WorldWideScience

Sample records for surviving infant ahr

  1. Actuarial survival of a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased survival of preterm and very low birth weight infants in recent years has been well documented but continued surveillance is required in order to monitor the effects of new therapeutic interventions. Gestation and birth weight specific survival rates most accurately reflect the outcome of perinatal care. Our aims were to determine survival to discharge for a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and to examine the effect of gender on survival and the effect of increasing postnatal age on predicted survival. Methods Outcomes for all 19,507 infants admitted to 17 NICUs throughout Canada between January 1996 and October 1997 were collected prospectively. Babies with congenital anomalies were excluded from the study population. Gestation and birth weight specific survival for all infants with birth weight Results Survival to discharge at 24 weeks gestation was 54%, compared to 82% at 26 weeks and 95% at 30 weeks. In infants with birth weights 600–699, survival to discharge was 62%, compared to 79% at 700–799 g and 96% at 1,000–1,099 g. In infants born at 24 weeks gestational age, survival was higher in females but there were no significant gender differences above 24 weeks gestation. Actuarial analysis showed that risk of death was highest in the first 5 days. For infants born at 24 weeks gestation, estimated survival probability to 48 hours, 7 days and 4 weeks were 88 (CI 84,92%, 70 (CI 64, 76% and 60 (CI 53,66% respectively. For smaller birth weights, female survival probabilities were higher than males for the first 40 days of life. Conclusion Actuarial analysis provides useful information when counseling parents and highlights the importance of frequently revising the prediction for long term survival particularly after the first few days of life.

  2. Long survival in a 69,XXX triploid infant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Vassiliou, Georgia; Sekerli, Eleni; Sidiropoulou, Vasiliki; Tsiga, Alexandra; Dimopoulou, Despina; Voyiatzis, Nikolaos

    2005-12-30

    The live birth of a triploidy infant is a very rare event and death usually occurs within the first hours of life. Triploid cases with a survival of more than two months are infrequent. We report on an infant with a 69,XXX chromosome constitution who survived 164 days. Chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 69,XXX karyotype with no evidence of mosaicism. This is the longest survival reported for this condition to date in Greece and the fourth longest worldwide. The infant was admitted to our clinic several times due to respiratory problems, and supplementary oxygen was required. The improved survival of our case was possibly due to better management of respiratory illness and prematurity, and these are essential factors that physicians should consider carefully with such rare cases.

  3. AhR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AGNIESZKA SADOWSKA

    JAN P. JASTRZEBSKI2, GRZEGORZ PANASIEWICZ1 and RENATA E. CIERESZKO1,3. 1Department of Animal Physiology, .... genetic relationship between the pig and other species; and. (iv) to evaluate the AhR and ARNT .... the ARNT transcript sequence (figure 2 in electronic supple- mentary material). The identity of ...

  4. Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants according to birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion. Survival among infants weighing less than 1 000 g is poor. In addition to severe prematurity, the poor survival among these infants(< 1 000 g) is most likely related to the fact that they were not offered mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation should be offered to infants weighing < 1 000 g as it may improve ...

  5. Factors that facilitate infant survival in a low socio-economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate antenatal care and infant feeding practices including exclusive breast feeding, early recognition of danger signs and timely health seeking will significantly improve child survival in Nigeria. Keywords: caregivers, infant survival, health-seeking behaviour, breastfeeding. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical ...

  6. Neonatal survival of infants less than 2000 grams born at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the birthweight specific neonatal survival of infants born weighing less than 2000 grams at Kenyatta National Hospital. Design: A cross sectional survey. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Main outcome measures: The proportion of infants surviving the first 28 days of life ...

  7. Maternal Health Care Services Access Index and Infant Survival in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rate in Nigeria is among the highest world-wide. Utilization of modern health care facilities during pregnancy and at delivery reduces infant mortality rate. We examined the relationship between Infant Mortality (IM) and Maternal Health Care Services Access Index (MHCI) in.

  8. Maternal Health Care Services Access Index and Infant Survival in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infant mortality rate in Nigeria is among the highest world-wide. Utilization of modern health care facilities during pregnancy and at delivery reduces infant mortality rate. We examined the relationship between Infant Mortality (IM) and Maternal Health Care Services Access Index (MHCI) in Nigeria. Methods: This ...

  9. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7]. In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing. ≥1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. However, with improving maternal and neonatal care, more infants weighing 500 - 1 000 g are.

  10. Survival and health in liveborn infants with transposition of great arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria A; Nelen, Vera

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe treatment, survival, and morbidity for liveborn infants with isolated transposition of great arteries (TGA). DESIGN: Population-based data from 7 European registries of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Ninety-seven infants were diagnosed with isolated TGA...... and livebirth prevalence was 2.0 per 10,000 livebirths. The majority of infants were treated with prostaglandins (83%) and 57% had a catheter atrial septostomia performed. Arterial switch surgery was performed in 78 infants, other or unknown type of surgery was performed in 3 cases, and for 6 infants...

  11. Lung Maturation: The Survival Miracle of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Jobe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased survival of very preterm infants is generally attributed to improved care strategies. This review develops the thesis that the features of abnormal pregnancies responsible for very preterm deliveries also provide an explanation of why very preterm infants often survive. A normal fetus born at 24 weeks is very unlikely to survive. However, pregnancies that result in deliveries at 24 weeks are generally highly abnormal, and may have been so for prolonged periods prior to the preterm deliveries. Inflammatory or vascular developmental abnormalities resulting in very preterm birth can alter fetal development in such a way that organ system maturation is induced. This is supported clinically by the relative lack of very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions such as antenatal corticosteroid treatment and postnatal surfactant treatment for infants with respiratory distress syndrome and gentle ventilation strategies maximize fetal adaptations to the abnormal fetal environment and improve outcomes.

  12. Effect of birth spacing on infant survival in Thailand: two-stage logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C B; Siasakul, S; Saengtienchai, C

    1994-03-01

    We formulated a two-stage causal model for infant survival and applied it to data drawn from the 1987 Thai Demographic and Health Survey covering the fate of 5,074 index children. The following six variables were considered as the explanatory variables: maternal age, maternal education, birth order, preceding birth interval, survival of the preceding child, and place of residence. The analysis suggests that the birth interval not only directly affected the chance of infant survival but it played the role of the filtering factor through which other variables indirectly operate on infant mortality. The effect of preceding child's death was very strong, the odds ratios for the following infant's death and short birth interval both exceeding three.

  13. Interaction of fish aryl hydrocarbon receptor paralogs (AHR1 and AHR2) with the retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, Rebeka R., E-mail: rmerson@ric.edu [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Biology Department, Rhode Island College, 500 Mt. Pleasant Ave., Providence, RI 02908 (United States); Karchner, Sibel I.; Hahn, Mark E. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)

    2009-08-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds. In some mammalian cell lines, TCDD induces G1 cell cycle arrest, which depends on an interaction between the AHR and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB). Mammals possess one AHR, whereas fishes possess two or more AHR paralogs that differ in the domains important for AHR-RB interactions in mammals. To test the hypothesis that fish AHR paralogs differ in their ability to interact with RB, we cloned RB cDNA from Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, and studied the interactions of killifish RB protein with killifish AHR1 and AHR2. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, in vitro-expressed killifish RB coprecipitated with both AHR1 and AHR2. Consistent with these results, both killifish AHR1 and AHR2 interacted with RB in mammalian two-hybrid assays. These results suggest that both fish AHR1 and AHR2 paralogs may have the potential to influence cell proliferation through interactions with RB.

  14. Survival of Salmonella Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae in dehydrated infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, James B; Sharma, Devang; Siddique, Nusrat; Hao, Yun-Yun D; Strain, Errol A; Blodgett, Robert J; Al-Khaldi, Sufian F

    2011-08-01

    Powdered infant formula has previously been linked to the transmission of various bacterial pathogens in infants resulting in life-threatening disease and death. Survival studies of 2 common foodborne pathogens, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae, in powdered infant formula have not been previously studied despite the potentially devastating consequences from ingestion of these organisms, particularly by newborns, in case of a natural or deliberate contamination event. Therefore, to better predict the risk of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae infection from consumption of infant formula, the present study was undertaken to determine survival of these microorganisms in dry infant formula under varying atmospheric conditions. A 2-strain cocktail of S. Typhi and a 3-strain cocktail of S. dysenteriae were stored for up to 12 wk in dehydrated infant formula in an ambient air or nitrogen atmosphere. Viable counts of S. Typhi at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 2.9- and 1.69-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. Viable counts of S. dysenteriae at 12 wk in infant formula revealed a 0.81- and 0.42-log decrease in ambient air and nitrogen atmosphere, respectively. These results show that S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae can remain viable for prolonged periods of time in powdered infant formula, and the presence of nitrogen enhances survival. Our goal in this work was to study the survival of S. Typhi and S. dysenteriae in dehydrated storage conditions in infant formula. This interest is partially generated by the possibility of using these 2 microorganisms to deliberately contaminate the food supply. The outcome of this study will help us to have a better idea how to respond and react to the risk of deliberate food contamination. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  15. Improving survival rates of newborn infants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield David

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number, rates and causes of early neonatal deaths in South Africa were not known. Neither had modifiable factors associated with these deaths been previously documented. An audit of live born infants who died in the first week of life in the public service could help in planning strategies to reduce the early neonatal mortality rate. Methods The number of live born infants weighing 1000 g or more, the number of these infants who die in the first week of life, the primary and final causes of these deaths, and the modifiable factors associated with them were collected over four years from 102 sites in South Africa as part of the Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. Results The rate of death in the first week of life for infants weighing 1000 g or more was unacceptably high (8.7/1000, especially in rural areas (10.42/1000. Intrapartum hypoxia and preterm delivery are the main causes of death. Common modifiable factors included inadequate staffing and facilities, poor care in labour, poor neonatal resuscitation and basic care, and difficulties for patients in accessing health care. Conclusion Practical, affordable and effective steps can be taken to reduce the number of infants who die in the first week of life in South Africa. These could also be implemented in other under resourced countries.

  16. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uhing reported that preterm infants below 30 weeks' gestation accumulate an energy deficit in the first 5 .... pressure; PDA = patent ductus arteriosus;. HMD = hyaline membrane disease; GV = growth velocity; CGA = corrected gestational age. ... mother had syphilis during pregnancy, while 18 mothers (26.1%) were HIV-.

  17. Combination effects of AHR agonists and Wnt/β-catenin modulators in zebrafish embryos: Implications for physiological and toxicological AHR functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wincent, Emma [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1050 (United States); Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates essential biological functions and acts in developmental toxicity of some chemicals. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is well-known to mediate developmental toxicity of persistent dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between β-catenin and the AHR in some tissues. However the nature of this crosstalk in embryos is poorly known. We observed that zebrafish embryos exposed to the β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 display effects phenocopying those of the dioxin-like 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). This led us to investigate the AHR interaction with β-catenin during development and ask whether developmental toxicity of DLCs involves antagonism of β-catenin signaling. We examined phenotypes and transcriptional responses in zebrafish embryos exposed to XAV939 or to a β-catenin activator, 1-azakenpaullone, alone or with AHR agonists, either PCB126 or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ). Alone 1-azakenpaullone and XAV939 both were embryo-toxic, and we found that in the presence of FICZ, the toxicity of 1-azakenpaullone decreased while the toxicity of XAV939 increased. This rescue of 1-azakenpaullone effects occurred in the time window of Ahr2-mediated toxicity and was reversed by morpholino-oligonucleotide knockdown of Ahr2. Regarding PCB126, addition of either 1-azakenpaullone or XAV939 led to lower mortality than with PCB126 alone but surviving embryos showed severe edemas. 1-Azakenpaullone induced transcription of β-catenin-associated genes, while PCB126 and FICZ blocked this induction. The data indicate a stage-dependent antagonism of β-catenin by Ahr2 in zebrafish embryos. We propose that the AHR has a physiological role in regulating β-catenin during development, and that this is one point of intersection linking toxicological and physiological AHR-governed processes.

  18. Unequal lifetimes: An example of infant and child survival in the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Catalina; oeppen, James; Jacobsen, Rune

    ; Willführ and Gagnon 2012) have shown that in historical as well as in some contemporary populations infant and child deaths are concentrated in a reduced number of families. This study aims to explore the distribution of infant and child deaths at different levels of aggregation in an historical population...... mortality was a major source of inequalities in the distribution of lifespans. At the micro-level, infant and child deaths were unequally distributed among women. Heterogeneity between the mothers concerning their infant-care practices was possibly an important source of differentials in infant mortality...... impact on all age-groups. Thus, besides individual frailty (Vaupel et al. 1979), access to clean water in the community and breastfeeding practices within the family are decisive for survival at the youngest ages. Some studies (Zaba and David 1996; Edvinsson et al. 2005; Bengtsson and Dribe 2010...

  19. Changing Survival Rate of Infants Born Before 26 Gestational Weeks; Single-centre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the changing survival rate and morbidities among infants born before 26 gestational weeks at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective study assessed the mortality and morbidities of all premature infants born alive at 23–26 gestational weeks at SQUH between June 2006 and May 2013. Infants referred to SQUH within 72 hours of birth during this period were also included. Electronic records were reviewed for gestational age, gender, birth weight, maternal age, mode and place of delivery, antenatal steroid administration, morbidity and outcome. The survival rate was calculated and findings were then compared with those of a previous study conducted in the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. Rates of major morbidities were also calculated. Results: A total of 81 infants between 23–26 gestational weeks were admitted to the neonatal unit during the study period. Of these, 58.0% were male and 42.0% were female. Median gestational age was 25 weeks and mean birth weight was 770 ± 150 g. Of the 81 infants, 49 survived. The overall survival rate was 60.5% compared to 41% reported in the previous study. Respiratory distress syndrome (100.0%, retinopathy of prematurity (51.9%, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (34.6%, intraventricular haemorrhage (30.9% and patent ductus arteriosus (28.4% were the most common morbidities. Conclusion: The overall survival rate of infants between 23–26 gestational weeks during the study period had significantly improved in comparison to that found at the same hospital from 1991 to 1998. There is a need for the long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up of premature infants.

  20. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  1. Survival of infants and children born to women who died from pregnancy and labour related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, J Y; Agida, E T; Mairiga, A G

    2007-03-01

    In response to concern raised on the high rate of maternal mortality in developing countries, this cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the survival of infants born to mothers who died during the process of child birth. The survey was conducted in Gwoza and Konduga Local Government Areas of Borno State, Nigeria over a 12 week period; January to March, 1996. Sixty four live-born infants of 76 deceased mothers were studied. The majority of the infants were either nursed by the deceased's sister or mother. Alternative or donor breast milk by a surrogate mother (usually the deceased close relation), goat or cow milk were the common form of feeding from birth to 6 months of age followed by groundnut enriched pap. Twenty (31.3%) of the infants survived upto 5 years of age while 44 (68.6%) did not. Factors favouring infant survival include nursing, up-bringing and breast-feeding by a surrogate mother (who is usually either the deceased's sister or mother), infant feeding with goat's or cow's milk, Immunization, hospital treatment of aliments, hospital delivery or maternal death in the hospital and finally when the caretaker is of low party and upper social class status. Factors responsible for infant death included prematurity, cause of maternal death was due to sepsis as a result of prolonged labour or premature rupture of fetal membranes, birth asphyxia, tetanus, respiratory problems, fever, convulsions, diaorrhea and vomiting and malnutrition. These babies are readily accepted by the society because it is believed that the caretaker would receive a lot of blessing from God. On the other hand, the death of such babies is considered a double loss even though there is a low expectation for their survival.

  2. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants | Kalimba | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure (NCPAP) with or without surfactant, and Apgar scores. Results. A total of 382 neonates were included in the study. Overall survival was 26.5%. e main causes of death, as per the Perinatal Problem Identi.cation Programme (PPIP) classi.cation, were extreme multi-organ immaturity and respiratory distress syndrome.

  3. Survival of infants and children born to women who died from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of infants and children born to women who died from pregnancy and laboour related complications. ... maternal death was due to sepsls as a result of prolonged labour or premature rupture of fetal membranes, birth asphyxia, tetanus, respiratory problems, fever, convulsions, diaorrhea and vomiting and malnutrition.

  4. Survival of low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital - 1950 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been dramatic improvements in the survival of LBW infants over this time period at Baragwanath Hospital. Although newer interventions such as mechanical ventilation and artificial surfactant have played a significant role, improvement in care at primary and secondary levels has been of major importance.

  5. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Mobilization in Preterm Infants With Sepsis Is Associated With Improved Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavashi, Vahid; Asadian, Simin; Taheri-Asl, Masoud; Keshavarz, Samaneh; Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Mohamad; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Microvascular dysfunction plays a key role in the pathology of sepsis, leading to multi-organ failure, and death. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) are critically involved in the maintenance of the vascular homeostasis in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, concentration of cEPCs in preterm infants with sepsis was determined to recognize whether the EPC mobilization would affect the clinical outcome of infantile sepsis. One hundred and thirty-three preterm infants (81 with sepsis and 52 without sepsis) were enrolled in this study. The release of EPCs in circulation was first quantified. Thereafter, these cells were cultivated and biological features of these cells such as, proliferation and colony forming efficiency were analyzed. The levels of chemoattractant cytokines were also measured in infants. In mouse models of sepsis, effects of VEGF and SDF-1 as well as anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 were evaluated in order to shed light upon the role which the EPC mobilization plays in the overall survival of septic animals. Circulating EPCs were significantly higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in the non-sepsis group. Serum levels of VEGF, SDF-1, and Angiopoietin-2 were also higher in preterm infants with sepsis than in control non-sepsis. In the animal experiments, injection of VEGF and SDF-1 prompted the mobilization of EPCs, leading to an improvement in survival whereas injection of anti-VEGF and anti-SDF-1 was associated with significant deterioration of survival. Overall, our results demonstrated the beneficial effects of EPC release in preterm infants with sepsis, with increased mobilization of these cells was associated with improved survival. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3299-3307, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.

  7. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. AHR-11797: a novel benzodiazepine antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.N.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Hannaman, P.K.

    1986-03-01

    AHR-11797(5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-1-phenyl-/sup 3/H-pyrrolo(3,2,1-ij)quinazolin-3-one) displaced /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (IC/sub 50/ = 82 nM) and /sup 3/H-Ro 15-1877 (IC/sub 50/ = 104 nM) from rat brain synaptosomes. AHR-11797 did not protect mice from seizures induced by maximal electroshock or subcutaneous Metrazol (scMET), nor did it induce seizures in doses up to the lethal dose. However, at 31.6 mg/kg, IP, it significantly increased the anticonvulsant ED/sub 50/ of chlordiazepoxide (CDPX) from 1.9 to 31.6 mg/kg, IP. With 56.7 mg/kg, IP, of AHR-11797, CDPX was inactive in doses up to 100 mg/kg, IP. AHR-11797 did not significantly increase punished responding in the Geller and Seifter conflict procedure, but it did attenuate the effects of diazepam. Although the compound is without anticonvulsant or anxiolytic activity, it did have muscle relaxant properties. AHR-11797 blocked morphine-induced Straub tail in mice (ED/sub 50/ = 31 mg/kg, IP) and it selectively suppressed the polysnaptic linguomandibular reflex in barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The apparent muscle relaxant activity of AHR-11797 suggests that different receptor sites are involved for muscle relaxant vs. anxiolytic/anticonvulsant activities of the benzodiazepines.

  9. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: Overall the proportion of this very preterm cohort who survived to discharge from neonatal care was 89.5%, varying from 93.2% to 74.8% across the regions. Less than 2% of infants

  10. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  11. High AHR expression in breast tumors correlates with expression of genes from several signaling pathways namely inflammation and endogenous tryptophan metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Vacher

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and animal experimental data provide substantial support for the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in mammary tumorigenesis. The effects of AhR have been clearly demonstrated in rodent models of breast carcinogenesis and in several established human breast cancer cell lines following exposure to AhR ligands or AhR overexpression. However, relatively little is known about the role of AhR in human breast cancers. AhR has always been considered to be a regulator of toxic and carcinogenic responses to environmental contaminants such as TCDD (dioxin and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP. The aim of this study was to identify the type of breast tumors (ERα-positive or ERα-negative that express AHR and how AhR affects human tumorigenesis. The levels of AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT and AHR repressor (AHRR mRNA expression were analyzed in a cohort of 439 breast tumors, demonstrating a weak association between high AHR expression and age greater than fifty years and ERα-negative status, and HR-/ERBB2 breast cancer subtypes. AHRR mRNA expression was associated with metastasis-free survival, while AHR mRNA expression was not. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of AhR protein in both tumor cells (nucleus and/or cytoplasm and the tumor microenvironment (including endothelial cells and lymphocytes. High AHR expression was correlated with high expression of several genes involved in signaling pathways related to inflammation (IL1B, IL6, TNF, IL8 and CXCR4, metabolism (IDO1 and TDO2 from the kynurenine pathway, invasion (MMP1, MMP2 and PLAU, and IGF signaling (IGF2R, IGF1R and TGFB1. Two well-known ligands for AHR (TCDD and BaP induced mRNA expression of IL1B and IL6 in an ERα-negative breast tumor cell line. The breast cancer ER status likely influences AhR activity involved in these signaling pathways. The mechanisms involved in AhR activation and target gene expression in breast cancers are also discussed.

  12. Survival after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in infants and children with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Titus; Thiagarajan, Ravi R; Frank, Deborah; Bratton, Susan L

    2008-10-01

    We investigated survival and predictors of mortality for infants and children with heart disease treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an aid to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Children (cardiopulmonary resuscitation and were reported to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization database were evaluated. Patients were classified into one of 3 groups based on underlying cardiac physiology: single ventricle, 2 ventricles, and cardiac muscle disease. Patients with eligible procedure codes were assigned a Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 classification. Four hundred ninety-two patients were eligible for analysis, and 279 (57%) were assigned a Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 category. Overall survival was 42%. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, significant pre-extracorporeal predictors for mortality included single-ventricle physiology (odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.4), a history of a stage 1-type procedure (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.2), and extreme acidosis (arterial blood gas pH cardiopulmonary resuscitation resulted in hospital survival in 42% of infants and children with heart disease. Underlying cardiac physiology and associated cardiac surgical procedures influenced mortality, as did pre-extracorporeal resuscitation status and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-associated complications.

  13. Metastatic neuroblastoma in infants: are survival rates excellent only within the stringent framework of clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cataldo, A; Agodi, A; Balaguer, J; Garaventa, A; Barchitta, M; Segura, V; Bianchi, M; Castel, V; Castellano, A; Cesaro, S; Couselo, J M; Cruz, O; D'Angelo, P; De Bernardi, B; Donat, J; de Andoin, N G; Hernandez, M I; La Spina, M; Lillo, M; Lopez-Almaraz, R; Luksch, R; Mastrangelo, S; Mateos, E; Molina, J; Moscheo, C; Mura, R; Porta, F; Russo, G; Tondo, A; Torrent, M; Vetrella, S; Villegas, J A; Viscardi, E; Zanazzo, G A; Cañete, A

    2017-01-01

    SIOPEN INES protocol yielded excellent 5-year survival rates for MYCN-non-amplified metastatic neuroblastoma. Patients deemed ineligible due to lack or delay of MYCN status or late registration were treated, but not included in the study. Our goal was to analyse survival at 10 years among the whole population. Italian and Spanish metastatic INES patients' data are reported. SPSS 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. Among 98 infants, 27 had events and 19 died, while 79 were disease free. Five- and 10-year event-free survival (EFS) were 73 and 70 %, and overall survival (OS) was 81 and 74 %, respectively. MYCN status was significant for EFS, but not for OS in multivariate analysis. The survival rates of patients who complied with all the inclusion criteria for INES trials are higher compared to those that included also not registered patients. Five-year EFS and OS for INES 99.2 were 87.8 and 95.7 %, while our stage 4s population obtained 78 and 87 %. Concerning 99.3, 5-year EFS and OS were 86.7 and 95.6 %, while for stage 4 we registered 61 and 68 %. MYCN amplification had a strong impact on prognosis and therefore we consider it unacceptable that many patients were not studied for MYCN and probably inadequately treated. Ten-year survival rates were shown to decrease: EFS from 73 to 70 % and OS from 81 to 74 %, indicating a risk of late events, particularly in stage 4s. Population-based registries like European ENCCA WP 11-task 11 will possibly clarify these data.

  14. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... for NIC. For babies babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  15. Human and rodent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR): from mediator of dioxin toxicity to physiologic AHR functions and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2017-04-01

    Metabolism of aryl hydrocarbons and toxicity of dioxins led to the discovery of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Tremendous advances have been made on multiplicity of AHR signaling and identification of endogenous ligands including the tryptophan metabolites FICZ and kynurenine. However, human AHR functions are still poorly understood due to marked species differences as well as cell-type- and cell context-dependent AHR functions. Observations in dioxin-poisoned individuals may provide hints to physiologic AHR functions in humans. Based on these observations three human AHR functions are discussed: (1) Chemical defence and homeostasis of endobiotics. The AHR variant Val381 in modern humans leads to reduced AHR affinity to aryl hydrocarbons in comparison with Neanderthals and primates expressing the Ala381 variant while affinity to indoles remains unimpaired. (2) Homeostasis of stem/progenitor cells. Dioxins dysregulate homeostasis in sebocyte stem cells. (3) Modulation of immunity. In addition to microbial defence, AHR may be involved in a 'disease tolerance defence pathway'. Further characterization of physiologic AHR functions may lead to therapeutic options.

  16. HIV-free survival at 12-24 months in breastfed infants of HIV-infected women on antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhungu, Lana Clara; Bispo, Stephanie; Rollins, Nigel; Siegfried, Nandi; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2016-07-01

    To provide estimates of HIV-free survival at 12-24 months in breastfed children by maternal ART (6 months or lifelong) to inform WHO HIV and Infant Feeding guidelines. Eighteen studies published 2005-2015 were included in a systematic literature review (1295 papers identified, 156 abstracts screened, 55 full texts); papers were analysed by narrative synthesis and meta-analysis of HIV-free survival by maternal ART regimen in a random effects model. We also grouped studies by feeding modality. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and GRADE. The pooled estimates for 12-month HIV-free survival were 89.8% (95% confidence interval, CI: 86.5%, 93.2%) for infants of mothers on ART for 6 months post-natally (six studies) and 91.4% (95% CI 87.5%, 95.4%) for infants of mothers on lifelong ART (three studies). Eighteen-month HIV-free survival estimates were 89.0% (95% CI 83.9%, 94.2%) with 6 months ART (five studies) and 96.1% (95% CI 92.8%, 99.0%) with lifelong ART (three studies). Twenty-four-month HIV-free survival for infants whose mothers were on ART to 6 months post-natally (two studies) was 89.2% (95% CI 79.9%, 98.5%). Heterogeneity was considerable throughout. In four studies, HIV-free survival in breastfed infants ranged from 87% (95% CI 78%, 92%) to 96% (95% CI 91%, 98%) and in formula-fed infants from 67% (95% CI 35.5%, 87.9%) to 97.6% (95% CI 93.0%, 98.2%). Our results highlight the importance of breastfeeding for infant survival and of ART in reducing the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and support the WHO recommendation to initiate ART for life immediately after HIV diagnosis. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23–26 Weeks Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23–26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23–24 and 25–26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23–24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25–26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23–24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25–26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants. PMID:26955244

  18. Trends in Survival and Incidence of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Extremely Preterm Infants at 23-26 Weeks Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Sein; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Park, Won Soon

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between survival and incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in extremely premature infants, and identify clinical factors responsible for this association. Medical records of 350 infants at 23-26 weeks gestation from 2000 to 2005 (period I, n = 137) and 2006 to 2010 (period II, n = 213) were retrospectively reviewed. The infants were stratified into 23-24 and 25-26 weeks gestation, and the survival, BPD incidence, and clinical characteristics were analyzed. BPD was defined as oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The overall survival rate was significantly improved in period II compared to period I (80.3% vs. 70.0%, respectively; P = 0.028), especially in infants at 23-24 weeks gestation (73.9% vs. 47.4%, respectively; P = 0.001). The BPD incidence in survivors during period II (55.0%) was significantly decreased compared to period I (67.7%; P = 0.042), especially at 25-26 weeks gestation (41.7% vs. 62.3%, respectively; P = 0.008). Significantly improved survival at 23-24 weeks gestation was associated with a higher antenatal steroid use and an improved 5-minute Apgar score. A significant decrease in BPD incidence at 25-26 weeks gestation was associated with early extubation, prolonged use of less invasive continuous positive airway pressure, and reduced supplemental oxygen. Improved perinatal and neonatal care can simultaneously lead to improved survival and decreased BPD incidence in extremely premature infants.

  19. Survival and health benefits of breastfeeding versus artificial feeding in infants of HIV-infected women: developing versus developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace

    2010-12-01

    Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. This article summarizes the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral drugs can be used during lactation and reduce risks of transmission. For most of the developing world, the health and survival benefits of breastfeeding exceed the risks of HIV transmission, especially when antiretroviral interventions are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survival Benefit of Empirical Therapy for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaden, Joshua T; Ericson, Jessica E; Cross, Heather; Bergin, Stephen P; Messina, Julia A; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-11-01

    The impact of early adequate empirical antibiotic therapy on outcomes of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) who develop Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (BSI) is unknown. Infants with S. aureus BSI discharged in 1997-2012 from 348 NICUs managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group were identified. Early adequate empirical antibiotic therapy was defined as exposure to ≥1 antibiotic with anti-staphylococcal activity on the day the first positive blood culture was obtained. All other cases were defined as inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy. We evaluated the association between inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy on outcomes controlling for gestational age, small for gestational age status, gender, discharge year, mechanical ventilation, inotropic support and use of supplemental oxygen. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were 7-day mortality, death before hospital discharge and length of bacteremia. Of the 3339 infants with S. aureus BSI, 2492 (75%) had methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI and 847 (25%) had methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) BSI. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was administered in 725 (22%) cases. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was associated with increased 30-day mortality (odds ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-3.82) among infants with MRSA BSI. Inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was not associated with increases in mortality among infants with MSSA BSI. After controlling for confounders, inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy was associated with a modestly increased mortality at 30 days for infants with MRSA BSI.

  1. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    population based observational study. SETTING: 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. PARTICIPANTS: 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks' gestation in 2011...... of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. RESULTS: Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices...... ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease in all deaths without an increase in severe morbidity if these interventions had been provided to all infants. CONCLUSIONS: More...

  2. No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Jessica E; Thaden, Joshua; Cross, Heather R; Clark, Reese H; Fowler, Vance G; Benjamin, Daniel K; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2015-04-01

    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often delay empirical vancomycin therapy until culture results become available. All infants with CoNS BSI discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2012 were identified. Empirical vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure on the day of the first positive blood culture. Delayed vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure 1-3 days after the first positive blood culture. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects for site to evaluate the association between the use of empirical vancomycin therapy versus delayed vancomycin therapy and 30-day mortality, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, postnatal age on the day of the first positive culture, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day the first positive culture was obtained. A total of 4364 infants with CoNS BSI were identified; 2848 (65%) were treated with empirical vancomycin. The median postnatal age at first positive culture was 14 days (interquartile range: 9, 21). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was similar for infants treated with empirical vancomycin and infants treated with delayed vancomycin therapy [166/2848 (6%) vs. 69/1516 (4%); P = 0.08]. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality on multivariable analysis [odds ratio: 1.14 (0.84, 1.56)]. The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer for infants with delayed vancomycin therapy [4 days (interquartile range: 2, 6) vs. 3 days (2, 5); P empirical vancomycin therapy for CoNS BSI was not associated with improved mortality.

  3. Genetic dissection of endothelial transcriptional activity of zebrafish aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Wade W.; Leonardo-Mendonça, Roberto C.; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2017-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved across phyla from flies to humans. Activated by a number of endogenous ligands and environmental toxins, studies on AHR function and gene regulation have largely focused on a toxicological perspective relating to aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and the often-deleterious effects of exposure on vertebrates mediated by AHR activation. A growing body of work has highlighted the importance of AHR in physiologic processes, including immune cell differentiation and vascular patterning. Here we dissect the contribution of the 3 zebrafish AHRs, ahr1a, ahr1b and ahr2, to endothelial cyp1a1/b1 gene regulation under physiologic conditions and upon exposure to the AHR ligand Beta-naphthoflavone. We show that in fish multiple AHRs are functional in the vasculature, with vessel-specific differences in the ability of ahr1b to compensate for the loss of ahr2 to maintain AHR signaling. We further provide evidence that AHR can regulate the expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a in endothelial cells, a regulatory mechanism that may provide insight into AHR function in the endothelium. PMID:28817646

  4. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Prospective multinational populat...

  5. Diversity as Opportunity: Insights from 600 Million Years of AHR Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Mark E; Karchner, Sibel I; Merson, Rebeka R

    2017-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) was for many years of interest only to pharmacologists and toxicologists. However, this protein has fundamental roles in biology that are being revealed through studies in diverse animal species. The AHR is an ancient protein. AHR homologs exist in most major groups of modern bilaterian animals, including deuterostomes (chordates, hemichordates, echinoderms) and the two major clades of protostome invertebrates [ecdysozoans (e.g. arthropods and nematodes) and lophotrochozoans (e.g. molluscs and annelids)]. AHR homologs also have been identified in cnidarians such as the sea anemone Nematostella and in the genome of Trichoplax, a placozoan. Bilaterians, cnidarians, and placozoans form the clade Eumetazoa, whose last common ancestor lived approximately 600 million years ago (MYA). The presence of AHR homologs in modern representatives of all these groups indicates that the original eumetazoan animal possessed an AHR homolog. Studies in invertebrates and vertebrates reveal parallel functions of AHR in the development and function of sensory neural systems, suggesting that these may be ancestral roles. Vertebrate animals are characterized by the expansion and diversification of AHRs, via gene and genome duplications, from the ancestral protoAHR into at least five classes of AHR-like proteins: AHR, AHR1, AHR2, AHR3, and AHRR. The evolution of multiple AHRs in vertebrates coincided with the acquisition of high-affinity binding of halogenated and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and the emergence of adaptive functions involving regulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and roles in adaptive immunity. The existence of multiple AHRs may have facilitated subfunction partitioning and specialization of specific AHR types in some taxa. Additional research in diverse model and non-model species will continue to enrich our understanding of AHR and its pleiotropic roles in biology and toxicology.

  6. Maternal Obesity and Impaired Fetal and Infant Survival-One More Piece Added to the Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal obesity and increased risks of stillbirth and infant mortality is well documented, but it has often been questioned whether the association is driven by obesity per se or by unmeasured factors such as insulin resistance or genes. In this issue of the Journal, Lindam...... et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;184(2):98-105) present results from a sibling case-control study which strongly support that these tragic outcomes are independent of genetic and early environmental risk factors shared within families. By sampling sisters from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, Lindam...

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Zimbabwe's Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Program: Population-Level Estimates of HIV-Free Infant Survival Pre-Option A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Buzdugan

    Full Text Available We estimated HIV-free infant survival and mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT rates in Zimbabwe, some of the first community-based estimates from a UNAIDS priority country.In 2012 we surveyed mother-infant pairs residing in the catchment areas of 157 health facilities randomly selected from 5 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe. Enrolled infants were born 9-18 months before the survey. We collected questionnaires, blood samples for HIV testing, and verbal autopsies for deceased mothers/infants. Estimates were assessed among i all HIV-exposed infants, as part of an impact evaluation of Option A of the 2010 WHO guidelines (rolled out in Zimbabwe in 2011, and ii the subgroup of infants unexposed to Option A. We compared province-level MTCT rates measured among women in the community with MTCT rates measured using program monitoring data from facilities serving those communities.Among 8568 women with known HIV serostatus, 1107 (12.9% were HIV-infected. Among all HIV-exposed infants, HIV-free infant survival was 90.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 88.7-92.7 and MTCT was 8.8% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1. Sixty-six percent of HIV-exposed infants were still breastfeeding. Among the 762 infants born before Option A was implemented, 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1-92.5 were alive and HIV-uninfected at 9-18 months of age, and 9.1% (95%CI: 7.1-11.7 were HIV-infected. In four provinces, the community-based MTCT rate was higher than the facility-based MTCT rate. In Harare, the community and facility-based rates were 6.0% and 9.1%, respectively.By 2012 Zimbabwe had made substantial progress towards the elimination of MTCT. Our HIV-free infant survival and MTCT estimates capture HIV transmissions during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding regardless of whether or not mothers accessed health services. These estimates also provide a baseline against which to measure the impact of Option A guidelines (and subsequently Option B+.

  8. Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the survival of California red-legged frogs in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened species while restoring...

  9. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  10. HIV-free survival and morbidity among formula-fed infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in rural Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Ivers, Louise C; Appleton, Sasha C; Wang, Bingxia; Jerome, J Gregory; Cullen, Kimberly A; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Partners In Health (PIH) works with the Ministry of Health to provide comprehensive health services in Haiti. Between 1994 and 2009, PIH recommended exclusive formula feeding in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program and provided support to implement this strategy. We conducted this study to assess HIV-free survival and prevalence of diarrhea and malnutrition among infants in our PMTCT program in rural Haiti where exclusive formula feeding wa...

