free play in a laboratory setting, to investigate reciprocal behavior among parents and their infants. Questionnaire data on parents' caretaking involvement were also collected. Findings indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ on the…

  13. Analysis of the Survival of Children Under Five in Indonesia and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Islami Warrohmah, Annisa; Maniar Berliana, Sarni; Nursalam, Nursalam; Efendi, Ferry; Haryanto, Joni; Has, Eka Misbahatul M.; Ulfiana, Elida; Dwi Wahyuni, Sylvia

    2018-02-01

    The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) remains a challenge for developing nations, including Indonesia. This study aims to assess the key factors associated with mortality of Indonesian infants using survival analysis. Data taken from 14,727 live-born infants (2007-2012) was examined from the nationally representative Indonesian Demographic Health Survey. The Weibull hazard model was performed to analyse the socioeconomic status and related determinants of infant mortality. The findings indicated that mother factors (education, working status, autonomy, economic status, maternal age at birth, birth interval, type of births, complications, history of previous mortality, breastfeeding, antenatal care and place of delivery); infant factors (birth size); residence; and environmental conditions were associated with the childhood mortality. Rural or urban residence was an important determining factor of infant mortality. For example, considering the factor of a mother’s education, rural educated mothers had a significant association with the survival of their infants. In contrast, there was no significant association between urban educated mothers and their infants’ mortality. The results showed obvious contextual differences which determine the childhood mortality. Socio-demographic and economic factors remain critical in determining the death of infants. This study provides evidence for designing targeted interventions, as well as suggesting specific needs based on the population’s place of residence, in the issue of U5MR. Further interventions should also consider other identified variables while developing programmes to address infant’s needs.

  14. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  15. Targeting inflammation in the preterm infant: The role of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi H. Fink

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are critical for the normal growth and development of preterm infants. Interest in these compounds rests in their anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical conditions with an inflammatory component such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis are risks to the survival of these infants. Dysregulation of inflammatory responses plays a central role in the aetiology of many of these neonatal disorders. There is evidence to suggest that the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can down-regulate local and systemic inflammation in adults and animal models; however, very little is known about its protective effects in infants, especially preterm infants. Due to their immunological immaturity, preterm infants are particularly sensitive to diseases with an inflammatory aetiology in the early postnatal period. This makes DHA supplementation immediately after birth to combat neonatal inflammation an attractive therapy. Mechanistic data for DHA use in preterm infants are lacking and results from adult and animal studies may not be relevant to this population because of fundamental immune system differences. While there is increasing evidence from randomised controlled trials to support a beneficial effect of DHA for the preterm infant, more evidence is required to establish short and long-term effects of DHA on the immune status of preterm infants.

  16. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  18. Spontaneous Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Infants ≤1500 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semberova, Jana; Sirc, Jan; Miletin, Jan; Kucera, Jachym; Berka, Ivan; Sebkova, Sylva; O'Sullivan, Sinead; Franklin, Orla; Stranak, Zbynek

    2017-08-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) remains a challenging issue in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and its management varies widely. Our aim in this study was to document the natural course of ductus arteriosus in a cohort of VLBW infants who underwent conservative PDA management with no medical or surgical intervention. A retrospective cohort study conducted in 2 European level-3 neonatal units. A total of 368 VLBW infants were born within the study period. Two hundred and ninety-seven infants were free of congenital malformations or heart defects and survived to hospital discharge. Out of those, 280 infants received truly conservative PDA management. In 237 (85%) of nontreated infants, the PDA closed before hospital discharge. The Kaplan-Meier model was used to document the incidence proportion of PDA closure over time for different gestational age groups. The median time to ductal closure was 71, 13, 8, and 6 days in closure before hospital discharge and neonatal morbidities. The likelihood of PDA spontaneous closure in VLBW infants is extremely high. We provide in our findings a platform for future placebo-controlled trials focused on the smallest and youngest infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  20. Outcomes and related factors in a cohort of infants born in Taiwan over a period of five years (2007–2011 with borderline viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hsing Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in perinatal and neonatal care have increased the survival of extremely preterm infants, but the viability limit is still debated. Here we assess the survival, neonatal morbidity, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years of age of infants born at 22–26 weeks of gestation in Taiwan between 2007 and 2011. Methods: This is a prospective longitudinal multicenter cohort study on extremely preterm infants registered in the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group from 2007 to 2011, including 22 neonatal care centers. We extracted demographic and clinical data of infants born at 22–26 weeks, and obtained growth and developmental outcome data from the follow-up clinic at 24 months of corrected age. Multivariate analyses using a logistic regression model identified factors significantly impacting survival. Results: 647 of the 1098 infants included in the study (58.9% survived to discharge. Survival rates were 8% (4/50, 25% (27/108, 46.8% (117/250, 67.0% (211/315, and 76.8% (288/375 for infants born at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks, respectively. Most survivors (567/647, 87.6% had major morbidities during hospitalization, and we identified factors that positively and negatively affected survival. 514 (79.4% patients received follow-up evaluation at 2 years, and 204 (39.7% of them had neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI with an incidence of 75%, 65.2%, 49.5%, 39.5%, and 32.8% for infants born at 22, 23, 24, 25, and 26 weeks, respectively. Conclusion: Infants born at 22 and 23 weeks have a very low likelihood of surviving with little or no impairment. These findings are valuable for parental counseling and perinatal care decisions. Keywords: Extremely preterm, Morbidity, Mortality, Outcomes

  1. Infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing gastroschisis related mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Jordan C; Wren, Sherry M; Macheka, Nyasha; Mbuwayesango, Bothwell A; Bruzoni, Matias; Sylvester, Karl G; Kastenberg, Zachary J

    2015-12-01

    Survival for infants with gastroschisis in developed countries has improved dramatically in recent decades with reported mortality rates of 4-7%. Conversely, mortality rates for gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa remain as great as 60% in contemporary series. This study describes the burden of gastroschisis at the major pediatric hospital in Zimbabwe with the goal of identifying modifiable factors influencing gastroschisis-related infant mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all cases of gastroschisis admitted to Harare Children's Hospital in 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing survival. A total of 5,585 neonatal unit admissions were identified including 95 (1.7%) infants born with gastroschisis. Gastroschisis-related mortality was 84% (n = 80). Of infants with gastroschisis, 96% (n = 91) were born outside Harare Hospital, 82% (n = 78) were born outside Harare Province, and 23% (n = 25) were home births. The unadjusted odds of survival for these neonates with gastroschisis were decreased for low birth weight infants (age; OR, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.50), and for those born to teenage mothers (age; OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.46). There was also a trend toward decreased odds of survival for home births (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.02-1.34) and for those born outside Harare Province (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.10-1.22). Gastroschisis-related infant mortality in Zimbabwe is associated with well-known risk factors, including low birth weight, prematurity, and teenage mothers. However, modifiable factors identified in this study signify potential opportunities for developing innovative approaches to perinatal care in such a resource-constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SystEmatic review and meta-aNAlysis of infanT and young child feeding Practices (ENAT-P) in Ethiopia : Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    Introduction Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review

  3. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support.

  4. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ovrevik, Johan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Mollerup, Steen [Section for Toxicology, National Institute of Occupational Health, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Asare, Nana [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Longhin, Eleonora [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Dahlman, Hans-Jorgen [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Camatini, Marina [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Centre Research POLARIS, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Holme, Jorn A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} PM2.5 induces mitotic arrest in BEAS-2B cells. {yields} PM2.5 induces DNA damage and activates DNA damage response. {yields} AhR regulated genes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and AhRR) are upregulated after PM exposure. {yields} Mitotic spindle assembly is perturbed in PM exposed cells. - Abstract: Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in 'classical' apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  5. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  7. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

  8. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  9. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  10. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  11. Infant colic: mechanisms and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevenhooven, Judith; Browne, Pamela D.; Hoir, L' Monique; Weerth, de Carolina; Benninga, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Infant colic is a commonly reported phenomenon of excessive crying in infancy with an enigmatic and distressing character. Despite its frequent occurrence, little agreement has been reached on the definition, pathogenesis or the optimal management strategy for infant colic. This Review aims to

  12. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth E; Hintz, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, and some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades, a significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized. This review will examine the rates and types of neurodevelopmental impairment seen after extremely preterm birth, including neurosensory, motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. We focus on early outcomes in the first 18-36 months of life, as the majority of large neonatal studies examining neurodevelopmental outcomes stop at this age. However, this early age is clearly just a first glimpse into lifetime outcomes; the neurodevelopmental effects of extreme prematurity may last through school age, adolescence, and beyond. Importantly, prematurity appears to be an independent risk factor for adverse development, but this population demonstrates considerable variability in the types and severity of impairments. Understanding both the nature and prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment among extremely preterm infants is important because it can lead to targeted interventions that in turn may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  14. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  15. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Kumar Rathaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and

  16. Association of Age With Risk of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Preterm Infants With Chronic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterstein, Almut G; Choi, Yoonyoung; Meissner, H Cody

    2018-02-01

    It is unknown whether the age threshold (≤24 months) for preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) to receive immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as currently recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines correctly identified infants at higher risk for hospitalization for RSV. To determine the age when the risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD becomes equivalent to the risk for healthy, 1-month-old term infants who do not qualify for immunoprophylaxis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 1 018 593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD using Medicaid billing records (Medicaid Analytic eXtract files) from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2010, linked to Florida and Texas birth and death certificates. Age-trend discrete time logistic regression models within a survival analysis framework were developed, adjusting for covariates including the use of immunoprophylaxis, to compare the risk of hospitalization of preterm infants (CLD at 3 through 34 months of age with the risk of hospitalization of term infants (37-41 weeks' gestational age) at 1 month of age. Age at which risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD equals the risk for healthy term infants at age 1 month. The study cohort included 1 018 593 healthy term infants and 5181 preterm infants with CLD; because patients could reenter the cohort for a second or third season, the total study cohort consisted of 1 880 531 healthy term infant-seasons (926 206 girls and 954 325 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 12.6 [9.6] months) and 8680 CLD infant-seasons (3519 girls and 5161 boys; mean [SD] age at first season entry, 15.1 [9.1] months). Among term infants with siblings, the risk of hospitalization for RSV averaged across all covariate strata was 9.0 (95% CI, 8.4-9.6) per 1000 patient season-months at 1 month of age. The risk of hospitalization for RSV among preterm infants with CLD

  17. Polygynous contexts, family structure, and infant mortality in sub-saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2014-04-01

    Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features and that it has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared with monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny for 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in nonpolygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child well-being.

  18. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  19. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  20. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  1. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  2. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  3. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  4. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  5. Infant Coping with Everyday Stressful Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mothers of 6 cohorts of infants at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months were interviewed to determine their children's responses to potentially stressful daily events. Found older infants and temperamentally more difficult infants experienced more events and reacted with distress to a greater proportion of the events than did younger infants and…

  6. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  7. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  8. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  9. INFANT FEEDING IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Wanessa Casteluber; Marques, Fúlvia Karine Santos; Oliveira, Camila Ferreira de; Rodrigues, Jéssica Alkmim; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates; Pinho, Lucinéia de

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary food for zero to 24-month-old infants. This is a population-based cross-sectional study of children aged less than 24 months in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were collected in 2015, by interviews with people in charge of infant care in the house. The questionnaire administered assessed the sociodemographic status of the family, maternal and infant characteristics and food consumption habits. Survival analysis was used to calculate median prevalence and duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary feeding. With 180 days of life, 4.0% of the children were exclusively breastfed, 22.4% were mostly breastfed and 43.4% were fed breast milk as complementary food. In the third month of life, children were consuming water (56.8%), fruit juice or formula (15.5%) and cow's milk (10.6%). At the age of 12 months, 31.1% were consuming artificial juice and 50.0% were eating candies. Before the age of 1 year, 25.0% of them had already eaten instant noodles. The introduction of drinks, honey, sugar and candies as complementary food was found to be premature; and solid and semi-solid foods were almost appropriate. The habits described can directly affect the success of breastfeeding. Given that the inadequate eating practices identified can compromise the infant's health, actions that promote breastfeeding and provide guidance on the introduction of complementary foods are important.

  10. Transient cultural influences on infant mortality: Fire-Horse daughters in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Tim A; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; Catalano, Ralph A

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment theory suggests that the quality and quantity of parental care depends, in part, on assessments of whether offspring will survive and yield grandchildren. Consistent with this theory, we hypothesize that parental perception that a birth cohort will have low reproductive success coincides with higher than expected infant mortality in the cohort. We test this hypothesis in industrialized Japan in 1966 when cultural aversion to females born in the astrological year of the Fire-Horse may have jeopardized the life of female infants. We applied time-series methods to cohort infant mortality data for Japan, from 1947 to 1976, to test whether female infant mortality in 1966 rose above levels expected from history, male infant mortality, and fertility. Methods control for the secular decline in infant mortality as well as other temporal patterns that could induce spurious associations. Findings support the hypothesis in that female infant mortality rises by 1.1 deaths per 1,000 live births above expected levels (coefficient = 0.0011; standard error = 0.0005; P = 0.03). The result indicates an excess of 721 female infant deaths statistically attributable to the Fire-Horse year. Findings remain robust to control for male infant mortality and the secular decline in mortality over the test period. The discovery of a predictable, acute increase in female infant mortality during the Fire-Horse year supports the relevance of parental investment theory to developed countries. Results should encourage further research on the health sequelae of abrupt, population-level shifts in culture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relationship between parent-infant attachment and parental satisfaction with supportive nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery-Sefat, Akram; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Badiee, Zohreh; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Parent-infant attachment is an important factor in accepting parenting role, accelerating infant survival, and adjusting to the environment outside the uterus. Since family supportive interventions can strengthen the parent-infant caring relationship, this study sought to investigate the relationship between mother-infant attachment and satisfaction of the mothers with the supportive nursing care received in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this descriptive-correlational study, 210 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in the NICUs affiliated to Isfahan Medical University hospitals took part. The data were collected via Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale and researcher's self-tailored questionnaire based on Nurse Parent Support Tool. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that the overall score of mother-infant attachment and the overall score of maternal satisfaction correlated with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.195. Also, the overall score of mother-infant attachment and mothers' satisfaction scores in the emotional, communicative-informative, and self-confidence domains correlated with correlation coefficients of r = 0.182, r = 0.0.189, and r = 0.0.304, respectively. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that about 15% of changes in the dependent variable (mother-infant attachment) could be explained by different dimensions of mothers' satisfaction. The results of the study showed that mother-infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother-infant attachment.

  13. Blood Cytokine Profiles Associated with Distinct Patterns of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia among Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A; McDonald, Scott A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Stoll, Barbara J; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2016-07-01

    To explore differences in blood cytokine profiles among distinct bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) patterns. We evaluated blood spots collected from 943 infants born at ≤1000 g and surviving to 28 days on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 for 25 cytokines. Infants were assigned to the following lung disease patterns: (1) no lung disease (NLD); (2) respiratory distress syndrome without BPD; (3) classic BPD (persistent exposure to supplemental oxygen until 28 days of age); or (4) atypical BPD (period without supplemental oxygen before 28 days). Median cytokine levels for infants with BPD were compared with the IQR of results among infants with NLD. The distribution of enrolled infants by group was as follows: 69 (NLD), 73 (respiratory distress syndrome), 381 (classic BPD), and 160 (atypical BPD). The remaining 260 infants could not be classified because of missing data (104) or not fitting a predefined pattern (156). Median levels of 3 cytokines (elevated interleukin [IL]-8, matrix metalloproteinase-9; decreased granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) fell outside the IQR for at least 2 time points in both infants with atypical and classic BPD. Profiles of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, C-reactive protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) differed between infants with classic and atypical BPD. Blood cytokine profiles may differ between infants developing classic and atypical BPD. These dissimilarities suggest the possibility that differing mechanisms could explain the varied patterns of pathophysiology of lung disease in extremely premature infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians concerning post-discharge care practice of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, A; Parkinson, E; Khawar, N; Elmeki, A; Narula, P; Hoang, D

    2017-01-01

    Survival rates of premature infants are at a historical high and increasingly more pediatricians are caring for former premature infants. The goal of this study was to describe the perspectives and attitudes of pediatricians, as well as, the challenges of rendering post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge care for premature infants. An anonymous 22-question web-based survey was emailed to pediatricians who are current members of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and practicing in Kings County, New York. There were 148 completed surveys with 79% being general pediatricians. Of all respondents, 63% believed that premature infants should have a neonatal high risk follow-up visit within days after discharge and 64% were satisfied with the NICU discharge summary acquisition. While 74% of pediatricians felt comfortable following up with former extremely premature infants, 65% referred to specialists, most often to child development, neurology, and physical and/or occupational therapy. The majority (85%) were more likely to refer premature infants to early intervention. Participating pediatricians varied in their knowledge of immunization and breastfeeding guidelines. Finally, 88% of respondents acknowledged that caregivers of premature infants experience increased stress, with 53% stating that the stress should be addressed. Understanding the perceptions and challenges of pediatricians who care for premature infants may help improve post NICU quality of care. Transition to the outpatient setting is a crucial step in the management of premature infants and a focus on improved hand-off procedures between hospital and physicians may prove beneficial. Also, pediatricians must stay abreast of current recommendations for breastfeeding and vaccinations. Furthermore, emphasis should be given to stress reduction and management for caregivers of former premature infants.

  15. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the New Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight (LBW) infants at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has previously been found to be high. Other centres have shown that even with lack of neonatal intensive care facilities, selective interventions can be implemented that improve neonatal survival rates. It is important to ...

  16. Microbiological assessment and evaluation of rehydration instructions on powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah Sani, N; Hartantyo, S H P; Forsythe, S J

    2013-01-01

    A total of 90 samples comprising powdered infant formulas (n=51), follow-up formulas (n=21), and infant foods (n=18) from 15 domestic and imported brands were purchased from various retailers in Klang Valley, Malaysia and evaluated in terms of microbiological quality and the similarity of rehydration instructions on the product label to guidelines set by the World Health Organization. Microbiological analysis included the determination of aerobic plate count (APC) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Cronobacter spp. Isolates of interest were identified using ID 32E (bioMérieux France, Craponne, France). In this study, 87% of powdered infant formulas, follow-up formulas, and infant foods analyzed had an APC below the permitted level of 70°C for formula preparation, as specified by the 2008 revised World Health Organization guidelines. Six brands instructed the use of water at 40 to 55°C, a temperature range that would support the survival and even growth of Enterobacteriaceae. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal appendicitis: a survival case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Linha Secco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of neonatal appendicitis in a children’s hospital in southern Brazil, demonstrating the impact on neonatal survival. Method: Case study with data collection from medical records, approved by the Institution and Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings. Results: The clinical picture is initially characterized by food intolerance, evolving to hypoactivity, alteration of vital signs and septicemia due to intestinal perforation. Management is exclusively surgical, since no case described in the literature was diagnosed preoperatively and the findings usually point to acute abdomen. Conclusion: A focused clinical surveillance should be established when the infant presents peritoneal irritation. Follow-up of the evolution and the worsening of the symptoms by nurses, as part of the care team in partnership with the medical team, enables an early surgical intervention, thereby avoiding complications such as septicemia and death.

  18. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Jeong Mi; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  19. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  20. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant reflux usually clears up by itself. ... Has evidence of an inflamed esophagus Has chronic asthma and reflux Surgery Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  1. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  2. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants born before 25 weeks gestation in a Korean single neonatal intensive care unit: incidence, natural history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mingui; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Sang Jin; Ham, Don Il; Kang, Se Woong; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-12-01

    As younger preterm infants are able to survive, more extremely preterm infants are at risk of developing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). To investigate the incidence, progression and risk factors of ROP in extremely preterm infants in Korea, the medical records of infants born before 25 weeks gestation were retrospectively reviewed. The criteria for laser treatment agreed with type 1 ROP as defined by the Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity study. Of the 121 infants included in the analysis, 119 (98.4%) infants developed any stage ROP, including 78 infants (64.5%) with type 1 ROP. The mean postmenstrual age (PMA) at the onset of any ROP and type 1 ROP were 33.5 and 36.1 weeks, respectively. All but one infant developed type 1 ROP after 31 weeks PMA. Univariate analysis showed that duration of total parenteral nutrition and onset of any ROP (PMA) were associated with the development of type 1 ROP. In conclusion, this study shows high incidence of ROP in extremely preterm infants and suggests that, although current screening protocols are feasible for most preterm infants born before 25 weeks gestation, earlier screening before 31 weeks PMA may be necessary in infants with an unstable clinical course.

  4. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  5. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  6. Similar HIV protection from four weeks of zidovudine versus nevirapine prophylaxis among formula-fed infants in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Powis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization HIV guidelines recommend either infant zidovudine (ZDV or nevirapine (NVP prophylaxis for the prevention of intrapartum motherto-child HIV transmission (MTCT among formula-fed infants. No study has evaluated the comparative efficacy of infant prophylaxis with twice daily ZDV versus once daily NVP in exclusively formula-fed HIV-exposed infants.   Methods: Using data from the Mpepu Study, a Botswana-based clinical trial investigating whether prophylactic co-trimoxazole could improve infant survival, retrospective analyses of MTCT events and Division of AIDS (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 occurrences of anaemia or neutropenia were performed among infants born full-term (≥ 37 weeks gestation, with a birth weight ≥ 2500 g and who were formula-fed from birth. ZDV infant prophylaxis was used from Mpepu Study inception. A protocol modification mid-way through the study led to the subsequent use of NVP infant prophylaxis.   Results: Among infants qualifying for this secondary retrospective analysis, a total of 695 (52% infants received ZDV, while 646 (48% received NVP from birth for at least 25 days but no more than 35 days. Confirmed intrapartum HIV infection occurred in two (0.29% ZDV recipients and three (0.46% NVP recipients (p = 0.68. Anaemia occurred in 19 (2.7% ZDV versus 12 (1.9% NVP (p = 0.36 recipients. Neutropenia occurred in 28 (4.0% ZDV versus 21 (3.3% NVP recipients (p = 0.47.   Conclusions: Both ZDV and NVP resulted in low intrapartum transmission rates and no significant differences in severe infant haematologic toxicity (DAIDS Grade 3 or Grade 4 among formula-fed full-term infants with a birthweight ≥ 2500 g.

  7. Changes in mortality for extremely low birth weight infants in the 1990s: implications for treatment decisions and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, William; Lee, Grace; Lin, Kathy; Lantos, John

    2004-05-01

    Much has changed in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) care over the past decade. High-frequency oscillation, inhaled nitric oxide, and antenatal corticosteroids are now widely available. We wondered how these medical advances had affected both the epidemiology and ethics of life and death for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the NICU. We identified 1142 ELBW infants (birth weight [BW] NICU between 1991 and 2001. We abstracted BW, gestational age, survival or death, and length of stay in the NICU. Statistical analyses were performed by using linear regression and 2-way analysis of variance. Both increasing BW and later year were significantly associated with improved survival. However, for larger ELBW infants, survival was approximately 90% for the entire decade, and large-scale improvement was hardly possible. For smaller infants, greater improvements were both possible and observed, at least early in the decade. From 1991 to 1997, overall ELBW survival increased steadily (approximately 4% per year). However, from 1997 to 2001, there was no significant improvement in survival for ELBW infants. There was no change in the distribution of deaths accounted for by BW subgroups within the ELBW population from 1991 to 2001. Median length of stay for infants who eventually expired before discharge rose from 2 days in 1991 to 10 days in 2001. As a consequence, during the past decade, the percentage of infants whose outcome was "undeclared" by day of life 4 rose from 10% to 20% for ELBW infants overall and to 33% for infants with BWs of 450 to 700 g. The percentage of ELBW NICU bed-days occupied by nonsurvivors remained very low (approximately 7%) from 1991 to 2001. 1) Fewer infants in all ELBW subgroups are dying, compared with a decade ago, and the improvement has been most prominent for BWs of 450 to 700 g, at which mortality was and remains to be greatest. 2) This progress seems to have slowed, or even stopped, by the end of the decade. 3) Although most

  8. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  9. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  10. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  11. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  12. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  13. INFANT MORTALITY MAR URAL POPULATION OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum

  14. Child survival and changing fertility patterns in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Z A

    1992-01-01

    Pakistan is a country with high fertility and high infant and child mortality, and declines in total mortality and substantial development initiatives. The discussion considers whether fertility patterns in Pakistan can be related to changes in child mortality, and whether current and future changes in fertility influence child survival favorably. Omran's study linked large family size to child survival. Resources, which are divided, become more important deficits in households below the poverty line: a situation common in Pakistan. High fertility is associated with short birth intervals, which are related to higher infant and child mortality. In Pakistan, the spacing and mortality link was found among both poverty and higher socioeconomic households. There is some support for the notion that it is birth weight and general health that are linked to survival rather than competition for resources. Other studies link the maternal age at birth and birth order with child mortality (Alam and Cleland). Trussel argues for limiting births in high risk ages of under 20 years and over 35 years. The exact casual link is not well documented. Institutional and community factors are also considered important in influencing child survival: sanitation, potable water, access to roads, electricity, health and family planning services, and sewage. Young infants are more vulnerable to these factors. Bangladesh and some Indian states have shown that population programs and raising per captia incomes are necessary to fertility decline. In India, female autonomy, access to education, and more equal income distribution were considered more important than economic development to child survival. In Pakistan, Sathar and Kazi have linked at least 2 years of elementary, maternal education with reductions in child mortality. The pervasiveness of female illiteracy hinders the chances of child survival. Sex preferences also impact on female children. The probably impacts of declines in breast

  15. Tomographic criteria of gliomas in the brain stem in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado Junior, M.A.; Bracchi, M.; D'Incerti, L.; Passerini, A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between Computed Tomography Imaging, histopathological and prognostic data is evaluated by reviewing 37 cases of brain stem neoplasm in infants. The results indicate a presence of a cystic lesion with solid mural nodule as the single prognostic criteria of a greater survival rate. Such finding frequently corresponds to Pilocytic Astrocytomas. No correlations between contrast enhancement and prognostic was found. The association between the prognostic value to the densitometric characteristics of the lesions was not possible. It was concluded that the evaluations of the extension of such lesion is fundamental. Therefore, Magnetic Resonance Imaging has more value than computed tomography. (M.A.C.)