  11. SUMOylation of AhR modulates its activity and stability through inhibiting its ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xinrong; Bi, Hailian; Chang, Alan K; Zang, Ming-Xi; Wang, Miao; Ao, Xiang; Li, Shen; Pan, Hongming; Guo, Qianping; Wu, Huijian

    2012-12-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-Arnt-Sim homology domain (PAS) family. AhR can be activated by 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD) and once activated, it promotes the abnormal expression of cytochrome P450, leading to several diseases, including cancer. In this study, we showed that AhR is subjected to post-translational modification by SUMOylation and this modification could be reversed by SENP1. Two SUMOylation sites were identified, one in the bHLH domain (K63) and the other in the TAD domain (K510) of AhR. Substitution of either K63 or K510 with arginine resulted in reduced SUMOylation for AhR. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD led to a reduced level of SUMOylated AhR in a time-dependent manner, and this occurred mainly in the nucleus. SUMOylation of AhR enhanced its stability through inhibiting its ubiquitination. Moreover, SUMOylation also repressed the transactivation activity of AhR and this could be reversed by TCDD. These results suggested that SUMOylation of AhR might play an important role in the regulation of its function, and TCDD may activate the transcriptional activity of AhR through downregulating its SUMOylation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of early low-dose hydrocortisone on survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants (PREMILOC): a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Olivier; Maury, Laure; Lebail, Florence; Ramful, Duksha; El Moussawi, Fatima; Nicaise, Claire; Zupan-Simunek, Véronique; Coursol, Anne; Beuchée, Alain; Bolot, Pascal; Andrini, Pierre; Mohamed, Damir; Alberti, Corinne

    2016-04-30

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a major complication of extreme prematurity, has few treatment options. Postnatal steroid use is controversial, but low-dose hydrocortisone might prevent the harmful effects of inflammation on the developing lung. In this study, we aimed to assess whether low-dose hydrocortisone improved survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial done at 21 French tertiary-care neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), we randomly assigned (1:1), via a secure study website, extremely preterm infants inborn (born in a maternity ward at the same site as the NICU) at less than 28 weeks of gestation to receive either intravenous low-dose hydrocortisone or placebo during the first 10 postnatal days. Infants randomly assigned to the hydrocortisone group received 1 mg/kg of hydrocortisone hemisuccinate per day divided into two doses per day for 7 days, followed by one dose of 0·5 mg/kg per day for 3 days. Randomisation was stratified by gestational age and all infants were enrolled by 24 h after birth. Study investigators, parents, and patients were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. We used a sequential analytical design, based on intention to treat, to avoid prolonging the trial after either efficacy or futility had been established. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT00623740. 1072 neonates were screened between May 25, 2008, and Jan 31, 2014, of which 523 were randomly assigned (256 hydrocortisone, 267 placebo). 255 infants on hydrocortisone and 266 on placebo were included in analyses after parents withdrew consent for one child in each group. Of the 255 infants assigned to hydrocortisone, 153 (60%) survived without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, compared with 136 (51%) of 266 infants assigned to placebo (odds ratio [OR] adjusted for gestational age

  13. Cluster-randomized study of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi in southern Tanzania: evaluation of impact on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria control in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of an anti-malarial drug, usually sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, at scheduled intervals, regardless of the presence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A pooled analysis of individually randomized trials reported that IPTi reduced clinical episodes by 30%. This study evaluated the effect of IPTi on child survival in the context of a five-district implementation project in southern Tanzania. [Trial registration: clinical trials.gov NCT00152204]. Methods After baseline household and health facility surveys in 2004, five districts comprising 24 divisions were randomly assigned either to receive IPTi (n = 12 or not (n = 12. Implementation started in March 2005, led by routine health services with support from the research team. In 2007, a large household survey was undertaken to assess the impact of IPTi on survival in infants aged two-11 months through birth history interviews with all women aged 13-49 years. The analysis is based on an "intention-to-treat" ecological design, with survival outcomes analysed according to the cluster in which the mothers lived. Results Survival in infants aged two-11 months was comparable in IPTi and comparison areas at baseline. In intervention areas in 2007, 48% of children aged 12-23 months had documented evidence of receiving three doses of IPTi, compared to 2% in comparison areas (P P = 0.31. Conclusion The lack of evidence of an effect of IPTi on survival could be a false negative result due to a lack of power or imbalance of unmeasured confounders. Alternatively, there could be no mortality impact of IPTi due to low coverage, late administration, drug resistance, decreased malaria transmission or improvements in vector control and case management. This study raises important questions for programme evaluation design.

  14. Survival and Health Benefits of Breastfeeding Versus Artificial Feeding in Infants of HIV-Infected Women: Developing Versus Developed World

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Infant feeding policies for HIV-infected women in developing countries differ from policies in developed countries. Here we summarize the epidemiologic data on the risks and benefits of various infant feeding practices for HIV-infected women living in different contexts. Artificial feeding can prevent a large proportion of mother-to-child HIV transmission but also is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality among both exposed-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Antiretroviral dr...

  15. HIV-free survival and morbidity among formula-fed infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Sasha C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partners In Health (PIH works with the Ministry of Health to provide comprehensive health services in Haiti. Between 1994 and 2009, PIH recommended exclusive formula feeding in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV program and provided support to implement this strategy. We conducted this study to assess HIV-free survival and prevalence of diarrhea and malnutrition among infants in our PMTCT program in rural Haiti where exclusive formula feeding was supported. Methods We reviewed medical charts of PMTCT mother-infant pairs at PIH between November 2004 and August 2006 through a retrospective longitudinal study and cross-sectional survey. We performed household surveys for each pair and at control households matched by infant's age and gender. Results 254 mother-infant pairs were included. 15.3% of infants were low birth weight; most births occurred at home (68.8%. 55.9% of households had no latrine; food insecurity was high (mean score of 18; scale 0-27, SD = 5.3. HIV-free survival at 18 months was 90.6%. Within the cohort, 9 children (3.5% were HIV-infected and 17 (6.7% died. Community controls were more likely to be breastfed (P = 0.003 and more likely to introduce food early (P = 0.003 than PMTCT-program households. There was no difference in moderate malnutrition (Z score ≤ 2 SD between PMTCT and community groups after controlling for guardian's education, marital status, and food insecurity (OR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.64; P = 0.84. Diarrhea was 2.9 times more prevalent among community children than PMTCT infants (30.3% vs. 12.2%; P Conclusions In a PIH-supported program in rural Haiti that addressed socioeconomic barriers to ill-health, breast milk substitution was safe, acceptable and feasible for PMTCT for HIV-infected women choosing this option.

  16. Structural hierarchy controlling dimerization and target DNA recognition in the AHR transcriptional complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Lee, Woojong; Jiang, Li; Molugu, Kaivalya; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Yitong; Park, Sanghyun; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Xing, Yongna (UW)

    2017-04-10

    he aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) belongs to the PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) family transcription factors and mediates broad responses to numerous environmental pollutants and cellular metabolites, modulating diverse biological processes from adaptive metabolism, acute toxicity, to normal physiology of vascular and immune systems. The AHR forms a transcriptionally active heterodimer with ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator), which recognizes the dioxin response element (DRE) in the promoter of downstream genes. We determined the crystal structure of the mammalian AHR–ARNT heterodimer in complex with the DRE, in which ARNT curls around AHR into a highly intertwined asymmetric architecture, with extensive heterodimerization interfaces and AHR interdomain interactions. Specific recognition of the DRE is determined locally by the DNA-binding residues, which discriminates it from the closely related hypoxia response element (HRE), and is globally affected by the dimerization interfaces and interdomain interactions. Changes at the interdomain interactions caused either AHR constitutive nuclear localization or failure to translocate to nucleus, underlying an allosteric structural pathway for mediating ligand-induced exposure of nuclear localization signal. These observations, together with the global higher flexibility of the AHR PAS-A and its loosely packed structural elements, suggest a dynamic structural hierarchy for complex scenarios of AHR activation induced by its diverse ligands.

  17. FENO and AHR mannitol in patients referred to an out-of-hospital asthma clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ongoing airway inflammation measured by fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol are associated in selected asthma patients, but no evidence exists of this association in unselected asthma patients. The aim was to investigate the association...... between FENO and AHR to mannitol in unselected individuals with possible asthma. METHODS: A real-life study on patients with possible asthma referred to a specialized asthma clinic. Data on asthma history, FEV(1), FENO, atopy, smoking, treatment and AHR to mannitol were collected. RESULTS: In 217...... unselected patients with symptoms suggestive of asthma, FENO and response to mannitol were tested. Of the 141 who underwent both tests, 32 (23%) had FENO > 25 ppb, and 58 (41%) had AHR to mannitol. A significant association between high FENO and AHR was found (p mannitol despite...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrients on infant survival: analysis of data from MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Persson, Lars Åke; Ahmed, Shakil; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Lindholm, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Absence of cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses limits the relevance of large-scale nutrition interventions in low-income countries. We analyzed if the effect of invitation to food supplementation early in pregnancy combined with multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) on infant survival represented value for money compared to invitation to food supplementation at usual time in pregnancy combined with iron-folic acid. Outcome data, infant mortality (IM) rates, came from MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab, ISRCTN16581394). In MINIMat, women were randomized to early (E around 9 weeks of pregnancy) or usual invitation (U around 20 weeks) to food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μgm of folic acid. In MINIMat, EMMS significantly reduced IM compared to UFe60F (U plus 60 mg iron 400 μgm Folic acid). We present incremental CE ratios for incrementing UFe60F to EMMS. Costing data came mainly from a published study. By incrementing UFe60F to EMMS, one extra IM could be averted at a cost of US$907 and US$797 for NGO run and government run CNCs, respectively, and at US$1024 for a hypothetical scenario of highest cost. These comparisons generated one extra life year (LY) saved at US$30, US$27, and US$34, respectively. Incrementing UFe60F to EMMS in pregnancy seems worthwhile from health economic and public health standpoints. Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab; ISRCTN16581394 ; Date of registration: Feb 16, 2009.

  19. AhrC and Eep are biofilm infection-associated virulence factors in Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kristi L; Guiton, Pascale S; Barnes, Aaron M T; Manias, Dawn A; Chuang-Smith, Olivia N; Kohler, Petra L; Spaulding, Adam R; Hultgren, Scott J; Schlievert, Patrick M; Dunny, Gary M

    2013-05-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. The pathogenesis of many E. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. To identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for E. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insertions or in-frame deletions in biofilm-associated loci: ahrC, argR, atlA, opuBC, pyrC, recN, and sepF. Only the ahrC mutant was significantly attenuated in endocarditis. We demonstrate that the transcriptional regulator AhrC and the protease Eep, which we showed previously to be an endocarditis virulence factor, are also required for full virulence in murine CAUTI. Therefore, AhrC and Eep can be classified as enterococcal biofilm-associated virulence factors. Loss of ahrC caused defects in early attachment and accumulation of biofilm biomass. Characterization of ahrC transcription revealed that the temporal expression of this locus observed in wild-type cells promotes initiation of early biofilm formation and the establishment of endocarditis. This is the first report of AhrC serving as a virulence factor in any bacterial species.

  20. Beyond survival: 5-year neurodevelopmental follow-up of a cohort of preterm infants in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanasena, S P; Vipulaguna, D V; Mendis, M M; Gunawardena, N S

    2017-10-18

    There is a lack of information on long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm neonates in low- and middle-income countries. To describe the developmental attainments of preterm neonates followed up for 5 years and to identify the risk factors for impairment. A prospective descriptive cohort study was undertaken in neonates of 34 weeks gestation born within a period of 12 months at a single tertiary maternity and neonatal unit in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Infants were assessed for neurodevelopment using the Bayley Infant and Toddler III® Assessments at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age and school readiness assessment at 5 years. Fifty-one infants were assessed at least once, 45 were assessed at 2 years and 39 had a final assessment at 5 years. Neurodevelopmental attainment deteriorated significantly in the cognitive and motor composite scores from 6 to 24 months (p < 0.05). By 5 years the number of children with delay in cognitive, language and motor domains had reduced significantly from 24 months (p < 0.05) but the cognitive skills remained most affected (10/39). At 5 years, 13 of 39 children had a confirmed diagnosis of a neurodevelopmental disorder: eight had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, three autism spectrum disorder, one cerebral palsy and one visual impairment. Surfactant administration and retinopathy of prematurity were the most significant risks for delayed development at 5 years (p < 0.05). Deterioration of cognitive and motor composite scores over the first 24 months highlights the need for regular surveillance of premature infants. There was a discrepancy between the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental delay at 24 months and at 5 years. But the notable impact on school readiness skills requires public health initiatives to cater for the needs of these children.

  1. The tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) binds multiple AHRs and induces multiple CYP1 genes via AHR2 in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Franks, Diana G.; Woodin, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    The tryptophan photooxidation product 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has been proposed as a physiological ligand for the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which it binds with high-affinity, inducing expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). We investigated whether the response...

  2. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR Modulates Cockroach Allergen-Induced Immune Responses through Active TGFβ1 Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a multifunctional regulator that senses and responds to environmental stimuli, plays a role in normal cell development and immune regulation. Recent evidence supports a significant link between environmental exposure and AhR in the development of allergic diseases. We sought to investigate whether AhR plays a role in mediating cockroach allergen-induced allergic immune responses. Methods. AhR expression in human lung fibroblasts from asthmatic and healthy individuals and in cockroach extract (CRE treated human lung fibroblasts (WI-38 was examined. The role of AhR in modulating CRE induced TGFβ1 production was investigated by using AhR agonist, TCDD, antagonist CH122319, and knockdown of AhR. The role of latent TGFβ1 binding protein-1 (LTBP1 in mediating TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was also examined. Results. AhR expression was higher in airway fibroblasts from asthmatic subjects as compared to healthy controls. AhR in fibroblasts was activated by TCDD with an increased expression of cyp1a1 and cyp1b1. Increased AhR expression was observed in CRE-treated fibroblasts. Importantly, CRE induced TGFβ1 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by TCDD but inhibited by CH122319. Reduced TGFβ1 production was further confirmed in fibroblasts with AhR knockdown. Moreover, AhR knockdown inhibited CRE induced fibroblast differentiation. Furthermore, TCDD induced active TGFβ1 release was significantly inhibited by LTBP1 knockdown. Conclusion. These results provide evidence for the role of AhR in modulating cockroach allergen-induced immune responses through controlling the active TGFβ1 release, suggesting a possible synergistic effect between exposure to allergens and environmental chemicals on the development of allergic diseases.

  3. Determinants of Survival in Low Birth Weight Infants at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in the South Eastern Nigeria

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    Ekwochi U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW babies account for a large number of neonatal deaths globally, with over 90% of these occurring in developing countries with low resources. Identifying factors that determine survival in these sub-groups of babies in such a low-resource setting will help clinicians prioritize care and improve outcomes. This study aims to bridge some knowledge gaps in this regard. This was a 45-month prospective study carried out at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH, Enugu, Nigeria. All eligible newborns weighing between 500g and and lt;2500g that were seen in this period were enrolled and monitored. Data collected were analysed with SPSS Version 24, and significant associations identified using logistic regression models. A total of 166 LBW neonates were enrolled, and 68.2% of them survived. Asphyxia and episodes recurrent apnoea were recorded at least once in 78.8% and 68.4% of the babies respectively, with about two-thirds requiring respiratory support at one time or the other. Survival in these LBW newborns was negatively associated with gestational age at birth of less than 32 weeks (OR 0.17; CI 0.03-0.50; P and lt;0.01 as well as with episodes of recurrent apnoea (OR 0.07; CI 0.02-0.34; P and lt;0.01. However, intra-uterine exposure to malaria was associated with a 15 times higher likelihood of survival (OR 15.41; CI 2.22-106.91; P=0.01. No significant associations was found between survival and attendances to antenatal care, mode of delivery, birth weight and a number of neonatal morbidities like necrotizing enterocolitis, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, septicaemia, anaemia and neonatal jaundice. Survival rate among low birth weight neonates in a low resource setting is decreased with delivery at less than 32 weeks completed gestation as well as recurrent episodes of apnoea, but is increased with in-utero exposure to malaria.

  4. Regulation of zebrafish CYP3A65 transcription by AHR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Teng; Chung, Hsin-Yu; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Tseng, Hua-Pin [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Tzou, Wen-Shyong [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Marine Bioenvironment and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Hu, Chin-Hwa, E-mail: chhu@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Center of Excellence for Marine Bioenvironment and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-15

    CYP3A proteins are the most abundant CYPs in the liver and intestines, and they play a pivotal role in drug metabolism. In mammals, CYP3A genes are induced by various xenobiotics through processes mediated by PXR. We previously identified zebrafish CYP3A65 as a CYP3A ortholog that is constitutively expressed in gastrointestinal tissues, and is upregulated by treatment with dexamethasone, rifampicin or tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, the underlying mechanism of TCDD-mediated CYP3A65 transcription is unclear. Here we generated two transgenic zebrafish, Tg(CYP3A65S:EGFP) and Tg(CYP3A65L:EGFP), which contain 2.1 and 5.4 kb 5′ flanking sequences, respectively, of the CYP3A65 gene upstream of EGFP. Both transgenic lines express EGFP in larval gastrointestinal tissues in a pattern similar to that of the endogenous CYP3A65 gene. Moreover, EGFP expression can be significantly induced by TCDD exposure during the larval stage. In addition, EGFP expression can be stimulated by kynurenine, a putative AHR ligand produced during tryptophan metabolism. AHRE elements in the upstream regulatory region of the CYP3A65 gene are indispensible for basal and TCDD-induced transcription. Furthermore, the AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required to mediate effective CYP3A65 transcription. AHRE sequences are present in the promoters of many teleost CYP3 genes, but not of mammalian CYP3 genes, suggesting that AHR/AHR2-mediated transcription is likely a common regulatory mechanism for teleost CYP3 genes. It may also reflect the different environments that terrestrial and aquatic organisms encounter. - Highlights: • Tg(CYP3A65:EGFP) and CYP3A65 exhibits identical expression pattern. • CYP3A65 can be significantly induced by TCDD or kynurenine. • The AHRE elements are required to mediate CYP3A65 transcription. • The AHR2 DNA and ligand-binding domains are required for CYP3A65 transcription. • AHRE elements are present in many teleost CYP3 genes, but not in

  5. EXPRESSION OF AHR AND ARNT MRNA IN CULTURED HUMAN ENDOMETRIAL EXPLANTS EXPOSED TO TCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of AhR and ARNT mRNA in cultured human endometrial explants exposed to TCDD.Pitt JA, Feng L, Abbott BD, Schmid J, Batt RE, Costich TG, Koury ST, Bofinger DP.Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.Endom...

  6. A novel role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR in centrosome amplification - implications for chemoprevention

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    Chatterjee Payel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Centrosome aberrations can cause genomic instability and correlate with malignant progression in common human malignancies such as breast and prostate cancer. Deregulation of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2 activity has previously been shown to be critically involved in centrosome overduplication. We therefore test here whether small molecule CDK inhibitors derived from the bis-indole indirubin can be used to suppress centrosome aberrations as a novel approach to chemoprevention of malignant progression. Results As expected, we found that the CDK inhibitor indirubin-3'-oxime (IO suppresses centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells. However, we made the unexpected discovery that indirubin-derived compounds that have been chemically modified to be inactive as kinase inhibitors such as 1-methyl-indirubin-3'-oxime (MeIO still significantly reduced centrosome amplification. All indirubins used in the present study are potent agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, which is known for its important role in the cellular metabolism of xenobiotics. To corroborate our results, we first show that the coincidence of nuclear AhR overexpression, reflecting a constitutive activation, and numerical centrosome aberrations correlates significantly with malignancy in mammary tissue specimens. Remarkably, a considerable proportion (72.7% of benign mammary tissue samples scored also positive for nuclear AhR overexpression. We furthermore provide evidence that continued expression of endogenous AhR is critical to promote centriole overduplication induced by cyclin E and that AhR and cyclin E may function in the same pathway. Overexpression of the AhR in the absence of exogenous ligands was found to rapidly disrupt centriole duplication control. Nonetheless, the AhR agonists IO and MeIO were still found to significantly reduce centriole overduplication stimulated by ectopic AhR expression. Conclusions Our results indicate that

  7. Cell and region specificity of Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) system in the testis and the epididymis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajda, A; Łapczuk, J; Grabowska, M; Pius-Sadowska, E; Słojewski, M; Laszczynska, M; Urasinska, E; Machalinski, B; Drozdzik, M

    2017-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) plays multiple important functions in adaptive responses. Exposure to AhR ligands may produce an altered metabolic activity controlled by the AhR pathways, and consequently affect drug/toxin responses, hormonal status and cellular homeostasis. This research revealed species-, cell- and region-specific pattern of the AhR system expression in the rat and human testis and epididymis, complementing the existing knowledge, especially within the epididymal segments. The study showed that AhR level in the rat and human epididymis is higher than in the testis. The downregulation of AhR expression after TCDD treatment was revealed in the spermatogenic cells at different stages and the epididymal epithelial cells, but not in the Sertoli and Leydig cells. Hence, this basic research provides information about the AhR function in the testis and epididymis, which may provide an insight into deleterious effects of drugs, hormones and environmental pollutants on male fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DDE and PCB 153 independently induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Salgado-Bustamante, Mariana; González-Amaro, Roberto; Hernandez-Castro, Berenice; Pérez-Maldonado, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that compounds inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance AhR expression. The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine if two pro-inflammatory compounds, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexa-chlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), independently affect AhR gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC); and (2) if affected, to determine whether the mechanism involved was due to AhR activation or to a pro-inflammatory effect of the chemicals. PBMC isolated from healthy individuals were incubated in the presence of DDE (10 µg/ml) and PCB 153 (20 ng/ml) over time and AhR and CYP1A1 expression was assessed with a real-time PCR technique. The results indicated there was over-expression of the AhR mRNA in PBMC when the cells were treated with DDE and PCB 153. No changes in expression levels of CYP1A1 mRNA were found. Importantly, when the cells were exposed to DDE and PCB 153 in the presence of an antagonist of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the over-expression of AhR was abolished; as expected, the expression of CYP1A1 was unaffected. In conclusion, these studies demonstrated for the first time an increment of AhR expression "in vitro" in PBMC treated with two pro-inflammatory environmental pollutants, DDE and PCB153. Moreover, the over-expression of AhR was dependent of TNFα induced by DDE and PCB 153 and was independent of AhR activation.

  9. Maternal Health and Infant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. Arden

    The study examined medical and social services to pregnant women, newborns and their families in 10 European countries and suggested implications for policy and practice in the United States. The 10 countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) tend…

  10. AHR and the transcriptional regulation of Type-17/22 ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are an emerging population of diverse and heterogeneous immune cells, all with the unique ability to mount a rapid response against invading pathogens. They are further divided into subsets based on their differing cell surface markers as well as in their functional specialization. In this review, we summarize recent reports describing the importance of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR in regulating the development of one of these subsets, the Type-17/22 ILCs, as well as in the organization of postnatal lymphoid structures. We discuss the mechanisms behind the AHR dependence for development in Type-17/22 ILCs as well as reviewing the proposed physiological ligands that are mediating this effect.

  11. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous....... The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of this study was to compare the actual...... was similar in the different districts. For the combined data the order of the median AhR-TEQ was Tasiilaq > Nuuk > Sisimiut > Qaanaaq possibly being related to the different composition of POPs. In overall, the AhR transactivity was inversely correlated to the levels of sum POPs, age and /or intake of marine...

  12. Quaternion-Based Kalman Filter for AHRS Using an Adaptive-Step Gradient Descent Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quaternion-based Kalman filter for real-time estimation of the orientation of a quadrotor. Quaternions are used to represent rotation relationship between navigation frame and body frame. Processing of a 3-axis accelerometer using Adaptive-Step Gradient Descent (ASGD produces a computed quaternion input to the Kalman filter. The step-size in GD is set in direct proportion to the physical orientation rate. Kalman filter combines 3-axis gyroscope and computed quaternion to determine pitch and roll angles. This combination overcomes linearization error of the measurement equations and reduces the calculation cost. 3-axis magnetometer is separated from ASGD to independently calculate yaw angle for Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS. This AHRS algorithm is able to remove the magnetic distortion impact. Experiments are carried out in the small-size flight controller and the real world flying test shows the proposed AHRS algorithm is adequate for the real-time estimation of the orientation of a quadrotor.

  13. AHR prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3 differentiation to natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tiffany; Briercheck, Edward L.; Freud, Aharon G.; Trotta, Rossana; McClory, Susan; Scoville, Steven D.; Keller, Karen; Deng, Youcai; Cole, Jordan; Harrison, Nicholas; Mao, Charlene; Zhang, Jianying; Benson, Don M.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK) cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34-CD117+CD94- immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) types that includes interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1) positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ IFN-gamma-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES) and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET). Hence, AHR is a transcription factor that prevents human IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells. PMID:24953655

  14. A novel AhR ligand, 2AI, protects the retina from environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mark A; Davis, Sonnet S; Rosko, Andrew; Nguyen, Steven M; Mitchell, Kylie P; Mateen, Samiha; Neves, Joana; Garcia, Thelma Y; Mooney, Shaun; Perdew, Gary H; Hubbard, Troy D; Lamba, Deepak A; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-07-01

    Various retinal degenerative diseases including dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy are associated with the degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) layer of the retina. This consequently results in the death of rod and cone photoreceptors that they support, structurally and functionally leading to legal or complete blindness. Therefore, developing therapeutic strategies to preserve cellular homeostasis in the RPE would be a favorable asset in the clinic. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a conserved, environmental ligand-dependent, per ARNT-sim (PAS) domain containing bHLH transcription factor that mediates adaptive response to stress via its downstream transcriptional targets. Using in silico, in vitro and in vivo assays, we identified 2,2'-aminophenyl indole (2AI) as a potent synthetic ligand of AhR that protects RPE cells in vitro from lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity mediated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) as well as the retina in vivo from light-damage. Additionally, metabolic characterization of this molecule by LC-MS suggests that 2AI alters the lipid metabolism of RPE cells, enhancing the intracellular levels of palmitoleic acid. Finally, we show that, as a downstream effector of 2AI-mediated AhR activation, palmitoleic acid protects RPE cells from 4HNE-mediated stress, and light mediated retinal degeneration in mice.

  15. Black–White Latino Racial Disparities in HIV Survival, Florida, 2000–2011

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    Diana M. Sheehan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to estimate Black/White racial disparities in all-cause mortality risk among HIV-positive Latinos. Florida surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000–2008 were merged with 2007–2011 American Community Survey data. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR were calculated using multi-level Cox regression. Of 10,903 HIV-positive Latinos, 8.2% were Black and 91.9% White. Black Latinos were at increased mortality risk compared with White Latinos after controlling for individual and neighborhood factors (aHR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.21–1.62. In stratified analyses, risk factors for Black Latinos included: age ≥60 years compared with ages 13–19 (aHR 4.63, 95% CI 1.32–16.13; US birth compared with foreign birth (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.16–2.11; diagnosis of AIDS within three months of HIV diagnosis (aHR 3.53, 95% CI 2.64–4.74; residence in the 3rd (aHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13–2.94 and 4th highest quartiles (aHR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12–2.86 of neighborhood poverty compared with the lowest quartile; and residence in neighborhood with 25%–49% (aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07–2.42 and ≥50% Latinos compared with <25% Latinos (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.42. Significant racial disparities in HIV survival exist among Latinos. Differential access to—and quality of—care and perceived/experienced racial discrimination may be possible explanations.

  16. Black–White Latino Racial Disparities in HIV Survival, Florida, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M.; Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Prado, Guillermo; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Maddox, Lorene M.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to estimate Black/White racial disparities in all-cause mortality risk among HIV-positive Latinos. Florida surveillance data for Latinos diagnosed with HIV (2000–2008) were merged with 2007–2011 American Community Survey data. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were calculated using multi-level Cox regression. Of 10,903 HIV-positive Latinos, 8.2% were Black and 91.9% White. Black Latinos were at increased mortality risk compared with White Latinos after controlling for individual and neighborhood factors (aHR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21–1.62). In stratified analyses, risk factors for Black Latinos included: age ≥60 years compared with ages 13–19 (aHR 4.63, 95% CI 1.32–16.13); US birth compared with foreign birth (aHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.16–2.11); diagnosis of AIDS within three months of HIV diagnosis (aHR 3.53, 95% CI 2.64–4.74); residence in the 3rd (aHR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13–2.94) and 4th highest quartiles (aHR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12–2.86) of neighborhood poverty compared with the lowest quartile; and residence in neighborhood with 25%–49% (aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07–2.42) and ≥50% Latinos compared with Latinos (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03–2.42). Significant racial disparities in HIV survival exist among Latinos. Differential access to—and quality of—care and perceived/experienced racial discrimination may be possible explanations. PMID:26703656

  17. TCDD dysregulation of 13 AHR-target genes in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, John D., E-mail: john.watson@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Prokopec, Stephenie D., E-mail: stephenie.prokopec@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Smith, Ashley B., E-mail: ashleyblaines@gmail.com [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Okey, Allan B., E-mail: allan.okey@utoronto.ca [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: paul.boutros@oicr.on.ca [Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Despite several decades of research, the complete mechanism by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other xenobiotic agonists of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) cause toxicity remains unclear. While it has been shown that the AHR is required for all major manifestations of toxicity, the specific downstream changes involved in the development of toxic phenotypes remain unknown. Here we examine a panel of 13 genes that are AHR-regulated in many species and tissues. We profiled their hepatic mRNA abundances in two rat strains with very different sensitivities to TCDD: the TCDD-sensitive Long–Evans (Turku/AB; L–E) and the TCDD-resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W). We evaluated doses ranging from 0 to 3000 μg/kg at 19 h after TCDD exposure and time points ranging from 1.5 to 384 h after exposure to 100 μg/kg TCDD. Twelve of 13 genes responded to TCDD in at least one strain, and seven of these showed statistically significant inter-strain differences in the time course analysis (Aldh3a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Cyp2a1, Fmo1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1). Cyp2s1 did not respond to TCDD in either rat strain. Five genes exhibited biphasic responses to TCDD insult (Ahrr, Aldh3a1, Cyp1b1, Nfe2l2 and Nqo1), suggesting a secondary event, such as association with additional transcriptional modulators. Of the 12 genes that responded to TCDD during the dose–response analysis, none had an ED{sub 50} equivalent to that of Cyp1a1, the most sensitive gene in this study, while nine genes responded to doses at least 10–100 fold higher, in at least one strain (Ahrr (L–E), Aldh3a1 (both), Cyp1a2 (both), Cyp1b1 (both), Cyp2a1 (L–E), Inmt (both), Nfe2l2 (L–E), Nqo1 (L–E) and Tiparp (both)). These data shed new light on the association of the AHR target genes with TCDD toxicity, and in particular the seven genes exhibiting strain-specific differences represent strong candidate mediators of Type-II toxicities. - Highlights: • NanoString measured hepatic mRNA molecules

  18. Analysis of UAV state estimation modeling based on AHRS and INS configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari

    2017-09-01

    State estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle is one of the important components in autonomous UAV. There are several techniques and algorithms used in estimating UAV states depend on the applied sensors. Inertial measurement unit (IMU) based attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and complete inertial navigation system (INS) are the common navigation sensors used for UAV today. The differences between these two configurations in estimating UAV states are analyzed in this paper using state estimation modeling in Matlab environment. The results are displayed through UAV position and attitude graphs.

  19. Effect of provision of an integrated neonatal survival kit and early cognitive stimulation package by community health workers on developmental outcomes of infants in Kwale County, Kenya: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Lisa G; Bassani, Diego G; Nyaga, Lucy; Njagi, Isaac; Wanjiku, Catherine; Thiruchselvam, Thulasi; Macharia, William; Minhas, Ripudaman S; Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia; Lakhani, Amyn; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Armstrong, Robert; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-09-08

    Each year, more than 200 million children under the age of 5 years, almost all in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), fail to achieve their developmental potential. Risk factors for compromised development often coexist and include inadequate cognitive stimulation, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, infection and complications of being born low birthweight and/or premature. Moreover, many of these risk factors are closely associated with newborn morbidity and mortality. As compromised development has significant implications on human capital, inexpensive and scalable interventions are urgently needed to promote neurodevelopment and reduce risk factors for impaired development. This cluster randomized trial aims at evaluating the impact of volunteer community health workers delivering either an integrated neonatal survival kit, an early stimulation package, or a combination of both interventions, to pregnant women during their third trimester of pregnancy, compared to the current standard of care in Kwale County, Kenya. The neonatal survival kit comprises a clean delivery kit (sterile blade, cord clamp, clean plastic sheet, surgical gloves and hand soap), sunflower oil emollient, chlorhexidine, ThermoSpot(TM), Mylar infant sleeve, and a reusable instant heater. Community health workers are also equipped with a portable hand-held electric scale. The early cognitive stimulation package focuses on enhancing caregiver practices by teaching caregivers three key messages that comprise combining a gentle touch with making eye contact and talking to children, responsive feeding and caregiving, and singing. The primary outcome measure is child development at 12 months of age assessed with the Protocol for Child Monitoring (Infant and Toddler version). The main secondary outcome is newborn mortality. This study will provide evidence on effectiveness of delivering an innovative neonatal survival kit and/or early stimulation package to pregnant women in Kwale County

  20. [Relationships between Half-Lives of Dioxins and SNPs in AhR among Yusho Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shinya; Akahane, Manabu; Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Wake, Norio; Mitoma, Chikage; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2015-05-01

    Half-lives of blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) are varied in Yusho patients. The objective was to evaluate a relationship between half-lives of PeCDF levels and types of SNP rs10249788 of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene in 93 Yusho patients. Based on physical symptoms, age, sex, body mass index and other factors, we set up suitable calculation formulas to fit the actual PeCDF levels thorough rates of change in PeCDF. We found that patients with C/T SNP had longer half lives than patients with C/C and T/T SNPs. Patients with T/T SNP are known to express higher amount of AHR mRNAs. However, detailed analysis could not be carried out in T/T group due to a limited number of patients (n = 11). Further research is warranted to determine the cause of the longer half-lives in C/T patients.

  1. Smoking and survival of colorectal cancer patients: population-based study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Viola; Jansen, Lina; Hoffmeister, Michael; Ulrich, Alexis; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-09-15

    Current evidence on the association between smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis after diagnosis is heterogeneous and few have investigated dose-response effects or outcomes other than overall survival. Therefore, the association of smoking status and intensity with several prognostic outcomes was evaluated in a large population-based cohort of CRC patients; 3,130 patients with incident CRC, diagnosed between 2003 and 2010, were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, smoking behavior, medication and comorbidities. Tumor characteristics were collected from medical records. Vital status, recurrence and cause of death were documented for a median follow-up time of 4.9 years. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, associations between smoking characteristics and overall, CRC-specific, non-CRC related, recurrence-free and disease-free survival were evaluated. Among stage I-III patients, being a smoker at diagnosis and smoking ≥15 cigarettes/day were associated with lower recurrence-free (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-1.79 and aHR: 1.31; 95%-CI: 0.92-1.87) and disease-free survival (aHR: 1.26; 95%-CI: 0.95-1.67 and aHR: 1.29; 95%-CI: 0.94-1.77). Smoking was associated with decreased survival in stage I-III smokers with pack years ≥20 (Overall survival: aHR: 1.40; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.95), in colon cancer cases (Overall survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.05-2.17) and men (Recurrence-free survival: aHR: 1.51; 95%-CI: 1.09-2.10; disease-free survival: aHR: 1.49; 95%-CI: 1.12-1.97), whereas no associations were seen among women, stage IV or rectal cancer patients. The observed patterns support the existence of adverse effects of smoking on CRC prognosis among nonmetastatic CRC patients. The potential to enhance prognosis of CRC patients by promotion of smoking cessation, embedded in tertiary prevention programs warrants careful evaluation in future investigations. © 2015 UICC.

  2. Role of endocrine disrupting chemicals on the tissue levels of AhR and sex steroid receptors in breast tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer affects Iranian women at least one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the incidence of breast fibroadenoma is growing in the last two decades in Tehran. This study aimed to compare the AhR levels in premenopausal breast cancer and breast fibroadnemo with appropriate normal groups. Possible associations of AhR with lifestyle and reproductive risk factors and other fundamental genes of breast cancer and reproductive disorders were the other major goals of present study. To conduct the comparisons all possible reproductive, environmental and lifestyle risk factors of mentioned diseases were recorded in 100 breast cancer, 100 breast fibroadenoma and compared with 400 women in normal group from 2009 to 2011. AhR overexpression in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced reproductive disorders. The AhR overexpression was contributed to ER-/PgR- immunophenotype in malignant tissues. Weight gain (after 18 and after pregnancy, long term (>5yrs OCP consumption, smoking, severe stress ,history of ovarian cysts, hormonal deregulations, living near PAHs producing sources, were correlated with increased risk of breast cancer and reproductive disorders and were correlated with elevated tissue levels of AhR. It seems that increased risk of breast cancer and other reproductive tumours in Tehran may be the result of exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors. Long term exposure to environmental estrogens can increase the tissue levels of AhR and deregulate the expression pattern of sex steroid receptors and other genes in target tissues.

  3. AHR and CYP1A expression link historical contamination events to modern day developmental effects in the American alligator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew D; Galligan, Thomas M; Rainwater, Thomas R; Moore, Brandon C; Wilkinson, Philip M; Guillette, Louis J; Parrott, Benjamin B

    2017-11-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today. Little is known regarding the effects that long-term chronic exposures to dioxin or dioxin-like compounds might have on the development and subsequent health of offspring from exposed individuals, nor is much known regarding AHR expression in reptilians. Here, we characterize AHR and CYP1A gene expression in embryonic and juvenile specimen of a long-lived, apex predator, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), and investigate variation in gene expression profiles in offspring collected from sites conveying differential exposures to environmental contaminants. Both age- and tissue-dependent patterning of AHR isoform expression are detected. We characterize two downstream transcriptional targets of the AHR, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, and describe conserved elements of their genomic architecture. When comparisons across different sites are made, hepatic expression of CYP1A2, a direct target of the AHR, appears elevated in embryos from a site associated with a dioxin point source and previously characterized PCB contamination. Elevated CYP1A2 expression is not persistent, as site-specific variation was absent in juveniles originating from field-collected eggs but reared under lab conditions. Our results illustrate the patterning of AHR gene expression in a long-lived environmental model species, and indicate a potential contemporary influence of historical contamination. This research presents a novel opportunity to link

  4. TCDD-induced transcriptional profiles in different mouse strains that have an identical AhR genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qing; Suzuki, Junko S.; Tohyama, Chiharu; Ohsako, Seiichiroh [Environmental Health Sciences Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Environmental Health and Safety Division, Ministry of the Environment, Kasumigaseki, Tokyo (Japan); Lin, Tinmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ., Wisconsin, MA (United States). School of Pharmacy and Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that is known to cause hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. A characteristic feature in the toxicity of TCDD is exceptionally large differences in susceptibility among animal species or even strains belonging to the same species. These strain differences in susceptibility to TCDD have now been elucidated to be due to the difference in ligand binding affinity or transcriptional activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Actually the C57BL/6 type AhR (AhR{sup b}) showed 6-fold higher ligand binding affinity than the DBA/2 type AhR (AhR{sup d}). The H/W rat AhR has a C-terminal truncation of the transactivating domain compared to the L-E rat AhR. On the other hand, there is considerable species variability in response sensitivity to TCDD that cannot be ascribed simply to polymorphisms of the AhR gene. A non-AhR gene susceptibility loci for hepatic porphyria has been observed in mice treated with iron compounds prior to TCDD injection by using a quantitative trait locus analysis of an F2 intercross between susceptible C57BL/6 and resistant DBA/2 stains. In the rat, a gene B with Han/Wistar type AhR is likely to be involved in resistance to TCDD lethality. These observations suggest that other modulating genes, so-called ''modifier genes'', have profound effects on the AhR-mediated gene expression phenotype. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the AhR coding region, the BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mouse strains are clustered together on a single branch. In the present study, we try to confirm the existence of modifiers by using microarray analysis to examine hepatic gene expression after TCDD exposure in BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice. To recognize the existence of a modifier besides the AhR, it is a prerequisite experimental condition that the analyzed strains have an identical AhR genotype. Therefore, we selected BALB/c, CBA/J, and C3H/He mice as the model

  5. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  6. A MEMS-based Adaptive AHRS for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Hussain, Dil Muhammed Akbar; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    . In order to get fast running cycle frequency of attitude estimator, Kalman filter is simplified to reduce calculation burden together with other improvemetns. An Immersion and Invariance (I\\&I) frequency estimator is designed using Lyapunov theory to estimate the ship motion frequency. The estimated......Satellite tracking is a challenging task for marine applications. An attitude determination system should estimate the wave disturbances on the ship body accurately. To achieve this, an Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, composed...... of three-axis gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer, is developed for Marine Satellite Tracking Antenna (MSTA). In this paper, the attitude determination algorithm is improved using an adaptive mechanism that tunes the attitude estimator parameters based on an estimation of ship motion frequency...

  7. Improved calibration of IMU biases in analytic coarse alignment for AHRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Li, Baoguo; Wen, Ting

    2016-07-01

    An improved method for the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration of coarse alignment for the low-accuracy attitude heading reference system (AHRS) is proposed in this paper. The sensitivities of the Euler angles with respect to the inertial sensor biases are studied based on the analytic coarse alignment principle, and the errors of earth rotation rate and local gravity in the body frame caused by initial attitude error are analyzed. Then, an improved analytic coarse alignment algorithm with accelerometer and gyro bias calibration in an arbitrary three-position is proposed. Simulation and experiment results show that the novel method can calibrate accelerometer and gyro biases, reduce Euler angle attitude error, and improve navigation precision in practical applications. Moreover, this method can be applied to other low-accuracy inertial navigation systems.

  8. A Novel AHRS Inertial Sensor-Based Algorithm for Wheelchair Propulsion Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bruce Shepherd

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, athletes, teams, and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training in order to find a competitive advantage. The use of inertial sensors has been proposed as a cost effective and adaptable measurement device for monitoring wheelchair kinematics; however, the outcomes are dependent on the reliability of the processing algorithms. Though there are a variety of algorithms that have been proposed to monitor wheelchair propulsion in court sports, they all have limitations. Through experimental testing, we have shown the Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS-based algorithm to be a suitable and reliable candidate algorithm for estimating velocity, distance, and approximating trajectory. The proposed algorithm is computationally inexpensive, agnostic of wheel camber, not sensitive to sensor placement, and can be embedded for real-time implementations. The research is conducted under Griffith University Ethics (GU Ref No: 2016/294.

  9. Radiological rickets in extremely low birthweight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, A.J.; McIntosh, N.; Wheeler, K.; Williams, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-eight infants of birthweight less than 1000 grams who survived for more than 28 days, had wrist X-rays to prospectively determine the incidence of radiological rickets. Twelve infants (25%) had normal X-rays throughout, 10 infants (21%) showed osteopoenia and 26 infants (54%) had classical changes or rickets of which 8 (17% of the total) had spontaneous fractures. There was poor correlation between peak values of serum alkaline phosphatase and the radiological changes.

  10. Screening a mouse liver gene expression Compendium Identifies Effectors of the Aryl Hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the biological and toxic effects of 2,3, 7 ,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin {TCDD), dioxin-like compounds (DLC) as well as some drugs and endogenous tryptophan metabolites. Short-term act...

  11. Access Path to the Ligand Binding Pocket May Play a Role in Xenobiotics Selection by AhR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Erdei, Áron; Gyimesi, Gergely; Magyar, Csaba; Hegedűs, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of multidrug binding at the atomic level would facilitate drug design and strategies to modulate drug metabolism, including drug transport, oxidation, and conjugation. Therefore we explored the mechanism of promiscuous binding of small molecules by studying the ligand binding domain, the PAS-B domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because of the low sequence identities of PAS domains to be used for homology modeling, structural features of the widely employed HIF-2α and a more recent suitable template, CLOCK were compared. These structures were used to build AhR PAS-B homology models. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to characterize dynamic properties of the PAS-B domain and the generated conformational ensembles were employed in in silico docking. In order to understand structural and ligand binding features we compared the stability and dynamics of the promiscuous AhR PAS-B to other PAS domains exhibiting specific interactions or no ligand binding function. Our exhaustive in silico binding studies, in which we dock a wide spectrum of ligand molecules to the conformational ensembles, suggest that ligand specificity and selection may be determined not only by the PAS-B domain itself, but also by other parts of AhR and its protein interacting partners. We propose that ligand binding pocket and access channels leading to the pocket play equally important roles in discrimination of endogenous molecules and xenobiotics. PMID:26727491

  12. Access Path to the Ligand Binding Pocket May Play a Role in Xenobiotics Selection by AhR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Szöllősi

    Full Text Available Understanding of multidrug binding at the atomic level would facilitate drug design and strategies to modulate drug metabolism, including drug transport, oxidation, and conjugation. Therefore we explored the mechanism of promiscuous binding of small molecules by studying the ligand binding domain, the PAS-B domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. Because of the low sequence identities of PAS domains to be used for homology modeling, structural features of the widely employed HIF-2α and a more recent suitable template, CLOCK were compared. These structures were used to build AhR PAS-B homology models. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to characterize dynamic properties of the PAS-B domain and the generated conformational ensembles were employed in in silico docking. In order to understand structural and ligand binding features we compared the stability and dynamics of the promiscuous AhR PAS-B to other PAS domains exhibiting specific interactions or no ligand binding function. Our exhaustive in silico binding studies, in which we dock a wide spectrum of ligand molecules to the conformational ensembles, suggest that ligand specificity and selection may be determined not only by the PAS-B domain itself, but also by other parts of AhR and its protein interacting partners. We propose that ligand binding pocket and access channels leading to the pocket play equally important roles in discrimination of endogenous molecules and xenobiotics.

  13. Interaction between ArgR and AhrC controls regulation of arginine metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R; Kok, J; Kuipers, OP

    2005-01-01

    The expression of arginine metabolism in Lactococcus lactis is controlled by the two homologous transcriptional regulators ArgR and AhrC. Genome sequence analyses have shown that the occurrence of multiple homologues of the ArgR family of transcriptional regulators is a common feature of many low-G

  14. Identification of residues in the N-terminal PAS domains important for dimerization of Arnt and AhR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Nan; Whitelaw, Murray L.; Shearwin, Keith E.; Dodd, Ian B.; Chapman-Smith, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH).PAS dimeric transcription factors have crucial roles in development, stress response, oxygen homeostasis and neurogenesis. Their target gene specificity depends in part on partner protein choices, where dimerization with common partner Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) is an essential step towards forming active, DNA binding complexes. Using a new bacterial two-hybrid system that selects for loss of protein interactions, we have identified 22 amino acids in the N-terminal PAS domain of Arnt that are involved in heterodimerization with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Of these, Arnt E163 and Arnt S190 were selective for the AhR/Arnt interaction, since mutations at these positions had little effect on Arnt dimerization with other bHLH.PAS partners, while substitution of Arnt D217 affected the interaction with both AhR and hypoxia inducible factor-1α but not with single minded 1 and 2 or neuronal PAS4. Arnt uses the same face of the N-terminal PAS domain for homo- and heterodimerization and mutational analysis of AhR demonstrated that the equivalent region is used by AhR when dimerizing with Arnt. These interfaces differ from the PAS β-scaffold surfaces used for dimerization between the C-terminal PAS domains of hypoxia inducible factor-2α and Arnt, commonly used for PAS domain interactions. PMID:21245039

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists suppress interleukin-6 expression by bone marrow stromal cells: an immunotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlezinger Jennifer J

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone marrow stromal cells produce cytokines required for the normal growth and development of all eight hematopoietic cell lineages. Aberrant cytokine production by stromal cells contributes to blood cell dyscrasias. Consequently, factors that alter stromal cell cytokine production may significantly compromise the development of normal blood cells. We have shown that environmental chemicals, such as aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR agonists, suppress B lymphopoiesis by modulating bone marrow stromal cell function. Here, we extend these studies to evaluate the potential for two prototypic AhR agonists, 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, to alter stromal cell cytokine responses. Methods Bone marrow stromal cells were treated with AhR agonists and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic innate inflammatory cytokine responses and to study the effects of AhR ligands on those responses. Steady state cytokine RNA levels were screened by RNAse protection assays (RPA and quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine (IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. NF-κB EMSAs were used to study IL-6 transcriptional regulation. Results RPAs indicated that AhR+ bone marrow stromal cells consistently up-regulated genes encoding IL-6 and LIF in response to LPS, presumably through activation of Toll-like receptor 4. Pre-treatment with low doses of DMBA or TCDD selectively abrogated IL-6 gene induction but had no effect on LIF mRNA. Real-time-PCR indicated a significant inhibition of IL-6 mRNA by AhR ligands within 1 hour of LPS challenge which was reflected in a profound down-regulation of IL-6 protein induction, with DMBA and TCDD suppressing IL-6 levels as much as 65% and 88%, respectively. This potent inhibitory effect persisted for at least 72 hours. EMSAs measuring NF-κB binding to IL-6 promoter sequences, an event known to induce IL-6 transcription, indicated a significant decrease in

  16. Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spink, Barbara C. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Bloom, Michael S. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Wu, Susan [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Sell, Stewart; Schneider, Erasmus [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Spink, David C., E-mail: spink@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC){sub 2} alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC){sub n} alleles with n = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC){sub n} was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC){sub n} alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC){sub 2} was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC){sub n} short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC){sub 2} allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility. - Highlights: • The AHR proximal promoter contains a polymorphism, (GGGGC){sub n}, where n = 4 > 5 ≫ 2, 6 • Matched tumor and non-tumor DNA did not show (GGGGC){sub n} microsatellite instability • AHR promoter activity of a construct with (GGGGC){sub 2} was lower than that of (GGGGC){sub 4} • The frequency of (GGGGC){sub 2} in lung

  17. AHR-16303B, a novel antagonist of 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, R.J.; Appell, K.C.; Kilpatrick, B.F.; Proakis, A.G.; Nolan, J.C.; Walsh, D.A. (A. H. Robins Research Labs., Richmond, VA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro methods were used to characterize AHR-16303B, a novel compound with antagonistic action at 5-HT2 receptors and voltage-sensitive calcium channels. The 5-HT2 receptor-antagonistic properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)ketanserin binding to rat cerebral cortical membranes (IC50 = 165 nM); (b) 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced foot edema in rats (minimum effective dose, (MED) = 0.32 mg/kg orally, p.o.); (c) 5-HT-induced vasopressor responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (ID50 = 0.18 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.), 1.8 mg/kg p.o.), (d) 5-HT-induced antidiuresis in rats (MED = 1 mg/kg p.o.), and (e) platelet aggregation induced by 5-HT + ADP (IC50 = 1.5 mM). The calcium antagonist properties of AHR-16303B were demonstrated by inhibition of (a) (3H)nimodipine binding to voltage-sensitive calcium channels on rabbit skeletal muscle membranes (IC50 = 15 nM), (b) KCl-stimulated calcium flux into cultured PC12 cells (IC50 = 81 nM), and (c) CaCl2-induced contractions of rabbit thoracic aortic strips (pA2 = 8.84). AHR-16303B had little or no effect on binding of radioligands to dopamine2 (DA2) alpha 1, alpha 2, H1, 5-HT1 alpha, beta 2, muscarinic M1, or sigma opioid receptors; had no effect on 5-HT3 receptor-mediated vagal bradycardia; and had only minor negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic effects on isolated guinea pig atria. In conscious SHR, 30 mg/kg p.o. AHR-16303B completely prevented the vasopressor responses to i.v. 5-HT, and decreased blood pressure (BP) by 24% 3 h after dosing.

  18. The Effects of Chronic Lifelong Activation of the AHR Pathway by Industrial Chemical Pollutants on Female Human Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Cavallini

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals, such as heavy metals, affect female reproductive function. A biological sensor of the signals of many toxic chemical compounds seems to be the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. Previous studies demonstrated the environmental of heavy metals in Taranto city (Italy, an area that has been influenced by anthropogenic factors such as industrial activities and waste treatments since 1986. However, the impact of these elements on female fertility in this geographic area has never been analyzed. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated the AHR pathway, sex steroid receptor pattern and apoptotic process in granulosa cells (GCs retrieved from 30 women, born and living in Taranto, and 30 women who are living in non-contaminated areas (control group, who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol. In follicular fluids (FFs of both groups the toxic and essential heavy metals, such as chromiun (Cr, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb, were also analyzed. Higher levels of Cr, Fe, Zn and Pb were found in the FFs of the women from Taranto as compared to the control group, as were the levels of AHR and AHR-dependent cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1; while CYP19A1 expression was decreased. The anti-apoptotic process found in the GCs of women fromTaranto was associated with the highest levels of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, a novel progesterone receptor, the expression of which is subjected to AHR activated by its highest affinity ligands (e.g., dioxins or indirectly by other environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals. In conclusion, decreased production of estradiol and decreased number of retrieved mature oocytes found in women from Taranto could be due to chronic exposure to heavy metals, in particular to Cr and Pb.

  19. In Vitro Antitumor Effects of AHR Ligands Aminoflavone (AFP 464) and Benzothiazole (5F 203) in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzani, Gabriela A; Callero, Mariana A; Kuruppu, Anchala I; Trapani, Valentina; Flumian, Carolina; Todaro, Laura; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Loaiza Perez, Andrea I

    2017-12-01

    We investigated activity and mechanism of action of two AhR ligand antitumor agents, AFP 464 and 5F 203 on human renal cancer cells, specifically examining their effects on cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and migration. TK-10, SN12C, Caki-1, and ACHN human renal cancer cell lines were treated with AFP 464 and 5F 203. We evaluated cytotoxicity by MTS assays, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis by flow cytometry and corroborated a mechanism of action involving AhR signal transduction activation. Changes in migration properties by wound healing assays were investigated: 5F 203-sensitive cells show decreased migration after treatment, therefore, we measured c-Met phosphorylation by Western blot in these cells. A 5F 203 induced a decrease in cell viability which was more marked than AFP 464. This cytotoxicity was reduced after treatment with the AhR inhibitor α-NF for both compounds indicating AhR signaling activation plays a role in the mechanism of action. A 5F 203 is sequestered by TK-10 cells and induces CYP1A1 expression; 5F 203 potently inhibited migration of TK-10, Caki-1, and SN12C cells, and inhibited c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. AhR ligand antitumor agents AFP 464 and 5F 203 represent potential new candidates for the treatment of renal cancer. A 5F 203 only inhibited migration of sensitive cells and c-Met receptor phosphorylation in TK-10 cells. c-Met receptor signal transduction is important in migration and metastasis. Therefore, we consider that 5F 203 offers potential for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4526-4535, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR-regulated transcriptomic changes in rats sensitive or resistant to major dioxin toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okey Allan B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD appear to result from dysregulation of mRNA levels mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR. Dioxin-like chemicals alter expression of numerous genes in liver, but it remains unknown which lie in pathways leading to major toxicities such as hepatotoxicity, wasting and lethality. To identify genes involved in these responses we exploited a rat genetic model. Rats expressing an AHR splice-variant lacking a portion of the transactivation domain are highly resistant to dioxin-induced toxicities. We examined changes in hepatic mRNA abundances 19 hours after TCDD treatment in two dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines and two dioxin-sensitive rat strains/lines. Results Resistant rat strains/lines exhibited fewer transcriptional changes in response to TCDD than did rats with wildtype AHR. However, well-known AHR-regulated and dioxin-inducible genes such as CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 remained fully responsive to TCDD in all strains/lines. Pathway analysis indicated that the genes which respond differently to TCDD between sensitive and resistant rats are mainly involved in lipid metabolism, cellular membrane function and energy metabolism. These pathways previously have been shown to respond differently to dioxin treatment in dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats at a biochemical level and in the differential phenotype of toxicologic responses. Conclusion The transactivation-domain deletion in dioxin-resistant rats does not abolish global AHR transactivational activity but selectively interferes with expression of subsets of genes that are candidates to mediate or protect from major dioxin toxicities such as hepatotoxicity, wasting and death.

  1. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the stomach. In very premature or sick infants, nutrition may be given through a vein until the baby is stable enough to receive all nutrition through the stomach. If the infant has breathing problems: A tube may be placed ...

  2. Vitamin D treatment improves survival and infant lung structure after intra-amniotic endotoxin exposure in rats: potential role for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Erica; Seedorf, Gregory; Gien, Jason; Abman, Steven H

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin D (vit D) has anti-inflammatory properties and modulates lung growth, but whether vit D can prevent lung injury after exposure to antenatal inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that early and sustained vit D treatment could improve survival and preserve lung growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). Fetal rats (E20) were exposed to ETX (10 μg), ETX + Vit D (1 ng/ml), or saline (control) via intra-amniotic (IA) injections and delivered 2 days later. Newborn pups exposed to IA ETX received daily intraperitoneal injections of vit D (1 ng/g) or saline for 14 days. Vit D treatment improved oxygen saturations (78 vs. 87%; P < 0.001) and postnatal survival (84% vs. 57%; P < 0.001) after exposure to IA ETX compared with IA ETX alone. Postnatal vit D treatment improved alveolar and vascular growth at 14 days by 45% and 25%, respectively (P < 0.05). Vit D increased fetal sheep pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) growth and tube formation by 64% and 44%, respectively (P < 0.001), and prevented ETX-induced reductions of PAEC growth and tube formation. Vit D directly increased fetal alveolar type II cell (ATIIC) growth by 26% (P < 0.001) and enhanced ATIIC growth in the presence of ETX-induced growth suppression by 73% (P < 0.001). We conclude that antenatal vit D therapy improved oxygenation and survival in newborn rat pups and enhanced late lung structure after exposure to IA ETX in vivo, which may partly be due to direct effects on vascular and alveolar growth.

  3. Genome Editing of the CYP1A1 Locus in iPSCs as a Platform to Map AHR Expression throughout Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden W. Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a ligand activated transcription factor that increases the expression of detoxifying enzymes upon ligand stimulation. Recent studies now suggest that novel endogenous roles of the AHR exist throughout development. In an effort to create an optimized model system for the study of AHR signaling in several cellular lineages, we have employed a CRISPR/CAS9 genome editing strategy in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to incorporate a reporter cassette at the transcription start site of one of its canonical targets, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1. This cell line faithfully reports on CYP1A1 expression, with luciferase levels as its functional readout, when treated with an endogenous AHR ligand (FICZ at escalating doses. iPSC-derived fibroblast-like cells respond to acute exposure to environmental and endogenous AHR ligands, and iPSC-derived hepatocytes increase CYP1A1 in a similar manner to primary hepatocytes. This cell line is an important innovation that can be used to map AHR activity in discrete cellular subsets throughout developmental ontogeny. As further endogenous ligands are proposed, this line can be used to screen for safety and efficacy and can report on the ability of small molecules to regulate critical cellular processes by modulating the activity of the AHR.

  4. Binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the AhR from various species is essentially irreversible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohonowych, J.; Denison, M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are a diverse group of widespread, persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that includes the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related chemicals. Exposure to these compounds results in a variety of biochemical and toxic effects, the majority of which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent activator of the AhR and AhR-dependent effects. Interestingly, while a related class of compounds, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can bind to and activate the AhR, and produce many of the same biological effects as HAHs, they do not cause HAH-like toxicity. This can be due to differences between these two classes of compounds with respect to their AhR binding affinity, metabolic stability, and/or gene expression. PAHs have a lower affinity for the AhR5 and, unlike TCDD, can be readily metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition to its high affinity for the AhR, TCDD has been shown to stabilize the rat AhR receptor against thermal inactivation and to persistently bind the rat receptor. This persistent occupancy may also contribute to the differential toxicity of HAHs and PAHs. In addition to its biological and toxicological implications, the apparent lack of significant dissociation of TCDD from the AhR also impacts the design and interpretation of competitive binding experiments which assume traditional receptor-ligand equilibrium binding kinetics where binding is reversible and equilibrium of ligand:receptor complex is reached when rates of association and dissociation are equal. In this study we have further examined whether this persistent occupancy is a characteristic of the AhR among different species.

  5. Concept of AHRS Algorithm Designed for Platform Independent Imu Attitude Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Rapiński, Jacek; Pelc-Mieczkowska, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, along with the advancement of technology one can notice the rapid development of various types of navigation systems. So far the most popular satellite navigation, is now supported by positioning results calculated with use of other measurement system. The method and manner of integration will depend directly on the destination of system being developed. To increase the frequency of readings and improve the operation of outdoor navigation systems, one will support satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS ect.) with inertial navigation. Such method of navigation consists of several steps. The first stage is the determination of initial orientation of inertial measurement unit, called INS alignment. During this process, on the basis of acceleration and the angular velocity readings, values of Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) are calculated allowing for unambiguous orientation of the sensor coordinate system relative to external coordinate system. The following study presents the concept of AHRS (Attitude and heading reference system) algorithm, allowing to define the Euler angles.The study were conducted with the use of readings from low-cost MEMS cell phone sensors. Subsequently the results of the study were analyzed to determine the accuracy of featured algorithm. On the basis of performed experiments the legitimacy of developed algorithm was stated.

  6. Association of Compliance With Process-Related Quality Metrics and Improved Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Evan M; Gross, Jennifer; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Al-Gilani, Maha; Stadler, Michael E; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2016-05-01

    % vs ≤50% compliance: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 4.2; 95% CI, 2.1-8.5; 100% vs 51%-99% compliance: aHR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.1), improved disease-specific survival (100% vs ≤50% compliance: aHR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-9.0; 100% vs 51%-99%: aHR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.6-2.9), and improved disease-free survival (100% vs ≤50% compliance: aHR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.8; 100% vs 51%-99% compliance: aHR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7). Compliance with a core set of process-related quality metrics was associated with improved survival for patients with surgically managed oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Multi-institutional validation of these metrics is warranted.

  7. Khellin and visnagin differentially modulate AHR signaling and downstream CYP1A activity in human liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Vrzal

    Full Text Available Khellin and visnagin are two furanochromones that can be frequently found in ethnomedical formulations in Asia and the Middle East. Both compounds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, therefore modern medicine uses these compounds or structurally related derivatives for treatment of vitiligo, bronchial asthma and renal colics. Despite their frequent usage, the potential toxic properties of visnagin and khellin are not well characterized up-to-now. Many natural compounds modulate the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1, which is well-known to bioactivate pro-carcinogens. The expression of this enzyme is controlled by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a ligand-activated transcription factor and regulator of drug metabolism. Here, we investigated the influence of both furanochromones on AHR signaling in human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells and primary human hepatocytes. Both compounds transactivated xenobiotic response element (XRE-driven reporter gene activity in a dose-dependent manner and induced CYP1A1 transcription in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes. The latter was abolished in presence of a specific AHR antagonist. CYP1A enzyme activity assays done in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes revealed an inhibition of enzyme activity by both furanochromones, which may become relevant regarding the metabolism of xenobiotics and co-administered therapeutic drugs. The observed induction of several other members of the AHR gene battery, whose gene products are involved in regulation of cell growth, differentiation and migration, indicates that a further toxicological characterization of visnagin and khelllin is urgently required in order to minimize potential drug-drug interactions and other toxic side-effects that may occur during therapeutic usage of these furanochromones.

  8. The Transcription Factor AHR Prevents the Differentiation of a Stage 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Subset to Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Hughes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34−CD117+CD94− immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC types that include interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1-positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here, we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes the differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ interferon (IFN-γ-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET. Hence, we demonstrate the lineage plasticity of human ILCs by identifying AHR as a transcription factor that prevents IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells.

  9. Essential oils of culinary herbs and spices display agonist and antagonist activities at human aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of culinary herbs and spices are used to flavor, color and preserve foods and drinks. Dietary intake of EOs is significant, deserving an attention of toxicologists. We examined the effects of 31 EOs of culinary herbs and spices on the transcriptional activity of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is a pivotal xenobiotic sensor, having also multiple roles in human physiology. Tested EOs were sorted out into AhR-inactive ones (14 EOs) and AhR-active ones, including full agonists (cumin, jasmine, vanilla, bay leaf), partial agonists (cloves, dill, thyme, nutmeg, oregano) and antagonists (tarragon, caraway, turmeric, lovage, fennel, spearmint, star anise, anise). Major constituents (>10%) of AhR-active EOs were studied in more detail. We identified AhR partial agonists (carvacrol, ligustilide, eugenol, eugenyl acetate, thymol, ar-turmerone) and antagonists (trans-anethole, butylidine phtalide, R/S-carvones, p-cymene), which account for AhR-mediated activities of EOs of fennel, anise, star anise, caraway, spearmint, tarragon, cloves, dill, turmeric, lovage, thyme and oregano. We also show that AhR-mediated effects of some individual constituents of EOs differ from those manifested in mixtures. In conclusion, EOs of culinary herbs and spices are agonists and antagonists of human AhR, implying a potential for food-drug interactions and interference with endocrine pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of genome-wide computation DRE search, AhR ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses of TCDD-elicited responses in the mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Edward; Lo, Raymond; Celius, Trine; Matthews, Jason; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2011-07-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) that mediates responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Integration of TCDD-induced genome-wide AhR enrichment, differential gene expression and computational dioxin response element (DRE) analyses further elucidate the hepatic AhR regulatory network. Global ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized mice orally gavaged with 30 μg/kg TCDD. ChIP-chip analysis identified 14,446 and 974 AhR enriched regions (1% false discovery rate) at 2 and 24 hrs, respectively. Enrichment density was greatest in the proximal promoter, and more specifically, within ± 1.5 kb of a transcriptional start site (TSS). AhR enrichment also occurred distal to a TSS (e.g. intergenic DNA and 3' UTR), extending the potential gene expression regulatory roles of the AhR. Although TF binding site analyses identified over-represented DRE sequences within enriched regions, approximately 50% of all AhR enriched regions lacked a DRE core (5'-GCGTG-3'). Microarray analysis identified 1,896 number of TCDD-responsive genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) > 0.999). Integrating this gene expression data with our ChIP-chip and DRE analyses only identified 625 differentially expressed genes that involved an AhR interaction at a DRE. Functional annotation analysis of differentially regulated genes associated with AhR enrichment identified overrepresented processes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism and transport, and xenobiotic metabolism, which are consistent with TCDD-elicited steatosis in the mouse liver. Details of the AhR regulatory network have been expanded to include AhR-DNA interactions within intragenic and intergenic genomic regions. Moreover, the AhR can interact with DNA independent of a DRE core suggesting there are alternative mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation.

  11. Familial very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of neonatal sudden infant death: improved survival by prompt diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalais, Emmanuel; Bottu, Jean; Wanders, Ronald J A; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; De Meirleir, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In neonates, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is often characterized by cardiomyopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, or severe hypoketotic hypoglycemia, or a combination thereof. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate a familial VLCAD deficiency in three patients, two of whom died in the neonatal period. We report on a family with VLCAD deficiency. Acyl-carnitine profiles were obtained from dried blood spot and/or from oxidation of (13) C-palmitate by cultured skin fibroblasts. In the index patient, VLCAD deficiency was ascertained by enzyme activity measurement in fibroblasts and by molecular analysis of ACADVL. At 30 hr of life, the proband was diagnosed with hypoglycemia (1.77 mmol/L), rhabdomyolysis (CK: 12966 IU/L) and hyperlactacidemia (10.6 mmol/L). Acylcarnitine profile performed at 31 hr of life was consistent with VLCAD deficiency and confirmed by cultured skin fibroblast enzyme activity measurement. Molecular analysis of ACADVL revealed a homozygous splice-site mutation (1077 + 2T>C). The acyl-carnitine profile obtained from the sibling's original newborn screening cards demonstrated a similar, but less pronounced abnormal profile. In the proband, the initial metabolic crisis was controlled with 10% dextrose solution and oral riboflavin followed by specific diet (Basic-F and medium chain triglyceride (MCT). This clinical report demonstrates a familial history of repeated neonatal deaths explained by VLCAD deficiency, and the clinical evolution of the latest affected, surviving sibling. It shows that very early metabolic screening is an effective approach to avoid sudden unexpected death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phenotype refinement strengthens the association of AHR and CYP1A1 genotype with caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, George; Taylor, Amy E; Davey Smith, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic loci, one in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene region (rs2472297) and one near the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) gene (rs6968865), have been associated with habitual caffeine consumption. We sought to establish whether a more refined and comprehensive assessment of caffeine consumption would provide stronger evidence of association, and whether a combined allelic score comprising these two variants would further strengthen the association. We used data from between 4,460 and 7,520 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal birth cohort based in the United Kingdom. Self-report data on coffee, tea and cola consumption (including consumption of decaffeinated drinks) were available at multiple time points. Both genotypes were individually associated with total caffeine consumption, and with coffee and tea consumption. There was no association with cola consumption, possibly due to low levels of consumption in this sample. There was also no association with measures of decaffeinated drink consumption, indicating that the observed association is most likely mediated via caffeine. The association was strengthened when a combined allelic score was used, accounting for up to 1.28% of phenotypic variance. This was not associated with potential confounders of observational association. A combined allelic score accounts for sufficient phenotypic variance in caffeine consumption that this may be useful in Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies may therefore be able to use this combined allelic score to explore causal effects of habitual caffeine consumption on health outcomes.

  13. Molecular modeling of the AhR structure and interactions can shed light on ligand-dependent activation and transformation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Laura; Corrada, Dario; Tagliabue, Sara Giani; Motta, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Molecular modeling has given important contributions to elucidation of the main stages in the AhR signal transduction pathway. Despite the lack of experimentally determined structures of the AhR functional domains, information derived from homologous systems has been exploited for modeling their structure and interactions. Homology models of the AhR PASB domain have provided information on the binding cavity and contributed to elucidate species-specific differences in ligand binding. Molecular Docking simulations of the ligand binding process have given insights into differences in binding of diverse agonists, antagonists, and selective AhR modulators, and their application to virtual screening of large databases of compounds have allowed identification of novel AhR ligands. Recently available structural information on protein-protein and protein-DNA complexes of other bHLH-PAS systems has opened the way for modeling the AhR:ARNT dimer structure and investigating the mechanisms of AhR transformation and DNA binding. Future research directions should include simulation of the protein dynamics to obtain a more reliable description of intermolecular interactions involved in signal transmission.

  14. Infant Mortality: A Challenge to the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    From 1956-1960 an estimated 34,000 infants annually failed to survive in many parts of the United States due to risks far in excess of those for some areas of the country. There is a growing gap between death rates for white and nonwhite infants in the United States, with the excess mortality rate of nonwhite infants continuing to rise. Only 15…

  15. Infant Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  16. weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    transfused infants and the volume of blood wasted during each transfusion, and to identify from this baseline information specific categories of infants who would benefit from the introduction of a limited donor exposure programme (LDEP). Study setting. Neonatal wards and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), Tygerberg ...

  17. Mothers' perceptions of their premature infant's communication: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Survival rates of premature infants have increased due to advances in medicine. Premature infants however, remain at risk for developmental delays including communication difficulties. The bonding and attachment experiences of premature infants and their parents are often challenged, further placing these ...

  18. Carboplatin–paclitaxel-induced leukopenia and neuropathy predict progression-free survival in recurrent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C K; Gurney, H; Brown, C; Sorio, R; Donadello, N; Tulunay, G; Meier, W; Bacon, M; Maenpaa, J; Petru, E; Reed, N; Gebski, V; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Lord, S; Simes, R J; Friedlander, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: We assess the prognostic value of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia and sensory neuropathy in the CALYPSO trial patients treated with carboplatin–paclitaxel (CP) or carboplatin–liposomal doxorubicin (CPLD). Methods: We performed a landmark analysis at first month after randomisation to correlate leukopenia (nadir white blood cell <4.0 × 109 per litre or severe infection) during cycle 1 of chemotherapy with progression-free survival (PFS). Using time-dependent proportional-hazards models, we also investigated the association between neuropathy and PFS. Results: Of 608 patients with nadir blood and did not receive growth factors, 72% (CP=70%, CPLD=73%) had leukopenia. Leukopenia was prognostic for PFS in those receiving CP (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.66, P=0.01). Carboplatin–liposomal doxorubicin was more effective than CP in patients without leukopenia (aHR 0.51, P=0.001), but not those experiencing leukopenia (aHR 0.93, P=0.54; interaction P=0.008). Of 949 patients, 32% (CP=62%, CPLD=28%) reported neuropathy during landmark. Neuropathy was prognostic for PFS in the CP group only (aHR 0.77, P=0.02). Carboplatin–liposomal doxorubicin appeared to be more effective than CP among patients without neuropathy (aHR 0.70, P<0.0001), but not those with neuropathy (aHR 0.96, P=0.81; interaction P=0.15). Conclusion: First-cycle leukopenia and neuropathy were prognostic for patients treated with CP. Efficacy of CP treatment was similar to CPLD in patients who developed leukopenia. These findings support further research to understand the mechanisms of treatment-related toxicity. PMID:21750553

  19. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 is a novel target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xingguo, E-mail: chengx@stjohns.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Vispute, Saurabh G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Liu, Jie [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Cheng, Christine; Kharitonenkov, Alexei [Lilly Research Laboratories, Division of Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN 46285 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The toxic effects of dioxins, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), mainly through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) are well documented. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) 21 plays critical roles in metabolic adaptation to fasting by increasing lipid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver. The present study was performed to determine whether activation of the AhR induces Fgf21 expression. In mouse liver, TCDD increased Fgf21 mRNA in both dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, TCDD markedly increased Fgf21 mRNA expression in cultured mouse and human hepatocytes. Moreover, TCDD increased mRNA (in liver) and protein levels (in both liver and serum) of Fgf21 in wild-type mice, but not in AhR-null mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TCDD increased AhR protein binding to the Fgf21 promoter (− 105/+ 1 base pair). Fgf21-null mice administered 200 μg/kg of TCDD died within 20 days, whereas wild-type mice receiving the same treatment were still alive at one month after administration. This indicates that TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression protects against TCDD toxicity. Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) pretreatment attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression in mouse liver and white adipose tissue, which may explain a previous report that DEHP pretreatment decreases TCDD-induced wasting. In conclusion, Fgf21 appears to be a target gene of AhR-signaling pathway in mouse and human liver. - Highlights: • TCDD induced Fgf21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Fgf21 induction by TCDD is AhR-dependent. • DEHP attenuated TCDD-induced Fgf21 expression.