  16. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  17. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  18. The dying child and surviving family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept.

  19. Survival predictors of preterm neonates: Hospital based study in Iran (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Ladan; Nojomi, Marzieh; Mohabbatian, Behnaz; Najmi, Zahra

    2013-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is responsible for 70% of neonatal mortalities. Various factors influence the risk of neonatal mortality in different populations. Our objective was to evaluate neonatal survival rate of preterm infants, and to define its predictors in Iranian population. This retrospective cohort study included all preterm (26-37 weeks) infants (n=1612) born alive in Shahid Akbar-abadi university hospital, during one year period (April 2010-2011). These infants were evaluated for fetal-neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy data. Survival analysis was performed and viability threshold and risk factors of neonatal mortality were evaluated. Total overall mortality rate was 9.1%. Survival rate were 11.11% for extremely low birth weights (LBW) and 45.12% for very early PTBs. The smallest surviving infant was a 750 gr female with gestational age (GA) of 30 weeks and the youngest infants was a 970 gram female with GA of 25weeks plus 2 days. History of previous dead neonate, need to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), need to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, postnatal administration of surfactant, presence of anomalies, Apgar score <7, multiple pregnancy, non-cephalic presentation, early PTB, very early PTB, LBW, very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW), were risk factors for mortality in preterm neonates. Our study revealed that neonatal survival rate is dramatically influenced by birth weight especially under 1000grams, GA especially below 30 weeks, neonatal anomalies, history of previous dead fetus, multiple pregnancy, non- cephalic presentation, and need for NICU admission, resuscitation and respiratory support with surfactant.

  20. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  1. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  2. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  3. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  4. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  5. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Randomized to Stress Dose Hydrocortisone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of stress dose hydrocortisone therapy with placebo on survival without neurodevelopmental impairments in high-risk preterm infants.We recruited 64 extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g infants between the ages of 10 and 21 postnatal days who were ventilator-dependent and at high-risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Infants were randomized to a tapering 7-day course of stress dose hydrocortisone or saline placebo. The primary outcome at follow-up was a composite of death, cognitive or language delay, cerebral palsy, severe hearing loss, or bilateral blindness at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Secondary outcomes included continued use of respiratory therapies and somatic growth.Fifty-seven infants had adequate data for the primary outcome. Of the 28 infants randomized to hydrocortisone, 19 (68% died or survived with impairment compared with 22 of the 29 infants (76% assigned to placebo (relative risk: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.14. The rates of death for those in the hydrocortisone and placebo groups were 31% and 41%, respectively (P = 0.42. Randomization to hydrocortisone also did not significantly affect the frequency of supplemental oxygen use, positive airway pressure support, or need for respiratory medications.In high-risk extremely low birth weight infants, stress dose hydrocortisone therapy after 10 days of age had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months. These results may inform the design and conduct of future clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00167544.

  6. Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballot Daynia E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods The study sample included all VLBW infants born between 01/06/2006 and 28/02/2007 and discharged from the neonatal unit at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version 111 (BSID 111 were done to assess development. Regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with poor outcome. Results 178 infants were discharged, 26 were not available for follow up, 9 of the remaining 152 (5.9% died before an assessment was done; 106 of the remaining 143 (74.1% had a BSID 111 assessment. These 106 patients form the study sample; mean birth weight and mean gestational age was 1182 grams (SD: 197.78 and 30.81 weeks (SD: 2.67 respectively. The BSID (111 was done at a median age of 16.48 months. The mean cognitive subscale was 88.6 (95% CI: 85.69 - 91.59, 9 (8.5% were Conclusion Although the neurodevelopmental outcome of this group of VLBW infants was within the normal range, with a low incidence of cerebral palsy, these results may reflect the low survival of babies with a birth weight below 900 grams. In addition, mean subscale scores were low and one third of the babies were identified as "at risk", indicating that this group of babies warrants long-term follow up into school going age.

  7. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...

  8. Cardiovascular malformations in infants of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Wren, C; Birrell, G; Hawthorne, G

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence at live birth and the spectrum of cardiovascular malformations in infants born to diabetic mothers with pre-existing diabetes with that in infants of non-diabetic mothers.

  9. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research suggests that infant massage can have various health benefits. For example, infant massage might: Encourage interaction between ... massage in a warm, quiet place — indoors or outdoors. Remove your jewelry. Sit comfortably on the floor ...

  10. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  11. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your tone of voice communicates ideas and emotions as well. Change positions. Hold your baby facing ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/infant-development/art-20048012 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  12. Infant Development in Father-Absent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Father role in infancy was examined through a comparison of the stimulus responses of 27 infants reared by their mothers in single-parent families with the stimulus responses of 28 infants in father-present families. (CM)

  13. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACIP Vaccination Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Immunization Schedule for Infants and Children (Birth through 6 ... any questions please talk to your doctor. 2018 Immunization Schedule Recommended Vaccinations for Infants and Children Schedule ...

  14. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking....... The goals for research include testing the benefit and harms of cerebral oximetry in large-scale randomized trials, improved definition of the hypoxic threshold, better understanding the effects of intensive care on cerebral oxygenation, as well as improved precision of oximeters and calibration among...

  15. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  16. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  17. Acoustic parameters of infant-directed singing in mothers of infants with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon; Behura, Samarth; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the acoustic parameters and degree of perceived warmth in two types of infant-directed (ID) songs - the lullaby and the playsong - between mothers of infants with Down syndrome (DS) and mothers of typically-developing (TD) infants. Participants included mothers of 15 DS infants and 15 TD infants between 3 and 9 months of age. Each mother's singing voice was digitally recorded while singing to her infant and subjected to feature extraction and data mining. Mothers of DS infants and TD infants sang both lullabies and playsongs with similar frequency. In comparison with mothers of TD infants, mothers of DS infants used a higher maximum pitch and more key changes during playsong. Mothers of DS infants also took more time to establish a rhythmic structure in their singing. These differences suggest mothers are sensitive to the attentional and arousal needs of their DS infants. Mothers of TD infants sang with a higher degree of perceived warmth which does not agree with previous observations of "forceful warmth" in mothers of DS infants. In comparison with lullaby, all mothers sang playsong with higher overall pitch and slower tempo. Playsongs were also distinguished by higher levels of spectral centroid properties related to emotional expressivity, as well as higher degrees of perceived warmth. These similarities help to define specific song types, and suggest that all mothers sing in an expressive manner that can modulate infant arousal, including mothers of DS infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, R; O'Keefe, M

    1993-01-01

    The ocular complications in population of 131 premature infants, with and without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are reported. An increased incidence of strabismus (20% with ROP and 25% without ROP) and myopia (27.5% with ROP and 8.8% without ROP) was shown. Significant visual loss occurred in 10.7% overall, increasing to 35% with stage 3 disease and 100% with stage 4. With the increased survival rate of premature infants, the relevance to future management of this expanding group of young ...

  19. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  20. Neurological impairment in a surviving twin following intrauterine fetal demise of the co-twin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, K R; Keegan, K M; Schmidt, J W

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that twin pregnancies are at an increased risk for complications, including the risk of morbidity or mortality for one or both of the infants. Cerebral palsy and other associated neurological deficits also occur at higher rates in twin pregnancies. This report examines two cases of intrauterine demise of one twin with subsequent survival of the co-twin. In both cases, the surviving infant suffered significant neurological sequelae. Impairments observed in these two cases include multicystic encephalomalacia and periventricular leukomalacia as well as the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. This case study explores the predisposing factors, incidence, pathophysiology, consequences, and future research implications of these findings.

  1. Clinical and morphological characteristics of malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barycheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of following up infants with intrauterine infections and malformations were retrospectively analyzed. Infants with malformations were diagnosed as having congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis in 127 and 69 cases, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus and congenital Toxoplasma infections. The infants with malformations in congenital cytomegalovirus infection were found to have higher mortality rates (61,4% than those with congenital toxoplasmosis (34,8%. Postmortem analysis indicated that there was a predominance of embryopathies in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and that of fetopathies in those with congenital toxoplasmosis. The dead infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection had more commonly developed visceral defects, including heart diseases, pneumopathies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary abnormalities; fetopathies of the central nervous system and eye were prevalent in congenital toxoplasmosis. The surviving children with congenital toxoplasmosis were more frequently observed to have disabling CNS and ocular sequels as obstructive hydrocephalus, infantile cerebral palsy, complete or partial blindness, and cerebrasthenic disorders than those with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. 

  2. Mortality among infants with congenital malformations, New York State, 1983 to 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druschel, C; Hughes, J P; Olsen, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The authors examined first-year mortality and risk factors for mortality among infants with major congenital malformations. METHODS. Infants with major congenital malformations born from 1983 to 1988 were identified from a statewide population-based congenital malformations registry. Variables analyzed included year of birth, birth weight, gestational age, infant sex, number of malformations, number of organ systems involved, level of care of the birth hospital, maternal age, maternal education, and maternal ethnicity. RESULTS. Infants with major malformations had a risk of death 6.3 times higher than the general population of live births. The risk declined from 6.5 in 1983 to 5.9 in 1988. Birth weight and number of malformations were the strongest risk factors. The likelihood of survival was similar for white and black infants. CONCLUSIONS. Being born with a malformation outweighs most of the other risks for infant mortality. Children with congenital malformations had higher cause-specific mortality for all causes except injury. PMID:8711105

  3. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI.

  4. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  5. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo. *For correspondence: .... are infected with HIV have a better prognosis ... Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is recommended for infants .... addition, NGOs should scale up EID trainings to allow ..... Journal of Acquired Immune.

  6. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  7. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  8. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  9. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  10. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants' poor balance and wide stance. We show that…

  11. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  13. Infant Mortality in Germany in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Gehrmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developments in infant mortality in Germany have previously only been documented in a fragmentary fashion for the 19th century as a whole, and only on a small scale for the period prior to 1871. For the first time, this paper lays a solid statistical foundation by reprocessing the figures assembled by the German states of that time. The reconstructed national statistical series (from 1826 onwards reveals a comparatively high infant mortality, with minor deviations until the turn of the 20th century. The impact of urbanisation and industrialisation is not denied, but an evaluation of the different regional patterns and trends leads to a new weighting. The living and working conditions in the countryside were thus highly determining. The relationship between fertility and infant mortality is assessed differently for the era of the sustained reduction in fertility than for the preceding period. All in all, the prevalent customs and attitudes are regarded as being vital to infants’ survival chances. We therefore need to look at attitudes among the educated public and the authorities. Efforts on the part of these groups to bring about change were particularly observed in the South West, where an awareness of the dramatic problem arose comparatively early. Further historic research at the regional level will be needed in order to achieve a final evaluation of these processes.