  20. Contraceptive use, birth spacing, and child survival in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    To reduce infant mortality through improved family planning, a better understanding of the factors driving contraceptive use and how this decision affects infant survival is needed. Using dynamic panel-data models of infant deaths, birth intervals, and contraceptive use, this study analyzes the

  1. Expression and functional regulation of the nuclear receptors AHR, PXR, and CAR, and the transcription factor Nrf2 in rat parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droździk, Agnieszka; Wajda, Anna; Łapczuk, Joanna; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear receptors and transcription factors regulate the functions of many genes involved in cellular physiology and pathology (e.g. tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases). The present study was performed to define the expression and the regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the rat parotid gland. Constitutive expression, as well as expression after stimulation with specific inducers for AhR [2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzylo-p-dioxin (TCDD)], Nrf2(oltipraz), PXR (dexamethasone), and CAR (phenobarbital), was evaluated using the quantitative PCR. Cellular localization of the nuclear receptors and the transcription factor was visualized by immunohistochemical staining. The study revealed constitutive expression of AhR as well as Nrf2, and their induction by TCDD andoltipraz, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed constitutive, predominantly cytoplasmic, expression of the AhR receptor, especially in interlobular striated duct cells, with nuclear shift upon exposure to TCDD. Inducible expression of Nfr2 was found mainly in the cytoplasm of intralobular striated duct cells. Constitutive expression of PXR and CAR was not found. Bearing in mind the involvement of AhR and Nrf2 in the regulation of many genes, it seems that these factors may play also a role in salivary gland physiology and pathology.

  2. Antioxidant Opuntia ficus-indica Extract Activates AHR-NRF2 Signaling and Upregulates Filaggrin and Loricrin Expression in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Takeshi; Mitoma, Chikage; Hashimoto-Hachiya, Akiko; Takahara, Masakazu; Tsuji, Gaku; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yan, Xianghong; Hachisuka, Junichi; Chiba, Takahito; Esaki, Hitokazu; Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) is a cactus species widely used as an anti-inflammatory, antilipidemic, and hypoglycemic agent. It has been shown that OFI extract (OFIE) inhibits oxidative stress in animal models of diabetes and hepatic disease; however, its antioxidant mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that OFIE exhibited potent antioxidant activity through the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and the downstream antioxidant enzyme quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), which inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species in keratinocytes challenged with tumor necrosis factor α or benzo[α]pyrene. The antioxidant capacity of OFIE was canceled in NRF2 knockdown keratinocytes. OFIE exerted this NRF2-NQO1 upregulation through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Moreover, the ligation of AHR by OFIE upregulated the expression of epidermal barrier proteins: filaggrin and loricrin. OFIE also prevented TH2 cytokine-mediated downregulation of filaggrin and loricrin expression in an AHR-dependent manner because it was canceled in AHR knockdown keratinocytes. Antioxidant OFIE is a potent activator of AHR-NRF2-NQO1 signaling and may be beneficial in treating barrier-disrupted skin disorders.

  3. Prostate-specific antigen levels in relation to background factors: are there links to endocrine disrupting chemicals and AhR expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Jabari, Nasim; Zavarhei, Mansour Djamali

    2014-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a potential biomarker for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) but its level is known to be affected by many background factors and roles of ubiquitous toxicants have not been determined. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are ubiquitous reproductive toxicants used in consumer products, which promote tumor formation in some reproductive model systems by binding to AhR, but human data on its expression in prostate cancer as well as its association with PSA levels are not clear. This study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of AhR and its association with serological levels of PSA and to detect possible effects of background factors and EDC exposure history on PSA levels in PCa cases. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the tissue levels of AhR and serum levels of PSA in 53 PCa cases from 2008-2011 and associations between each and background and lifestyle related factors were determined. Although the AhR was overexpressed in PCa and correlated with the age of patients, it did not correlate with PSA levels.Of nutritional factors, increased intake of polysaturated fats and fish in the routine regimen of PCa cases increased the PSA levels significantly. AhR overexpression in PCa pontws to roles of EDCs in PCa but without any direct association with PSA levels. However, PSA levels are affected by exposure to possible toxicants in foods whichneed to be assessed as possible risk factors of PCa in future studies.

  4. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  5. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  6. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course ...

  7. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and strollers. Never leave an infant in a mesh playpen with one side down. Follow the guidelines ... S875. PMID: 20956229 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20956229 . Easter JS, Scott HF. Pediatric resuscitation. In: ...

  8. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies regions on 7p21 (AHR and 15q24 (CYP1A2 as determinants of habitual caffeine consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C Cornelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first genome-wide association study of habitual caffeine intake. We included 47,341 individuals of European descent based on five population-based studies within the United States. In a meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and eigenvectors of population variation, two loci achieved genome-wide significance: 7p21 (P = 2.4 × 10(-19, near AHR, and 15q24 (P = 5.2 × 10(-14, between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Both the AHR and CYP1A2 genes are biologically plausible candidates as CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and AHR regulates CYP1A2.

  9. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Identifies Regions on 7p21 (AHR) and 15q24 (CYP1A2) As Determinants of Habitual Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzato, Elizabeth M.; Bennett, Siiri N.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chanock, Stephen; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Couper, David; Curhan, Gary; Heiss, Gerardo; Hu, Frank B.; Hunter, David J.; Jacobs, Kevin; Jensen, Majken K.; Kraft, Peter; Landi, Maria Teresa; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Purdue, Mark P.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Rimm, Eric B.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Subar, Amy; Yeager, Meredith; Chasman, Daniel I.; van Dam, Rob M.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first genome-wide association study of habitual caffeine intake. We included 47,341 individuals of European descent based on five population-based studies within the United States. In a meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and eigenvectors of population variation, two loci achieved genome-wide significance: 7p21 (P = 2.4×10−19), near AHR, and 15q24 (P = 5.2×10−14), between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Both the AHR and CYP1A2 genes are biologically plausible candidates as CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine and AHR regulates CYP1A2. PMID:21490707

  10. Aminoflavone, a ligand of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR), inhibits HIF-1α expression in an AhR-independent fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Puppo, Maura; Rapisarda, Annamaria; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Cao, Liang; Burger, Angelika M.; Ziche, Marina; Melillo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Aminoflavone (AF), the active component of a novel anticancer agent (AFP464) in phase I clinical trials, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR dimerizes with HIF-1β/ARNT, which is shared with HIF-1α, a transcription factor critical for the response of cells to oxygen deprivation. To address whether pharmacological activation of the AhR pathway might be a potential mechanism for inhibition of HIF-1, we tested the effects of AF on HIF-1 expression. AF inhibited HIF-1α transcriptional activity and protein accumulation in MCF-7 cells. However, inhibition of HIF-1α by AF was independent from a functional AhR pathway. Indeed, AF inhibited HIF-1α expression in AhR100 cells, in which the AhR pathway is functionally impaired, yet did not induce cytotoxicity, providing evidence that these effects are mediated by distinct signaling pathways. Moreover, AF was inactive in MDA-MB-231 cells, yet inhibited HIF-1α in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with the SULT1A1 gene. AF inhibited HIF-1α mRNA expression by approximately 50%. Notably, actinomycin-D completely abrogated the ability of AF to down-regulate HIF-1α mRNA, indicating that active transcription was required for the inhibition of HIF-1α expression. Finally, AF inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation and the expression of HIF-1-target genes in MCF-7 xenografts. These results demonstrate that AF inhibits HIF-1α in an AhR-independent fashion and they unveil additional activities of AF that may be relevant for its further clinical development. PMID:20736373

  11. Robust root growth in altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant of Arabidopsis is maintained by high rate of cell production at low water potential gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Blas, Amed; Noriega-Calixto, Laura; Campos, María E; Eapen, Delfeena; Cruz-Vázquez, Tania; Castillo-Olamendi, Luis; Sepulveda-Jiménez, Gabriela; Porta, Helena; Dubrovsky, Joseph G; Cassab, Gladys I

    2017-01-01

    Hydrotropism is the directional root growth response determined by water stimulus. In a water potential gradient system (WPGS) the roots of the Arabidopsis wild type have a diminished root growth compared to normal medium (NM). In contrast, the altered hydrotropic response1 (ahr1) mutant roots maintain their robust growth in the same WPGS. The aims of this work were to ascertain how ahr1 roots could sustain growth in the WPGS, with a special focus on the integration of cellular processes involved in the signaling that determines root growth during abiotic stress and their relation to hydrotropism. Cellular analysis of the root apical meristem of ahr1 mutant contrary to the wild type showed an absence of changes in the meristem length, the elongation zone length, the length of fully elongated cells, and the cell cycle duration. The robust and steady root growth of ahr1 seedlings in the WPGS is explained by the mutant capacity to maintain cell production and cell elongation at the same level as in the NM. Analysis of auxin response at a transcriptional level showed that roots of the ahr1 mutant had a lower auxin response when grown in the WPGS, compared to wild type, indicating that auxin signaling participates in attenuation of root growth under water stress conditions. Also, wild type plants exhibited a high increase in proline content while ahr1 mutants showed minimum changes in the Normal Medium→Water Stress Medium (NM→WSM), a lower water potential gradient system than the WPGS. Accordingly, in this condition, gene expression of Δ1-6 Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthetase1 (P5CS1) involved in proline synthesis strongly increased in wild type but not in ahr1 seedlings. The ahr1 phenotype shows unique features since the mutant root cells continue to proliferate and grow in the presence of a progressively negative water potential gradient at a level comparable to wild type growing in the NM. As such, it represents an exceptional resource for understanding

  12. Baicalein induces G1 arrest in oral cancer cells by enhancing the degradation of cyclin D1 and activating AhR to decrease Rb phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ya-Hsin, E-mail: yhcheng@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China); Li, Lih-Ann; Lin, Pinpin; Cheng, Li-Chuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hung, Chein-Hui [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Sciences, Chang Gung University, Puizi City, Chiayi 613, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Nai Wen [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Chingju [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-09-15

    Baicalein is a flavonoid, known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, baicalein at high concentrations blocks AhR-mediated dioxin toxicity. Because AhR had been reported to play a role in regulating the cell cycle, we suspected that the anti-cancer effect of baicalein is associated with AhR. This study investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-cancer effect of baicalein in oral cancer cells HSC-3, including whether such effect would be AhR-mediated. Results revealed that baicalein inhibited cell proliferation and increased AhR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase and the expression of CDK4, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb) was decreased. When the AhR was suppressed by siRNA, the reduction of pRb was partially reversed, accompanied by a decrease of cell population at G1 phase and an increase at S phase, while the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4 did not change. This finding suggests that the baicalein activation of AhR is indeed associated with the reduction of pRb, but is independent of the reduction of cyclin D1 and CDK4. When cells were pre-treated with LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β, the decrease of cyclin D1 was blocked and the reduction of pRb was recovered. The data indicates that in HSC-3 the reduction of pRb is both mediated by baicalein through activation of AhR and facilitation of cyclin D1 degradation, which causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and results in the inhibition of cell proliferation. -- Highlights: ► Baicalein causes the G1 phase arrest by decreasing Rb phosphorylation. ► Baicalein modulates AhR-mediated cell proliferation. ► Both AhR activation and cyclin D1 degradation results in hypophosphorylation of Rb. ► Baicalein facilitates cyclin D1 degradation by signalling the GSK-3β pathway.

  13. Prognostic factors for survival in adult patients with recurrent glioblastoma: a decision-tree-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audureau, Etienne; Chivet, Anaïs; Ursu, Renata; Corns, Robert; Metellus, Philippe; Noel, Georges; Zouaoui, Sonia; Guyotat, Jacques; Le Reste, Pierre-Jean; Faillot, Thierry; Litre, Fabien; Desse, Nicolas; Petit, Antoine; Emery, Evelyne; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Peltier, Johann; Duntze, Julien; Dezamis, Edouard; Voirin, Jimmy; Menei, Philippe; Caire, François; Dam Hieu, Phong; Barat, Jean-Luc; Langlois, Olivier; Vignes, Jean-Rodolphe; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Riondel, Adeline; Sorbets, Elodie; Zanello, Marc; Roux, Alexandre; Carpentier, Antoine; Bauchet, Luc; Pallud, Johan

    2017-11-20

    We assessed prognostic factors in relation to OS from progression in recurrent glioblastomas. Retrospective multicentric study enrolling 407 (training set) and 370 (external validation set) adult patients with a recurrent supratentorial glioblastoma treated by surgical resection and standard combined chemoradiotherapy as first-line treatment. Four complementary multivariate prognostic models were evaluated: Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, single-tree recursive partitioning, random survival forest, conditional random forest. Median overall survival from progression was 7.6 months (mean, 10.1; range, 0-86) and 8.0 months (mean, 8.5; range, 0-56) in the training and validation sets, respectively (p = 0.900). Using the Cox model in the training set, independent predictors of poorer overall survival from progression included increasing age at histopathological diagnosis (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI [1.03-2.08]; p = 0.032), RTOG-RPA V-VI classes (aHR, 1.38; 95% CI [1.11-1.73]; p = 0.004), decreasing KPS at progression (aHR, 3.46; 95% CI [2.10-5.72]; p < 0.001), while independent predictors of longer overall survival from progression included surgical resection (aHR, 0.57; 95% CI [0.44-0.73]; p < 0.001) and chemotherapy (aHR, 0.41; 95% CI [0.31-0.55]; p < 0.001). Single-tree recursive partitioning identified KPS at progression, surgical resection at progression, chemotherapy at progression, and RTOG-RPA class at histopathological diagnosis, as main survival predictors in the training set, yielding four risk categories highly predictive of overall survival from progression both in training (p < 0.0001) and validation (p < 0.0001) sets. Both random forest approaches identified KPS at progression as the most important survival predictor. Age, KPS at progression, RTOG-RPA classes, surgical resection at progression and chemotherapy at progression are prognostic for survival in recurrent glioblastomas and should inform the treatment decisions.

  14. Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iron-fortified formula.Some formulas are made from soy milk instead of cow’s milk. If your baby seems ... cow’s milk, your doctor may suggest using a soy-milk formula.If you’re not breastfeeding, use infant ...

  15. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  16. Impact of awareness of terminal illness and use of palliative care or intensive care unit on the survival of terminally ill patients with cancer: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Myung Kyung; Kim, Seon Young; Lee, Woo Jin; Jung, Kyung Hae; Do, Young Rok; Kim, Samyong; Heo, Dae Seog; Choi, Jong Soo; Park, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Hyun Sik; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Si-Young; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Jung Lim; Park, Sook Ryun; Park, Sohee

    2011-06-20

    We conducted this study to evaluate the validity of the perception that awareness of their terminal prognosis and use of palliative care or nonuse of an intensive care unit (ICU) causes patients to die sooner than they would otherwise. In this prospective cohort study at 11 university hospitals and the National Cancer Center in Korea, we administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were determined by physicians to be terminally ill. We followed patients during 6 months after enrollment and assessed how their survival was affected by the disclosure of terminal illness and administration of palliative care or nonuse of the ICU. In a follow-up of 481 patients and 163.8 person-years, we identified 466 deceased patients. Nineteen percent of the patients died within 1 month, while 41.3% lived for 3 months, and 17.7% lived for 6 months. Once the cancer was judged terminal, the median survival time was 69 days. On multivariate analysis, neither patient awareness of terminal status at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.51), use of a palliative care facility (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.21), nor general prostration (aHR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.57) was associated with reduced survival. Use of the ICU (aHR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.05) and poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (aHR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.71) were significantly associated with poor survival. Patients' being aware that they are dying and entering a palliative care facility or ICU does not seem to influence patients' survival.

  17. Generation of IL-8 and IL-9 Producing CD4+ T Cells Is Affected by Th17 Polarizing Conditions and AHR Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Gasch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell subsets Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg play an important role in immune cell homeostasis, in host defense, and in immunological disorders. Recently, much attention has been paid to Th17 cells which seem to play an important role in the early phase of the adoptive immune response and autoimmune disease. When generating Th17 cells under in vitro conditions the amount of IL-17A producing cells hardly exceeds 20% while the nature of the remaining T cells is poorly characterized. As engagement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has also been postulated to modulate the differentiation of T helper cells into Th17 cells with regard to the IL-17A expression we ask how far do Th17 polarizing conditions in combination with ligand induced AHR activation have an effect on the production of other T helper cell cytokines. We found that a high proportion of T helper cells cultured under Th17 polarizing conditions are IL-8 and IL-9 single producing cells and that AHR activation results in an upregulation of IL-8 and a downregulation of IL-9 production. Thus, we have identified IL-8 and IL-9 producing T helper cells which are subject to regulation by the engagement of the AHR.

  18. Effects of artificial sweeteners on the AhR- and GR-dependent CYP1A1 expression in primary human hepatocytes and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenickova, Alzbeta; Pecova, Michaela; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2013-12-01

    Food constituents may cause a phenomenon of food-drug interactions. In the current study, we examined the effects of artificial sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin) on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent expression of CYP1A1 in human hepatocytes, hepatic HepG2 and intestinal LS174T cancer cell lines. Sweeteners were tested in concentrations up to those occurring in non-alcoholic beverages. Basal and ligand-inducible AhR- and GR-dependent reporter gene activation in stably transfected HepG2 and HeLa cells, respectively, were not affected by either of the sweeteners tested after 24h of incubation. The expression of CYP1A1 mRNA and protein in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in LS174T and HepG2 cells was not induced by any of the tested sweeteners. Overall, aspartame, acesulfame, saccharin and cyclamate had no effects on CYP1A1 expression and transcriptional activities of AhR and GR. These data imply the safety of artificial sweeteners in terms of interference with AhR, GR and CYP1A1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deciphering Dimerization Modes of PAS Domains: Computational and Experimental Analyses of the AhR:ARNT Complex Reveal New Insights Into the Mechanisms of AhR Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada, Dario; Soshilov, Anatoly A; Denison, Michael S; Bonati, Laura

    2016-06-01

    The Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the biochemical response to xenobiotics and the toxic effects of a number of environmental contaminants, including dioxins. Recently, endogenous regulatory roles for the AhR in normal physiology and development have also been reported, thus extending the interest in understanding its molecular mechanisms of activation. Since dimerization with the AhR Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) protein, occurring through the Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) and PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) domains, is needed to convert the AhR into its transcriptionally active form, deciphering the AhR:ARNT dimerization mode would provide insights into the mechanisms of AhR transformation. Here we present homology models of the murine AhR:ARNT PAS domain dimer developed using recently available X-ray structures of other bHLH-PAS protein dimers. Due to the different reciprocal orientation and interaction surfaces in the different template dimers, two alternative models were developed for both the PAS-A and PAS-B dimers and they were characterized by combining a number of computational evaluations. Both well-established hot spot prediction methods and new approaches to analyze individual residue and residue-pairwise contributions to the MM-GBSA binding free energies were adopted to predict residues critical for dimer stabilization. On this basis, a mutagenesis strategy for both the murine AhR and ARNT proteins was designed and ligand-dependent DNA binding ability of the AhR:ARNT heterodimer mutants was evaluated. While functional analysis disfavored the HIF2α:ARNT heterodimer-based PAS-B model, most mutants derived from the CLOCK:BMAL1-based AhR:ARNT dimer models of both the PAS-A and the PAS-B dramatically decreased the levels of DNA binding, suggesting this latter model as the most suitable for describing AhR:ARNT dimerization. These novel results open new research directions focused at elucidating basic molecular mechanisms underlying the

  20. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  1. Biological effects of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) in vivo are enhanced by loss of CYP1A function in an Ahr2-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincent, Emma; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jönsson, Maria E.; Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J.

    2016-01-01

    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) is a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist that is efficiently metabolized by AHR-regulated cytochrome P4501 enzymes. FICZ is a proposed physiological AHR ligand that induces its own degradation as part of a regulatory negative feedback loop. In vitro studies in cells show that CYP1 inhibition in the presence of FICZ results in enhanced AHR activation, suggesting that FICZ accumulates in the cell when its metabolism is blocked. We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to investigate the in vivo effects of FICZ when CYP1A is knocked down or inhibited. Embryos were injected with morpholino antisense oligonucleotides targeting CYP1A (CYP1A-MO), Ahr2, or a combination of both. FICZ exposure of non-injected embryos or embryos injected with control morpholino had little effect. In CYP1A-MO-injected embryos, however, FICZ dramatically increased mortality, incidence and severity of pericardial edema and circulation failure, reduced hatching frequency, blocked swim bladder inflation, and strongly potentiated expression of Ahr2-regulated genes. These effects were substantially reduced in embryos with a combined knockdown of Ahr2 and CYP1A, indicating that the toxicity was mediated at least partly by Ahr2. Co-exposure to the CYP1 inhibitor alpha-naphtoflavone and FICZ had similar effects as the combination of CYP1A-MO and FICZ. HPLC analysis of FICZ-exposed embryos showed increased levels of FICZ after concomitant CYP1A-MO injection or αNF co-exposure. Together, these results show that a functioning CYP1/AHR feedback loop is crucial for regulation of AHR signaling by a potential physiological ligand in vivo and further highlights the role of CYP1 enzymes in regulating biological effects of FICZ. PMID:27112072

  2. [Factors influencing the language development of preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jie; Chen, Yong-Xiang; Zhu, Li-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Along with the development of pediatric emergency technology, more preterm infants with extremely small gestational age and birth weight can survive, yet the long-term follow-up of their neuropsychological development needs to be focused. Language development of preterm infants is an important component of their intellectual development, which reflects the development of their nervous system. Studies about how language develops in preterm infants and what factors are relevant yield inconsistent results. This paper describes the factors influencing the language development of preterm infants, such as gestational age, birth weight and gender. It provides suggestions as to future research and clinical intervention for the language development of preterm infants.

  3. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Binns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  4. Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L Frank

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis can cause healthcare-associated biofilm infections, including those of orthopedic devices. Treatment of enterococcal prosthetic joint infection is difficult, in part, due to biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. We previously showed that the E. faecalis OG1RF genes ahrC and eep are in vitro biofilm determinants and virulence factors in animal models of endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. In this study, we evaluated the role of these genes in a rat acute foreign body osteomyelitis model and in in vitro biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Osteomyelitis was established for one week following the implantation of stainless steel orthopedic wires inoculated with E. faecalis strains OG1RF, ΩahrC, and ∆eep into the proximal tibiae of rats. The median bacterial loads recovered from bones and wires did not differ significantly between the strains at multiple inoculum concentrations. We hypothesize that factors present at the infection site that affect biofilm formation, such as the presence or absence of shear force, may account for the differences in attenuation in the various animal models we have used to study the ΩahrC and ∆eep strains. No differences among the three strains were observed in the planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tetracycline. These findings suggest that neither ahrC nor eep directly contribute to E. faecalis biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Notably, the experimental evidence that the biofilm attachment mutant ΩahrC displays biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance suggests that surface colonization alone is sufficient for E. faecalis cells to acquire the biofilm antimicrobial resistance phenotype.

  5. Evaluation of the Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Associated Virulence Factors AhrC and Eep in Rat Foreign Body Osteomyelitis and In Vitro Biofilm-Associated Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kristi L; Vergidis, Paschalis; Brinkman, Cassandra L; Greenwood Quaintance, Kerryl E; Barnes, Aaron M T; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Schlievert, Patrick M; Dunny, Gary M; Patel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis can cause healthcare-associated biofilm infections, including those of orthopedic devices. Treatment of enterococcal prosthetic joint infection is difficult, in part, due to biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. We previously showed that the E. faecalis OG1RF genes ahrC and eep are in vitro biofilm determinants and virulence factors in animal models of endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection. In this study, we evaluated the role of these genes in a rat acute foreign body osteomyelitis model and in in vitro biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Osteomyelitis was established for one week following the implantation of stainless steel orthopedic wires inoculated with E. faecalis strains OG1RF, ΩahrC, and ∆eep into the proximal tibiae of rats. The median bacterial loads recovered from bones and wires did not differ significantly between the strains at multiple inoculum concentrations. We hypothesize that factors present at the infection site that affect biofilm formation, such as the presence or absence of shear force, may account for the differences in attenuation in the various animal models we have used to study the ΩahrC and ∆eep strains. No differences among the three strains were observed in the planktonic and biofilm antimicrobial susceptibilities to ampicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tetracycline. These findings suggest that neither ahrC nor eep directly contribute to E. faecalis biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. Notably, the experimental evidence that the biofilm attachment mutant ΩahrC displays biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance suggests that surface colonization alone is sufficient for E. faecalis cells to acquire the biofilm antimicrobial resistance phenotype.

  6. Infant weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This communication supplement provides instructions for weaning an infant through the 1st year of life. Since a new born infant grows much faster than an older child, the baby requires sufficient nourishment. The order of foods, though, is important. The baby should begin with liquid foods, then semisolid foods, and lastly solid foods. The best food for an infant, breast milk, contains all the necessary nutrients for a baby. It is clean, safe, easy to digest, and it protects the new born from disease and infection. But when the baby reaches 4 months of age, the weaning process should begin. Fruit juice and soup made of green leafy vegetables contain the vitamins and minerals that the baby needs. Beginning in the 5th month, the baby's diet should include boiled mashed potatoes and smashed bananas. And by the 7th month, the baby is able to digest semisolid food such as khichadi or dalia (roasted cereal which is grounded and mixed with water and dal, and then cooked). Parents should realize that the weaning process does not beginning immediately after birth, and when it begins, the food should be introduced gradually. The food should not contain any spices and should be freshly prepared (the hands should be washed and the utensils cleaned before preparing the foods). To prevent diarrhea and other infections, the food must be kept covered, protected from dust and flies. By the end of the 1st year, the baby should able to eat the normal diet of the family.

  7. Red Clover Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) and Estrogen Receptor (ER) Agonists Enhance Genotoxic Estrogen Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Tareisha L; Howell, Caitlin E; Mukand, Nita; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Dietz, Birgit M; Bolton, Judy L

    2017-11-20

    Many women consider botanical dietary supplements (BDSs) as safe alternatives to hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms. However, the effect of BDSs on breast cancer risk is largely unknown. In the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, P450 1B1 metabolizes estrogens to 4-hydroxylated catechols, which are oxidized to genotoxic quinones that initiate and promote breast cancer. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed 2-hydroxylation represents a detoxification pathway. The current study evaluated the effects of red clover, a popular BDS used for women's health, and its isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), formononetin (FN), genistein (GN), and daidzein (DZ), on estrogen metabolism. The methoxy estrogen metabolites (2-MeOE 1 , 4-MeOE 1 ) were measured by LC-MS/MS, and CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Nonmalignant ER-negative breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and ER-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were derived from normal breast epithelial tissue and ER+ breast cancer tissue. Red clover extract (RCE, 10 μg/mL) and isoflavones had no effect on estrogen metabolism in MCF-10A cells. However, in MCF-7 cells, RCE treatments downregulated CYP1A1 expression and enhanced genotoxic metabolism (4-MeOE 1 /CYP1B1 > 2-MeOE 1 /CYP1A1). Experiments with the isoflavones showed that the AhR agonists (BA, FN) preferentially induced CYP1B1 expression as well as 4-MeOE 1 . In contrast, the ER agonists (GN, DZ) downregulated CYP1A1 expression likely through an epigenetic mechanism. Finally, the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 potentiated isoflavone-induced XRE-luciferase reporter activity and reversed GN and DZ induced downregulation of CYP1A1 expression. Overall, these studies show that red clover and its isoflavones have differential effects on estrogen metabolism in "normal" vs breast cancer cells. In breast cancer cells, the AhR agonists stimulate genotoxic metabolism, and the ER agonists downregulate the detoxification pathway. These data may suggest that especially

  8. Risk Factors for Infectious Disease Death among Infants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Marissa K.; Esposito, Douglas H.; Holman, Robert C.; Mehal, Jason M.; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases (IDs) are an important cause of infant mortality in the United States. This study describes maternal and infant characteristics associated with infant ID deaths in the United States. Methods Infant deaths with an ID underlying cause of death occurring in the United States were examined using the 2008–2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death public use data files. Average annual ID infant mortality rates (IMRs) for singleton infants were calculated. A retrospective case-control study was conducted to determine infant and maternal risk factors for infant ID death among low (LBW) and normal (NBW) birth weight groups. Controls were defined as infants surviving to the end of their birth year. Risk factors for infant ID deaths were determined through multivariable logistic regression. Results An estimated 3,843 infant ID deaths occurred in the United Sates during 2008–2009, an overall ID IMR of 47.5 deaths per 100,000 live births. The mortality rates for LBW and NBW infants were 514.8 and 15.5, respectively. Male sex, younger maternal age (infants. Additionally, black maternal race was associated with increased ID death among LBW infants, and having an unmarried mother was associated with increased ID death among NBW infants. Conclusions Awareness of associations with infant ID death should help in development of further strategic measures to reduce infant ID morbidity and mortality. PMID:24853540

  9. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  10. Ahr2-dependance of PCB126 effects on the swimbladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E.; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The teleost swimbladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swimbladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swimbladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3’,4,4’,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P4501 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swimbladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependance of the effect of PCB126 on swimbladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swimbladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swimbladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swimbladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos2 failed to inflate the swimbladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swimbladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swimbladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swimbladder cells. PMID:23036320

  11. Offspring schooling associated with increased parental survival in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Harling, Guy

    2017-03-01

    Investing in offspring's human capital has been suggested as an effective strategy for parents to improve their living conditions at older ages. A few studies have assessed the role of children's schooling in parental survival in high-income countries, but none have considered lower-resource settings with limited public wealth transfers and high adult mortality. We followed 17,789 parents between January 2003 and August 2015 in a large population-based open cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association between offspring's schooling and time to parental death. We assessed the association separately by parental sex and for four cause of death groups. A one year increase in offspring's schooling attainment was associated with a 5% decline in the hazard of maternal death (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR]: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.94-0.97) and a 6% decline in the hazard of paternal death (aHR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.92-0.96), adjusting for a wide range of demographic and socio-economic variables of the parent and their children. Among mothers, the association was strongest for communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.82-0.92) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for injuries. Among fathers, the association was strongest for injuries (aHR: 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95) and AIDS and tuberculosis (aHR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.89-0.96), and weakest for non-communicable diseases. Higher levels of schooling in offspring are associated with increased parental survival in rural South Africa, particularly for mothers at risk of communicable disease mortality and fathers at risk of injury mortality. Offspring's human capital may be an important factor for health disparities, particularly in lower-resource settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Noradrenaline in preterm infants with cardiovascular compromise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliff, Kirsten; de Waal, Koert; Mohamed, Abdel-Latif; Chaudhari, Tejasvi

    2016-12-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is beneficial in the treatment of term newborns with cardiovascular compromise due to sepsis or pulmonary hypertension, but experiences with NA in preterm infants are limited. The aim of this study is to describe the efficacy and safety of NA in preterm infants. Patient records of preterm infants ≤32 weeks' gestation admitted to two hospitals between 2004 and 2015 and who received NA were reviewed for perinatal morbidities and mortality. Clinical details were collected at the time of NA use, and response on blood pressure, perfusion and oxygenation was documented as well as possible side effects. Forty-eight infants with primary diagnoses of sepsis (63 %) and pulmonary hypertension (23 %) received NA. Normotension was achieved at a median of 1 h in all but one infant at a median dose of 0.5 mcg/kg/min. Infants who died (46 %) were of younger gestational age and had worse cardiovascular function at start of NA compared to infants who survived. Tachycardia was common (31 %), but no additional effects were found on kidney or liver function. NA appears to be tolerated safely by preterm infants with no major side effects. However, effectiveness needs to be studies further in structured trials. What is Known: • Noradrenaline is beneficial in the treatment of term newborns and infants with cardiovascular compromise. • Noradrenaline is known for its potent vasoconstrictive effects and, therefore, infrequently used in preterm infants. What is New: • Noradrenaline used in relative low dose and as first or second line support increases blood pressure in preterm infants with cardiovascular compromise. • Tachycardia was common, but no additional side effects were found.

  13. Effects of carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic AHR-active PAHs and their mixtures: lessons from ecological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Santos, José M; Diniz, Mário S; Ferreira, Ana M; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority environmental mutagens and carcinogens that occur in the aquatic environment as mixtures rather than the individual compounds for which guidelines are issued. The present work aimed at understanding the interaction effects between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic PAHs in a model marine fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) in realistic scenarios. Laboratory assays under ecologically-relevant parameters were conducted for 28 days with sediments spiked with low-moderate concentrations (250-800ngg(-1)) of two model PAHs, phenanthrene (non-carcinogenic) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (carcinogenic to experimental animals). Both PAHs induced hepatic histopathological changes that indicate metabolic failure and inflammation, especially in animals exposed to mixtures. Phenanthrene elicited biochemical changes better related to oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity) and CYP function, whereas B[b]F disrupted metabolic responses and defences to toxicological challenge. Conversely, mixed PAHs yielded lesions and responses that, altogether, are compatible with the AHR dependent pathway (the basis of PAH mutagenicity), potentially generating supra-additive effects. Nonetheless, the low, ecologically-relevant, concentrations of PAHs diluted dose and time-response relations. Overall, although seemingly predicting the risk of individual PAHs, environmental guidelines may not apply to mixtures by underestimating adverse effects, which calls for a redefinition of standards when determining the true risk of toxicants under realistic circumstances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Mediate Transcriptional Activation of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6 Gene via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics. PMID:22761424

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mediate transcriptional activation of the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 gene via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-09-14

    Liver is endowed with a mechanism to induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYP450s) in response to therapeutic drugs and environmental contaminants, leading to increased detoxification and elimination of the xenobiotics. Each CYP450 is composed of an apoprotein moiety and a heme prosthetic group, which is required for CYP450 activity. Thus, under conditions of CYP450 induction, there is a coordinate increase in heme biosynthesis to compensate for the increased expression of CYP450s. ABCB6, a mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter, which regulates coproporphyrinogen transport from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria to complete heme biosynthesis, represents a previously unrecognized rate-limiting step in heme biosynthesis. However, it is not known if exposure to drugs and environmental contaminants induces ABCB6 expression, to assure an adequate and apparently coordinated supply of heme for the generation of functional cytochrome holoprotein. In the present study, we demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the widely distributed environmental toxicants shown to induce porphyrin accumulation causing hepatic porphyria, up-regulate ABCB6 expression in both mice and humans. Using siRNA technology and Abcb6 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that PAH-mediated increase in hepatic porphyrins is compromised in the absence of ABCB6. Moreover, in vivo studies in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) knock-out mice demonstrate that PAH induction of ABCB6 is mediated by AhR. Promoter activation studies combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrate direct interactions between the AhR binding sites in the ABCB6 promoter and the AhR receptor, implicating drug activation mechanisms for ABCB6 similar to those found in inducible cytochrome P450s. These studies are the first to describe direct transcriptional activation of both mouse and human ABCB6 by xenobiotics.

  17. Sobrevida e fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em uma coorte de nascidos vivos de muito baixo peso ao nascer, na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Survival and risk factors for neonatal mortality in a cohort of very low birth weight infants in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos populacionais sobre mortalidade neonatal de nascimentos de muito baixo peso ao nascer contribuem para identificar sua complexa rede de fatores de risco. Foi estudada uma coorte de 213 recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g (112 óbitos neonatais e 101 sobreviventes na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2000/2001. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares e obtidos dados de prontuários hospitalares. Foi realizada análise de sobrevida e empregada regressão múltipla de Cox. A elevada mortalidade na sala de parto, no primeiro dia de vida e ausência de sobreviventes Population studies can help identify the complex set of risk factors for neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants. A cohort (2000-2001 of 213 live newborns with birth weight < 1,500g in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil, was studied (112 neonatal deaths and 101 survivors. Data were obtained from home interviews and hospital records. Survival analysis and multiple Cox regression were performed. The high mortality in the delivery room and in the first day of life among neonates < 1,000g and < 28 weeks gestational age and the absence of survival in neonates < 700g suggest that care was actively oriented towards newborns with better prognosis. Increased risk of neonatal mortality was associated with maternal residence in slum areas, history of previous cesarean(s, history of induced abortion(s, adolescent motherhood, vaginal bleeding, and lack of prenatal care. Cesarean section and referral of the newborn to the hospital nursery showed protective effects. Birth weight less than 1,000g and Apgar index < 7 were associated with increased risk. The high mortality was due to poor living conditions and to maternal and neonatal characteristics. Improvement in prenatal and neonatal care could reduce neonatal mortality in these infants.

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inducers and estrogen receptor (ER) activities in surface sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China evaluated with in vitro cell bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Bovee, Toine F H; Bi, Yonghong; Bernhöft, Silke; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-02-01

    Two types of biological tests were employed for monitoring the toxicological profile of sediment cores in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. In the present study, sediments collected in June 2010 from TGR were analyzed for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activities. The estrogenic activity was assessed using a rapid yeast estrogen bioassay, based on the expression of a green fluorescent reporter protein. Weak anti-estrogenic activity was detected in sediments from an area close to the dam of the reservoir, and weak estrogenic activities ranging from 0.3 to 1 ng 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EQ) g(-1) dry weight sediment (dw) were detected in sediments from the Wanzhou to Guojiaba areas. In the upstream areas Wanzhou and Wushan, sediments demonstrated additive effects in co-administration of 1 nM E2 in the yeast test system, while sediments from the downstream Badong and Guojiaba areas showed estrogenic activities which seemed to be more than additive (synergistic activity). There was an increasing tendency in estrogenic activity from upstream of TGR to downstream, while this tendency terminated and converted into anti-estrogenic activity in the area close to the dam. The AhR activity was detected employing rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). EROD activities were found homogenously distributed in sediments in TGR ranging from 200 to 311 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) EQ g(-1) dw for total AhR agonists and from 45 to 76 pg TCDD EQ g(-1) dw for more persistent AhR agonists. The known AhR agonists polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl, and PCDD/F only explained up to 8 % of the more persistent AhR agonist activity in the samples, which suggests that unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a great proportion of the TCDD EQ in sediments from TGR. These findings of estrogenic potential and dioxin-like activity in TGR sediments provide possible weight-of-evidence of potential

  19. Kernicterus in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihisa; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Hiromichi; Nakazawa, Tomoyuki; Mimaki, Masakazu; Fujii, Katsunori; Oba, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    We sought to clarify the features of kernicterus in preterm infants. The subjects of this study were 8 preterm infants with athetoid cerebral palsy whose gestational ages were 15 mg/dL were observed in 3 infants. No infant showed neurologic symptoms characteristic of classical acute bilirubin encephalopathy during the neonatal period. Dystonic posture and abnormal muscle tone were first recognized within 6 months' corrected age in all patients. During infancy, MRI was performed in 7 infants. Abnormal high-intensity areas were observed in the bilateral globi pallidi in all 7 infants. However, MRI during the neonatal period or after 1 year's corrected age showed no abnormal findings. BAEP measurements were abnormal in 7 of the 8 infants. Preterm infants with athetotic cerebral palsy showed rather homogeneous features, similar to term infants with kernicterus, with marked hyperbilirubinemia. This combination of clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological data will contribute to the increased recognition of preterm infants with kernicterus.

  20. Mechanical analysis of infant carrying in hominoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Lia Q.

    2008-04-01

    In all higher nonhuman primates, species survival depends upon safe carrying of infants clinging to body hair of adults. In this work, measurements of mechanical properties of ape hair (gibbon, orangutan, and gorilla) are presented, focusing on constraints for safe infant carrying. Results of hair tensile properties are shown to be species-dependent. Analysis of the mechanics of the mounting position, typical of heavier infant carrying among African apes, shows that both clinging and friction are necessary to carry heavy infants. As a consequence, a required relationship between infant weight, hair-hair friction coefficient, and body angle exists. The hair-hair friction coefficient is measured using natural ape skin samples, and dependence on load and humidity is analyzed. Numerical evaluation of the equilibrium constraint is in agreement with the knuckle-walking quadruped position of African apes. Bipedality is clearly incompatible with the usual clinging and mounting pattern of infant carrying, requiring a revision of models of hominization in relation to the divergence between apes and hominins. These results suggest that safe carrying of heavy infants justify the emergence of biped form of locomotion. Ways to test this possibility are foreseen here.

  1. A Child Survival and Development Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the problems of child survival and development in developing countries by discussing the biomedical causes and the concomitant social determinants of high infant mortality rates. Describes four intervention strategies recommended by UNICEF: growth monitoring, oral rehydration therapy, breast feeding, and immunization. (HOD)

  2. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  3. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    well GUTS, calibrated with short-term survival data of Gammarus pulex exposed to four pesticides, can forecast effects of longer-term pulsed exposures. Thirdly, we tested the ability of GUTS to estimate 14-day median effect concentrations of malathion for a range of species and use these estimates...

  4. The determinants of infant mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, S

    2000-07-01

    This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at 100 deaths per 1000 live births. The study shows that there is no evidence of a secular decline in infant mortality during the 1980s. Large differentials in infant survival by socio-economic factors and access to water and sanitation indicate that social and gender inequities are the underlying cause of the stagnation of infant mortality in Pakistan. Economic and social policies of earlier decades have resulted in tremendous disparities in wealth and access to resources in Pakistan. The low social, economic and legal status of women is intimately tied to the well-being of their children. Health interventions in Pakistan should be designed to reach the most under-served: women and children. Systematic evaluations of health interventions will be necessary to make informed decisions about health investments in the future.

  5. ASPHYXIA AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME IN HIGH RISK INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Asphyxia is a risk factor that is very often related to neuro-developmental issues in high risk infants and equally affects preterm and term infants, however its outcome on the developed brain differs from the outcome on the preterm brain.In preterm infants, asphyxia usually exerts a hemorrhagic or ischaemic event and periventricular leukomalacia.In term infants, asphyxia leads to cerebral edema and atrophy of the brain, which may later lead to hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE.The number of term infants with HIE who have survived is lower than those of preterm infants, while the percentage of term infants with HIE who have neuro-developmental issues is higher. Preemies face more problems in their motor development as a result of the brain damage, while term infants suffer from encephalopathy and their cognitive abilities are more affected.We have conducted a study about the effects that asphyxia has on the developmental outcomes in high risk infants. In our study, we did a longitudinal developmental follow-up of 30 high risk infants and an evaluation of their developmental outcome using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, from the 4th month of life until the end of the 36th month. First, we found that high risk infants had a much lower developmental outcome than the control group during the trial. Finally, we found that asphyxia makes a difference in the developmental outcome of preterm infants without asphyxia who have a very low birth weight, the preterm infants with asphyxia, and the term infants with HIE-II.

  6. Sex disparity in childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival: Evidence from US population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Jobayer; Xie, Li

    2015-12-01

    Sex variation has been persistently investigated in studies concerning acute myeloid leukemia (AML) survival outcomes but has not been fully explored among pediatric and young adult AML patients. We detected sex difference in the survival of AML patients diagnosed at ages 0-24 years and explored distinct effects of sex across subgroups of age at diagnosis, race-ethnicity and AML subtypes utilizing the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) population based dataset of 4865 patients diagnosed with AML between 1973 and 2012. Kaplan-Meier survival function, propensity scores and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used for data analyses. After controlling for other prognostic factors, females showed a significant survival advantage over their male counterparts, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.00-1.18). Compared to females, male patients had substantially increased risk of mortality in the following subgroups of: ages 20-24 years at diagnosis (aHR1.30), Caucasian (1.14), acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) (1.35), acute erythroid leukemia (AEL) (1.39), AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) (2.57), AML with minimum differentiation (1.47); and had substantially decreased aHR in AML t(9;11)(p22;q23) (0.57) and AML with maturation (0.82). Overall, females demonstrated increased survival over males and this disparity was considerably large in patients ages 20-24 years at diagnosis, Caucasians, and in AML subtypes of AML inv(16), APL and AEL. In contrast, males with AML t(9;11)(p22;q23), AML with maturation and age at diagnosis of 10-14 years showed survival benefit. Further investigations are needed to detect the biological processes influencing the mechanisms of these interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a marine Superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiak, Marjorie F; Karchner, Sibel I; Jenny, Matthew J; Franks, Diana G; Welch, David B Mark; Hahn, Mark E

    2011-05-24

    Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf) and larvae (15 dpf) from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH) Superfund site (PCB-resistant) and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive). Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing). The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish.

  8. Transcriptomic assessment of resistance to effects of an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist in embryos of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus from a marine Superfund site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franks Diana G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus have evolved resistance to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other halogenated and nonhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons that act through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR-dependent signaling pathway. The resistance is accompanied by reduced sensitivity to induction of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A, a widely used biomarker of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and effect, but whether the reduced sensitivity is specific to CYP1A or reflects a genome-wide reduction in responsiveness to all AHR-mediated changes in gene expression is unknown. We compared gene expression profiles and the response to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126 exposure in embryos (5 and 10 dpf and larvae (15 dpf from F. heteroclitus populations inhabiting the New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts (NBH Superfund site (PCB-resistant and a reference site, Scorton Creek, Massachusetts (SC; PCB-sensitive. Results Analysis using a 7,000-gene cDNA array revealed striking differences in responsiveness to PCB-126 between the populations; the differences occur at all three stages examined. There was a sizeable set of PCB-responsive genes in the sensitive SC population, a much smaller set of PCB-responsive genes in NBH fish, and few similarities in PCB-responsive genes between the two populations. Most of the array results were confirmed, and additional PCB-regulated genes identified, by RNA-Seq (deep pyrosequencing. Conclusions The results suggest that NBH fish possess a gene regulatory defect that is not specific to one target gene such as CYP1A but rather lies in a regulatory pathway that controls the transcriptional response of multiple genes to PCB exposure. The results are consistent with genome-wide disruption of AHR-dependent signaling in NBH fish.

  9. A rapid and reagent-free bioassay for the detection of dioxin-like compounds and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists using autobioluminescent yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Young, Anna; Marr, Enolia; Sayler, Gary; Ripp, Steven; Close, Dan

    2018-02-01

    An autonomously bioluminescent Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter was developed in this study for the simple and rapid detection of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. This recombinant yeast reporter was based on a synthetic bacterial luciferase reporter gene cassette (lux) that can produce the luciferase as well as the enzymes capable of self-synthesizing the requisite substrates for bioluminescent production from endogenous cellular metabolites. As a result, bioluminescent signal production is generated continuously and autonomously without cell lysis or exogenous reagent addition. By linking the expression of the autobioluminescent lux reporter cassette to AhR activation via the use of a dioxin-responsive promoter, the S. cerevisiae BLYAhS bioreporter emitted a bioluminescent signal in response to DLC exposure in a dose-responsive manner. The model dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), could be detected within 4 h with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of ~ 8.1 nM and a lower detection limit of 500 pM. The autobioluminescent response of BLYAhS to other AhR agonists, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), polychlorinated bisphenyl congener 126 (PCB-126) and 169 (PCB-169), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and β-naphthoflavone (bNF), were also characterized in this study. The non-destructive and reagent-free nature of the BLYAhS reporter assay facilitated near-continuous, automated signal acquisition without additional hands-on effort and cost, providing a simple and cost-effective method for rapid DLC detection.

  10. Associations between polymorphisms in the AHR and CYP1A1-CYP1A2 gene regions and habitual caffeine consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Andrea R; Da Costa, Laura A; Campos, Hannia; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2012-09-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from populations of European descent identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 (CYP1A1-CYP1A2) genes that are associated with habitual caffeine and coffee consumption. We examined whether these SNPs (AHR: rs6968865 and rs4410790; CYP1A1-CYP1A2: rs2472297 and rs2470893) and 6 additional tag SNPs in the AHR gene were associated with habitual caffeine consumption in a Costa Rican population. Subjects were from a case-control study of gene-diet interactions and myocardial infarction. Subjects with hypertension or missing information on smoking, caffeine intake, or genotype were excluded. Subjects were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction with mass spectrometry-based detection, and caffeine intake was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Compared with subjects who consumed caffeine/d, subjects who consumed >400 mg caffeine/d were more likely to be carriers of the T, C, or T allele for rs6968865, rs4410790, and rs2472297, respectively. The corresponding ORs and 95% CIs were 1.41 (1.03, 1.93), 1.41 (1.04, 1.92), and 1.55 (1.01, 2.36). Multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for rs6968865 were 1.44 (1.03, 2.00) for all subjects, 1.75 (1.16, 2.65) for nonsmokers, 1.15 (0.58, 2.30) for current smokers, 2.42 (1.45, 4.04) for subjects >57 y old, and 1.00 (0.65, 1.56) for subjects ≤57 y old. A similar effect modification was observed for rs4410790 but not for rs2472297. Our findings show that previous associations between SNPs in AHR and CYP1A1-CYP1A2 and caffeine and coffee consumption from GWASs in European populations are also observed in an ethnically distinct Costa Rican population, but age and smoking are important effect modifiers.

  11. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  12. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachbele, Erdaw; Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  13. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... AW, Diamond FB. Disorders of mineral homeostasis in children and adolescents. In: Sperling MA ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . ...

  14. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This ... are not making much urine. Babies can have low urine output ...

  15. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  16. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  17. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  18. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  19. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... babies have hip problems that can lead to dislocation of the hip bones. This is also called dysplasia (say: “diss- ... March 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  20. Attentional prioritization of infant faces is limited to own-race infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hodsoll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that infant faces capture attention automatically, presumably to elicit caregiving behavior from adults and leading to greater probability of progeny survival. Elsewhere, evidence demonstrates that people show deficiencies in the processing of other-race relative to own-race faces. We ask whether this other-race effect impacts on attentional attraction to infant faces. Using a dot-probe task to reveal the spatial allocation of attention, we investigate whether other-race infants capture attention.South Asian and White participants (young adults aged 18-23 years responded to a probe shape appearing in a location previously occupied by either an infant face or an adult face; across trials, the race (South Asian/White of the faces was manipulated. Results indicated that participants were faster to respond to probes that appeared in the same location as infant faces than adult faces, but only on own-race trials.Own-race infant faces attract attention, but other-race infant faces do not. Sensitivity to face-specific care-seeking cues in other-race kindenschema may be constrained by interracial contact and experience.

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR): "pioneer member" of the basic-helix/loop/helix per-Arnt-sim (bHLH/PAS) family of "sensors" of foreign and endogenous signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, Daniel W

    2017-07-01

    The basic-helix/loop/helix per-Arnt-sim (bHLH/PAS) family comprises many transcription factors, found throughout all three kingdoms of life; bHLH/PAS members "sense" innumerable intracellular and extracellular "signals" - including endogenous compounds, foreign chemicals, gas molecules, redox potential, photons (light), gravity, heat, and osmotic pressure. These signals then initiate downstream signaling pathways involved in responding to that signal. The term "PAS", abbreviation for "per-Arnt-sim" was first coined in 1991. Although the mouse Arnt gene was not identified until 1991, evidence of its co-transcriptional binding partner, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), was first reported in 1974 as a "sensor" of foreign chemicals, up-regulating cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) and other enzyme activities that usually metabolize the signaling chemical. Within a few years, AHR was proposed also to participate in inflammation. The mouse [Ah] locus was shown (1973-1989) to be relevant to chemical carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, toxicity and teratogenesis, the mouse Ahr gene was cloned in 1992, and the first Ahr(-/-) knockout mouse line was reported in 1995. After thousands of studies from the early 1970s to present day, we now realize that AHR participates in dozens of signaling pathways involved in critical-life processes, affecting virtually every organ and cell-type in the animal, including many invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effects of levamisole, acetylsalicylic acid, and α-tocopherol against dioxin toxicity measured as the expression of AhR and COX-2 in a chicken embryo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostomska-Pampuch, Kinga; Ostrowska, Alicja; Kuropka, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej; Całkosiński, Ireneusz

    2017-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (dioxins) are classed as persistent organic pollutants and have adverse effects on multiple functions within the body. Dioxins are known carcinogens, immunotoxins, and teratogens. Dioxins are transformed in vivo, and interactions between the products and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) lead to the formation of proinflammatory and toxic metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine whether α-tocopherol (vitamin E), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and levamisole can decrease the amount of damage caused by dioxins. Fertile Hubbard Flex commercial line chicken eggs were injected with solutions containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or containing TCDD and the test compounds. The chicken embryos and organs were analyzed after 7 and 13 days. The levels at which AhR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins (which are induced during inflammation) were expressed were evaluated by performing immunohistochemical analyses on embryos treated with TCDD alone or with TCDD and the test compounds. TCDD caused developmental disorders and increased AhR and COX-2 expression in the chicken embryo tissues. Vitamin E, levamisole, ASA, and ASA plus vitamin E inhibited AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 7 days and decreased AhR and COX-2 expression in embryos after 13 days. ASA, levamisole, and ASA plus vitamin E weakened the immune response and prevented multiple organ changes. Vitamin E was not fully protective against developmental changes in the embryos.

  3. Steviol, an aglycone of steviol glycoside sweeteners, interacts with the pregnane X (PXR) and aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors in detoxification regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jan; Carazo, Alejandro; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Hyrsova, Lucie; Holas, Ondřej; Smutny, Tomas; Micuda, Stanislav; Pavek, Petr

    2017-11-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a herb known for the high content of natural sweeteners in its leaves. Its main secondary metabolite stevioside is used as non-caloric sweetener. No information, however, is available on whether stevioside or steviol interact with drug-metabolizing enzymes and pose the potential risk of food-drug interactions. Similarly, data are lacking on the interactions of steviol and stevioside with key nuclear receptors controlling the expression of the main drug metabolizing enzymes. We studied the interactions of steviol and stevioside with the pregnane X (PXR), vitamin D (VDR), constitutive androstane (CAR), farnesoid X (FXR), glucocorticoid (GR) and aryl hydrocarbon (AHR) receptors, which control expression of genes of xenobiotic metabolism. In addition, the inhibitory activities of steviol and stevioside towards the major cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 and CYP2B6 were evaluated in vitro. We found that steviol moderately activated the PXR and AHR, resulting in the induction of their target genes including CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 in primary human hepatocytes. A weak inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 with steviol was also found. Our results provide mechanistic data indicating that stevioside and stevia sweeteners may have the potential to induce food-drug interactions, a finding that warrants future prospective clinical investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovations’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovations currently represent a tool of maintaining the going concern of a business entity and its competitiveness. However, effects of innovations are not infinite and if an innovation should constantly preserve a life of business entity, it has to be a continual chain of innovations, i.e. continual process. Effective live of a single innovation is limited while the limitation is derived especially from industry. The paper provides the results of research on innovations effects in the financial performance of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Objective of this paper is to determine the length and intensity of the effects of technical innovations in company’s financial performance. The economic effect of innovations has been measured at application of company’s gross production power while the Deviation Analysis has been applied for three years’ time series. Subsequently the Survival Analysis has been applied. The analyses are elaborated for three statistical samples of SMEs constructed in accordance to the industry. The results obtained show significant differences in innovations’ survival within these three samples of enterprises then. The results are quite specific for the industries, and are confronted and discussed with the results of authors’ former research on the issue.

  5. Medicaid Expansion and Infant Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chintan B; Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M

    2018-01-18

    To explore the effect of Medicaid expansion on US infant mortality rate. We examined data from 2010 to 2016 and 2014 to 2016 to compare infant mortality rates in states and Washington, DC, that accepted the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion (Medicaid expansion states) and states that did not (non-Medicaid expansion states), stratifying data by race/ethnicity. Mean infant mortality rate in non-Medicaid expansion states rose (6.4 to 6.5) from 2014 to 2016 but declined in Medicaid expansion states (5.9 to 5.6). Mean difference in infant mortality rate in Medicaid expansion versus non-Medicaid expansion states increased from 0.573 (P = .08) in 2014 to 0.838 in 2016 (P = .006) because of smaller declines in non-Medicaid expansion (11.0%) than in Medicaid expansion (15.2%) states. The 14.5% infant mortality rate decline from 11.7 to 10.0 in African American infants in Medicaid expansion states was more than twice that in non-Medicaid expansion states (6.6%: 12.2 to 11.4; P = .012). Infant mortality rate decline was greater in Medicaid expansion states, with greater declines among African American infants. Future research should explore what aspects of Medicaid expansion may improve infant survival. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 18, 2018: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304218).

  6. Social and ecological factors influencing offspring survival in wild macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2014-09-01

    Premature loss of offspring decreases direct fitness of parents. In gregarious mammals, both ecological and social variables impact offspring survival and may interact with each other in this regard. Although a number of studies have investigated factors influencing offspring loss in mammals, we still know very little on how different factors interact with one another. We therefore investigated fetal and infant mortality in 3 large groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra) over a period of up to 5 years by including potential social causes such as maternal dominance rank, male immigration, between group encounters, and ecological conditions such as rainfall in a multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. Infant but not fetal survival was most impaired after a recent takeover of the alpha-male position by an immigrant male. Furthermore, infant survival probability increased when there was an increase in number of group adult females and rainfall. Fetal survival probability also increased with an increase of these 2 factors, but more in high-ranking than low-ranking females. Fetal survival, unlike that of infants, was also improved by an increase of intergroup encounter rates. Our study thus stresses the importance of survival analyses using a multivariate approach and encompassing more than a single offspring stage to investigate the determinants of female direct fitness. We further provide evidence for fitness costs and benefits of group living, possibly deriving from high pressures of both within- and between-group competition, in a wild primate population.

  7. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  8. Mother-male bond, but not paternity, influences male-infant affiliation in wild crested macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhoas, Daphne; Kulik, Lars; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja

    In promiscuous primates, interactions between adult males and infants have rarely been investigated. However, recent evidence suggests that male affiliation towards infants has an influence on several aspects of the infants' life. Furthermore, affiliations may be associated with male reproductive strategy. In this study, we examined which social factors influenced male-infant affiliation initiated by either male or infant, in wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra). We combined behavioral data and genetic paternity analysis from 30 infants living in three wild groups in Tangkoko Reserve, Indonesia. Our results indicate that adult males and infants do not interact at random, but rather form preferential associations. The social factors with the highest influence on infant-initiated interactions were male rank and male association with the infant's mother. While infants initiated affiliations with males more often in the absence of their mothers, adult males initiated more affiliations with infants when their mothers were present. Furthermore, males initiated affiliations more often when they were in the same group at the time the infant was conceived, when they held a high dominance rank, or when they had a close relationship with the mother. Interestingly, paternity did not affect male-infant affiliation despite being highly skewed in this species. Overall, our results suggest that adult males potentially associate with an infant to secure future mating with the mother. Infants are more likely to associate with a male to receive better support, suggesting a strategy to increase the chance of infant survival in a primate society with high infant mortality. We explore social relationships between males and infants in a promiscuous primate, the wild crested macaque. Our novel approach addresses the nature of affiliations both from males' and infants' perspectives. The results show that males and infants form preferential associations. Male-female affiliation, but not

  9. The apgar score and infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wu, Ting; Lei, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hao; Mao, Meng; Zhang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period. The U.S. linked live birth and infant death dataset was used, which included 25,168,052 singleton births and 768,305 twin births. The outcome of interest was infant death within 1 year after birth. Cox proportional hazard-model was used to estimate risk ratio of infant mortality with different Apgar scores. Among births with a very low Apgar score at five minutes (1-3), the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates remained high until term (≥ 37 weeks). On the other hand, among births with a high Apgar score (≥7), neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rate decreased progressively with gestational age. Non-Hispanic White had a consistently higher neonatal mortality than non-Hispanic Black in both preterm and term births. However, for post-neonatal mortality, Black had significantly higher rate than White. The pattern of changes in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality by Apgar score in twin births is essentially the same as that in singleton births. The Apgar score system has continuing value for predicting neonatal and post-neonatal adverse outcomes in term as well as preterm infants, and is applicable to twins and in various race/ethnic groups.

  10. The apgar score and infant mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the Apgar score remains pertinent in contemporary practice after more than 50 years of wide use, and to assess the value of the Apgar score in predicting infant survival, expanding from the neonatal to the post-neonatal period. METHODS: The U.S. linked live birth and infant death dataset was used, which included 25,168,052 singleton births and 768,305 twin births. The outcome of interest was infant death within 1 year after birth. Cox proportional hazard-model was used to estimate risk ratio of infant mortality with different Apgar scores. RESULTS: Among births with a very low Apgar score at five minutes (1-3, the neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rates remained high until term (≥ 37 weeks. On the other hand, among births with a high Apgar score (≥7, neonatal and post-neonatal mortality rate decreased progressively with gestational age. Non-Hispanic White had a consistently higher neonatal mortality than non-Hispanic Black in both preterm and term births. However, for post-neonatal mortality, Black had significantly higher rate than White. The pattern of changes in neonatal and post-neonatal mortality by Apgar score in twin births is essentially the same as that in singleton births. CONCLUSIONS: The Apgar score system has continuing value for predicting neonatal and post-neonatal adverse outcomes in term as well as preterm infants, and is applicable to twins and in various race/ethnic groups.

  11. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  12. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  13. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  14. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... contents2016.htm Leading Causes of Infant Mortality: Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading ...

  15. [Inguinal herniotomy in prematurely born infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, S; Bukarica, S; Cvejanov, M; Peković-Zrnić, V; Jokić, R; Dobanovacki, D

    1998-01-01

    Inguinal hernia is the most common surgical condition in childhood; more than half of the cases occur during infancy (1, 2). As the number of surviving premature infants continues to grow, the pediatric surgeon has become more involved in the management of these hernias (3, 4). Several issues are contentious, such as the optimal time for herniotomy after diagnosis (5), the role of contralateral exploration, and the proper management for incarcerated inguinal hernia (6). Based on our experience, we attempted to study the above points in the infant population and we also examined the role of ventilator therapy in the etiology of inguinal hernia. We performed a retrospective review of records of all infants under 6 months of age who underwent a repair of inguinal hernia at the Clinic for Pediatric Surgery in Novi Sad between January 1994 and December 1996. After surgery, all infants were included in a 6-week follow-up examination. During this period, 144 infants under 6 months of age underwent inguinal hernia repair. There were 114 males and 30 females. Fourteen patients had bilateral hernias at the time of presentation. Incarceration occurred in 32 infants (22%), that is in 27 of the 99 full-term cases (27%) and in 5 of the 45 preterm cases (11%). Only in three cases (8%) did it occur while the infant was awaiting repair. Over 90% of the full-term infants had their hernias repaired within 3 weeks from diagnosis. After reduction of incarceration, our policy is to operate within 24 to 48 hours. Four testicles appeared to be ischemic; one of these was excised. Patchy bowel ischemia was present in six cases, and bowel resection was required in one. The ovary and tube were twisted and ischemic at the time of operation, requiring oophorectomy in two female infants. Forty-five infants were premature. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 8 weeks; at the time of herniotomy, it was 13 weeks. In the 24- to 28-week group, 44 of hernias were bilateral, and 7 of the 9 infants

  16. PAHs Target Hematopoietic Linages in Bone Marrow through Cyp1b1 Primarily in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells but Not AhR: A Reconstituted In Vitro Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Rondelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 7,12-Dimethylbenz(aanthracene (DMBA rapidly suppresses hematopoietic progenitors, measured as colony forming units (CFU, in mouse bone marrow (BM leading to mature cell losses as replenishment fails. These losses are mediated by Cyp1b1, independent of the AhR, despite induction of Cyp1b1. BM mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC may mediate these responses since basal Cyp1b1 is minimally induced. PreB colony forming unit activity (PreB CFU is lost within 24 hours in isolated BM cells (BMC unless cocultured with cells derived from primary MPC (BMS2 line. The mouse embryonic OP9 line, which provides more efficient coculture support, shares similar induction-resistant Cyp1b1 characteristics. This OP9 support is suppressed by DMBA, which is then prevented by Cyp1b1 inhibitors. OP9-enriched medium partially sustains CFU activities but loses DMBA-mediated suppression, consistent with mediation by OP9 Cyp1b1. PreB CFU activity in BMC from Cyp1b1-ko mice has enhanced sensitivity to DMBA. BMC gene expression profiles identified cytokines and developmental factors that are substantially changed in Cyp1b1-ko mice. DMBA had few effects in WT mice but systematically modified many clustered responses in Cyp1b1-ko mice. Typical BMC AhR-responsive genes were insensitive to Cyp1b1 deletion. TCDD replicated Cyp1b1 interventions, suggesting alternative AhR mediation. Cyp1b1 also diminishes oxidative stress, a key cause of stem cell instability.

  17. AhR activation increases IL-2 production by alloreactive CD4+ T cells initiating the differentiation of mucosal-homing Tim3+ Lag3+ Tr1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Allison K; Pennington, Jamie M; Tilton, Susan; Wang, Xisheng; Marshall, Nikki B; Rohlman, Diana; Funatake, Castle; Punj, Sumit; O'Donnell, Edmond; Yu, Zhen; Kolluri, Siva K; Kerkvliet, Nancy I

    2017-11-01

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by immunosuppressive ligands promotes the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Although AhR-induced Foxp3+ Treg cells have been well studied, much less is known about the development and fate of AhR-induced Type 1 Treg (AhR-Tr1) cells. In the current study, we identified the unique transcriptional and functional changes in murine CD4+ T cells that accompany the differentiation of AhR-Tr1 cells during the CD4+ T-cell-dependent phase of an allospecific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (allo-CTL) response. AhR activation increased the expression of genes involved in T-cell activation, immune regulation and chemotaxis, as well as a global downregulation of genes involved in cell cycling.  Increased IL-2 production was responsible for the early AhR-Tr1 activation phenotype previously characterized as CD25+ CTLA4+ GITR+ on day 2. The AhR-Tr1 phenotype was further defined by the coexpression of the immunoregulatory receptors Lag3 and Tim3 and non-overlapping expression of CCR4 and CCR9. Consistent with the increased expression of CCR9, real-time imaging showed enhanced migration of AhR-Tr1 cells to the lamina propria of the small intestine and colon. The discovery of mucosal imprinting of AhR-Tr1 cells provides an additional mechanism by which therapeutic AhR ligands can control immunopathology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. [Infant mortality in the indigenous population: backwardness and contrasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Ham, P

    1993-01-01

    Some 6.4 million speakers of indigenous languages were enumerated in the 1990 Mexican census. The same census provided the basis for an indirect estimate of infant mortality using data on the numbers of live born and surviving children. Municipios with 40% or more of the population speaking an indigenous language were studied. The overall estimated infant mortality rate for indigenous municipios was 55.1/1000 live births, the equivalent of the Mexican infant mortality rate around 1982. Mexico's national infant mortality rate in 1990 was 34.8/1000. Great contrasts were found in indigenous infant mortality rates. Campeche, Quintana Roo, and Yucatan, the states of the Mayan region, had a low rate of 35.09/1000, very close to the national average. Infant mortality levels were relatively low in the indigenous populations of Hidalgo, the state of Mexico, and Michoacan, with rates of 44 to 48. Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Durango, Guerrero, and San Luis Potosi had rates of 55 to 65. The highest rates were in states with few indigenous municipios, including Chihuahua, Jalisco, and Nayarit. The Huichol of Jalisco had the highest rate at 100.01/1000. Infant mortality levels were found to be correlated in different degrees with socioeconomic indicators. The highest infant mortality rates were in the indigenous regions with the poorest socioeconomic conditions.

  19. Chronic lung disease in the preterm infant: Lessons learned from animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hilgendorff (Anne); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); H. Ehrhardt (Harald); O. Eickelberg (Oliver); C.M. Alvira (Cristina)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractNeonatal chronic lung disease, also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is the most common complication of premature birth, affecting up to 30% of very low birth weight infants. Improved medical care has allowed for the survival of the most premature infants and has significantly

  20. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  1. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  2. Epidemiology and survival of hepatocellular carcinoma in north-east Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Nurhazalini-Zayani, Che Ghazali Che

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.

  3. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojdylo, Josephine V. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Vogelbein, Wolfgang [The College of William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Bain, Lisa J. [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Rice, Charles D., E-mail: cdrice@clemson.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • AHR-related activities in creosote-adapted adult killifish were examined. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated intestine CYP1A. • Creosote-adapted adult killifish have elevated liver COX2 mRNA expression. • Most creosote-adapted adult killifish have lesions varying in severity. • Liver lesions in creosote-adapted adult killifish express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins. - Abstract: Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a

  4. Musical training and empathy positively impact adults’ sensitivity to infant distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults’ ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults’ perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training.

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  6. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip Print A A A What's in ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cow's milk. To provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends: If possible, you should feed ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Nutrition Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  8. Acidified infant formula explained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-21

    Jan 21, 2013 ... children.1 The development of effective methods to prevent acute gastroenteritis in infants remains ... over non-acidified formula in children with mild digestive problems (or in situation in which .... Bifidobacterium lactis: impact on infant diarrhea in residential care settings. J. Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004 ...

  9. Elucidating the Role of CD84 and AHR in Modulation of LPS-Induced Cytokines Production by Cruciferous Vegetable-Derived Compounds Indole-3-Carbinol and 3,3′-Diindolylmethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T. Y. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of the immune system by cancer protective food bioactives has preventive and therapeutic importance in prostate cancer, but the mechanisms remain largely unclear. The current study tests the hypothesis that the diet-derived cancer protective compounds, indole-3-carbinol (I3C and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM, affect the tumor microenvironment by regulation of inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. We also ask whether I3C and DIM act through the aryl hydrocarbon (AHR-dependent pathway or the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM family protein CD84-mediated pathway. The effect of I3C and DIM was examined using the human THP-1 monocytic cell in its un-differentiated (monocyte and differentiated (macrophage state. We observed that I3C and DIM inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS induction of IL-1β mRNA and protein in the monocyte form but not the macrophage form of THP-1. Interestingly, CD84 mRNA but not protein was inhibited by I3C and DIM. AHR siRNA knockdown experiments confirmed that the inhibitory effects of I3C and DIM on IL-1β as well as CD84 mRNA are regulated through AHR-mediated pathways. Additionally, the AHR ligand appeared to differentially regulate other LPS-induced cytokines expression. Hence, cross-talk between AHR and inflammation-mediated pathways, but not CD84-mediated pathways, in monocytes but not macrophages may contribute to the modulation of tumor environments by I3C and DIM in prostate cancer.

  10. Characterization of bacterial isolates from the microbiota of mothers' breast milk and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kimberly; Charbonneau, Duane; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Klaenhammer, Todd

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed the potential of isolating novel probiotics from mothers and their infants. A subset of 21 isolates among 126 unique bacteria from breast milk and infant stools from 15 mother-infant pairs were examined for simulated GI transit survival, adherence to Caco-2 cells, bacteriocin production, and lack of antibiotic resistance. Of the 21 selected isolates a Lactobacillus crispatus isolate and 3 Lactobacillus gasseri isolates demonstrated good profiles of in vitro GI transit tolerance and Caco-2 cell adherence. Bacteriocin production was observed only by L. gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, although not universal, among isolates from infants. Highly similar isolates (≥ 97% similarity by barcode match) of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (1 match), Lactobacillus fermentum (2 matches), Lactobacillus gasseri (6 matches), and Enterococcus faecalis (1 match) were isolated from 5 infant-mother pairs. Antibiotic resistance profiles between these isolate matches were similar, except in one case where the L. gasseri isolate from the infant exhibited resistance to erythromycin and tetracycline, not observed in matching mother isolate. In a second case, L. gasseri isolates differed in resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and vancomycin between the mother and infant. In this study, gram positive bacteria isolated from mothers' breast milk as well as their infants exhibited diversity in GI transit survival and acid inhibition of pathogens, but demonstrated limited ability to produce bacteriocins. Mothers and their infants offer the potential for identification of probiotics; however, even in the early stages of development, healthy infants contain isolates with antibiotic resistance.

  11. Risk factors for unstructured treatment interruptions and association with survival in low to middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James H; Spelman, Tim; Ford, Nathan; Greig, Jane; Mesic, Anita; Ssonko, Charles; Casas, Esther C; O'Brien, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment interruptions lead to poor clinical outcomes with unplanned or unstructured TIs (uTIs) likely to be underreported. This study describes; uTIs, their risk factors and association with survival. Analysis of ART programmatic data from 11 countries across Asia and Africa between 2003 and 2013 where an uTI was defined as a ≥90-day patient initiated break from ART calculated from the last day the previous ART prescription would have run out until the date of the next ART prescription. Factors predicting uTI were assessed with a conditional risk-set multiple failure time-to-event model to account for repeated events per subject. Association between uTI and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards, with a competing risks extension to test for the influence of lost to follow-up (LTFU). 40,632 patients were included from 11 countries across 33 sites (17 Africa, 16 Asia). Median duration of follow-up was 1.61 years (IQR 0.54-3.31 years), 3386 (8.3 %) patients died, and 3453 (8.5 %) were LTFU. There were 14,817 uTIs, with 10,162 (25 %) patients having more than one uTI. In the adjusted model males were at lower risk of uTI (aHR 0.94, p 350 cells/μL aHR 0.87, p < 0.01), whereas advanced clinical disease was associated with increased uTI rate (WHO stage 3 aHR 1.10, p < 0.01; WHO stage 4 aHR 1.21, p < 0.01). There was no relationship between uTI and mortality after adjusting for disease status and considering LTFU as a competing risk. uTIs were frequent in people in ART programs in low-middle income countries and associated with younger age, female gender and advanced HIV. uTI did not predict survival when loss to follow-up was considered a competing risk. Further evaluation of uTI predictors and interventions to reduce their occurrence is warranted.