  14. Management and outcome of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papageorgiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW and extremely premature (EP infants has shown consistent improvement thanks to advances and innovations in perinatal and neonatal care. Regionalization, with high-risk deliveries in a tertiary perinatal center, offers the coordinated, collaborative, expert and specialized care needed by these mothers and their infants. Despite decreasing rates of the major neonatal morbidities observed in recent years, these continue still to be significant for ELBW/EP infants, impacting their overall prognosis. After NICU discharge and in the first years of life, issues with health, growth and development are common. In school age and adolescence, problems with behavior, socialization and cognition are prevalent. Adult outcomes of ELBW/EP need further clarity, emphasizing the importance for consistent long-term follow-up for this special cohort. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  16. Maternal lactation for preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2001-11-01

    In recent decades, neonatologists have made considerable progress in life support techniques, especially in the treatment and prevention of respiratory disorders, which has led to a higher neonatal survival rate. Research into neonatal nutrition has also produced great benefits. It has been found that one of the key points regarding the improved survival rate of infants is the necessity for nutrition that is both adequate and as natural as possible. In this respect, it is necessary to achieve a better understanding of the process, protection, support and maintenance of maternal lactation in neonatal units. Humanization of perinatal attention during delivery, respect for the rights of parents and their children, protection of the mother and child bonding process, early skin contact with the mother and greater attention to individualized care are all key factors in the reinforcement of maternal lactation and are issues that must be addressed within the field of neonatology. Research activities need to concern themselves with: (1) acquiring greater knowledge concerning the common problems and difficulties that arise with mothers and their preterm babies; (2) training healthcare professionals in these aspects, for example in the extraction and storage of milk and in improving techniques of emotional and communicational skills; (3) by means of specific programmes such as the setting up of support groups, so that the effort made to encourage the initiation of breastfeeding is justified by its continuation for as long as possible. Thus, we hope to establish standards of care based on starting, encouraging and prolonging maternal lactation, in sufficient quantity and quality, always remembering that the fundamental goal of our research is the well-being of the child and its family.

  17. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  18. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  19. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  20. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  1. Infants Can Study Air Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Provided are activities and demonstrations which can be used to teach infants about the nature of air, uses of air, and objects that fly in the air. The latter include airships, hot-air balloons, kites, parachutes, airplanes, and Hovercraft. (JN)

  2. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  3. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  4. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  5. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  6. Multidisciplinary management of cervical neuroblastoma in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanády, Miklós; Vass, Gábor; Bartyik, Katalin; Majoros, Valéria; Rovó, László

    2014-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common malignancy in infancy, it is a histologically and genetically heterogeneous tumor, the therapy and outcome of which is influenced by age, histological variant and genetic background as well. We present two consecutive infant patients with neuroblastoma of the neck discussing the etiology, the diagnosis and the surgical and oncological treatment of the tumor, which was observed in a relatively rare manifestation in the head-neck region. Our first patient (age: 5.5 months) was MYCN (v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived) negative, INSS (International Neuroblastoma Staging System) Stage 3 and INRGSS (International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System) Stage 3 because of the contralateral lymph node involvement while the complete gross resection of the primary tumor mass was feasible. The patient is tumor free after three years of follow-up. Our second patient (age: 5 months) was MYCN negative, INSS Stage 2 and INRGSS Stage 1, as both the primary tumor and the ipsilateral lymph nodes were totally removed via a modified radical neck dissection. The patient is tumor free after three years of follow-up. For MYCN negative patients, especially in early age, the prognosis of neuroblastoma is good, surgical resection and chemotherapy together is an adequate treatment protocol (as in our two patients). While MYCN-amplified patients require a combined and aggressive treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy to be able to obtain a favorable survival rate according to the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  8. Intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn and very young infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Takuji; Togari, Hajime; Shimizu, Kuniki

    1980-01-01

    CT has been established as a rapid, safe and non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). It demonstrates the precise extent of IVH after birth. Eight infants with IVH (5 boys and 3 girls) were studied with CT using an EMI (1010) scanner. Five of the eight infants survived. Three infants (cases 1, 2 and 6) developed severe hydrocephalus. Shunting procedure were performed on these 3 cases, and they survived. The remainder (cases 3, 4, 7 and 8), examined within 5 days after the onset of symptoms, showed IVH. Cases 3, 7 and 8 died. Case 3 had an extensive hematoma in the right lateral ventricle, while case 7 and 8 had a hematoma forming a cast in the whole ventricular system. Case 5 and 6 had clots in the trigonum of both lateral ventricles. In cases 4, 5 and 6, spinal taps were performed frequently to reduce intracranial pressure, and CT was repeated one time a week. Case 4 showed no hydrocephalus. In case 5, the clots became smaller gradually and disappeared on the 25th day after birth. The lateral ventricles distended gradually. However, the distension was spontaneously arrested in this case. Case 6 showed progressive hydrocephalus despite repeated spinal taps, so V-P shunt was performed. But the shunt system was removed on the 14th postoperative day because of malfunction in the system. Thereafter he showed no hydrocephalus. Types of IVH are classified by CT findings into 4 groups: 1) showing hydrocephalus, 2) clotting observed in one ventricle, 3) clotting observed in 2 ventricles, 4) clotting observed throughout the ventricular system. Thus, CT provides useful diagnostic information about the presence, site and distension of the IVH. Its findings enable the physician to make an appropriate prognostic judgement. (author)

  9. Dysphagia in infants after open heart procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Sang-Jun; Huh, June; Jun, Tae-Gook; Cheon, Hee Jung; Kwon, Jeong-Yi

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical predictors of dysphagia and to determine the characteristics of videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings in infants after open heart procedures. This study is a retrospective review of 146 infants who underwent open heart surgery. The infants with dysphagia were compared with those without dysphagia. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study findings of the infants with dysphagia were also evaluated. Of the 146 infants who underwent open heart surgery, 35 (24.0%) had dysphagia symptoms. The infants with dysphagia had lower body weight at operation, more malformation syndromes, longer operation times, and more complex operations than did the infants without dysphagia. In addition, the infants with dysphagia required more time to achieve full oral feeding and had longer hospital stays. Thirty-three infants underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study: 32 (97.0%) exhibited at least one abnormal finding among the videofluoroscopic swallowing study parameters and 21 (63.6%) exhibited tracheal aspiration. Given the high rate of aspiration in the infants who underwent open heart procedures, monitoring and prompt recognition of the signs and the risk factors of dysphagia may substantially improve infant care with oral feeding and reduce the duration of hospital stays.

  10. Mortality and major morbidity of very low birth weight infants in Germany 2008-2012: A report based on administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke eJeschke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Expectant parents of very preterm infants, physicians and policy makers require estimates for chances of survival and survival without morbidity. Such estimates should derive from a large, reliable and contemporary data base of easily available items known at birth.Objective: To determine short-term outcome and risk factors in very low birth weight preterm infants based on administrative dataMethods: Anonymized routine data sets transmitted from hospital administrations to statutory health insurance companies were used to assess survival and survival free of major morbidities in a large cohort of preterm infants in Germany.Results: After exclusion of infants with lethal malformations, there were 13,147 infants with a birth weight below 1,500 g admitted to neonatal care 2008-2012, of whom 1,432 infants (10.9% died within 180 d. Estimated 180 d survival probabilities were 0.632 [95% confidence interval 0.583-0.677] for infants with 250-499 g birth weight, 0.817 [0.799-0.834] for 500-749 g, 0.931 [0.920-0.940] for 750-999 g, 0.973 [0.967-0.979] for 1,000-1,249 g and 0.985 [0.981-0.988] for 1,250-1,499 g. Estimated probabilities for survival without major morbidity (surgically treated intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, intestinal perforation, or retinopathy were 0.433 [0.384-0.481] (250-499 g, 0.622 [0.600-0.643] (500-749 g, 0.836 [0.821-0.849] (750-999 g, 0.938 [0.928-0.946] (1,000-1,249 g, and 0.969 [0.964-0.974] (1,250-1,499 g, respectively. Prediction of survival and survival without major morbidities was moderately improved by adding sex, small-for-gestational-age, and severe or moderate congenital malformation, increasing ROC areas under the curve from 0.839 [0.827-0.850] to 0.862 [0.852-0.874] (survival and from 0.827 [0.822-0.842] to 0.852 [0.846-0.863] (survival without major morbidities, respectively. Conclusion: The present analysis encourages attempts to use administrative data to investigate the

  11. Counselling strategies for parents of infants with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, S

    1998-07-01

    Congenital heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn. Its diagnosis may lead to a crisis in the affected families; there are the perceived implications of having an abnormality of so vital an organ. To that may be added the assumed guilt or blame, grief and at times anger, frequently experienced by parents of abnormal infants. It often befalls the paediatric cardiologist to initiate counselling while providing the expert information concerning the abnormality and its optimum management. Such counselling differs from that needed for minor lesions as compared for more complex abnormalities where a fatal outcome may ensure. While it is important to provide an accurate diagnosis and management plan to the parents, early detailed information is often confusing and may not be assimilated at a time of great stress. The parents seem more concerned as to whether the infant will survive, what the long term outlook will be, whether he or she will attend school, play, work and so on. With the more severe cardiac abnormalities, especially where there is a family history, one need be aware of the often perceived guilt of the parents. At times, it may be necessary to help the parents retain sufficient 'self-control', delaying the grieving process to enable them to contribute to the decision making. Where the infant has died, a follow-up appointment can facilitate grieving and help deal with unresolved issues. Through skilled counselling, the cardiologist in addition to his/her diagnostic and management skills, may meaningfully influence the ongoing care of the infant. They may help avoid the development of unrealistic fears or an over-optimistic outlook, thereby fostering the normal development of the child.

  12. Depressive-like effect of prenatal exposure to DDT involves global DNA hypomethylation and impairment of GPER1/ESR1 protein levels but not ESR2 and AHR/ARNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajta, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Rzemieniec, Joanna; Litwa, Ewa; Lason, Wladyslaw; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Nalepa, Irena; Rogóż, Zofia; Grochowalski, Adam; Wojtowicz, Anna K

    2017-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that exposures to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) such as pesticides increase the risks of neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite extended residual persistence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the environment, the mechanisms of perinatal actions of DDT that could account for adult-onset of depression are largely unknown. This study demonstrated the isomer-specific induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a/serotonin signaling in one-month-old mice that were prenatally exposed to DDT. The effects were reversed by the antidepressant citalopram as evidenced in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests in the male and female mice. Prenatally administered DDT accumulated in mouse brain as determined with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, led to global DNA hypomethylation, and altered the levels of methylated DNA in specific genes. The induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a/serotonin signaling were accompanied by p,p'-DDT-specific decrease in the levels of estrogen receptors i.e. ESR1 and/or GPER1 depending on sex. In contrast, o,p'-DDT did not induce depressive-like effects and exhibited quite distinct pattern of biochemical alterations that was related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), its nuclear translocator ARNT, and ESR2. Exposure to o,p'-DDT increased AHR expression in male and female brains, and reduced expression levels of ARNT and ESR2 in the female brains. The evolution of p,p'-DDT-induced depressive-like behavior was preceded by attenuation of Htr1a and Gper1/GPER1 expression as observed in the 7-day-old mouse pups. Because p,p'-DDT caused sex- and age-independent attenuation of GPER1, we suggest that impairment of GPER1 signaling plays a key role in the propagation of DDT-induced depressive-like symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  14. Infants in Drug Withdrawal: A National Description of Nurse Workload, Infant Acuity, and Parental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica G; Rogowski, Jeannette A; Schoenauer, Kathryn M; Lake, Eileen T

    Infants in drug withdrawal have complex physiological and behavioral states, requiring intensive nursing care. The study objectives were to describe acuity, parental needs, and nurse workload of infants in drug withdrawal compared with other infants. The design was cross-sectional and involved secondary nurse survey data from 6045 staff nurses from a national sample of 104 neonatal intensive care units. Nurses reported the care of 15 233 infants, 361 (2.4%) of whom were in drug withdrawal. Three-fourths of hospitals had at least 1 infant in drug withdrawal. In these hospitals, the mean number of infants in drug withdrawal was 4.7. Infant acuity was significantly higher among infants in drug withdrawal. Parents of infants in drug withdrawal required significantly more care to address complex social situations (51% vs 12%). The number of infants assigned to nurses with at least 1 infant in withdrawal (mean = 2.69) was significantly higher than typical (mean = 2.51). Given infant acuity and parental needs, policies legislating patient-to-nurse ratios should permit professional discretion on the number of patients to assign nurses caring for infants in drug withdrawal. Managers and charge nurses should consider the demands of caring for infants in drug withdrawal in assignment decisions and provide support and education.