  12. Deciduous tooth growth in an ancient Greek infant cemetery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Charles; Hillson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The Kylindra cemetery on Astypalaia in the Dodecanese, in use 750 BC to 1st century AD, contains a unique skeletal collection. Over 2,400 infant inhumations, each buried in its own clay pot, have been uncovered so far. The skeletal material from each burial is embedded within a ball of accreted earth and since 2001, some 850 infant remains have been recovered and conserved. Most of these died perinatally, but some were very premature babies and some appear to have survived for several months after birth. A study to estimate ages at death of 277 teeth from 107 infants, using microstructural growth markers, is currently underway. One immediate objective is to help resolve the enigma of why such an unusually large number of infants were interred on such a remote Aegean island. Longer term objectives are to reconstruct the sequences of development of the different deciduous tooth types, providing new standards of growth for long bones, the skull and the dentition. This paper presents an interim report on the findings from the histological study, which has analysed 68 teeth from 36 individuals so far. Five of the 36 infants survived birth, three dying within the first 3 weeks of life and the other two surviving for about 3 months. Average appositional growth rates were found to be 3.6 microm/day, and initial mineralisation was found to be well below the figures in Sunderland and coworkers' study in 1987. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Clinical-pathological features and survival in young women with cervical cancer: a retrospective analysis from the instituto nacional de enfermedades neoplásicas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Rossana; Serrano, Mariana; Ruiz, Eloy F; Mantilla, Raul; Valdivieso, Natalia; Olivera, Mivael; Álvarez, Manuel; Mas, Luis; Gomez, Henry L

    2017-01-01

    To determine the clinical and histological characteristics and prognostic factors of cervical cancer (CC) in young Peruvian patients. Retrospective analysis of patients younger than 35 years old diagnosed with CC between 2008 and 2012 in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas. 449 patients had epithelial neoplasms. The main histological types were: squamous cell carcinoma (84.9%), adenocarcinoma (11.0%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (2.4%). The average tumor size was 4.98 cm. Anemia (55.7%), elevated creatinine (21.2%) and hydronephrosis (13.8%) were also identified. 82.3% of the patients presented locally advanced disease. Stages IIB (47.4%) and IIIB (25.8%) were the most common. Overall 5-year survival was 59.5% (I, 90.9%; II, 57.5%; III, 42.7% and IV, 13.3%). Elevated creatinine, anemia, tumor size, parametrial involvement and hydronephrosis were factors that affected survival. No significant relation was found between histological type and survival. The presence of anemia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]: 1.6-4.0) and hydronephrosis (aHR: 1.6; CI 95%: 1.0-4.0) were independently associated with survival; likewise, the parametrial commitment with (aHR: 3.3; CI 95%: 1.5-7.2) or without (aRH: 2.6; CI 95%: 1.3-5.3) extension to the pelvic bone. Cervical cancer in young Peruvians is diagnosed in advanced stages. Overall survival in each stage is similar to the reported in older patients. The importance of conventional prognosis- related factors was confirmed. Anemia was an important independent prognostic factor requiring further investigations.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Carmel T; Makrides, Maria; McPhee, Andrew J; Sullivan, Thomas R; Davis, Peter G; Thio, Marta; Simmer, Karen; Rajadurai, Victor S; Travadi, Javeed; Berry, Mary J; Liley, Helen G; Opie, Gillian F; Tan, Kenneth; Lui, Kei; Morris, Scott A; Stack, Jacqueline; Stark, Michael J; Chua, Mei-Chien; Jayagobi, Pooja A; Holberton, James; Bolisetty, Srinivas; Callander, Ian R; Harris, Deborah L; Gibson, Robert A

    2017-03-30

    Studies in animals and in humans have suggested that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, might reduce the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but appropriately designed trials are lacking. We randomly assigned 1273 infants born before 29 weeks of gestation (stratified according to sex, gestational age [bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined on a physiological basis (with the use of oxygen-saturation monitoring in selected infants), at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age or discharge home, whichever occurred first. A total of 1205 infants survived to the primary outcome assessment. Of the 592 infants assigned to the DHA group, 291 (49.1% by multiple imputation) were classified as having physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as compared with 269 (43.9%) of the 613 infants assigned to the control group (relative risk adjusted for randomization strata, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.25; P=0.02). The composite outcome of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia or death before 36 weeks of postmenstrual age occurred in 52.3% of the infants in the DHA group and in 46.4% of the infants in the control group (adjusted relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23; P=0.045). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rates of death or any other neonatal illnesses. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia based on a clinical definition occurred in 53.2% of the infants in the DHA group and in 49.7% of the infants in the control group (P=0.06). Enteral DHA supplementation at a dose of 60 mg per kilogram per day did not result in a lower risk of physiological bronchopulmonary dysplasia than a control emulsion among preterm infants born before 29 weeks of gestation and may have resulted in a greater risk. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12612000503820 .).

  15. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment in Very Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Gudmundsdottir, Anna; Maier, Rolf F

    2017-01-01

    conducted during 2011 and 2012. A total of 6,896 infants with data on PDA treatment were included. The differences in infant characteristics were studied across regions using a propensity score derived from perinatal risk factors for PDA treatment. The primary outcomes were a composite of BPD or death...... in very preterm infants (≤31 weeks of gestation), its relation to differences in perinatal characteristics, and associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and survival without major neonatal morbidity. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study in 19 regions in 11 European countries...... before 36 weeks postmenstrual age, or survival without major neonatal morbidity. RESULTS: The proportion of PDA treatment varied from 10 to 39% between regions (p perinatal characteristics. The regions were categorized according...

  16. Nutritional requirements and parenteral nutrition in preterm infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major developments in neonatal care such as the use of antenatal steroids, artificial ventilation including continuous positive airway pressure, and artificial surfactant therapy have resulted in improvement in the survival of preterm infants. Preterm birth, defined as being born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is.

  17. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  18. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW), gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT), and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms.

  19. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... The global HIV epidemic has a major impact on the health and survival of infants in sub-Saharan Africa.1. Recent advances in reducing HIV transmission from mother to child during the intrapartum period have been made by studies such as the 076 Study, the Thai Study, Petra, and the. HIVNET012 Study.

  20. Auditory maturation and congenital hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Coenraad (Saskia)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe number of preterm births has increased over the past decades as a result of increasing maternal age and in vitro fertilization (1). At the same time the survival of preterm infants has increased due to advances in perinatal and neonatal care. For example, antenatal corticosteroids

  1. The relationship between facility-based delivery and infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest the benefits of facility delivery transcend the immediate survival benefit for mothers and their babies, and may serve as a gateway to further interactions with the healthcare system. (Afr. J Reprod Health 2016; 20[2]: 27-33). Keywords: institutional delivery; skilled birth attendance; infant immunizations; ...

  2. Antenatal magnesium sulphate neuroprotection in the preterm infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marret, Stephane; Doyle, Lex W.; Crowther, Caroline A.; Middleton, Philippa

    Very preterm infants have high rates of neurological impairments and disabilities. These rates have not diminished as the survival rates have improved. Basic science research suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth can be neuroprotective for the preterm fetus. Some, but not all, observational

  3. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Major advances in perinatal care over the latest decades have increased the survival rate of extremely premature infants. Centralisation of perinatal care was implemented in Denmark from 1995. This study evaluates the effect of organisational changes of perinatal care on survival...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  4. Towards evidence-based resuscitation of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Brett J; Owen, Louise S; Hooper, Stuart B; Jacobs, Susan E; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Davis, Peter G

    2017-04-22

    Effective resuscitation of the newborn infant has the potential to save many lives around the world and reduce disabilities in children who survive peripartum asphyxia. In this Series paper, we highlight some of the important advances in the understanding of how best to resuscitate newborn infants, which includes monitoring techniques to guide resuscitative efforts, increasing awareness of the adverse effects of hyperoxia, delayed umbilical cord clamping, the avoidance of routine endotracheal intubation for extremely preterm infants, and therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Despite the challenges of performing high-quality clinical research in the delivery room, researchers continue to refine and advance our knowledge of effective resuscitation of newborn infants through scientific experiments and clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal morbidity and early outcome of very preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions. The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm infants remain very vulnerable group of population, and interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm babies include tertiary interventions such as regionalized care, transportation in uterus, and treatment with antenatal steroids.

  6. Updates in the biology and therapy for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Erin M; Stam, Ronald W

    2017-02-01

    The prognosis for infants less than 12 months of age who are diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains poor despite overall advances in the treatment of childhood ALL. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of infant ALL and discuss opportunities for translating these findings into clinical trials. Infant ALL can be divided into two major disease types, defined by the presence or absence of KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement (KMT2A-R). Recent molecular profiling studies have found that infant ALL with KMT2A-R is an epigenomic disease that lacks other somatic driver mutations. Strategies to intensify therapy have not improved survival for infants with KMT2A-R ALL. In contrast, infant ALL without KMT2A-R is more similar to ALL of older children and survival has improved modestly with intensification of chemotherapy. Discovery of clonal molecular markers that predict chemoresistance will allow further risk classification and development of novel treatment strategies. Modern clinical trials are integrating molecularly targeted therapies into the treatment of infant ALL. Advances in molecular profiling and integration of targeted therapy have the potential to reduce toxicity and improve survival for infants with ALL.

  7. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  8. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  9. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  10. Sudden infant death syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation...

  11. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  12. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  13. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appear normal. Your infant seems to be "losing" developmental milestones. For example, if your 9-month-old was ... time. Images Skull of a newborn Infantile reflexes Developmental milestones Moro reflex References Feigelman S. The first year. In: ...

  14. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  15. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series—Check for responsiveness To use the ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... required by law into an unexplained cause of death may make these feelings more painful. A member of a local chapter of the National Foundation for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may assist with counseling and reassurance to ...

  17. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Parenting Your Infant Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size ...

  18. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby slightly less than usual if you're bottle-feeding, or cut back a little on the amount ... Have you recently switching from breast-feeding to bottle-feeding? Or have you switched infant formulas? How often ...

  19. Infant Botulism (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other symptoms of botulism can include: flat facial expression poor feeding (weak sucking) weak cry decreased movement trouble swallowing with excessive drooling muscle weakness breathing problems Infant botulism can be treated, but it's important ...

  20. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Long-Term Survival after Distal Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Young-Woo; Choi, Il Ju

    2016-07-01

    Negative Helicobacter pylori status has been identified as a poor prognostic factor for survival in gastric cancer (GC) patients who underwent surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of H. pylori eradication on long-term outcomes after distal gastrectomy for GC. We analyzed the survival of 169 distal GC patients enrolled in a prospective randomized trial evaluating histologic changes of gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication in the remnant stomach. The outcomes measured were overall survival (OS) and GC recurrence rates. The median follow-up duration was 9.4 years. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis including patients who underwent H. pylori treatment (n=87) or placebo (n=82), 5-year OS rates were 98.9% in the treatment group and 91.5% in the placebo group, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no significant difference in OS (p=0.957) between groups. In multivariate analysis, no difference in overall mortality was observed between groups (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for H. pylori treatment, 0.75; p=0.495) or H. pylori-eradicated status (aHR for positive H. pylori status, 1.16; p=0.715), while old age, male sex, and advanced stage ≥ IIIa were independent risk factors. Six patients in the treatment group (6.9%) and seven patients in the placebo group (8.5%) had GC recurrences, and GC recurrence rates were not different according to H. pylori treatment (5-year GC recurrence rates, 4.6% in the treatment group vs. 8.5% in the placebo group; p=0.652). H. pylori eradication for GC patients who underwent distal gastrectomy did not compromise long-term survival after surgery.

  1. Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Chasekwa, Bernard; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H

    2017-09-15

    Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression. At 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants. HIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.

  2. Impact of institutional accreditation by the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology on the treatment and survival of women with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Mikio; Shida, Masako; Shibata, Takeo; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Kigawa, Junzo; Aoki, Daisuke; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2018-03-01

    The Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology (JSGO) initiated a nation-wide training system for the education and certification for gynecologic oncologists in 2005. To assess the impact of the quality of the JSGO-accredited institutions, JSGO undertook an analysis of the Uterine Cervical Cancer Registry of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) to determine the effectiveness of the JSGO-accredited institutions on the treatment and survival of women with cervical cancer. The effectiveness of 119 JSGO-accredited institutions and 125 non-JSGO-accredited institutions on the treatment and survival of women with cervical cancer were compared by analyzing the tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, and survival outcomes of women with stage T1B-T4 cervical cancer utilizing the data in the JSOG nation-wide registry for cervical cancer (2006-2009). A total of 14,185 eligible women were identified: 10,920 (77.0%) cases for 119 JSGO-accredited institutions and 3,265 (23.0%) cases for 125 non-accredited institutions. A multivariate analysis showed that age, stage, histology type, and treatment pattern were independently associated with mortality. Moreover, women who received treatment at the JSGO-accredited institutions had a significantly decreased mortality risk compared to non-accredited institutions (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.843; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.784-0.905). Similar findings on multivariate analysis were seen among subset of women who received surgery alone (aHR=0.552; 95% CI=0.393-0.775) and among women who received radiotherapy (aHR=0.845; 95% CI=0.766-0.931). Successful implementation of gynecologic oncology accrediting institution was associated with improved survival outcome of women with cervical cancer in Japan.

  3. NEONATAL MORBIDITY AND EARLY OUTCOME OF VERY PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions.The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s < 30 weeks’ gestation, who were admitted to the NICU. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 102 infants with gestational age less than 30 weeks’ gestation, hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Clinical University Center Sarajevo, from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2010. Parameters taken at admission were: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, excess base and CRIB score. Early outcome is considered as a survival at discharge or common preterm morbidities presented during hospitalizationResults: The mean BW of evaluated preterm infants was 1086 ± 250 g, the mean GA27.89 ± 1.97, Apgar score 5.41 ± 1.76, excess base at admission 6.39 ± 1.74 and mean CRIB score 3.72 ± 3.16. The overall survival rate was 70.5%. Selected outcomes at discharge were: RDS with 70.5% infants treated with natural surfactant, PDA treated with NSAIDS (23.5%, brain injury ( ≥ grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the mostfrequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm

  4. Feeding the infant with congenital heart disease: an occupational performance challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imms, C

    2001-01-01

    This review article uses the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP) as a theoretical framework to organize a discussion of the complexities of infant feeding when the infant has congenital heart disease (CHD). Literature from many fields indicates that feeding supports the physical, cognitive, and affective development of infants within their various environmental contexts. Many infants with CHD, who are now surviving in increasing numbers, experience feeding difficulties that affect their growth and development and that challenge their caregivers. The feeding experiences of infants with CHD illustrate the clinical applicability of the CMOP and the need for further research. Research using the framework of the CMOP will enable the development and implementation of evidence-based interventions that support the occupation of feeding from both the infant and the caregiver perspective.

  5. Does Family Planning Reduce Infant Mortality? Evidence from Surveillance Data in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Saha, U.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Analyzing the effect of family planning on child survival remains an important issue but is not straightforward because of several mechanisms linking family planning, birth intervals, total fertility, and child survival. This study uses a dynamic model jointly explaining infant mortality,

  6. Low Vitamin-D Levels Combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J Host Variants Is Associated with Tuberculosis and Death in HIV-Infected and -Exposed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amita; Montepiedra, Grace; Gupte, Akshay; Zeldow, Bret; Jubulis, Jennifer; Detrick, Barbara; Violari, Avy; Madhi, Shabir; Bobat, Raziya; Cotton, Mark; Mitchell, Charles; Spector, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial (NCT00080119) underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D testing by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alter the effect of vitamin D [e.g. vitamin D receptor (VDR)], vitamin D levels [e.g. vitamin D binding protein (VDBP)], or toll like receptor (TLR) expression (SIGIRR including adjacent genes PKP3 and TMEM16J) were identified by real-time PCR. Outcomes were time to TB, and to the composite of TB or death by 192 weeks of follow-up. Effect modification between vitamin D status and SNPs for outcomes was assessed. Median age at 25-hydroxyvitamin D determination was 8 months; 11% were breastfed, 51% were HIV-infected and 26% had low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (deaths occurred. Adjusting for HIV status and potential confounders, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with any TB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.76, 95% CI 1.01-3.05; p = 0.046) and any TB or death (aHR 1.76, 95% CI 1.03-3.00; p = 0.038). Children with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and TMEM 16J rs7111432-AA or PKP3 rs10902158-GG were at increased risk for probable/definite TB or death (aHR 8.12 and 4.83, pdeath (aHR 4.78 and 3.26, pdisease or death. Identifying high-risk children and providing targeted interventions such as vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00080119.

  7. Mortality, neonatal morbidity and two year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia G de Waal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extremely preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal mortality and adverse outcome. Survival rates are slowly improving, but increased survival may come at the expense of more handicaps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective population-based cohort study of all infants born at 23 to 27 weeks of gestation in The Netherlands in 2007. 276 of 345 (80% infants were born alive. Early neonatal death occurred in 96 (34.8% live born infants, including 61 cases of delivery room death. 29 (10.5% infants died during the late neonatal period. Survival rates for live born infants at 23, 24, 25 and 26 weeks of gestation were 0%, 6.7%, 57.9% and 71% respectively. 43.1% of 144 surviving infants developed severe neonatal morbidity (retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or severe brain injury. At two years of age 70.6% of the children had no disability, 17.6% was mild disabled and 11.8% had a moderate-to-severe disability. Severe brain injury (p = 0.028, retinopathy of prematurity grade ≥3 (p = 0.024, low gestational age (p = 0.019 and non-Dutch nationality of the mother (p = 0.004 increased the risk of disability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 52% of extremely preterm infants born in The Netherlands in 2007 survived. Surviving infants had less severe neonatal morbidity compared to previous studies. At two years of age less than 30% of the infants were disabled. Disability was associated with gestational age and neonatal morbidity.

  8. Maternal and infant health is protected by antiretroviral drug strategies that preserve breastfeeding by HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Health is justified in withdrawing support for free infant formula. By so doing, it recognises that any intervention that might detract from breast feeding poses a serious threat to infant survival. Since evidence is now strong that antiretroviral drugs used during lactation prevent transmission of infection from a seropositive mother, strategies that promote breastfeeding can now be recommended for enhancing the health of mothers and infants.

  9. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  10. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  11. Consanguinity and recurrence risk of stillbirth and infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, C; Magnus, P; Skrondal, A; Lie, R T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the recurrence risk for stillbirth and infant death and compare results for offspring of first-cousin parents with results for offspring of unrelated parents. METHODS: The study population consisted of all single births with a previous sibling born in Norway between 1967 and 1994. Altogether, 629,888 births were to unrelated parents, and 3466 births were to parents who were first cousins. The risk of stillbirth and infant death was estimated for subsequent siblings contingent on parental consanguinity and survival of the previous sibling. RESULTS: For unrelated parents, the risk of early death (stillbirth plus infant death) for the subsequent sibling was 17 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 67 of 1000 if the previous child died before 1 year of age. For parents who were first cousins, the risk of early death for the subsequent sibling was 29 of 1000 if the previous child survived and 116 of 1000 if the previous child died. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of recurrence of stillbirth and infant death is higher for offspring of first-cousin parents compared with offspring of unrelated parents. PMID:10191794

  12. Risk Factors for Mortality among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Following Antiretroviral Therapy in Southwestern Ethiopia: An Assessment through Survival Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Degryse, Jean-Marie; Kifle, Yehenew Getachew; Taye, Ayele; Tadesse, Mulualem; Birlie, Belay; Banbeta, Akalu; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-03-12

    Introduction: Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment. However, HIV patients in resource-poor settings are still dying, even if they are on ART treatment. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Southwestern Ethiopia. Method: A non-concurrent retrospective cohort study which collected data from the clinical records of adult HIV/AIDS patients, who initiated ART treatment and were followed between January 2006 and December 2010, was conducted, to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH). Survival times (i.e., the time from the onset of ART treatment to the death or censoring) and different characteristics of patients were retrospectively examined. A best-fit model was chosen for the survival data, after the comparison between native semi-parametric Cox regression and parametric survival models (i.e., exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic). Result: A total of 456 HIV patients were included in the study, mostly females (312, 68.4%), with a median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range (IQR): 23-37 years). Estimated follow-up until December 2010 accounted for 1245 person-years at risk (PYAR) and resulted in 66 (14.5%) deaths and 390 censored individuals, representing a median survival time of 34.0 months ( IQR: 22.8-42.0 months). The overall mortality rate was 5.3/100 PYAR: 6.5/100 PYAR for males and 4.8/100 PYAR for females. The Weibull survival model was the best model for fitting the data (lowest AIC). The main factors associated with mortality were: baseline age (>35 years old, AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-9.1), baseline weight (AHR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.97), baseline WHO stage IV (AHR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.2-14.2), and low adherence to ART treatment (AHR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-7.1). Conclusion: An effective reduction in HIV/AIDS mortality could be achieved through timely ART treatment onset

  13. Risk Factors for Mortality among Adult HIV/AIDS Patients Following Antiretroviral Therapy in Southwestern Ethiopia: An Assessment through Survival Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinberu Seyoum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Efforts have been made to reduce HIV/AIDS-related mortality by delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART treatment. However, HIV patients in resource-poor settings are still dying, even if they are on ART treatment. This study aimed to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Southwestern Ethiopia. Method: A non-concurrent retrospective cohort study which collected data from the clinical records of adult HIV/AIDS patients, who initiated ART treatment and were followed between January 2006 and December 2010, was conducted, to explore the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-related mortality at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH. Survival times (i.e., the time from the onset of ART treatment to the death or censoring and different characteristics of patients were retrospectively examined. A best-fit model was chosen for the survival data, after the comparison between native semi-parametric Cox regression and parametric survival models (i.e., exponential, Weibull, and log-logistic. Result: A total of 456 HIV patients were included in the study, mostly females (312, 68.4%, with a median age of 30 years (inter-quartile range (IQR: 23–37 years. Estimated follow-up until December 2010 accounted for 1245 person-years at risk (PYAR and resulted in 66 (14.5% deaths and 390 censored individuals, representing a median survival time of 34.0 months ( IQR: 22.8–42.0 months. The overall mortality rate was 5.3/100 PYAR: 6.5/100 PYAR for males and 4.8/100 PYAR for females. The Weibull survival model was the best model for fitting the data (lowest AIC. The main factors associated with mortality were: baseline age (>35 years old, AHR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1, baseline weight (AHR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90–0.97, baseline WHO stage IV (AHR = 6.2, 95% CI: 2.2–14.2, and low adherence to ART treatment (AHR = 4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–7.1. Conclusion: An effective reduction in HIV/AIDS mortality could be achieved through timely ART

  14. Association of Arsenic Exposure during Pregnancy with Fetal Loss and Infant Death: A Cohort Study in Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Anisur; Vahter, Marie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Golam Mustafa, Abu Haider Mohammad; Wahed, Mohammad Abdul; Yunus, Mohammed; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effect of arsenic exposure on fetal and infant survival in a cohort of 29,134 pregnancies identified by the health and demographic surveillance system in Matlab, Bangladesh, in 1991-2000...

  15. Infant feeding, HIV transmission and mortality at 18 months: the need for appropriate choices by mothers and prioritization within programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nigel C; Becquet, Renaud; Bland, Ruth M; Coutsoudis, Anna; Coovadia, Hoosen M; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2008-11-12

    To determine the late HIV transmission and survival risks associated with early infant feeding practices. A nonrandomized intervention cohort. HIV-infected pregnant women were supported in their infant feeding choices. Infant feeding data were obtained weekly; blood samples from infants were taken monthly to diagnose HIV infection. Eighteen-month mortality and HIV transmission risk were assessed according to infant feeding practices at 6 months. One thousand one hundred and ninety-three live-born infants were included. Overall 18-month probabilities of death (95% confidence interval) were 0.04 (0.03-0.06) and 0.53 (0.46-0.60) for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children, respectively. The eighteen-month probability of survival was not statistically significantly different for HIV-uninfected infants breastfed or replacement fed from birth. In univariate analysis of infant feeding practices, the probability of HIV-free survival beyond the first 6 months of life in children alive at 6 months was 0.98 (0.89-1.00) amongst infants replacement fed from birth, 0.96 (0.90-0.98; P = 0.25) and 0.91 (0.87-0.94; P = 0.03) in those breastfed for less or more than 6 months, respectively. In multivariable analyses, maternal unemployment and low antenatal CD4 cell count were independently associated with more than three-fold increased risk of infant HIV infection or death. Breastfeeding and replacement feeding of HIV-uninfected infants were associated with similar mortality rates at 18 months. However, these findings were amongst mothers and infants who received excellent support to first make, and then practice, appropriate infant feeding choices. For programmes to achieve similar results, the quality of counselling and identification of mothers with low CD4 cell count need to be the targets of improvement strategies.

  16. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  17. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  18. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... African Americans had over twice the sudden infant death syndrome mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites, in ...

  19. Severe labetalol overdose in an 8-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Adalbjörn; Johannesdottir, Astridur; Eiríksson, Herbert; Helgason, Hródmar

    2008-05-01

    We report a case of a large labetalol overdose in an eight-month-old infant that was being treated for hypertension following surgery for coarctation of the aorta. Labetalol, both alpha and beta adrenergic blocking agent was used for treating postoperative hypertension. By mistake, the patient was given an extremely high dose of labetalol intravenously (17.2 mg.kg(-1)). Remarkably, the medication error had a surprisingly limited clinical effect on the infant who survived the incident. We discuss the pharmacokinetic, pharmocodynamic and possible explanations for this fortunate turn of events.

  20. Infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing gastroschisis related mortality in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeld, Jordan C; Wren, Sherry M; Macheka, Nyasha; Mbuwayesango, Bothwell A; Bruzoni, Matias; Sylvester, Karl G; Kastenberg, Zachary J

    2015-12-01

    Survival for infants with gastroschisis in developed countries has improved dramatically in recent decades with reported mortality rates of 4-7%. Conversely, mortality rates for gastroschisis in sub-Saharan Africa remain as great as 60% in contemporary series. This study describes the burden of gastroschisis at the major pediatric hospital in Zimbabwe with the goal of identifying modifiable factors influencing gastroschisis-related infant mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all cases of gastroschisis admitted to Harare Children's Hospital in 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe infant, maternal, and geographic factors influencing survival. A total of 5,585 neonatal unit admissions were identified including 95 (1.7%) infants born with gastroschisis. Gastroschisis-related mortality was 84% (n = 80). Of infants with gastroschisis, 96% (n = 91) were born outside Harare Hospital, 82% (n = 78) were born outside Harare Province, and 23% (n = 25) were home births. The unadjusted odds of survival for these neonates with gastroschisis were decreased for low birth weight infants (infant mortality in Zimbabwe is associated with well-known risk factors, including low birth weight, prematurity, and teenage mothers. However, modifiable factors identified in this study signify potential opportunities for developing innovative approaches to perinatal care in such a resource-constrained environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Kangaroo care on premature infant growth and maternal attachment and post-partum depression in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hye Young; Lee, Joohyun; Shin, Hwa-Jin

    2010-10-01

    After births, premature infants need a high level of medical treatments for their survivals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This separation deprives mothers of the chance to initiate an attachment process. Kangaroo care (KC) can be one of the ways to reunite mothers and their infants in the NICU and improve health outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of KC on both premature infants and their mothers. Ten sessions of 60-min KC for 3 weeks were practiced at a level III NICU at E university hospital. Infants' body weight, height and head circumference (HC), maternal attachment and depression were measured. As a result, premature infants in KC showed higher in their height and bigger in their HC than infants in control. Maternal attachment scores were higher among the KC mothers. The results supported the beneficial effects of KC on Korean premature infants and their mothers.

  2. MODERN ACHIEVEMENTS IN EARLY NEONATAL FEEDING OF PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Zakharova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue regarding the survival, preservation of life, health and neuropsychic development of infants with extremely low birth weight. 25 preterm infants aged 0 to 4 weeks were studied. The inclusion criteria were infants aged 28–34 weeks of gestation, with weights ranging from 1,000 to 1,850 g. Enteral feeding consisted of specialized formula with prebiotics (6 hours after birth through a drip feeding tube, increasing to 150 ml/kg a day by the age of 10–12 days. The study results demonstrated that the maximum weight loss was recorded on day 4,0 ± 1,5. The original body weight was restored, on average, on day 13. The average daily weight gain was 14,0 g/kg a day which evidenced good digestion of nutrients and high energy value of the formula. The results of lab tests showed a reduced level of nonesterified fatty acides, a slow waning of _-fetoprotein synthesis. Using a special formula with prebiotics on this category of infants, therefore, provides optimal rate of body weight growth and models protein lipid metabolism in blood serum after the anabolic pattern. Key words: preterm infants, infants with extremely low birth weight, feeding, special care. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:78-81

  3. Hemodynamic analysis in infants with late-onset circulatory collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Yosuke; Uchiyama, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Totsu, Satsuki; Masumoto, Kenichi; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2013-10-01

    Late-onset circulatory collapse (LCC) is a disorder in which blood pressure decreases and oliguria suddenly occurs in preterm infants who have survived the acute stage, leading to shock, without contributing underlying factors. In order to evaluate hemodynamic changes during LCC, the correlation between myocardial functions and organ blood flow was investigated with echography. Seven very-low-birthweight infants were given a diagnosis of LCC during the study period. Cardiovascular and organ flow parameters of the infants were recorded prospectively, once a week, and compared with eight control very-low-birthweight infants with matching gestational age. Echographic study was performed before LCC, at the onset of LCC, and after LCC among infants with LCC. A significant increase in ejection fraction and a significant decrease in end systolic wall stress were observed in infants with the LCC condition. At the same time, the mean blood flow velocity increased significantly in the superior mesenteric artery, while it decreased in the anterior cerebral artery. Systolic blood flow velocity increased and mean velocity was maintained in the renal artery during LCC. LCC is a distributive shock, characterized by a hyperdynamic state and decreased afterload. Echographic examination of organ flow during LCC is useful in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  5. Supporting Fathering Through Infant Massage

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Carolynn Darrell; Anthony A Volk; Marini, Zopito A.

    2011-01-01

    Fathers may feel dissatisfied with their ability to form a close attachment with their infants in the early postpartum period, which, in turn, may increase their parent-related stress. Our study sought to determine if an infant massage intervention assisted fathers with decreasing stress and increasing bonding with their infants during this time. To address the complex father–infant relationship, we conducted a pilot study using a mixed methodology approach. Twelve infant–father dyads partici...

  6. Cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Wong, Flora Y; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-09-01

    Prone sleeping is a major risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and preterm infants are at significantly increased risk. In term infants, prone sleeping is associated with reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI). However, little is known about the effects of sleeping position on TOI and MAP in preterm infants. We aimed to examine TOI and MAP in preterm infants after term-equivalent age, during the period of greatest SIDS risk. Thirty-five preterm and 17 term infants underwent daytime polysomnography, including measurement of TOI (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and MAP (Finapress Medical Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands) at 2 to 4 weeks, 2 to 3 months, and 5 to 6 months postterm age. Infants slept prone and supine in active and quiet sleep. The effects of sleep state and position were determined by using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance and of preterm birth by using 2-way analysis of variance. In preterm infants, TOI was significantly lower when prone compared with supine in both sleep states at all ages (P preterm compared with term infants at 2 to 4 weeks, in both positions (P preterm infants in the prone position at 2 to 3 months (P position in preterm infants and is lower compared with age-matched term infants, predominantly in the prone position when MAP is also reduced. This may contribute to their increased SIDS risk. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. High Flow Nasal Cannulae in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as an efficient, better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. The aim of this review is to discuss the available evidence of effectiveness and safety of HFNC in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. It is known that distending pressure generated by HFNC increases with increasing flow rate and decreasing infant size and varies according to the amount of leaks by nose and mouth. The effects of HFNC on lung mechanics, its clinical efficacy and safety are still insufficiently investigated. In conclusion, there is a growing evidence of the feasibility of HFNC as an alternative mode of NIV. However, further larger randomized trials are required, before being able to recommend HFNC in the treatment of moderate respiratory distress of preterm infants.

  8. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions. PMID:28570611

  9. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  10. Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M; Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Hansen, Nellie I; Cotten, C Michael; Stoll, Barbara J; Sanchez, Pablo J; Bell, Edward F; Das, Abhik; Hensman, Angelita M; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Wyckoff, Myra H

    2017-10-05

    Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS. Study infants were born at 22 to 28 weeks' gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014. EOS was defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours age. Infants were hypothesized as "low risk" for EOS when delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis. Frequency of prolonged antibiotics (≥5 days) was compared between low-risk infants and all others. Risks of mortality, EOS, and other morbidities were assessed by using regression models adjusted for center, race, antenatal steroid use, multiple birth, sex, gestation, and birth weight. Of 15 433 infants, 5759 (37%) met low-risk criteria. EOS incidence among infants surviving >12 hours was 29 out of 5640 (0.5%) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8422 (2.5%) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk = 0.24 [95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.36]). Low-risk infants also had significantly lower combined risk of EOS or death ≤12 hours. Prolonged antibiotics were administered to 34% of low-risk infants versus 47% of comparison infants without EOS. Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of EOS. Recognition of differential risk may help guide decisions to limit early antibiotic use among approximately one-third of these infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Relationship Between Metformin Use and Recurrence and Survival in Patients With Resected Stage III Colon Cancer Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy: Results From North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0147 (Alliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Shi, Qian; Foster, Nathan R; Grothey, Axel; Nair, Suresh G; Chan, Emily; Shields, Anthony F; Goldberg, Richard M; Gill, Sharlene; Kahlenberg, Morton S; Sinicrope, Frank A; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical and epidemiological data suggest that metformin might have antineoplastic properties against colon cancer (CC). However, the effect of metformin use on patient survival in stage III CC after curative resection is unknown. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use. Before randomization to FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab, 1,958 patients with stage III CC enrolled in the N0147 study completed a questionnaire with information on diabetes mellitus (DM) and metformin use. Cox models were used to assess the association between metformin use and disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and the time to recurrence (TTR), adjusting for clinical and/or pathological factors. Of the 1,958 patients, 1,691 (86%) reported no history of DM, 115 reported DM with metformin use (6%), and 152 reported DM without metformin use (8%). The adjuvant treatment arms were pooled, because metformin use showed homogeneous effects on outcomes across the two arms. Among the patients with DM (n = 267), DFS (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.35; p = .60), OS (aHR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.65-1.49; p = .95), and TTR (aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56-1.35; p = .53) were not different for the metformin users compared with the nonusers after adjusting for tumor and patient factors. The survival outcomes were comparable regardless of the duration of metformin use (colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin)-based chemotherapy. This relationship was not modified by KRAS or BRAF mutation or DNA mismatch repair status. Metformin use did not increase or decrease the likelihood of chemotherapy-related grade 3 or higher adverse events. ©AlphaMed Press.

  12. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  13. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  14. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a

  15. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  16. A new formula for premature infants: effects on growth and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marseglia, Lucia; Pagano, Giuseppina; Arco, Alessandro; Barberi, Ignazio; Biasucci, Giacomo; Riboni, Sara; Mondello, Isabella; Fiamingo, Chiara; Moro, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional management influences immediate survival as well as subsequent growth and development of low birth weight and very low birth weight infants. Preterm infant formula (PTF) is used when there is an inadequate supply of mother's milk or when the mother is unable to breastfeed and donor breast milk is unavailable. The purpose of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate short-term effects on nutritional status (auxological and biochemical parameters) in a population of premature infants who received a preterm infant formula. Ninety-seven preterm infants with a birth weight between 500 g and 2000 g and a gestational age of 25-34 weeks postmenstrual age were randomly assigned to received a new preterm infant formula (Nutribèn Pre), and their nutritional status were compared to 75 fortified human milk (FHM) fed infants. No significant differences were observed between FHM and Nutribèn Pre fed infants in terms of growth, feeding tolerance and biochemical profiles. Nutribèn Pre is a valid, effective and safe alternative for the nutrition of preterm infants.

  17. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  18. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  19. Improvement in perinatal care for extremely premature infants in Denmark from 1994 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Asbjørn Børch; Børch, Klaus; Pryds, Ole Axel

    2016-01-01

    PVL) and intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3-4 (IVH 3-4). RESULTS: A total of 184, 83 and 127 infants were included from the cohorts. Delivery rates at level 3 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitals increased from 69% to 87%. Transfer rates to level 3 NICU almost doubled during the period. Survival rates were...... gestational age and administration of surfactant. CONCLUSIONS: Centralisation of treatment of extremely premature infants has been implemented because more children are being born at highly specialised perinatal centres. Care improved as more infants received evidence-based treatment. IVH 3-4 rates declined...