  15. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  16. Of Hissing Snakes and Angry Voices: Human Infants Are Differentially Responsive to Evolutionary Fear-Relevant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to,…

  17. Design of an integrated sensor platform for vital sign monitoring of newborn infants at neonatal intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bouwstra, S.; Ayoola, Idowu; Dols, S.A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the

  18. Brain imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in preterm-born infants: Effects of neonatal hydrocortisone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year cohort of 236 preterm-born infants (gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 grams), born between March 1, 1991 and March 1, 1993 and admitted to the NICU of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, was evaluated at school age. This cohort represented 83.4% of the surviving

  19. Reduction of influenza virus titer and protection against influenza virus infection in infant mice fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-07-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P survival rate of the L. casei Shirota group was significantly (P L. casei Shirota group were significantly greater than those of mice in the control group. These findings suggest that oral administration of L. casei Shirota activates the immature immune system of neonatal and infant mice and protects against IFV infection. Therefore, oral administration of L. casei Shirota may accelerate the innate immune response of the respiratory tract and protect against various respiratory infections in neonates, infants, and children, a high risk group for viral and bacterial infections.

  20. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries. PMID:26481740

  1. Female infant in Egypt: mortality and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Beheiri, F; El-drini, H; Manala-od; Bulbul, A

    1981-01-01

    Deviation from the normative sex-pattern of infant deaths is so large in Egypt that nearly 1/3 of female deaths can be attributed to a sex-specific cause: lesser care of the female child. This article reports on child neglect which may account for the relatively lower survival rate of the female infant, despite its biological advantage over the male. This knowledge is seen as vital in planning interventions. The investigation answers 3 questions relating to the sex-specific factors of death among female infants: do girls display a poorer level of nutrition compared to boys? Is there evidence to show that sickness episodes of female infants are treated more carelessly than those of male infants? Are there reasons to believe that girls are more exposed to life-threatening psychological factors than are boys? A group of 598 families in low-income districts of Cairo was randomly chosen to receive regular monthly visits by a team of trained field invstigators over a 1-year period. The sample is thought to represent life in urban quarters of Egypt, described as pervasively rural in orientations despite urban occupations and living conditions. The study finds no significant sex difference in nutritional status until the 6th month of life. Around this period, 2/5 of the female group but 1/4 of the male show signs of malnutrition as measured by weight. The difference continues to increase and is very statistically significant by the end of the year. Nutritional status of female infants tended to decline with an addition of daughters in the family. Also, at birth orders 2 ot 5 and in large families of 4-5 children, the relative nutritional disadvantage of the female infant is statistically significant. Moreover, a very distinct sex-difference in dietary patterns is observed as no boy was deprived of supplementary feeding during the 2nd 1/2 of the year but only 1/15 girls received food other than breast milk during this period. Despite some evidence highly suggestive of

  2. VISUAL OUTCOME IN PRETERM INFANTS ANALYSIS OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN IN LJUBLJANA 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Stirn-Kranjc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improved perinatal care has increased the survival rate of prematurely born infants. An epidemiological fact that 6–18% and more visually impaired children were prematurely born, emphasises the effect of premature birth on both visual function and development. Despite better knowledge on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP it is stressed not to underestimate refractive errors, strabismus and visual impairment after brain lesions, being more common in preterm babies.Methods. Over 1300 preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500 g or less and gestational age of 30 weeks or less, born in Maternity Hospital of Ljubljana, Slovenia in the period 1990– 1999 were examined according to contemporary paediatricophthalmologic recommendations. At least one year ophthalmologic follow-up (average 3.5 years of 594 prematurely born infants with high neonatal risk factors for ROP and with general health problems, was performed. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, artificial ventilation, exchange blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnoea, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia were analysed for correlation with ROP and visual impairment.Results. The survival rate of the studied preterm infants was 65–87% (mean 77.3%. ROP stage 1, 2 has developed in 33 children with a birth weight under 900 g and in 10 with a birth weight 900–1200 g (altogether in 8%. ROP stage 3–5 has been registered (with or without plus disease in 7 children (below 6%. In 6 children cryo or argon laser photocoagulation has been performed and vitreoretinal surgery in 1 child (without functional results. In the studied group altogether 4 children (below 1% became blind (visual acuity < 0.05, all of them have had septicaemia. Squint has been registered in 6.9% of children, and has correlated with higher refractive error, mostly myopia. Severe optic nerve atrophy has been noticed already in the first year of follow

  3. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  4. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  5. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  6. Associations of land, cattle and food security with infant feeding practices among a rural population living in Manyara, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Bailey; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Caulfield, Laura E; Patil, Crystal L

    2018-01-19

    Livelihoods strategies and food security experiences can positively and negatively affect infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. This study contributes to this literature by exploring how variation in household economics among rural farmers in Tanzania relates to IYCF patterns over the first 8 months of an infant's life. These data were produced from a longitudinal study in which a cohort of mother-infant dyads was followed from birth to 24 months. In addition to baseline maternal, infant, and household characteristics, mothers were queried twice weekly and monthly about infant feeding practices and diet. Weekly and monthly datasets were merged and analyzed to assess infant feeding patterns through the first 8 months. Standard statistical methods including survival and logistic regression analyses were used. Aside from breastfeeding initiation, all other IYCF practices were suboptimal in this cohort. Land and cattle ownership were associated with the early introduction of non-breastmilk food items. Food insecurity also played a role in patterning and inadequate complementary feeding was commonplace. Health promotion programs are needed to delay the introduction of animal milks and grain-based porridge, and to achieve a minimum acceptable diet after 6 months of age among smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania. Results highlight that livelihoods-based health promotion interventions, built from a flexible and integrated design, may be an important strategy to address community-level variation in infant feeding practices and promote optimal IYCF practices.

  7. IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Zubair H; Saslow, Judy G; Mody, Kartik; Eydelman, Riva; Bhat, Vishwanath; Stahl, Gary; Pyon, Kee; Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Challenges faced by healthcare providers offering infant feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: A review of current research

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Emily L.; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Healthcare providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. Healthcare providers (HCPs) are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addr...

  9. 'Now she has become my daughter': parents' early experiences of skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Weis, Janne; Engsig, Anne B; Johannsen, Kirsten L; Zoffmann, Vibeke

    2017-08-29

    Based on the Family-Centred Care philosophy, skin-to-skin contact is a key activity in neonatal care, and use of this practice is increasing also with extremely preterm infants. Little is known about parents' immediate experiences of and readiness for skin-to-skin contact, while their fragile infant may still not be 'on safe ground'. Knowledge about parents' experiences might reduce doubt and reluctance among healthcare professionals to use skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants and thus increase its dissemination in practice. To explore parents' immediate experiences of skin-to-skin contact with extremely preterm infants parents after skin-to-skin contact with their extremely preterm infants analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Parents' experiences were related to the process before, during and after skin-to-skin contact and moved from ambivalence to appreciating skin-to-skin contact as beneficial for both parents and infant. The process comprised three stages: (i) overcoming ambivalence through professional support and personal experience; (ii) proximity creating parental feelings and an inner need to provide care; (iii) feeling useful as a parent and realising the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Having repeatedly gone through stages 2 and 3, parents developed an overall confidence in the value of bonding, independent of the infant's survival. Parents progressed from ambivalence to a feeling of fundamental mutual needs for skin-to-skin contact. Parents found the bonding facilitated by skin-to-skin contact to be valuable, regardless of the infant's survival. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common event in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants. This cohort study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for AKI in ELBW infants and their overall survival at the postmenstrual age (PMA of 36 weeks.All ELBW infants admitted to our NICU between January 2010 and December 2013 were enrolled. Those who died prior to 72 hours of life, had congenital renal abnormality, or had only one datum of the serum creatinine (SCr level after the first 24 hours of life were excluded. The criteria used for the diagnosis of AKI was set according to the modified neonatal KDIGO AKI definition.AKI occurred in 56% of 276 infants. Specifically, stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI occurred in 30%, 17%, and 9% of ELBW infants, respectively. High-frequency ventilation support (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-6.67, p< 0.001, the presence of patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 2.25-8.07, p < 0.001, lower gestational age (adjusted OR for gestational age: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83, < 0.001, and inotropic agent use (adjusted OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.31-5.21, p = 0.006 were independently associated with AKI. Maternal pre-eclampsia was a protective factor (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.14-0.97, p = 0.044. Infants with AKI had higher mortality before the PMA of 36 weeks with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.34 (95% CI: 1.21-23.53, p = 0.027. Additionally, infants with stage 3 AKI had a highest HR of 10.60, 95% CI: 2.09-53.67, p = 0.004.AKI was a very common event (56% in ELBW infants and was associated with a lower GA, high-frequency ventilation support, the presence of PDA, and inotropic agent use. AKI reduced survival of ELBW infants before the PMA of 36 weeks.

  11. Bubble CPAP to support preterm infants in rural Rwanda: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahimana, Evrard; Ngendahayo, Masudi; Magge, Hema; Odhiambo, Jackline; Amoroso, Cheryl L; Muhirwa, Ernest; Uwilingiyemungu, Jean Nepo; Nkikabahizi, Fulgence; Habimana, Regis; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-09-24

    Complications from premature birth contribute to 35% of neonatal deaths globally; therefore, efforts to improve clinical outcomes of preterm (PT) infants are imperative. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a low-cost, effective way to improve the respiratory status of preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, bCPAP remains largely inaccessible in resource-limited settings, and information on the scale-up of this technology in rural health facilities is limited. This paper describes health providers' adherence to bCPAP protocols for PT/VLBW infants and clinical outcomes in rural Rwanda. This retrospective chart review included all newborns admitted to neonatal units in three rural hospitals in Rwanda between February 1st and October 31st, 2013. Analysis was restricted to PT/VLBW infants. bCPAP eligibility, identification of bCPAP eligibility and complications were assessed. Final outcome was assessed overall and by bCPAP initiation status. There were 136 PT/VLBW infants. For the 135 whose bCPAP eligibility could be determined, 83 (61.5%) were bCPAP-eligible. Of bCPAP-eligible infants, 49 (59.0%) were correctly identified by health providers and 43 (51.8%) were correctly initiated on bCPAP. For the 52 infants who were not bCPAP-eligible, 45 (86.5%) were correctly identified as not bCPAP-eligible, and 46 (88.5%) did not receive bCPAP. Overall, 90 (66.2%) infants survived to discharge, 35 (25.7%) died, 3 (2.2%) were referred for tertiary care and 8 (5.9%) had unknown outcomes. Among the bCPAP eligible infants, the survival rates were 41.8% (18 of 43) for those in whom the procedure was initiated and 56.5% (13 of 23) for those in whom it was not initiated. No complications of bCPAP were reported. While the use of bCPAP in this rural setting appears feasible, correct identification of eligible newborns was a challenge. Mentorship and refresher trainings may improve guideline adherence, particularly given high rates of staff turnover

  12. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  13. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards on a request from the Commission related to the microbiological risks in infant formulae and follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    -15 April 2003). Contamination of powdered infant formula with E. sakazakii and with salmonellae has been the cause of infection in infants, sometimes with serious sequelae or death. Although E. sakazakii has caused illness in all age groups of neonates (up to ca 4-6 weeks of age), pre-term or low birth...... to the characteristics and physiological state of the organism, the state of the host and the food matrix. The widespread distribution of E. sakazakii suggests that consumption of low numbers in infant formula and follow-on formula by healthy infants and children does not lead to illness. Salmonella and E. sakazakii do...... not survive the pasteurization processes used during manufacture but recontamination of the powdered infant formula during handling and filling processes may occur. E. sakazakii, due to its ubiquitous character, seems to be more difficult to control in the processing environment than Salmonella. Control...

  14. The association of donor and recipient age with graft survival in paediatric renal transplant recipients in a European Society for Paediatric Nephrology/European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplantation Association Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Van Stralen, Karlijn J.; Bonthuis, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. The effect of donor and recipient age combinations on 5-year graft-failure risk, stratified by donor source, was estimated using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression, while adjusting for sex, primary renal diseases with a high risk of recurrence, pre......Background The impact of donor age in paediatric kidney transplantation is unclear. We therefore examined the association of donor-recipient age combinations with graft survival in children. Methods Data for 4686 first kidney transplantations performed in 13 countries in 1990-2013 were extracted......-emptive transplantation, year of transplantation and country. Results The risk of graft failure in older living donors (50-75 years old) was similar to that of younger living donors {adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-1.47]}. Deceased donor (DD) age was non-linearly associated with graft...

  15. Infants with atopic dermatitis: maternal hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli-Pott, U; Darui, A; Beckmann, D

    1999-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease of childhood. It frequently starts in the first year of life. There is agreement on the existence of psychological influences on this disease. Although some studies in this field examine aspects of the parent-child relationship, studies concerning early infancy are very rare. The present study was conducted in order to find out whether maternal characteristics relevant to the mother-infant relationship, i.e. depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perceived infant behaviour, associated with infant AD. Two cohorts (3- to 4-month- and 10- to 12-month-old infants), each with 20 infants suffering from AD, and 20 healthy infants were recruited. AD infants were further divided into subgroups according to the diagnostic criteria: atopic family history, itching and characteristic locations of eczema. After a paediatric examination of the infant, mothers completed standardized questionnaires concerning depressiveness/hopelessness, child-rearing attitudes and perception of infant behaviour. Varying with different diagnostic features of the infants' AD, mothers of AD infants described themselves as more depressive/hopeless, as more anxious/overprotective and characterized their infant as less frequently positive and more frequently negative in its emotional behaviour compared to the control group. The results underline the importance of psychological support for mothers of infants with AD.

  16. Radiation exposure and infant cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watari, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    Medical exposures accompanied by an increase in radiation use in the field of pediatrics were described. Basic ideas and countermeasures to radiation injuries were outlined. In order to decrease the medical exposure, it is necessary for the doctor, x-ray technician and manufacturer to work together. The mechanism and characteristics of radio carcinogenesis were also mentioned. Particularly, the following two points were described: 1) How many years does it take before carcinogenesis appears as a result of radiation exposure in infancy 2) How and when does the effect of fetus exposure appear. Radiosensitivity in infants and fetuses is greater than that of an adult. The occurrence of leukemia caused by prenatal exposure was reviewed. The relation between irradiation for therapy and morbidity of thyroid cancer was mentioned. Finally, precautions necessary for infants, pregnant women and nursing mothers when using radioisotopes were mentioned.

  17. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  18. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development scores). Two authors...

  19. Infant with MRSA necrotizing fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panglao Rajan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Panglao Rajan,1 Pinkal Patel,1 Lori Cash,1 Anjali Parish,2 Scott Darby,1 Jack Yu,3 Jatinder Bhatia11Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 2Medical Center of Central Georgia, Augusta, GA, USA; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Georgia, Augusta, GA, USAAbstract: This is an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in this premature infant, which highlights severity, rapid progression of this disease and shows outcome if intervention is initiated at an early stage. This case also highlights one of the possible serious complications of percutaneous inserted central catheter (PICC line, which can be life threatening.Keywords: necrotizing fasciitis, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, PICC, premature infant

  20. Assessment and treatment of MAM in infants aged <6 months: lessons from Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangome, Martha; Berkley, James

    2014-01-01

    Full text: It is estimated that worldwide, 8.5 million infants under 6 months are wasted. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) defined as weight-for-length between -3 and -2 z score affects 4.7 million infants. In this age group there is lack of data on the outcomes of malnutrition, on the use and interpretation of anthropometry and on potential interventions. The current case definition of acute malnutrition for infants is inferred from results of studies conducted among older children aged 6 to 59 months and is therefore problematic when applied to infants under 6 months. We have been conducting experiments towards establishing appropriate anthropometric criteria for diagnosing acute malnutrition among infants aged less than 6 months. Informed by the properties outlined within the framework of requirement for selecting of an appropriate screening and diagnosis indicator, we set up experiments to assess the intra and inter-observer reliability, accuracy, validity, objectivity and predictive value of using WFLz and the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) among infants below 6 months within community and hospital settings. Among infants aged below 6 months, the reliability and accuracy of anthropometry performed by rural community health workers (CHWs) was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient and Bland Altman plots. Absolute measures of MUAC, weight and length were more reliably and accurately assessed than calculated indices, especially length based indices. Secondly, among hospitalized dehydrated infants and children, anthropometry was assessed before and after rehydration. MUAC was less affected by hydration than WFLz and is potentially more suitable for nutritional assessment of acutely ill children. Thirdly, in a survival analysis of longitudinal demographic surveillance system (DSS) data from the Gambia, the hazards and population attributable risks for post-neonatal infant death were demonstrated. MUAC at the age of infant vaccination was highly

  1. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  2. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.

    1985-09-01

    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  3. Neurosonography of hydrocephalus in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackelford, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Transfontanel cranial ultrasonography reliably delineates ventricular size and anatomy in small infants. In these children, it is an excellent primary imaging technique for evaluation of the many clinical problems related to ventricular dilatation. Sonography can be useful for: detecting ventriculomegaly, differentiating nonobstructive ventricular dilatation from obstructive enlargement (hydrocephalus), determining the cause of hydrocephalus; aiding in the temporary management of patients with hydrocephalus; and aiding in the management of patients with permanent ventricular shunts. (orig.)

  4. Outcome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants Over 3 Years Report From an Iranian Center

    OpenAIRE

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fallahi, Minoo; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are at high risk for morbidity and mortality. This article determines the frequency of disease, rate od survival, complications and risk factors for morbidity and mortality in VLBW neonates admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study was performed from April 2007 to March 2010 on all hospitalized VLBW neonates. Relevant pre- and peri-natal data up to t...

  5. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birt...

  6. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descri...

  7. FOOD NEGLECT AND INFANT DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, Jesse J; Cross, Theodore P; Vaughn, Michael G; Gochez-Kerr, Tatiana

    2018-03-01

    The impact of food insecurity on child development in the general U.S. population is well-established, yet little is known about the harm of food neglect relative to other types of maltreatment. Due to the harmful physiological impact of inadequate nutrients and the social impact of food-related stress, it was hypothesized that food neglect would be more likely to impair infant cognitive and language development than physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of neglect. Families of infants (N = 1,951) investigated by Child Protective Services were studied using the second cohort of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II; NSCAW Research Group, 2002). Results from multivariable logistic regression models that controlled for likely confounding variables showed that the odds of impairment in cognition and language were significantly greater when food neglect was the most serious form of maltreatment. Considering that both food insecurity and child neglect are associated with poverty and parental mental health problems, it will be important for child welfare and mental health professionals to work collaboratively to better the health of these vulnerable children. © 2018 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  9. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal hypertension and neonatal outcome among small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Magee, Laura Ann; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Muir, Jennifer C; Stewart, Shawn D; Sherman, Paul; Lee, Shoo K

    2005-08-01

    To determine whether maternal hypertension might improve perinatal outcome among small for gestational age (SGA) infants (neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and 3,244 SGA singletons. Multivariable regression was used to analyze the relation between maternal hypertension and each of the following: SNAP-II (Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology; ordinal regression) and neonatal survival and survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (logistic regression), adjusting for potential confounders. There were 698 (21.5%) neonates born to hypertensive mothers. Inversely associated with lower SNAP-II scores (healthier infant) were antenatal steroids (complete course: odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.83; incomplete: OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.56-0.88), lower gestational age (neonatal survival (93.0% versus 91.2%, and adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0), but not survival without severe intraventricular hemorrhage (91.4% versus 87.0%, and adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0), respectively. Among SGA neonates in NICU, maternal hypertension is associated with improved admission neonatal physiology and survival.

  11. Religious women's groups help promote child survival and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, L Z

    1989-07-01

    Indonesia faces the 2 major problems of high infant mortality and high child mortality at present. To improve the situation, the government urges the participation of all community members, especially those already organized in the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Because religion has a strong influence on people's daily lives in Indonesia, a special project called the Child Survival Project was established in 1986 as a joint undertaking of the government and UNICEF. Initially 12 religious NGOs (8 Islamic, 1 Hindu, 1 Protestant, and 2 Catholic) were involved as implementing agencies. The majority of members of these NGOs are women. The strategy used has been to establish, in cooperation with the 12 NGOs, a communication network through which child survival messages would be disseminated to help generate increased use of Posyandu services, especially immunization, oral rehydration therapy, and growth monitoring. Messages are incorporated into the normal activities of these religious groups, such as Al-Quran reading classes, Sunday schools, and Bible classes. In addition, guidelines for a reporting and feedback system have been prepared for use at village, subdistrict, district, and provincial levels for project monitoring. Religious women's NGOs can serve with their specific characteristics can serve as motivators, facilitators, and catalysts of child survival and development programs for their community target groups. NGOs should be considered as partners of the government in mobilizing the community to achieve a common goal. All endeavors undertaken so far in relation to child survival and development are expected to be institutionalized.

  12. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  13. Seasonal Variation in Solar Ultra Violet Radiation and Early Mortality in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Ariel A; Smith, Kelly A; Rodgers, Mackenzie D; Phillips, Vivien; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D production during pregnancy promotes fetal lung development, a major determinant of infant survival after preterm birth. Because vitamin D synthesis in humans is regulated by solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, we hypothesized that seasonal variation in solar UVB doses during fetal development would be associated with variation in neonatal mortality rates. This cohort study included infants born alive with gestational age (GA) between 23 and 28 weeks gestation admitted to a neonatal unit between 1996 and 2010. Three infant cohort groups were defined according to increasing intensities of solar UVB doses at 17 and 22 weeks gestation. The primary outcome was death during the first 28 days after birth. Outcome data of 2,319 infants were analyzed. Mean birth weight was 830 ± 230 g and median gestational age was 26 weeks. Mortality rates were significantly different across groups (p = 0.04). High-intensity solar UVB doses were associated with lower mortality when compared with normal intensity solar UVB doses (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91; p = 0.01). High-intensity solar UVB doses during fetal development seem to be associated with risk reduction of early mortality in preterm infants. Prospective studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Weight Gaining of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Basiry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:The quality of life and standard of health care in a society is measured  by its preterm infants' mortality rate. The popularity and credibility of alternative treatment such as touch therapy may be effective in preterm and low birth weightinfants in order to increase their survival rate.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of touch intervention on the weight gain of preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unite(NICU. Methods:This study was a randomized controlled trial performed in NICU of  Emamreza hospital,Mashhad,Iran,from July 2007 to November 2007. There were two groups (the control group and the case group and one response variable (weight gain.Infants in the control group received routine nursing care. Infants in the case  group,in addition to the routine care,received stroking/passive limb movement therapy  for three 15 minute sessions per day for a 10 day period.Then weight gaining was compared between the two groups .  Results:The weight gain data was analyzed by SPSS software. Over the 10 day study period, the case group gained significantly more weight compared to the control  group (p(p<0.001(.Conclusion:The data suggest that stroking/passive limb movement can be an efficientand cost effective way of enhancing growth in stable preterm infants .

  15. Babies in traffic: infant vocalizations and listener sex modulate auditory motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhoff, John G; Hamilton, Grace R; Gittleson, Amanda L; Mejia, Adolfo

    2014-04-01

    Infant vocalizations and "looming sounds" are classes of environmental stimuli that are critically important to survival but can have dramatically different emotional valences. Here, we simultaneously presented listeners with a stationary infant vocalization and a 3D virtual looming tone for which listeners made auditory time-to-arrival judgments. Negatively valenced infant cries produced more cautious (anticipatory) estimates of auditory arrival time of the tone over a no-vocalization control. Positively valenced laughs had the opposite effect, and across all conditions, men showed smaller anticipatory biases than women. In Experiment 2, vocalization-matched vocoded noise stimuli did not influence concurrent auditory time-to-arrival estimates compared with a control condition. In Experiment 3, listeners estimated the egocentric distance of a looming tone that stopped before arriving. For distant stopping points, women estimated the stopping point as closer when the tone was presented with an infant cry than when it was presented with a laugh. For near stopping points, women showed no differential effect of vocalization type. Men did not show differential effects of vocalization type at either distance. Our results support the idea that both the sex of the listener and the emotional valence of infant vocalizations can influence auditory motion perception and can modulate motor responses to other behaviorally relevant environmental sounds. We also find support for previous work that shows sex differences in emotion processing are diminished under conditions of higher stress.

  16. Influence of aggressive nutritional support on growth and development of very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y M; Zhu, X P; Xiao, Z; Yu, L; Zhao, X

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the early postnatal aggressive nutritional support on the very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) during hospitalization. Surviving premature infants without obvious deformity, with gestational age more than 28 weeks and less than 32 weeks, birth weight 1,000 g to 1,500 g, admitted in NICU in Affiliated Children's Hospital of Suzhou University during 12 hours after birth and stay for two weeks or more from January 2008 to December 2011 were selected, including 44 cases (admitted from September 2010 to December 2011) in the observation group and 36 cases in the control group (admitted from January 2008 and September 2010). The infants in the observation group were treated by aggressive nutritional management, while traditional nutritional management for infants in the control group. The variations of nutritional intake, weight gain, jaundice index, blood biochemistry, serum electrolytes indexes, and complications were compared between the two groups. Compared to the control group, the average growth rate and the albumin (ALB) and prealbumin (PA) levels two week after birth and before leaving hospital of the infants in the observation group was significantly higher (p nutrition, liver function, blood lipid levels, blood glucose, blood PH, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and electrolytes of the first day and the seventh day after birth and the in- cidence of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) between the two group had no difference (p > 0.05). The implementation of aggressive nutritional management on the with VLBWI was safe and effective.