  20. Zinc and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, M Leigh; Michalczyk, Agnes A

    2016-12-01

    Zinc is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes in all cells. It is a critical dietary nutrient, particularly in the early stages of life. In the early neonatal period, adequate sources of zinc can be obtained from breast milk. In rare circumstances, the mammary gland produces zinc deficient milk that is potentially lethal for exclusively breast-fed infants. This can be overcome by zinc supplementation to the infant. Alterations to key zinc transporters provide insights into the mechanisms of cellular zinc homeostasis. The bioavailability of zinc in food depends on the presence of constituents that may complex zinc. In many countries, zinc deficiency is a major health issue due to poor nourishment. Young children are particularly affected. Zinc deficiency can impair immune function and contributes to the global burden of infectious diseases including diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Furthermore, zinc deficiency may extend its influence across generations by inducing epigenetic effects that alter the expression of genes. This review discusses the significance of adequate zinc nutrition in infants, factors that influence zinc nutrition, the consequences of zinc deficiency, including its contribution to the global burden of disease, and addresses some of the knowledge gaps in zinc biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Clinical characteristics of Bochdalek hernia in neonates and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingze; Xu, Zhicheng; Liu, Wenying

    2007-07-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of Bochdalek hernia in neonates and infants. The data of 15 neonates and 10 infants with Bochdalek hernia,undergoing the normal diagnosis and surgical repair from August 1983 to June 2004, were retrospectively reviewed. Location was left in 22 cases and right in 3 cases. Twenty-four cases were treated by operation and 1 case died of respiratory failure before operation. Before April 1998, 7 of 8 (5 neonates, 3 infants) cases of Bochdalek hernia stayed healthy and respiratory symptom-free 1 year after operation; they were followed up 1 year and 3 months to 11 years. One premature neonate with Bochdalek hernia died of respiratory failure before operation, and his lung volume was found to be dysplasia. From April 1998 to June 2004, 15 (8 neonates,7 infants) of 17 (10 neonates, 7 infants)cases of Bochdalek hernia survived postoperatively, while 2 neonates died of respiratory failure. The earlier dyspnoea of neonates of Bochdalek hernia occur, the worse their healthy status appear. The standard and timely surgical repairs could improve the curative ratio. Whether the operation was suspended depended on the healthy states of babies.

  2. The costs of inadequate breastfeeding of infants in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colchero, M Arantxa; Contreras-Loya, David; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2015-03-01

    Breastfeeding is vital for child survival, health, and development. Mexico has very low rates of breastfeeding and experienced a severe decrease in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding from 21% in 2006 to 14% in 2012. The objective of the article was to estimate the pediatric costs of inadequate breastfeeding in Mexico associated with the following acute health conditions: respiratory infections, otitis media, gastroenteritis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The authors estimated the economic costs of inadequate breastfeeding as follows: the sum of direct health care costs for diseases whose risk increases when infants are non-exclusively breastfed breastfeeding in Mexico for the studied cohort ranged from $745.6 million to $2416.5 million, where the costs of infant formula accounted for 11-38% of total costs. A range of 1.1-3.8 million reported cases of disease and from 933 to 5796 infant deaths per year for the diseases under study are attributed to inadequate infant breastfeeding practices; altogether these represent nearly 27% of the absolute number of episodes of such diseases. This study provides costs of inadequate breastfeeding that had not been quantified in Mexico. The costs presented in this article provide the minimum amount that the country should invest to achieve better breastfeeding practices. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. [Home care for the high-risk newborn infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, M

    2010-06-01

    With increased survival of extremely low birth weigh (ELBW) and very ill infants, a lot of them are discharged with unresolved medical issues that complicate their subsequent care. Infants born preterm with low birth weight who require neonatal intensive care experience a much higher rate of hospital readmission and death during the first year after birth compared with healthy term infants. Despite initial hospital care which is one of the most expensive of all kind of hospitalization, home care services are sometimes still sparse though the high risk of this group for failure to thrive, respiratory problems, developmental delays, parenting problems. In addition, societal and economic forces have come to bear on the timing and process of discharge and home care. Moreover it takes time for the family of a high-risk infant to prepare to care for their infant in a home setting and to obtain the necessary support services and mobilize community resources. Careful preparation for discharge, good follow-up and medical home after discharge may reduce these risks.

  4. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  5. Survival analysis to measure turnover of the medical education workforce in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard

    2017-03-14

    Until recently, there were only a few medical schools in Ethiopia. However, currently, in response to the apparent shortage in physician workforce, the country has made huge progress with respect to the expansion of medical schools, by adopting the so-called flooding strategy. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the intended strategy also relies on physician accessibility and turnover. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physicians in the medical schools of Ethiopia and to quantify the magnitude and identify factors associated with physician turnover. This organizational faculty physician workforce survey was conducted in seven government-owned medical schools in Ethiopia. Longitudinal medical workforce data set of about 6 years (between September 2009 and June 2015) were retrospectively collected from each of the medical schools. The observation time begins with the date of employment (time zero) and ends at the date on which the physician leaves the appointment/or the data collection date. Kaplan-Meier survival method was used to describe the duration of stay of physicians in the academic health care settings. A Cox proportional hazards (CPH) model was fitted to identify the risk factors for physician turnover. In this study, a total of 1258 faculty physicians were observed in seven medical schools which resulted in 6670.5 physician-years. Of the total, there were 198 (15.7%) turnover events and the remaining 1060 (84.3%) were censored. The average turnover rate is about 29.7 per 1000 physician-years of observations. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical significant difference in the rate of turnover between males and females (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 1.12; 95%CI, 0.71, 1.80). However, a lower rate of physician turnover was observed among those who were born before 1975 (AHR, 0.37; 95%CI, 0.20, 0.69) compared with those who were born after 1985. Physicians with the academic rank of associate professor and above had a

  6. Mortality, neonatal morbidity and two year follow-up of extremely preterm infants born in the netherlands in 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. de Waal (Cornelia); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); F.J. Walther (Frans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Extremely preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal mortality and adverse outcome. Survival rates are slowly improving, but increased survival may come at the expense of more handicaps. Methodology/Principal Findings: Prospective population-based cohort study of all

  7. Infant mental health in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Hasnah; Squires, Jane; Lawrence, Karen

    2011-03-01

    The Infant Mental Health system in Malaysia is described, beginning with cultural and religious practices that influence mental health practices. Second, a description of the Malaysian mental health system, including historical influences, is given. Third, policy and services for young children with mental health problems are described. Finally, recommendations for future steps for developing an effective infant mental health system are presented, including the development of infant mental health policies by the government, increased personnel training, increased community mental health resources, integration of culture into the mental health system, and finally, development of appropriate screening and assessment instruments and systems. Copyright © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Infants Requiring Maintenance Dialysis: Outcomes of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrico; van Stralen, Karlijn J; Chesnaye, Nicholas C; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Holmberg, Christer; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Trivelli, Antonella; Da Silva, José Eduardo Esteves; Herthelius, Maria; Adams, Brigitte; Bjerre, Anna; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Miteva, Polina; Emirova, Khadizha; Bayazit, Aysun K; Mache, Christoph J; Sánchez-Moreno, Ana; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W; Jager, Kitty J; Schaefer, Franz; Verrina, Enrico

    2017-05-01

    The impact of different dialysis modalities on clinical outcomes has not been explored in young infants with chronic kidney failure. Cohort study. Data were extracted from the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry. This analysis included 1,063 infants 12 months or younger who initiated dialysis therapy in 1991 to 2013. Type of dialysis modality. Differences between infants treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) in patient survival, technique survival, and access to kidney transplantation were examined using Cox regression analysis while adjusting for age at dialysis therapy initiation, sex, underlying kidney disease, and country of residence. 917 infants initiated dialysis therapy on PD, and 146, on HD. Median age at dialysis therapy initiation was 4.5 (IQR, 0.7-7.9) months, and median body weight was 5.7 (IQR, 3.7-7.5) kg. Although the groups were homogeneous regarding age and sex, infants treated with PD more often had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 48% vs 27%), whereas those on HD therapy more frequently had metabolic disorders (12% vs 4%). Risk factors for death were younger age at dialysis therapy initiation (HR per each 1-month later initiation, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97) and non-CAKUT cause of chronic kidney failure (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04). Mortality risk and likelihood of transplantation were equal in PD and HD patients, whereas HD patients had a higher risk for changing dialysis treatment (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.17-2.31). Inability to control for unmeasured confounders not included in the Registry database and missing data (ie, comorbid conditions). Low statistical power because of relatively small number of participants. Despite a widespread preconception that HD should be reserved for cases in which PD is not feasible, in Europe, we found 1 in 8 infants in need of maintenance dialysis to be initiated on HD therapy. Patient characteristics at dialysis therapy initiation, prospective survival, and time to

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  10. Infant Massage: Understand This Soothing Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand when and how to give an infant massage. By Mayo Clinic Staff Infant massage is a way for you to gently nurture ... Find out about the possible benefits of infant massage and know how to get started. Research suggests ...

  11. Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Know Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Share Tweet Linkedin ... infants has only been available in a stronger concentration that doesn’t require giving the infants as ...

  12. Tracheostomy placement in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: safety and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, George; Malkar, Manish; Welty, Stephen E; Brown, Rachel; Shepherd, Edward; Gardner, William; Moise, Alicia; Gest, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing the timing and safety for the placement of a tracheostomy in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to describe the data from a single institution about the efficacy and safety of tracheostomy placement in infants with BPD needing long-term respiratory support. We established a service line for the comprehensive care of infants with BPD and we collected retrospective clinical data from this service line. We identified patients that had a trachostomy placed using the local Vermont-Oxford database, and obtained clinical data from chart reviews. We identified infants who had a tracheostomy placed for the indication of severe BPD only. Safety and respiratory efficacy was assessed by overall survival to discharge and the change in respiratory supportive care from just before placement to 1-month post-placement. Twenty-two patients (750 ± 236 g, 25.4 ± 2.1 weeks gestation) had a tracheostomy placed on day of life 177 ± 74 which coincided with a post-conceptual age of 51 ± 10 weeks. At placement these infants were on high settings to support their lung disease. The mean airway pressure (MAP) was 14.3 ± 3.3 cmH(2) O, the peak inspiratory pressure was 43.7 ± 8.0 cmH(2) O, and the FiO(2) was 0.51 ± 0.13. The mean respiratory severity score (MAP × FiO(2) ) 1 month after tracheostomy was significantly (P = 0.03) lower than prior to tracheostomy. Survival to hospital discharge was 77%. All patients with tracheostomies that survived were discharged home on mist collar supplemental oxygen. In conclusion, the high survival rate in these patients with severe BPD and the decreased respiratory support after placement of a tracheostomy suggests that high ventilatory pressures should not be a deterrent for placement of a tracheostomy. Future research should be aimed at determining optimal patient selection and timing for tracheostomy placement in infants

  13. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  14. Challenges Facing Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV among Infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The health systems also face a lot of challenges while implementing these programmes that would promptly identify HIV exposed babies as well as enrolment into care. This review examined challenges facing early infant diagnosis of HIV among infants in Nigeria. Résumé Le nombre d'enfants qui sont atteints du VIH ne ...

  15. Relationship of maternal and infant nutrition to infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, H L; Valverde, V E; Martorell, R; Klein, R E

    1982-07-01

    A cohort of all infants born between January 1, 1969 and February 28, 1977 in four rural villages in Eastern Guatemala which were participating in a longitudinal project of nutrition and mental development was studied. As part of the study, prospective information on anthropometric measurements, morbidity, dietary intake and socioeconomic and cultural characteristics was collected. In addition, two types of food supplements were distributed: calorie and protein-calorie. Attendance at the feeding centers in each village and the amount of supplements consumed by children and pregnant and lactating mothers were recorded daily. We studied the effect of the supplements consumed by the mother during pregnancy and lactation and by the infant on trimestral infant weight and length changes during the first year of life. The data indicate that infant calorie supplementation before three months of age is significantly and negatively associated with infant growth; after three months of age, supplemental calories consumed by the infant are significantly and positively associated with infant weight and length gains. In addition, a small positive association was found between maternal caloric supplementation during lactation and infant growth during the first two trimesters of life, after controlling for potentially confounding factors for which data are available in this study.

  16. Infants' Behavioral and Physiological Profile and Mother-Infant Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Figueiredo, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to (a) identify and profile groups of infants according to their behavioral and physiological characteristics, considering their neurobehavioral organization, social withdrawal behavior, and endocrine reactivity to stress, and to (b) analyze group differences in the quality of mother-infant interaction. Ninety-seven 8-week-old…

  17. Women survive severe famines and epidemics better than men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarulli, Virginia; Barthold Jones, Julia; Oksuzyan, Anna

    Women live longer than men almost everywhere. Research provides evidence for both biological and behavioral factors modulating this gender gap, leaving open the question of what are its fundamental determinants. An unexplored source of information is when men and women experience extremely high...... better than men. In all populations they had lower mortality and, with the exception of one slave population, they lived longer. Infant ages contributed the most to the gender gap in life expectancy, indicating that newborn girls were able to survive extreme mortality better than newborn boys. Our...... results lend support to the hypothesis that the gender survival gap has deep biological roots....

  18. A prospective study of sudden unexpected infant death after reported maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Schneiderman, Janet U; Cleves, Mario A; Magruder, Joseph; Krous, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether infants reported for maltreatment face a heightened risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other leading causes of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). Linked birth and infant death records for all children born in California between 1999 and 2006 were matched to administrative child protection data. Infants were prospectively followed from birth through death or 1 year of age. A report of maltreatment was modeled as a time-varying covariate; risk factors at birth were included as baseline covariates. Multivariable competing risk survival models were used to estimate the adjusted relative hazard of postneonatal SIDS and other SUID. A previous maltreatment report emerged as a significant predictor of SIDS and other SUID. After adjusting for baseline risk factors, the rate of SIDS was more than 3 times as great among infants reported for possible maltreatment (hazard ratio: 3.22; 95% CI: 2.66, 3.89). Infants reported to child protective services have a heightened risk of SIDS and other SUID. Targeted services and improved communication between child protective services and the pediatric health care community may enhance infant well-being and reduce risk of death. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gastrostomy tube placement in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: Frequency, predictors, and growth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Sharmistha; Adibe, Obinna O; Malcolm, William F; Smith, P Brian; Cotten, C Michael; Greenberg, Rachel G

    2016-12-01

    Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement is a common intervention for newborns with severe feeding difficulties. Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) are at high risk for feeding problems. Prevalence of G-tube placement and consequent nutritional outcomes of infants with CDH and G-tubes has not been described. Determine factors associated with G-tube placement and growth in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Retrospective cohort study of infants with CDH to evaluate the association of G-tube placement with risk factors using logistic regression. We also assessed the association between growth velocity and G-tube placement and other risk factors using linear regression. The subjects of the study were infants with CDH treated at Duke University Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Weight gain in infants with CDH that had G-tube placement compared to those infants with CDH that did not. Of the 123 infants with CDH, 85 (69%) survived and G-tubes were placed in 25/85 (29%) survivors. On adjusted analysis, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR=11.26 [95% CI: 1.92-65.89]; P=0.01) and proton pump inhibitor use (OR=17.29 [3.98-75.14], P≤0.001) were associated with G-tube placement. Infants without G-tubes had a growth velocity of 6.5g/day (95% CI: 2.5-10.4) more than infants with G-tubes. Survivors with more complex inpatient courses were more likely to receive G-tubes. Further investigation is needed to identify optimal feeding practices for infants with CDH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and growth in very preterm infants in relation to NIDCAP in a Dutch NICU: two years of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielenga, J. M.; Smit, B. J.; Merkus, M. P.; Wolf, M. J.; Van Sonderen, L.; Kok, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study development and growth in relation to newborn individualized developmental and assessment program (NIDCAP) for infants born with a gestational age of less than 30 weeks. METHODS: Developmental outcome of surviving infants, 25 in the NIDCAP group and 24 in the conventional care group,

  1. SystEmatic review and meta-aNAlysis of infanT and young child feeding Practices (ENAT-P) in Ethiopia : protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Islam, Md Atiqul; Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review

  2. SystEmatic review and meta-aNAlysis of infanT and young child feeding Practices (ENAT-P) in Ethiopia : Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Mohammed, Shimels Hussien; Birhanu, Mulugeta Molla; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    Introduction Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) is the cornerstone of infant and child survival, healthy growth and development, healthy future generations and national development. In spite of the importance of optimal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries, there has been no review

  3. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  4. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-10-20

    With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.

  7. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

  9. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cortisol reactivity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2010-01-01

    In this systematic review on empirical studies of cortisol reactivity to acute stressors in infants, we specifically focus on the role of infant age in the early development of cortisol reactivity to stressors. Our findings indicate that many psychological stressors do not provoke a cortisol

  11. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  12. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a waterbed can block an infant's airway. Sharing a bed. While the risk of SIDS is lowered if an infant sleeps ... There's no evidence that routine immunizations increase SIDS risk. Some evidence indicates immunizations can help ... and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy ...

  13. Parent-infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, J.; Bennett, C.; Midgley, N.; Larkin, S. K.; Wei, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parent-infant psychotherapy (PIP) is a dyadic intervention that works with parent and infant together, with the aim of improving the parent-infant relationship and promoting infant attachment and optimal infant development. PIP aims to achieve this by targeting the mother’s view of her infant, which may be affected by her own experiences, and linking them to her current relationship to her child, in order to improve the parent-infant relationship directly. / Objectives: 1. To asse...

  14. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  15. Paradox Revisited: A Further Investigation of Race/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality by Maternal Age1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine the epidemiological paradox of lower overall infant mortality rates in the Mexican-origin population relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites using the 1995–2002 U.S. NCHS linked cohort birth-infant death files. A comparison of infant mortality rates among US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin mothers by maternal age reveals an infant survival advantage at younger maternal ages when compared to non-Hispanic whites, which is consistent with the Hispanic infant mortality paradox. However, this is accompanied by higher infant mortality at older ages for Mexican-origin women, which is consistent with the weathering framework. These patterns vary by nativity of the mother and do not change when rates are adjusted for risk factors. The relative infant survival disadvantage among Mexican-origin infants born to older mothers may be attributed to differences in the socioeconomic attributes of US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin women. PMID:23055238

  16. Prebiotic oligosaccharides in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mirmiran, Majid; Barile, Daniela; Tancredi, Daniel J; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of increasing doses of 2 prebiotic oligosaccharides and of an "all-human diet" on the intestinal microbiota of premature infants. Twelve premature infants receiving formula feedings were randomly assigned to receive either galacto-oligosaccharide (F+GOS) or a pooled concentrated donor human milk product containing human milk oligosaccharides (F+HMO) in increasing doses during a 5-week period. A second group of 15 premature infants received their mother's own milk fortified with either a concentrated donor human milk product (H+H) or a bovine powdered fortifier (H+B). Serial stool specimens from each infant were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial composition. All of the infants studied had relatively low levels of bifidobacteria and no measurable Lactobacilli. Infants from the F+GOS and F+HMO groups demonstrated an increase in relative numbers of Clostridia with increasing doses. Compared with the H+B group, the infants in the F+HMO and the H+H groups showed an unexpected trend toward an increase in γ-Proteobacteria over time/dose. Principal coordinate analyses and Shannon diversity scores were not significantly different among the 4 groups. Infants in the H+H group received more antibiotics during the study period than those in the other groups. Two of the infants receiving GOS developed feeding intolerance. None of the prebiotic interventions resulted in significant increases in bifidobacteria compared with baseline specimens or the H+B group; however, many of the infants did not receive the highest doses of GOS and HMO, and antibiotic use in the H+H group was high.

  17. The Infant Microbiome: Implications for Infant Health and Neurocognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Irene; Corwin, Elizabeth J; Brennan, Patricia A; Jordan, Sheila; Murphy, Jordan R; Dunlop, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Beginning at birth, the microbes in the gut perform essential duties related to the digestion and metabolism of food, the development and activation of the immune system, and the production of neurotransmitters that affect behavior and cognitive function. The objectives of this review are to (a) provide a brief overview of the microbiome and the "microbiome-gut-brain axis"; (b) discuss factors known to affect the composition of the infant microbiome: mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, and infant-feeding patterns; and (c) present research priorities for nursing science and clinical implications for infant health and neurocognitive development. The gut microbiome influences immunological, endocrine, and neural pathways and plays an important role in infant development. Several factors influence colonization of the infant gut microbiome. Different microbial colonization patterns are associated with vaginal versus surgical birth, exposure to antibiotics, and infant-feeding patterns. Because of extensive physiological influence, infant microbial colonization patterns have the potential to impact physical and neurocognitive development and life course disease risk. Understanding these influences will inform newborn care and parental education.

  18. Long-Term Survival and Reintervention After the Ross Procedure Across the Pediatric Age Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer S; Pasquali, Sara K; Pratt, Clayton N; Yu, Sunkyung; Donohue, Janet E; Loccoh, Emefah; Ohye, Richard G; Bove, Edward L; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    There are limited data regarding long-term outcomes after the Ross procedure in children. We evaluated mortality and reintervention in a large pediatric cohort. A retrospective analysis of all patients aged younger than 18 years who underwent the Ross procedure at our institution (1991 to 2013) was conducted. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportion hazard models were used to evaluate long-term outcomes and associated risk factors. Included were 240 consecutive patients undergoing a Ross/Ross-Konno procedure: 18% infants, 48% children, and 33% adolescents. Infants were more likely to have complex left heart disease (p = 0.005). Overall survival to hospital discharge was 96%; infants had the highest mortality (18%). Long-term survival status was known for 99.6% (median follow-up, 10.7 years). Overall 15-year survival was 87% (lowest in infants, 72%; p = 0.003). Reintervention status was known in 87%. Overall 15-year freedom from any left ventricular outflow tract reintervention was 59%; 85% still had their autograft valve at the latest follow-up. Left ventricular outflow tract reintervention was uncommon in infants (n = 2). Overall 15-year freedom from right ventricular outflow tract reintervention was 53%, and was lower in infants (19%) than in children (51%) and adolescents (76%; p Ross procedure in children vary by age. Infants more commonly have complex left heart disease and experience higher mortality but have excellent long-term autograft durability. Children and adolescents have higher rates of left ventricular outflow tract reintervention, whereas infants are at highest risk of right ventricular outflow tract reintervention. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  20. Preterm infant outcomes in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolisetty, Srinivas; Legge, Nele; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to provide updated information on gestation-specific hospital outcomes of extreme to very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. A population-based retrospective cohort study of infants born between 23(+0) and 31(+6) weeks gestation and admitted to a network of neonatal intensive care units between 2007 and 2011 in a well-defined geographic area of New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Main outcome measures were survival and major morbidities prior to hospital discharge. Of 4454 infants included, hospital survival rates based on gestational age alone were 27%, 59%, 76%, 85%, 91% and over 95% at 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28-31 weeks, respectively. Survival rates for each week up to 29 weeks gestation differed by at least 5% when perinatal risk factors including birthweight percentile, exposure to antenatal steroids, birth outside a tertiary hospital and gender were included in the survival estimation. All the major outcome figures were then simplified and displayed in a simple, easy-to-understand preterm outcome table for counselling purposes. We report the latest hospital outcomes of extreme to very preterm infants in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory. Survival rates based on gestational age alone may not provide the true estimate as the survival for these infants can vary based on the presence or absence of other relevant perinatal factors. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana: a randomized trial: the Mashi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thior, Ibou; Lockman, Shahin; Smeaton, Laura M; Shapiro, Roger L; Wester, Carolyn; Heymann, S Jody; Gilbert, Peter B; Stevens, Lisa; Peter, Trevor; Kim, Soyeon; van Widenfelt, Erik; Moffat, Claire; Ndase, Patrick; Arimi, Peter; Kebaabetswe, Poloko; Mazonde, Patson; Makhema, Joseph; McIntosh, Kenneth; Novitsky, Vladimir; Lee, Tun-Hou; Marlink, Richard; Lagakos, Stephen; Essex, Max

    2006-08-16

    Postnatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) via breastfeeding reverses gains achieved by perinatal antiretroviral interventions. To compare the efficacy and safety of 2 infant feeding strategies for the prevention of postnatal mother-to-child HIV transmission. A 2 x 2 factorial randomized clinical trial with peripartum (single-dose nevirapine vs placebo) and postpartum infant feeding (formula vs breastfeeding with infant zidovudine prophylaxis) interventions. In Botswana between March 27, 2001, and October 29, 2003, 1200 HIV-positive pregnant women were randomized from 4 district hospitals. Infants were evaluated at birth, monthly until age 7 months, at age 9 months, then every third month through age 18 months. All of the mothers received zidovudine 300 mg orally twice daily from 34 weeks' gestation and during labor. Mothers and infants were randomized to receive single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to 6 months of breastfeeding plus prophylactic infant zidovudine (breastfed plus zidovudine), or formula feeding plus 1 month of infant zidovudine (formula fed). Primary efficacy (HIV infection by age 7 months and HIV-free survival by age 18 months) and safety (occurrence of infant adverse events by 7 months of age) end points were evaluated in 1179 infants. The 7-month HIV infection rates were 5.6% (32 infants in the formula-fed group) vs 9.0% (51 infants in the breastfed plus zidovudine group) (P = .04; 95% confidence interval for difference, -6.4% to -0.4%). Cumulative mortality or HIV infection rates at 18 months were 80 infants (13.9%, formula fed) vs 86 infants (15.1% breastfed plus zidovudine) (P = .60; 95% confidence interval for difference, -5.3% to 2.9%). Cumulative infant mortality at 7 months was significantly higher for the formula-fed group than for the breastfed plus zidovudine group (9.3% vs 4.9%; P = .003), but this difference diminished beyond month 7 such that the time-to-mortality distributions through age 18

  2. Aircraft Survivability: Rotorcraft Survivability. Summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    protect those who serve to protect us?” The answer is a mixed bag. I am fortunate to have joined a group of dedicated men and women who represent this...and Service subject matter experts on rotorcraft safety and survivability to complete the study and report the results to the Joint Chiefs of...Operations and Support CDD TEMP DT DT/OT LUT IOT &E BLRIP TEMP TEMP LRIP Acquisition & LFT Strategies B C LFT&E Review Requirements Approve TEMPs

  3. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine growth restriction is common in very preterm infants. The incidence in very-low-birth-weight infants ranges between 43% and 97% in various centers, with a wide variability due to the use of different reference growth charts and nonstandard nutritional strategies. Extrauterine growth restriction is associated with an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate postnatal nutrition is an important factor contributing to growth failure, as most very preterm infants experience major protein and energy deficits during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization. First-week protein and energy intake are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in very preterm infants. Early aggressive nutrition, including parenteral and enteral, is well tolerated in the very preterm infant and is effective in improving growth. Continued provision of appropriate nutrition (fortified human milk or premature formula is important throughout the growing care during the hospitalization. After discharge, exclusively breast-fed infants require additional supplementation. If formula-fed, nutrient-enriched postdischarge formula should be continued for approximately 9 months corrected age. Supplementation of the preterm formulas with protein would increase the protein/energy ratio (3 g/100 kcal, leading to increased lean mass with relatively decreased fat deposition. Further research is required to optimize the nutritional needs of preterm infants and to evaluate the effects of nutritional interventions on long-term growth, neurodevelopment, and other health outcomes.

  4. Sleep Apnoea in Infants and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dario Galante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 3,000 years, it has been recognized that apparently healthy infants could die suddenly and unexpectedly during their sleep .Throughout most of history, it was believed that these infants somehow suffocated, implying that these babies died a respiratory death. Nearly one infant per thousand live births continues to die suddenly and unexpectedly from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  6. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M. [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R. [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  7. Ross Procedure in Neonates and Infants: A European Multicenter Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookhoek, Aart; Charitos, Efstratios I; Hazekamp, Mark G; Bogers, Ad J J C; Hörer, Jürgen; Lange, Rüdiger; Hetzer, Roland; Sachweh, Joerg S; Riso, Arlindo; Stierle, Ulrich; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Schoof, Paul H

    2015-12-01

    Infants and neonates with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction may require pulmonary autograft replacement of the aortic root. In this retrospective multicenter cohort study, we present our experience with the Ross procedure in neonates and infants with a focus on midterm survival and pulmonary autograft durability. A retrospective observational study was performed in 76 infants (aged less than 1 year) operated on in six congenital cardiac centers in The Netherlands and Germany between 1990 and 2013. Patients had a pulmonary autograft replacement of the aortic valve with (68%) or without (32%) septal myectomy. Median patient age was 85 days (range, 6 to 347). Early mortality (n = 13, 17%) was associated with neonatal age, preoperative use of intravenous inotropic drugs, and congenital aortic arch defects. Five patients (9%) died during follow-up. Freedom from autograft reintervention was 98% at 10 years. Echocardiography demonstrated good valve function, with no or trace regurgitation in 73% of patients. Freedom from right ventricular outflow tract reintervention was 51% at 10 years. Univariable analysis demonstrated superior freedom from reintervention of pulmonary homografts compared with aortic homografts or xenografts. Pulmonary autograft replacement of the aortic valve in neonates and infants is a high-risk operation but offers a durable neoaortic valve. Midterm durability reflects successful adaptation of the autograft to the systemic circulation. Late mortality associated with heart failure was an unexpected finding. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between parent-infant attachment and parental satisfaction with supportive nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadery-Sefat, Akram; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Badiee, Zohreh; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Parent-infant attachment is an important factor in accepting parenting role, accelerating infant survival, and adjusting to the environment outside the uterus. Since family supportive interventions can strengthen the parent-infant caring relationship, this study sought to investigate the relationship between mother-infant attachment and satisfaction of the mothers with the supportive nursing care received in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this descriptive-correlational study, 210 mothers with premature infants who were hospitalized in the NICUs affiliated to Isfahan Medical University hospitals took part. The data were collected via Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale and researcher's self-tailored questionnaire based on Nurse Parent Support Tool. Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that the overall score of mother-infant attachment and the overall score of maternal satisfaction correlated with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.195. Also, the overall score of mother-infant attachment and mothers' satisfaction scores in the emotional, communicative-informative, and self-confidence domains correlated with correlation coefficients of r = 0.182, r = 0.0.189, and r = 0.0.304, respectively. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that about 15% of changes in the dependent variable (mother-infant attachment) could be explained by different dimensions of mothers' satisfaction. The results of the study showed that mother-infant attachment improved by increasing mothers' satisfaction of supportive nursing care. Therefore, it seems necessary to increase maternal satisfaction through given nursing care support, in order to promote mother-infant attachment.

  9. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  10. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  11. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study...

  12. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  13. An assessment of infant and child mortality by social group and place of residence in districts of Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotishikha Nanda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide an approximation of infant and child mortality rate for all the districts of Orissa using CEB (Children Ever Born and CS (Children Survival data of Census of India, 2001. And to find out the correlations of IMR and CMR with selected monitoring indicators. Methods: Trussell method has been used in estimating infant and child mortality rate. For a better understanding, the districts were classified into three groups on the basis of estimated infant mortality rate viz. i infant mortality rate lower than national average, ii infant mortality rate between state and national average and iii infant mortality rate more than state average. Results: Study reveals that most of the districts of Orissa are experiencing higher IMR and CMR as compared to estimated IMR and CMR of state average. Only one district of Orissa (Mayurbhanj has IMR and CMR lower than national average in comparison with other districts of Orissa. On the other hand, 17 districts have an infant mortality between the state and national average, 12 districts have an infant mortality higher than the state average. Conclusion: The ranking of districts helps to identify the backward and most backward districts in reproductive and child health programmes and to intensify the intervention strategies to reduce the infant and child mortality in the state of Orissa.

  14. Neonatal appendicitis: a survival case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Linha Secco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of neonatal appendicitis in a children’s hospital in southern Brazil, demonstrating the impact on neonatal survival. Method: Case study with data collection from medical records, approved by the Institution and Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings. Results: The clinical picture is initially characterized by food intolerance, evolving to hypoactivity, alteration of vital signs and septicemia due to intestinal perforation. Management is exclusively surgical, since no case described in the literature was diagnosed preoperatively and the findings usually point to acute abdomen. Conclusion: A focused clinical surveillance should be established when the infant presents peritoneal irritation. Follow-up of the evolution and the worsening of the symptoms by nurses, as part of the care team in partnership with the medical team, enables an early surgical intervention, thereby avoiding complications such as septicemia and death.

  15. USE OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN IN PROPHYLAXIS OF SEVERE ANEMIA IN PREMATURELY BORN INFANTS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BODY WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.N. Pilipenko; Dmitriev, A. V.; V. G. Demikhov; E.F. Morschakova

    2009-01-01

    Problem of prophylaxis and treatment of early anemia of prematurely born infants is still very important. It's related to increase of rate of infants, surviving with very low and extremely low body weight at the time of birth. The purpose of trial was to provide an optimization of scheme of treatment of early anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO, Recormon). This trial included 94 infants with very low and extremely low body weight at the time if birth. 26 infants was treated w...

  16. The effect of kangaroo care on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with long-term deficits in executive functioning and cognitive performance. As advances in neonatal care enable more preterm infants to survive, development of strategies to address high rates of neurodevelopmental disabilities and poor academic achievement in preterm infants are crucial. Evidence suggests that infants' brains are plastic in nature and, therefore, can be shaped by the environment. Kangaroo care has become popularized as a means of modifying the stress of the NICU environment. However, few studies have examined whether kangaroo care affects neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. This review examined available literature that investigated the effect of kangaroo care on cognition in preterm infants. Current evidence suggests that short-term benefits of kangaroo care are associated with improved neurodevelopment. However, few studies have examined the long-term impact of kangaroo care on cognitive outcomes in preterm infants. To address neurological disparities in children born preterm, research using kangaroo care as a strategy to improve neurodevelopment in preterm infants is warranted.

  17. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  19. Infant mortality time series are random walks with drift: are they cointegrated with socioeconomic variables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishai, D M

    1995-01-01

    Previous time series analyses of infant mortality have failed to provide evidence to support their implicit assumption that infant mortality data used behaved as a stationary time series. The present study applies the augmented Dickey Fuller Test to infant mortality time series for Sweden (1800-1989), United Kingdom (1839-1989) and United States (1915-1989). The null hypothesis that each of these series is non-stationary is accepted at standard levels of significance. A conceptual framework of infant mortality which uses a combination of physical and social overhead capital as factors in a production function is developed to explain the finding of non-stationarity as derivative from the non-stationarity of a stock of health-enhancing capital. Estimation of econometric models of the socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality using differenced data with ARIMA estimation is inconclusive. Estimation of a bivariate cointegration model supports the hypothesis that infant survival and GNP/Capita are cointegrated for 19th century Sweden but not for 19th century UK. Bivariate analysis of 20th century Sweden, UK, and US data demonstrated no cointegration. This may be due to the onset of disequilibrium in the economic determination of infant mortality in the present era as technological advances and demographic shifts began to play a larger role. Supplementing the bivariate analysis with measures of unemployment, and crude birth rate in the 20th century permitted the detection of cointegration in US and UK. The multivariate results may suggest that improvements in 20th century UK GNP/capita have had greater impact on infant survival relative to US GNP/capita.

  20. Constipation in infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant or child has a problem before treating constipation: Some children do not have a bowel movement every day. ... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Constipation in children. Updated November 12, 2014. www.niddk.nih.gov/ ...

  1. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  2. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  3. Improved Survival Among Children with Spina Bifida in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyong; Kucik, James E.; Siffel, Csaba; Lu, Chengxing; Shaw, Gary M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate trends in survival among children with spina bifida by race/ethnicity and possible prognostic factors in 10 regions of the United States. Study design A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 5165 infants with spina bifida born during 1979-2003, identified by 10 birth defects registries in the United States. Survival probabilities and adjusted hazard ratios were estimated for race/ethnicity and other characteristics using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results During the study period, the 1-year survival probability among infants with spina bifida showed improvements for whites (from 88% to 96%), blacks (from 79% to 88%), and Hispanics (from 88% to 93%). The impact of race/ethnicity on survival varied by birth weight, which was the strongest predictor of survival through age 8. There was little racial/ethnic variation in survival among children born of very low birth weight. Among children born of low birth weight, the increased risk of mortality to Hispanics was approximately 4-6 times that of whites. The black-white disparity was greatest among children born of normal birth weight. Congenital heart defects did not affect the risk of mortality among very low birth weight children but increased the risk of mortality 4-fold among children born of normal birth weight. Conclusions The survival of infants born with spina bifida has improved; however, improvements in survival varied by race/ethnicity, and blacks and Hispanics continued to have poorer survival than whites in the most recent birth cohort from 1998-2002. Further studies are warranted to elucidate possible reasons for the observed differences in survival. PMID:22727874

  4. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  5. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  6. Infant feeding and idiopathic intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, A; Caracciolo, G; de Luca, U; Grillo, G; Simeone, C; Impagliazzo, N; Mazzarella, G

    1993-10-01

    A case-control study showed that, compared with infants who had never been fed human milk, breast-fed infants had a relative risk of intussusception of 6.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 20.4) when breast-feeding at admission was exclusive and of 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 6.6) when it was partial. Exclusive breast-feeding may be a risk factor for intussusception in infancy.