  17. Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Glickman-Gavrieli, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess: (a) the involvement of fathers and mothers in overall and nighttime infant caregiving; (b) the links between paternal involvement in infant care and infant sleep patterns during the first 6 months. Fifty-six couples recruited during their first pregnancy, participated in the study. After delivery (1 and 6 months), both parents completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. Infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Mothers were significantly more involved than fathers in daytime and nighttime caregiving. A higher involvement of fathers in overall infant care predicted and was associated with fewer infant night-wakings and with shorter total sleep time after controlling for breastfeeding. The findings highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental sleep research. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying the relations between paternal involvement and infant sleep.

  18. Outcomes of very low birth weight infants in a newborn tertiary center in Turkey, 1997-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasay, Begüm; Günlemez, Ayla; Unal, Sevim; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    .3%) of the infants, respectively. Overall survival rate was 83.5% (111/133); most of the deceased cases were under 750 g (12/22). It was prospectively shown that 111 (100%) of the surviving infants could be regularly followed in a newborn follow-up clinic to provide health maintenance, developmental assessment and support. Compared with reports from other developing countries, VLBW infants at our center had higher survival rates. Compared to developed countries, survival rate was lower, especially for extremely very low birth weight infants. There is interaction between birth weight and survival rate. Among selected neonatal outcomes, chronic lung disease, threshold retinopathy, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH > or = grade III) and nosocomial infection rates at this center were comparable with some reports from developed nations.

  19. Infant nutrition in the first seven days of life in rural northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aborigo Raymond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good nutrition is essential for increasing survival rates of infants. This study explored infant feeding practices in a resource-poor setting and assessed implications for future interventions focused on improving newborn health. Methods The study took place in the Kassena-Nankana District of the Upper East Region of northern Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with 35 women with newborn infants, 8 traditional birth attendants and local healers, and 16 community leaders. An additional 18 focus group discussions were conducted with household heads, compound heads and grandmothers. All interviews and discussions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results Community members are knowledgeable about the importance of breastfeeding, and most women with newborn infants do attempt to breastfeed. However, data suggest that traditional practices related to breastfeeding and infant nutrition continue, despite knowledge of clinical guidelines. Such traditional practices include feeding newborn infants water, gripe water, local herbs, or traditionally meaningful foods such as water mixed with the flour of guinea corn (yara’na. In this region in Ghana, there are significant cultural traditions associated with breastfeeding. For example, colostrum from first-time mothers is often tested for bitterness by putting ants in it – a process that leads to a delay in initiating breastfeeding. Our data also indicate that grandmothers – typically the mother-in-laws – wield enormous power in these communities, and their desires significantly influence breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and maintenance. Conclusion Prelacteal feeding is still common in rural Ghana despite demonstrating high knowledge of appropriate feeding practices. Future interventions that focus on grandmothers and religious leaders are likely to prove valuable in changing community attitudes, beliefs, and practices with regard to

  20. Cognitive outcomes of preterm infants randomized to darbepoetin, erythropoietin, or placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohls, Robin K; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D; Christensen, Robert D; Wiedmeier, Susan E; Rosenberg, Adam; Fuller, Janell; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Roohi, Mahshid; Lambert, Diane K; Burnett, Jill J; Pruckler, Barbara; Peceny, Hannah; Cannon, Daniel C; Lowe, Jean R

    2014-06-01

    We previously reported decreased transfusions and donor exposures in preterm infants randomized to Darbepoetin (Darbe) or erythropoietin (Epo) compared with placebo. As these erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have shown promise as neuroprotective agents, we hypothesized improved neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months among infants randomized to receive ESAs. We performed a randomized, masked, multicenter study comparing Darbe (10 μg/kg, 1×/week subcutaneously), Epo (400 U/kg, 3×/week subcutaneously), and placebo (sham dosing 3×/week) given through 35 weeks' postconceptual age, with transfusions administered according to a standardized protocol. Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. The primary outcome was composite cognitive score. Assessments of object permanence, anthropometrics, cerebral palsy, vision, and hearing were performed. Of the original 102 infants (946 ± 196 g, 27.7 ± 1.8 weeks' gestation), 80 (29 Epo, 27 Darbe, 24 placebo) returned for follow-up. The 3 groups were comparable for age at testing, birth weight, and gestational age. After adjustment for gender, analysis of covariance revealed significantly higher cognitive scores among Darbe (96.2 ± 7.3; mean ± SD) and Epo recipients (97.9 ± 14.3) compared with placebo recipients (88.7 ± 13.5; P = .01 vs ESA recipients) as was object permanence (P = .05). No ESA recipients had cerebral palsy, compared with 5 in the placebo group (P < .001). No differences among groups were found in visual or hearing impairment. Infants randomized to receive ESAs had better cognitive outcomes, compared with placebo recipients, at 18 to 22 months. Darbe and Epo may prove beneficial in improving long-term cognitive outcomes of preterm infants. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Long-term Non-Invasive Ventilation in Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Prabhjot K; Castro-Codesal, Maria Luisa; Featherstone, Robin; AlBalawi, Mohammed M; Alkhaledi, Bashar; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Flores-Mir, Carlos; MacLean, Joanna E

    2018-01-01

    The use of long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to treat sleep and breathing disorders in children has increased substantially in the last decade; however, less data exist about its use in infants. Given that infants have distinct sleep and breathing patterns when compared to older children, the outcomes of infants on long-term NIV may differ as well. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use and outcomes of long-term NIV in infants. Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, CINAHL (via EbscoHOST), PubMed, and Wiley Cochrane Library were systematically searched from January 1990 to July 2017. Studies on infants using long-term NIV outside of an acute care setting were included. Data were extracted on study design, population characteristics, and NIV outcomes. A total of 327 studies were full-text reviewed, with final inclusion of 60. Studies were distributed across airway (40%), neuromuscular (28%), central nervous system (10%), cardio-respiratory (2%), and multiple (20%) disease categories. Of the 18 airway studies reporting on NIV outcomes, 13 (72%) reported improvements in respiratory parameters. Of the 12 neuromuscular studies exclusively on spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), six (50%) reported decreased hospitalizations and nine (75%) reported on mortality outcomes. Risk of bias was moderate to serious, and quality of the evidence was low to very low for all studies. Most studies had an observational design with no control group, limiting the potential for a meta-analysis. The outcomes reported in studies differed by the disease category being studied. Studies on airway conditions showed improvements in respiratory parameters for infants using NIV. Studies on neuromuscular disorder, which were almost exclusively on SMA1, reported decreased hospitalizations and prolonged survival. Overall, it appears that NIV is an effective long-term therapy for infants. However, the high risk of bias and low quality of the available evidence limited strong

  2. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  4. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  5. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Predictors of Survival among Adult Ethiopian Patients in the National ART Program at Seven University Teaching Hospitals: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekade, Daniel; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Teklu, Alula M; Damen, Melake; Abdella, Saro; Baraki, Nega; Belayhun, Bekele; Berhan, Eyoel; Kebede, Amha; Assefa, Yibeltal

    2017-02-01

    In Ethiopia, the publicly funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program was started in 2005. Two hundred seventy-five thousand patients were enrolled in the national ART program by 2012. However, there is limited data on mortality and predictors of death among adult patients in the ART program. The study aimed to estimate mortality and risk factors for death among adult, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program from January 2009 to July 2013. Multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study of adult, age > 18 years, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program at seven university-affiliated hospitals from January 2009 - July 2013. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate survival and determine risk factors for death. A total of 976 patients, 594 females (60.9 %), were enrolled into the study. Median age of the cohort was 33years. The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 ART. Cox regression analyses showed that the following measures independently predicted mortality: age >51 years, (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 4.01, P=0.003), WHO stages III&IV, (AHR 1.76, p = 0.025), CD4 count, 5 log copies /ml (CHR 1.71, p = 0.037). There is high early on- ART mortality in patients presenting with advanced immunodeficiency. Detecting cases and initiating ART before onset of advanced immunodeficiency might improve survival.

  7. Outcome of singleton preterm small for gestational age infants born to mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Rivka H; Arnon, Shmuel; Litmanovitz, Ita; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Reichman, Brian

    2015-04-01

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) has been associated with a decreased risk of infant mortality in small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants. To evaluate the influence of PIH on mortality and major neonatal morbidities in singleton preterm SGA infants, in the presence and absence of acute pregnancy complications. Population-based observational study of singleton SGA infants, born at 24 to 32 weeks gestation in the period 1995-2010 (n = 2139). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent effect of PIH on mortality and neonatal morbidities. Acute pregnancy complications comprised premature labor, premature rupture of membranes >6 h, antepartum hemorrhage and clinical chorioamnionitis. In the absence of pregnancy complications, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality (0.77; 0.50-1.16), survival without severe neurological morbidity (1.14; 0.79-1.65) and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (0.85; 0.59-1.21) were similar in the PIH versus no-PIH groups. In the presence of pregnancy complications, mortality (0.76; 0.40-1.44), survival without severe neurological morbidity (1.16; 0.64-2.12) and survival without BPD (1.04; 0.58-1.86) were also similar in the PIH versus no-PIH groups. PIH was not associated with improved outcome in preterm SGA infants, both in the presence and absence of acute pregnancy complications.

  8. Observed and Reported Supportive Coparenting as Predictors of Infant-Mother and Infant-Father Attachment Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between supportive coparenting and infant-mother and infant-father attachment security. Observed and parent-reported coparenting, and observed maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed in a sample of 68 families with 3.5-month-old infants. Infant-mother and infant-father attachment security were assessed in…

  9. Go Naked: Diapers Affect Infant Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Whitney G.; Lingeman, Jesse M.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers—habitually worn by most infants in the sample—incur...

  10. Young infants have biological expectations about animals

    OpenAIRE

    Setoh, Peipei; Wu, Di; Baillargeon, Renée; Gelman, Rochel

    2013-01-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration that young infants possess abstract biological expectations about animals. Our findings represent a major breakthrough in the study of the foundations of human knowledge. In four experiments, 8-mo-old infants expected novel objects they categorized as animals to have filled insides. Thus, infants detected a violation when objects that were self-propelled and agentive were revealed to be hollow, or when an object that was self-propelled and furry rattle...

  11. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  12. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Newborn Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Lochan; Huang, Hong; Pant, Amrita; Westgate, Philip M; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, John A; Giannone, Peter J; Sithisarn, Thitinart

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a type of growth factor that promotes growth and survival of neurons. Fetal exposure to opiates can lead to postnatal withdrawal syndrome, which is referred as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between opiates exposure and alteration in BDNF expression in the brain and serum levels in adult. However, to date, there are no data available on the effects of opiate exposure on BDNF levels in infant who are exposed to opiates in utero and whether BDNF level may correlate with the severity of NAS. To compare plasma BDNF levels among NAS and non-NAS infants and to determine the correlation of BDNF levels and the severity of NAS. This is a prospective cohort study with no intervention involved. Infants ≥35 weeks of gestation were enrolled. BDNF level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique from blood samples drawn within 48 h of life. The severity of NAS was determined by the length of hospital stay, number of medications required to treat NAS. 67 infants were enrolled, 34 NAS and 33 non-NAS. Mean gestational age did not differ between the two groups. Mean birth weight of NAS infants was significantly lower than the non-NAS infants (3,070 ± 523 vs. 3,340 ± 459 g, p  = 0.028). Mean BDNF level in NAS group was 252.2 ± 91.6 ng/ml, significantly higher than 211.3 ± 66.3 ng/ml in the non-NAS group ( p  = 0.04). There were no differences in BDNF levels between NAS infants that required one medication vs. more than one medication (254 ± 91 vs. 218 ± 106 ng/ml, p  = 0.47). There was no correlation between the BDNF levels and length of hospital stay ( p  = 0.68) among NAS infants. Overall, there were no significant correlations between BDNF levels and NAS scores except at around 15 h after admission (correlation 0.35, p  = 0.045). Plasma BDNF level was significantly increased in NAS infants

  13. Infant foods: Debatable questions and real answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Belmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ms/her practice, a pediatrician frequently faces ambiguous questions about foods for infants during the first year of life in particular. Not only parents ask pediatricians these questions - the latter naturally arise during work and attempts to pinpoint the problem of adequate nutrition during infancy. These questions are whether complementary foods containing starch cause allergy in an infant; gluten is a detrimental ingredient of infant foods; hydrolysis of cereal polysaccharides is essential; palm oil is dangerous to an infant's health; butter fat as an ingredient infant foods may be harmful to a child. Among other things, butter fat in globules is shown to contain phospholipids, gangliosides, cholesterol, which are essential for a child's development and absent in infant formulas. In this connection, addition of fat globule membranes to foods is promising in terms of the provision of an infant with lipids of full value. There is a need for further in-depth investigations of infant feeding practices, by keeping in mind numerous features of an infant's organism.

  14. Chronic Malnutrition Among Infants of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length, weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point

  15. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...

  16. Does infant cognition research undermine sociological theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the results of infant research challenge the assumptions of the classical sciences of social behaviour. According to A.J. Bergesen, the findings of infant research invalidate Durkheim's theory of mental categories, thus requiring a re-theorizing of sociology. This article...... argues that Bergesen's reading of Emile Durkheim is incorrect, and his review of the infant research in fact invalidates his argument. Reviewing the assumptions of sociology in the light of the findings of infant research, it is argued that the real challenge is to formulate a research strategy...

  17. Infant Abuse, Neglect, and Failure-to-Thrive: Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Kim N.; And Others

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not degree of child maltreatment is related in some meaningful way to the interactional characteristics of the mother/infant dyad and to the infant's developmental status. A group of 53 mother/infant dyads was divided into five diagnostic groups: nonaccidental trauma combined with…

  18. A Study of Auditory Preferences in Nonhandicapped Infants and Infants with Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Sheila M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Eleven infants with Down's syndrome and 10 of 11 nonhandicapped infants operated an automatic device which enabled them to choose to listen to nursery rhymes sung or played on musical instruments. Both groups preferred the singing, and the Down's Syndrome infants had much longer response durations for the more complex auditory stimuli. (Author/DB)

  19. Effects of Mother-Infant Social Interactions on Infants' Subsequent Contingency Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Philip; Dunham, Frances

    1990-01-01

    Infants participated in a nonsocial contingency task immediately after a social interaction with their mothers. The amount of time mothers and infants spent in a state of vocal turn-taking predicted individual differences in infants' subsequent performance on the contingency task. (PCB)

  20. Antenatal mother–infant bonding scores are related to maternal reports of infant crying behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, D.R.; Truijens, S.E.M.; Oei, S.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relation between antenatal mother–infant bonding scores and maternal reports of infant crying behaviour. Background: Crying is normal behaviour and it is important for parent–infant bonding. Even though bonding starts antenatally, the relation between antenatal bonding

  1. Building Relationships: Integrating Infant Mental Health Services in a Newborn and Infant Critical Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Patricia P.; Matic, Tamara; Carson, Melissa C.; Williams, Marian E.

    2017-01-01

    Infants are born primed to develop attachment relationships. However, when infants are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit at birth, the stress and trauma associated with the highly specialized medical environment can threaten the development of a nurturing and secure caregiving relationship. Infant mental health is an evidence-based…

  2. Incidence, characteristics, and survival following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the quaternary neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, Elizabeth E; Langeveld, Robert; Heimall, Lauren; Deveney, Alyson; Ades, Anne; Jensen, Erik A; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2017-01-01

    The contemporary characteristics and outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are poorly described. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, interventions, and outcomes of CPR in a quaternary referral NICU. Retrospective observational study of infants who received chest compressions for resuscitation in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia NICU between April 1, 2011 and June 30, 2015. Patient, event, and survival characteristics were abstracted from the medical record and the hospital-wide resuscitation database. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify patient and event factors associated with survival to discharge. There were 1.2 CPR events per 1000 patient days. CPR was performed in 113 of 5046 (2.2%) infants admitted to the NICU during the study period. The median duration of chest compressions was 2min (interquartile range 1, 6min). Adrenaline was administered in 34 (30%) CPR events. Of 113 infants with at least one CPR event, 69 (61%) survived to hospital discharge. Factors independently associated with decreased survival to hospital discharge were inotrope treatment prior to CPR (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 0.14, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.04, 0.54), and adrenaline administration during CPR (aOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04, 0.50). Although it was not uncommon, the incidence of CPR was low (CPR and adrenaline administration during CPR were less likely to survive to hospital discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  4. Poverty Mapping Project: Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Subnational Infant Mortality Rates consists of estimates of infant mortality rates for the year 2000. The infant mortality rate for a region or country is...

  5. Cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy and positioning therapy of infant gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyraud, J.; Guillet, J.; Bouix, G.; Brendel, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    During this prospective study, using cineoesophagogastroscintigraphy carried out in 27 infants under seven months of age, the positioning of the infants in the infant seat for the treatment of the gastroesophageal reflux was not detrimental in comparison to prone positioning.

  6. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  7. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  8. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  9. Survival to the age of 87 years in a woman with unoperated tetralogy of Fallot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Teytelboym, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect, affecting approximately 2700 infants per year born in the United States. The natural history of the tetralogy reflects the adverse physiologic consequences of the underlying structural abnormalities, with only approximately 3% of uncorrected patients surviving past age 40. In this case report, we report an 87-year-old woman with unoperated tetralogy of Fallot, who we believe to be the oldest and only second octogenarian described in the literature. PMID:22470677

  10. Infants' Temperament and Mothers', and Fathers' Depression Predict Infants' Attention to Objects Paired with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Mandell, Dorothy J; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 14 months, infants gain the ability to learn about unfamiliar stimuli by observing others' emotional reactions to those stimuli, so called social referencing (SR). Joint processing of emotion and head/gaze direction is essential for SR. This study tested emotion and head/gaze direction effects on infants' attention via pupillometry in the period following the emergence of SR. Pupil responses of 14-to-17-month-old infants (N = 57) were measured during computerized presentations of unfamiliar objects alone, before-and-after being paired with emotional (happy, sad, fearful vs. neutral) faces gazing towards (vs. away) from objects. Additionally, the associations of infants' temperament, and parents' negative affect/depression/anxiety with infants' pupil responses were explored. Both mothers and fathers of participating infants completed questionnaires about their negative affect, depression and anxiety symptoms and their infants' negative temperament. Infants allocated more attention (larger pupils) to negative vs. neutral faces when the faces were presented alone, while they allocated less attention to objects paired with emotional vs. neutral faces independent of head/gaze direction. Sad (but not fearful) temperament predicted more attention to emotional faces. Infants' sad temperament moderated the associations of mothers' depression (but not anxiety) with infants' attention to objects. Maternal depression predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions in infants low in sad temperament, while it predicted less attention in infants high in sad temperament. Fathers' depression (but not anxiety) predicted more attention to objects paired with emotional expressions independent of infants' temperament. We conclude that infants' own temperamental dispositions for sadness, and their exposure to mothers' and fathers' depressed moods may influence infants' attention to emotion-object associations in social learning contexts.

  11. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores

  12. Effect of Treatment of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Using Low-cost Bubble CPAP in a Rural African Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Jennifer; Immaculate, Mutisya; Okeyo, Bob; Anand, Matthew; Omoding, Anastacia; Myhre, Luke; Okeyo, Lilian; Barasa, Immaculate; Letchford, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Kenya's neonatal mortality rate remains unacceptably high, at 22 deaths per 1000 live births, with a third of those attributable to prematurity. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the premature neonate. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a proven modality of therapy but is rarely used in low-resource settings. We report on the introduction of bubble CPAP (BCPAP), a low-cost method of delivering CPAP appropriate to our setting, by comparing survival-to-discharge before and after the technology was introduced. The inpatient hospital records of all preterm infants (<37 weeks) diagnosed with RDS in the AIC Kijabe Hospital Nursery during two 18-month periods before and after the introduction of BCPAP (46 infants enrolled from 1 November 2007 to 30 April 2009 vs. 72 infants enrolled from 1 November 2009 to 30 April 2011) were reviewed. Differences in survival-to-discharge rates between the two time periods were analyzed. The survival-to-discharge rate was higher in Period 2 (after the introduction of BCPAP) than in Period 1 (pre-BCPAP) (85% vs. 61%, p  =  0.007). Similarly, there were lower referral rates of preterm infants with RDS in Period 2 than Period 1 (4% vs. 17%, p  =  0.037). BCPAP has contributed significantly to favorable outcomes for preterm infants with RDS at AIC Kijabe Hospital. The use of this simple technology should be considered and studied for expansion to all hospitals in Kenya that care for preterm infants. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  14. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  15. The versatility of the transumbilical approach for laparotomy in infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neonates and infants with gastrointestinal surgical ... surgical procedures in neonates and infants. .... trauma to the rectus abdominis muscle, which can cause .... pancreatectomy for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

  16. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  17. Lutein-fortified infant formula fed to healthy term infants: evaluation of growth effects and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Rosario; Gepanayao, Connie P; Calimon, Nerrisa; Lebumfacil, Jowena; Davis, Anne M; Stouffer, Nicole; Harris, Bruce J

    2010-05-21

    Breast milk contains lutein derived from the mother's diet. This carotenoid is currently not added to infant formula, which has a small and variable lutein content from innate ingredients. This study was conducted to compare the growth of infants fed lutein-fortified infant formula with that of infants fed infant formula without lutein fortification. This 16-week study was prospective, randomized, controlled, and double-blind with parallel groups of healthy term infants fed either control formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold, designated as Gold) or experimental formula (Wyeth S-26 Gold fortified with lutein at 200 mcg/l, designated as Gold+Lutein). Two hundred thirty-two (232) infantslutein-fortified S-26 Gold demonstrated growth equivalent to that of infants fed unfortified lutein formula.

  18. Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Premature Infants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Charmaine M; Poon, Woei Bing; Ho, Selina Ky

    2018-02-01

    Neonatal care advances have resulted in improved survival but have raised concerns of increase in neurodevelopmental impairment. This study looked at long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes at ages 5 and 8 years of very low birthweight infants born in the 2000s as compared to the 1990s. Neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years old was compared to that at 5 and 8 years to determine if assessment at 2 years was predictive of later outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of consecutive infants with birthweight less than 1250 grams admitted to a tertiary centre in Singapore between January 1994 to December 1995 (Epoch I) and January 2004 to December 2005 (Epoch II) were included. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as having intelligence quotient (IQ) of less than 70, cerebral palsy, legal blindness, or hearing impairment requiring hearing aids. Mean gestational age was lower for Epoch II compared to Epoch I (28.1 ± 2.5 vs 29.4 ± 2.7 weeks, P = 0.004). Death or neurodevelopmental impairment rates did not differ (24.3% and 17.1% at 5 years old, P = 0.398; 29.1% and 25.0% at 8 years old, P = 0.709). There was improvement in visual impairment rate at 8 years in Epoch II (10.7% vs 34.0%, P = 0.024). Mean IQ was better in Epoch II (109 and 107 vs 97 and 99 at 5 [ P = 0.001] and 8 years [ P = 0.047], respectively). All infants with no neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years remained without impairment later on. Over a decade, neurodevelopmental outcomes did not worsen despite lower mean gestational age. Long- term improvement in IQ scores and a reduction in visual impairment rates were seen. Our data suggests that children without neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years are without impairment later on; therefore, they may need only developmental monitoring with targeted assessments instead of routine formal IQ assessments.

  19. Benchmarking care for very low birthweight infants in Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, B P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Benchmarking is that process through which best practice is identified and continuous quality improvement pursued through comparison and sharing. The Vermont Oxford Neonatal Network (VON) is the largest international external reference centre for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. This report from 2004-7 compares survival and morbidity throughout Ireland and benchmarks these results against VON. METHODS: A standardised VON database for VLBW infants was created in 14 participating centres across Ireland and Northern Ireland. RESULTS: Data on 716 babies were submitted in 2004, increasing to 796 babies in 2007, with centres caring for from 10 to 120 VLBW infants per year. In 2007, mortality rates in VLBW infants varied from 4% to 19%. Standardised mortality ratios indicate that the number of deaths observed was not significantly different from the number expected, based on the characteristics of infants treated. There was no difference in the incidence of severe intraventricular haemorrhage between all-Ireland and VON groups (5% vs 6%, respectively). All-Ireland rates for chronic lung disease (CLD; 15-21%) remained lower than rates seen in the VON group (24-28%). The rates of late onset nosocomial infection in the all-Ireland group (25-26%) remained double those in the VON group (12-13%). DISCUSSION: This is the first all-Ireland international benchmarking report in any medical specialty. Survival, severe intraventricular haemorrhage and CLD compare favourably with international standards, but rates of nosocomial infection in neonatal units are concerning. Benchmarking clinical outcomes is critical for quality improvement and informing decisions concerning neonatal intensive care service provision.

  20. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.