  7. Depressive-like effect of prenatal exposure to DDT involves global DNA hypomethylation and impairment of GPER1/ESR1 protein levels but not ESR2 and AHR/ARNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajta, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Rzemieniec, Joanna; Litwa, Ewa; Lason, Wladyslaw; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Nalepa, Irena; Rogóż, Zofia; Grochowalski, Adam; Wojtowicz, Anna K

    2017-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that exposures to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) such as pesticides increase the risks of neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite extended residual persistence of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the environment, the mechanisms of perinatal actions of DDT that could account for adult-onset of depression are largely unknown. This study demonstrated the isomer-specific induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a/serotonin signaling in one-month-old mice that were prenatally exposed to DDT. The effects were reversed by the antidepressant citalopram as evidenced in the forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension (TST) tests in the male and female mice. Prenatally administered DDT accumulated in mouse brain as determined with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, led to global DNA hypomethylation, and altered the levels of methylated DNA in specific genes. The induction of depressive-like behavior and impairment of Htr1a/serotonin signaling were accompanied by p,p'-DDT-specific decrease in the levels of estrogen receptors i.e. ESR1 and/or GPER1 depending on sex. In contrast, o,p'-DDT did not induce depressive-like effects and exhibited quite distinct pattern of biochemical alterations that was related to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), its nuclear translocator ARNT, and ESR2. Exposure to o,p'-DDT increased AHR expression in male and female brains, and reduced expression levels of ARNT and ESR2 in the female brains. The evolution of p,p'-DDT-induced depressive-like behavior was preceded by attenuation of Htr1a and Gper1/GPER1 expression as observed in the 7-day-old mouse pups. Because p,p'-DDT caused sex- and age-independent attenuation of GPER1, we suggest that impairment of GPER1 signaling plays a key role in the propagation of DDT-induced depressive-like symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhihua; Liu, Tao; Li, Guangyi; Li, Tong; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future. PMID:25664432

  9. Proof-Carrying Survivability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    pp.289-302 ( Impact factor : 2.09). 2. Julic, J. and Zuo, Y. (2012). “An RFID Survivability Impact Model in the Military Domain”, Proc. of 18 th...Availability, Reliability and Security, 40(4), pp. 406-418 ( Impact factor : 2.016). 10. Zuo, Y. (2010). “A Holistic Approach for Specification of Security... Impact factor : 1.596). 20. Zuo, Y., Pimple, M. and Lande, S. (2009). “A Framework for RFID Survivability Requirement Analysis and Specification”, Proc

  10. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Gustafson, Per; Nhaga, Alexandro

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination may have a non-specific beneficial effect on infant survival and that a BCG scar may be associated with lower child mortality. No study has previously examined the influence of BCG vaccination on cause of death....

  11. Thymus development and infant and child mortality in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony J C; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Persson, Lars Å; Arifeen, Shams E; Prentice, Andrew M

    2014-02-01

    Data from West Africa indicate that a small thymus at birth and at 6 months of age is a strong and independent risk factor for infection-related mortality up to 24 and 36 months of age, respectively. We investigated the association between thymus size (thymic index, TI) in infancy and subsequent infant and child survival in a contemporary South Asian population. The study focused on the follow-up of a randomized trial of prenatal nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh (ISRCTN16581394), with TI measured longitudinally in infancy (at birth and weeks 8, 24 and 52 of age) and accurate recording of mortality up to 5 years of age. A total of 3267 infants were born into the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study; data on TI were available for 1168 infants at birth, increasing to 2094 infants by 52 weeks of age. TI in relation to body size was largest at birth, decreasing through infancy. For infants with at least one measure of TI available, there were a total of 99 deaths up to the age of 5 years. No association was observed between TI and subsequent mortality when TI was measured at birth. However, an association with mortality was observed with TI at 8 weeks of age [odds ratio (OR) for change in mortality risk associated with 1 standard deviation change in TI: all deaths: OR = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41, 0.98; P = 0.038; and infection-related deaths only: OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.14, 0.74; P = 0.008]. For TI when measured at 24 and 52 weeks of age, the numbers of infection-related deaths were too few (3 and 1, respectively) for any meaningful association to be observed. These results confirm that thymus size in early infancy predicts subsequent survival in a lower mortality setting than West Africa. The absence of an effect at birth and its appearance at 8 weeks of age suggests early postnatal influences such as breast milk trophic factors.

  12. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  13. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  14. Education for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of current approaches to education and concludes that none of these is sufficient to meet the challenges that now face the human race. It argues instead for a new concept of education for survival. (Contains 1 note.)

  15. Flexible survival regression modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Scheike, Thomas H; Martinussen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Regression analysis of survival data, and more generally event history data, is typically based on Cox's regression model. We here review some recent methodology, focusing on the limitations of Cox's regression model. The key limitation is that the model is not well suited to represent time-varyi...

  16. Seeds to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds are important for man, either as propagation material of crops or directly for the production of foods, fodder and drinks. The natural function of seeds is dispersal of its genes to successive generations. Survival mechanisms seed have evolved sometimes interfere with those preferred by

  17. Survival After Retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Clark; Youngblood, Stuart A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined survival rates after retirement in a large corporation. A regression analysis was performed to control for age, sex, job status, and type of work differences that may influence longevity. Short-term suvivors seemed to undergo a different adjustment process than long-term survivors. (Author/ABL)

  18. [Evans syndrome in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Montes, Olivia Alejandra; Escobar-Orduño, Martha Cecilia; Lozano-Garcidueñas, Mónica; Valle-Leal, Jaime Guadalupe

    Evans syndrome is characterized by the reduction of at least two blood cell lineages in the absence of other diagnoses; it was previously described as the simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia with unknown etiology. An incidence of 37% and mortality rate of 10% were reported for Evans syndrome. We report the clinical presentation and evolution of Evans syndrome in two infants who were initially diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia. The clinical diagnosis was supported on complementary studies, where hematological disorders were corroborated. Both cases received treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. For the management of children with thrombocytopenia, the pediatrician must analyze for other cell lineage disorders. In the cases that we report here, we found the presence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and monocytosis. Therefore, infectious and immunological studies must be included. The first-line treatment of choice are steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin can be considered if severe immune thrombocytopenia is associated, as observed in these cases. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. [Problems and priorities in child survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, J L

    1988-01-01

    This work synthesizes the conclusions and recommendations of the 1985 International Workshop on Child Survival held in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Data are presented which document the extent of the problem of child survival in Latin America and the deficiencies of available data. Malnutrition, diseases preventable through vaccination, diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and shortcomings in quality of care are separately discussed following an assessment of their socioeconomic and cultural determining factors. Recent advances in the preventive component of primary health care programs are discussed. In Latin America, 900 of each 1000 live born babies survive to the 5th year of life compared to 980 in developed countries. Although the mortality rate of children under 5 in Latin America declined from 128 in 1950-55 to 63 in 1980-85, there are wide disparities between countries. Most countries of Latin America were classified as having high or very high infant and child mortality. There are serious differences in child survival between geographic regions and social groups of each country. The mortality decline in Costa Rica, Cuba, and Chile demonstrates that other countries could avoid a large proportion of deaths by ensuring that benefits of current programs have broader coverage. The severe economic crisis in Mexico and other countries threatens the progress already achieved in child survival. The recommendations of the conference are based on the premise that recent efforts to improve survival have been insufficient and a more rational use of the available resources and knowledge is required. In the area of health policy, priority should continue to be given to providing care for mothers and small children. Investments should be reoriented toward extending coverage of primary health care. The proportion of mothers attended during delivery by trained paramedical personnel or physicians should be increased, and family planning programs in

  20. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate and neuroprotection in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantine, Maged M; Drever, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    Cerebral palsy is a leading cause of childhood neuromotor disability and is strongly associated with preterm delivery. Basic science research and some observational studies have suggested a neuroprotective benefit from antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate. Recent randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses suggest that antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate before anticipated preterm birth is associated with reduction in the risk of developing cerebral palsy or its associated neurologic disabilities in surviving infants. More importantly. this benefit has been achieved without increasing the risk of perinatal mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prolonged Initial Empirical Antibiotic Treatment is Associated with Adverse Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppala, Venkata S; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Schibler, Kurt R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outcomes following prolonged empirical antibiotic administration to premature infants in the first week of life, concluding subsequent late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and death. Study design Study infants were ≤32 weeks gestational age and ≤ 1500 grams birth weight who survived free of sepsis and NEC for 7 days. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine independent relationships between prolonged initial empirical antibiotic therapy (≥ 5 days) and study outcomes controlling for birth weight, gestational age, race, prolonged premature rupture of membranes, days on high frequency ventilation in 7 days, and the amount of breast milk received in the first 14 days of life. Results Of the 365 premature infants surviving 7 days free of sepsis or NEC, 36% received prolonged initial empirical antibiotics, which was independently associated with subsequent outcomes: LOS (odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–4.67) and the combination of LOS, NEC, or death (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.12–6.3). Conclusions Prolonged administration of empirical antibiotics to premature infants with sterile cultures in the first week of life is associated with subsequent severe outcomes. Judicious restriction of antibiotic use should be investigated as a strategy to reduce severe outcomes for premature infants. PMID:21784435

  3. Neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely preterm infants born to rural and urban residents' mothers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andrea N; Bajuk, Barbara; Oei, Julee; Lui, Kei; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E

    2015-08-01

    Rural and remote residents in Australia have long experienced unfavourable health outcomes compared to their urban counterparts. To study neurodevelopmental outcome at 2-3 years of age, corrected for prematurity of extremely preterm infants admitted to a regional neonatal Australian network from rural and urban regions (based on usual location of maternal residence). A multicenter population-based cohort study in which surviving urban and rural infants functional disability was defined as developmental delay (GQ or MDI>2 SD below the mean), cerebral palsy (aided for walking), sensorineural or conductive deafness (requiring amplification), and bilateral blindness (visual acuity urban infants were evaluated. Infants lost to follow-up were of slightly higher gestational age and birth weight. Both rural and urban assessed groups were comparable in gestation and birth weight percentile. In comparison to their urban counterparts, the rural group had more outborn infants (19.8% vs. 4.6%, pfunctional disability (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.52-1.23, p=0.176). This finding was not significantly altered by limiting the analysis to different gestational ages. Extremely premature surviving young children from rural areas of residence do not seem to have an increased risk for moderate/severe functional disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Air Mattresses Linked to More Than 100 Infant Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Health News on Infant and Newborn Care Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Sudden Infant Death Syndrome About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support ...

  5. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... Recent data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  6. Is there racial/ethnic variance in cervical cancer- specific survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared with no surgery, there was a significant 66% decreased risk of dying from overall cause of death (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR = 0.34, 5% Confidence Interval, CI = 0.26-0.46), and significant 51% decreased risk of dying from cervical cancer-specific cause, AHR = 0.41, 95% CI, 0.28-0.58, for women who received ...

  7. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-01-01

    ...-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development...

  8. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  9. Individual, Household, and Community U.S. Migration Experience and Infant Mortality in Rural and Urban Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R; Villarreal, Andrés; Hummer, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    This study explores rural and urban differences in the relationship between U.S. migration experience measured at the individual, household, and community levels and individual-level infant mortality outcomes in a national sample of recent births in Mexico. Using 2000 Mexican Census data and multi-level regression models, we find that women's own U.S. migration experience is associated with lower odds of infant mortality in both rural and urban Mexico, possibly reflecting a process of healthy migrant selectivity. Household migration has mixed blessings for infant health in rural places: remittances are beneficial for infant survival, but recent out-migration is disruptive. Recent community-level migration experience is not significantly associated with infant mortality overall, although in rural places, there is some evidence that higher levels of community migration are associated with lower infant mortality. Household- and community-level migration have no relationship with infant mortality in urban places. Thus, international migration is associated with infant outcomes in Mexico in fairly complex ways, and the relationships are expressed most profoundly in rural areas of Mexico.

  10. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  11. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings......, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable. RESULTS: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations...... of care have relatively weak support, evidence-based recommendations regarding the acute management of sepsis and septic shock are the foundation of improved outcomes for these critically ill patients with high mortality....

  12. Cracking the survival code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  13. Artillery Survivability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experiment mode also enables users to set their own design of experiment by manipulating an editable CSV file. The second one is a real-time mode that...renders a 3D virtual environment of a restricted battlefield where the survivability movements of an artillery company are visualized . This mode...provides detailed visualization of the simulation and enables future experimental uses of the simulation as a training tool. 14. SUBJECT TERMS

  14. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Infants Randomized to Stress Dose Hydrocortisone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of stress dose hydrocortisone therapy with placebo on survival without neurodevelopmental impairments in high-risk preterm infants.We recruited 64 extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g infants between the ages of 10 and 21 postnatal days who were ventilator-dependent and at high-risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Infants were randomized to a tapering 7-day course of stress dose hydrocortisone or saline placebo. The primary outcome at follow-up was a composite of death, cognitive or language delay, cerebral palsy, severe hearing loss, or bilateral blindness at a corrected age of 18-22 months. Secondary outcomes included continued use of respiratory therapies and somatic growth.Fifty-seven infants had adequate data for the primary outcome. Of the 28 infants randomized to hydrocortisone, 19 (68% died or survived with impairment compared with 22 of the 29 infants (76% assigned to placebo (relative risk: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.14. The rates of death for those in the hydrocortisone and placebo groups were 31% and 41%, respectively (P = 0.42. Randomization to hydrocortisone also did not significantly affect the frequency of supplemental oxygen use, positive airway pressure support, or need for respiratory medications.In high-risk extremely low birth weight infants, stress dose hydrocortisone therapy after 10 days of age had no statistically significant effect on the incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months. These results may inform the design and conduct of future clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00167544.

  15. Survival analysis and prognostic factors of timing of first childbirth among women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Idemudia, Erhabor Sunday

    2016-05-13

    First childbirth in a woman's life is one of the most important events in her life. It marks a turnaround when she might have to drop roles of career building and education, for motherhood and parenthood. The timing of the commencement of these roles affects the child bearing behavior of women as they progress in their reproductive ages. Prevalent early first childbirth in Nigeria has been reported as the main cause of high population growth and high  fertility, mortality and morbidity among women, but little has been documented on the progression into first birth as well as factors affecting it in Nigeria. This paper modelled timing of first birth among women in Nigeria and determined socio-demographic and other factors affecting its timing. We hypothesized that background characteristics of a woman will influence her progression into having first birth. We developed and fitted a survival analysis model to understand the timing of first birth among women in Nigeria using a national representative 2013 NDHS data. Women with no children were right censored as of the date of the survey. The Kaplan Meier survival function was used to estimate the probabilities of first birth not occurring until certain ages of women while Cox proportional hazard regression was used to model the timing of first births at 5 % significance level. About 75.7 % of the respondents had given birth in the Northern region of Nigerian compared with 63.8 % in the South. Half (50.1 %) of the first childbirth occurred within the 15-19 years age bracket and 38.1 % within 20-29 years. The overall median survival time to first birth was 20 years (North 19, South 22), 27 years among women with higher education and 18 years for those with no formal education. The adjusted hazard of first birth was higher in the Northern region of Nigeria than in the South (aHR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.20-1.27), and higher in rural areas than in urban areas (aHR = 1.15, 95 % CI: 1.12-1.19). Also, hazard of earlier first

  16. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  17. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... an international network of vaccine safety experts. SIDS deaths declined due to recommendations to put infants on ...

  19. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Toddlers Print Email Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD Published November 1, 2017 zest_marina/Thinkstock The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Academy of Pediatrics agree: ...

  20. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  1. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  2. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces over AD…

  3. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  4. Neurological impairment in a surviving twin following intrauterine fetal demise of the co-twin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, K R; Keegan, K M; Schmidt, J W

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that twin pregnancies are at an increased risk for complications, including the risk of morbidity or mortality for one or both of the infants. Cerebral palsy and other associated neurological deficits also occur at higher rates in twin pregnancies. This report examines two cases of intrauterine demise of one twin with subsequent survival of the co-twin. In both cases, the surviving infant suffered significant neurological sequelae. Impairments observed in these two cases include multicystic encephalomalacia and periventricular leukomalacia as well as the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. This case study explores the predisposing factors, incidence, pathophysiology, consequences, and future research implications of these findings.

  5. [Attachment in very low birthweight infants (< 1500 g) and their mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltz, Paul; Walger, Petra; Krischer, Maya; von Gontard, Alexander; Wendrich, Daniela; Kribs, Angela; Roth, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    A long hospital stay, along with the worries about the survival and the possible disabilities the child might suffer from, mark the start into life of very low birth weight premature infants (VLBW). The goal of this trial was to study the stability of the attachment representations of very low birthweight infants (birthweight Bindung (GEV-B) and for the mothers the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) to determine the attachment representation. The attachment representations first corresponded to a normal distribution pattern and shifted over time to a more insecure attachment. We could not determine a significant link between the attachment patterns of the child and their mother.

  6. Candida krusei infection presenting as a right ventricular mass in a two month old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patted Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fungal infections in newborns and small infants is on the rise consequent to the improved care and survival of preterm babies. Most of these premature infants are immunocompromised and subjected to invasive monitoring and therapy in neonatal intensive care units making them susceptible to nosocomial infections. We report a rare case of right ventricular mass secondary to candida krusei infection which was excised surgically. This article reemphasizes the importance of stringent aseptic practices in neonatal intensive care units to prevent nosocomial infections and the early use of echocardiography in neonates presenting with atypical unexplained symptoms to hasten diagnosis and facilitate timely intervention.

  7. Health and survival of young children in southern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketende Sosthenes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a view to developing health systems strategies to improve reach to high-risk groups, we present information on health and survival from household and health facility perspectives in five districts of southern Tanzania. Methods We documented availability of health workers, vaccines, drugs, supplies and services essential for child health through a survey of all health facilities in the area. We did a representative cluster sample survey of 21,600 households using a modular questionnaire including household assets, birth histories, and antenatal care in currently pregnant women. In a subsample of households we asked about health of all children under two years, including breastfeeding, mosquito net use, vaccination, vitamin A, and care-seeking for recent illness, and measured haemoglobin and malaria parasitaemia. Results In the health facility survey, a prescriber or nurse was present on the day of the survey in about 40% of 114 dispensaries. Less than half of health facilities had all seven 'essential oral treatments', and water was available in only 22%. In the household survey, antenatal attendance (88% and DPT-HepB3 vaccine coverage in children (81% were high. Neonatal and infant mortality were 43.2 and 76.4 per 1000 live births respectively. Infant mortality was 40% higher for teenage mothers than older women (RR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1 – 1.7, and 20% higher for mothers with no formal education than those who had been to school (RR 1.2, CI 1.0 – 1.4. The benefits of education on survival were apparently restricted to post-neonatal infants. There was no evidence of inequality in infant mortality by socio-economic status. Vaccine coverage, net use, anaemia and parasitaemia were inequitable: the least poor had a consistent advantage over children from the poorest families. Infant mortality was higher in families living over 5 km from their nearest health facility compared to those living closer (RR 1

  8. Clinical and morphological characteristics of malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Barycheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of following up infants with intrauterine infections and malformations were retrospectively analyzed. Infants with malformations were diagnosed as having congenital cytomegalovirus infection and congenital toxoplasmosis in 127 and 69 cases, respectively. The aim of the study was to characterize malformations in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus and congenital Toxoplasma infections. The infants with malformations in congenital cytomegalovirus infection were found to have higher mortality rates (61,4% than those with congenital toxoplasmosis (34,8%. Postmortem analysis indicated that there was a predominance of embryopathies in infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and that of fetopathies in those with congenital toxoplasmosis. The dead infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection had more commonly developed visceral defects, including heart diseases, pneumopathies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary abnormalities; fetopathies of the central nervous system and eye were prevalent in congenital toxoplasmosis. The surviving children with congenital toxoplasmosis were more frequently observed to have disabling CNS and ocular sequels as obstructive hydrocephalus, infantile cerebral palsy, complete or partial blindness, and cerebrasthenic disorders than those with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. 

  9. Association of maternal depression and infant nutritional status among women living with HIV in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Sylvia; Garcia, Maria E; Li, Nan; Lienert, Jeffrey; Twayigize, William; Spiegelman, Donna; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2016-07-01

    Antenatal and post-natal depression has demonstrated a significant burden in sub-Saharan Africa, with rates ranging from 10% to 35%. However, perinatal women living with HIV in Tanzania have reported an even greater prevalence of depression (43-45%). The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal depression and infant malnutrition among women living with HIV. The design was a retrospective cohort study within the context of a randomised controlled trial among women living with HIV and their infants. Within this trial, 699 mother-child pairs were analysed for the present study. Although antenatal depression was not associated with infant malnutrition and post-natal depression was negatively associated [relative risk (RR = 0.80, P = 0.04], cumulative depression demonstrated a positive association with infant wasting (RR = 1.08, P nutritional status was observed for episodic vs. chronic depression. These findings suggest that providing evidence-based services for persistent depression among women living with HIV may have an effect on infant malnutrition. In addition, other positive outcomes may be related to infant cognitive development as well as HIV disease prognosis and survival among women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Infant feeding practices: realities and mind sets of mothers in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskens, I; Jaffe, A; Mkhatshwa, H

    2007-10-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants in developing countries are at lower risk of HIV transmission than mixed-fed infants. Ethno-graphic research was conducted in eleven low-resource settings across South Africa, Namibia and Swaziland to understand how the perceptions and experiences of counselling health workers, pregnant women and recent mothers could be used to improve infant feeding counselling. Despite prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, very early mixed-feeding remains the norm; traditional conceptualisations of 'water as life' and 'milk as a fluid' are holding up against current PMTCT education, with milk considered liquid 'drink' rather than 'real food'. This aggravates an 'insufficient milk syndrome' where disempowered mothers perceive their breastmilk, and themselves, as deficient - 'not good enough'. Infant feeding is embedded within traditional relationships of intimacy; both relatives and breadwinner have influence and even authority over options and modes of infant feeding. In patriarchal and violent societies, traditional power differentials prohibit easy or complete HIV disclosure or condom negotiation; HIV status remains hidden from most partners and relatives. This context of secrecy means that the traditional advice and authority, which the mothers feel they dare not disregard, is often blind to the mother and her infant's HIV status and survival needs.

  11. Changes in outcome and complication rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in one tertiary center in southern Taiwan between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Dar; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Lu, Chin-Li; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal intensive care has changed dramatically over the past few decades and the survival of infants has generally improved in many countries. The purpose of this study was to explore the recent evolution of mortality and morbidities among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in southern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of VLBW (birth weight BBW), gestational age (GA), Apgar score, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy, chronic lung disease (CLD), inguinal hernia, and sepsis. The length of stay (LOS) in hospital was compared between the two cohorts. A total of 420 (212 male) VLBW infants were enrolled with 52 (12.4%) deaths. Compared to surviving infants, deceased infants had significantly lower GA, Apgar scores, and BBW. The mortality of VLBW infants remained static between the two birth cohorts, but the incidence of major morbidities generally decreased. The LOS for overall surviving infants and the proportion of LOS > 60 days were both reduced in the period of 2007-2010. With further stratification by BBW, the major reduction of long LOS was only found in the group of BBW ≥ 1000 g. The multivariate logistic regression model found PDA, CLD, and BBW < 1000 g were major complications to be associated with long LOS among surviving infants. Periodic evaluation of the mortality and morbidity of preterm infants can help to understand the changes and trends of our neonatal care. Further study using the national dataset to provide more representative information is warranted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Optimal Time of Tracheotomy in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sevim Unal MD; Leyla Karadeniz Bilgin; Deniz Gonulal MD; Fatih Alper Akcan MD

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Infants with respiratory failure may require prolonged intubation. There is no consensus on the time of tracheotomy in neonates. Methods. We evaluated infants applied tracheotomy, time of procedure, and early complications in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2013. Results. We identified 9 infants applied tracheotomy with gestational ages 34 to 41 weeks. Their diagnoses were hypotonic infant, subglottic stenosis, laryngeal cleft, ...

  13. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  14. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at ...

  15. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews of RCTs were...... also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants

  16. Infant and child motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara L; Sarwark, John F

    2005-05-01

    Identifying infant and child developmental delay is a skill important for orthopaedic surgeons to master because they often are asked to distinguish between normal and abnormal movement. An emphasis has been placed on early detection and referral for intervention, which has been shown to enhance the lives of the infant or child and his or her family. Appropriate recognition of delay is necessary for referral to early intervention services, which serve to help these children overcome or improve motor dysfunction and to help families grow more confident in caring for children with special needs. We define early intervention, discuss normal and abnormal motor development, and provide useful examination tools to assess motor development.

  17. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  18. Social Information Guides Infants' Selection of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; McKee, Caitlin B.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of socially conveyed emotions and speech on infants' choices among food. After watching films in which two unfamiliar actresses each spoke while eating a different kind of food, 12-month-old infants were allowed to choose between the two foods. In Experiment 1, infants selected a food endorsed by a…

  19. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  20. The Neural Substrates of Infant Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Infants often pay special attention to speech sounds, and they appear to detect key features of these sounds. To investigate the neural foundation of speech perception in infants, we measured cortical activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. We presented the following three types of auditory stimuli while 3-month-old infants watched a silent…

  1. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  2. Denmark: botulism in an infant or infant botulism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Anders; Angen, O.; Mølbak, Kare

    2008-01-01

    was noted. Botulism was suspected and confirmed by testing of patient serum in a bioassay. The condition of the patient improved following administration of botulism antiserum. The clinical picture was suggestive of intestinal (infant) botulism. However, botulism acquired from consumption of food...

  3. Interaction between Mothers and Infants with Down Syndrome: Infant Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Nancy B.

    1986-01-01

    Research on characteristics of Down Syndrome infants affecting the interaction between mother and child is reviewed. Differences in the development of the social communication behaviors of state control (sleep and awake); gaze patterns; coordination of gesture, gaze, and vocalization; and frequency of vocalization have implications for parental…

  4. Infant Gaze Following during Parent-Infant Coviewing of Baby Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lindsay B.; Hanson, Katherine G.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 122 parent–infant dyads were observed as they watched a familiar or novel infant-directed video in a laboratory setting. Infants were between 12-15 and 18-21 months old. Infants were more likely to look toward the TV immediately following their parents' look toward the TV. This apparent social influence on infant looking at television…

  5. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Infant mortality statistics from the 2009 period linked birth/infant death data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F

    2013-01-24

    This report presents 2009 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The infant mortality rate in the United States in 2009 was 6.39 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, 3% lower than the rate of 6.61 in 2008. The number of infant deaths was 28,075 in 2008 and 26,408 in 2009, a decline of 1,667 infant deaths. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.40 per 1,000 live births for Asian or Pacific Islander mothers to 12.40 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality was higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. Infant mortality rates were also higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries, to mothers who were unmarried, and for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia. From 2008 to 2009, the neonatal mortality rate (under age 28 days) declined 3% to 4.18 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births, while the postneonatal mortality rate (aged 28 days to under 1 year) declined 5% to 2.21. Preterm and low birthweight infants had the highest infant mortality rates and contributed greatly to overall U.S. infant mortality. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 46% of all infant deaths. In 2009, 35.4% of infant deaths were "preterm-related."

  7. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  8. Cerebellum of the Premature Infant: Rapidly Developing, Vulnerable, Clinically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Brain abnormality in surviving premature infants is associated with an enormous amount of neurodevelopmental disability, manifested principally by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits, most commonly with only relatively modest motor deficits. The most recognized contributing neuropathology is cerebral white matter injury. The thesis of this review is that acquired cerebellar abnormality is a relatively less recognized but likely important cause of neurodevelopmental disability in small premature infants. The cerebellar disease may be primarily destructive (eg, hemorrhage, infarction) or primarily underdevelopment. The latter appears to be especially common and relates to a particular vulnerability of the cerebellum of the small premature infant. Central to this vulnerability are the extraordinarily rapid and complex developmental events occurring in the cerebellum. The disturbance of development can be caused either by direct adverse effects on the cerebellum, especially the distinctive transient external granular layer, or by indirect remote trans-synaptic effects. This review describes the fascinating details of cerebellar development, with an emphasis on events in the premature period, the major types of cerebellar abnormality acquired during the premature period, their likely mechanisms of occurrence, and new insights into the relation of cerebellar disease in early life to subsequent cognitive/behavioral/attentional/socialization deficits. PMID:19745085

  9. Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Mikko

    2012-04-01

    It has been proposed that during human evolution, development of obligate bipedalism, narrow birth canal cross-sectional area and the large brain have forced an adjustment in duration of pregnancy (scaling of gestational age; Plunkett 2011). Children compared to other mammals are born with proportionally small brains (compared to adult brains), suggesting shortening of pregnancy duration during recent evolution. Prevalence of both obstructed delivery and premature birth is still exceptionally high. In near term infants, functional maturity and viability is high, and gene variants predisposing to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are rare. Advanced antenatal and neonatal treatment practices during the new era of medicine allowed survival of also very preterm infants (gestation premature birth. Specific genes associating with diseases in preterm infants may also contribute to the susceptibility to preterm birth. Understanding and applying the knowledge of genetic interactions in normal and abnormal perinatal-neonatal development requires large, well-structured population cohorts, studies involving the whole genome and international interdisciplinary collaboration.

  10. Biomarkers for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in the Preterm Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Lidys; Siddaiah, Roopa; Oji-Mmuo, Christiana; Silveyra, Gabriela R.; Silveyra, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants, associated with arrested lung development and a need for supplemental oxygen. Over the past few decades, the incidence of BPD has significantly raised as a result of improved survival of VLBW infants requiring mechanical ventilation. While early disease detection is critical to prevent chronic lung remodeling and complications later in life, BPD is often difficult to diagnose and prevent due to the lack of good biomarkers for identification of infants at risk, and overlapping symptoms with other diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). Due to the current lack of effective treatment available for BPD and PH, research is currently focused on primary prevention strategies, and identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis, that could also represent potential therapeutic targets. In addition, novel histopathological, biochemical, and molecular factors have been identified in the lung tissue and in biological fluids of BPD and PH patients that could associate with the disease phenotype. In this review, we provide an overview of biomarkers for pediatric BPD and PH that have been identified in clinical studies using various biological fluids. We also present a brief summary of the information available on current strategies and guidelines to prevent and diagnose BPD and PH, as well as their pathophysiology, risk factors, and experimental therapies currently available. PMID:27065351

  11. Birth weight, infant growth and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ken K; Dunger, David B

    2004-11-01

    Size at birth and early postnatal growth rates are important determinants of human perinatal survival; they also predict the tempo of growth, adult height and long-term risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Results from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC) show that fetal growth is influenced by both fetal genes and maternal-uterine-placental factors. Important maternal-placental factors include parity, smoking and weight gain, but also maternal genetic factors in the mother or fetal placenta, including the mitochondrial DNA 16189 variant and H19. These maternal genetic factors particularly influence smaller, growth-restrained infants, as in first pregnancies. Fetal genes include the insulin gene (INS) VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat), which we recently confirmed to be associated with birth size and cord blood IGF-II levels; these fetal gene effects are more evident in the absence of maternal-uterine growth restraint. During postnatal life, the INS VNTR III/III genotype remains associated with body size, including body mass index and waist circumference, and also lower insulin sensitivity among girls. However, as at birth, significant gene-environment interactions are seen. Rapid 'catch-up' early postnatal weight gain follows maternal-uterine restraint, and strongly predicts later childhood obesity and insulin resistance; among these children, those with INS VNTR class I alleles are more obese. Genetic factors that influence early growth may have conferred some early survival advantage in human history during times of undernutrition. With abundant nutrition and rising obesity rates, these genetic factors and their interactions with maternal and childhood environmental factors that influence childhood growth may now contribute to the early development of adult disease risk. Their recognition may help the development of targeted early interventions to prevent the progression towards adult disease.

  12. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  13. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  14. Design of survivable networks

    CERN Document Server

    Stoer, Mechthild

    1992-01-01

    The problem of designing a cost-efficient network that survives the failure of one or more nodes or edges of the network is critical to modern telecommunications engineering. The method developed in this book is designed to solve such problems to optimality. In particular, a cutting plane approach is described, based on polyhedral combinatorics, that is ableto solve real-world problems of this type in short computation time. These results are of interest for practitioners in the area of communication network design. The book is addressed especially to the combinatorial optimization community, but also to those who want to learn polyhedral methods. In addition, interesting new research problemsare formulated.

  15. Pneumothorax in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome: focus on risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Terzic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pneumothorax is a life threatening condition, more often seen in immature infants receiving mechanical ventilation. It carries a significant risk of death and impaired outcome.Objective: To determine predictive factors for the occurrence of pneumothorax in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.Patients and methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary research and educational hospital, NICU, Pediatric Clinic UKC Sarajevo, from January 2010 to December 2013. All infants had chest X-ray at admission, and were treated due to RDS with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, or high frequency oscillatory ventilation. At admission we registered data regarding birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatally given steroids. Inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 417 infants. Data about timing, circumstances, side and treatment of pneumothorax were gathered from medical records.Results: Mean birth weight was 1,477 g, mean gestational age 29.6 weeks. We report 98 infants who did not survive. We also report incidence of pneumothorax in 5% of the infants with RDS. In this study pneumothorax and non-pneumothorax groups didn’t differ regarding sex, gestational age (median 29 and 30 nor birth weight (p = 0.818. Apgar score at the 1st and 5th minute of life had no influence in genesis of pulmonary air leak, neither prenatally given steroids (p = 0.639, nor surfactant administration. There was a low coverage of preterm infants with prenatal steroids (overall 28.29%. We found that FiO2 ≥ 0.4 in the first 12 hours of life, and need for mechanical ventilation are predicting factors for developing pneumothorax (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Together with mechanical ventilation, inspired fraction of oxygen higher than 40%, needed to provide adequate oxygenation in the first 12 hours of life in preterm infants, could be a predictive factor in selecting the highest risk babies for development of

  16. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  17. Parental Brain: Cerebral Areas Activated By Infant Cries And Faces. A Comparison Between Different Populations Of Parents And Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia ePiallini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of researches, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That’s why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on those researches that have investigated, in the last decade, which are the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses.Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence and PTSD.

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  20. Infant Memory for Musical Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Loman, Michelle M.; Robertson, Rachel R. W.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined memory of 7-month-olds after 2-week retention interval for passages of two Mozart movements heard daily for 2 weeks. Results suggested that the infants retained familiarized music in long-term memory and that their listening preferences were affected by the extent to which familiar passages were removed from the musical…

  1. Infants' Memory for Musical Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

  2. Nifedipinednduced Hyperglycaemia in an Infant :

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the present case would appear to be the first of a similar report in a child We suggest that dehydration due to hyperglycaemia-induced osmotic diuresis can constitute a risk to small infants on nifedipine, hence it should be used with caution on outpatient basis. Introduction. NIFEDIPINE, a dihydropyridine, is currently one of.

  3. Early Identification and Infant Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintz, Brenda

    1976-01-01

    This article describes the Zucker Center's program in Toledo, Ohio which identifies children with developmental delays and enrolls them in a demonstration infant stimulation program. The center provides educational programs in neonatal care, nutrition, general stimulation, and parenting techniques. Available from: PS 504 969. (JMB)

  4. Infants Hierarchically Organize Memory Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Rebecca D.; Feigenson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout development, working memory is subject to capacity limits that severely constrain short-term storage. However, adults can massively expand the total amount of remembered information by grouping items into "chunks". Although infants also have been shown to chunk objects in memory, little is known regarding the limits of this…

  5. Infants' responsiveness to rivalrous gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavšek, Michael

    2013-01-14

    The study investigated the early development of responsiveness to rivalrous gratings. Infants were tested weekly between 6 and 16 weeks of age for their ability to discriminate between interocularly identical (fusible) lines and interocularly orthogonal (unfusible, rivalrous) lines. The stimuli were presented on an autostereoscopic monitor equipped with a face-tracking device. Two psychophysical techniques, the forced-choice preferential looking (FPL) method and measurement of looking times, were employed. Contrary to earlier findings, infants at all ages avoided looking at the rivalrous gratings instead of showing a developmental shift from a relative preference for unfusible, rivalrous gratings to a relative preference for fusible gratings. Avoidance of the rivalrous gratings became significant at 8-9weeks of age, suggesting that infants clearly exhibit binocular rivalry from that age onwards. Control experiments secured that the infants' preference for the fusible gratings was not governed by a natural preference for less over more complex line patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infant Nurseries and Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    In four brief pamphlets, background information concerning aspects of the provision of day care services for infants and young children is directed to (1) policy makers, (2) mass media specialists, (3) academic level workers and professionals, and (4) nurses, midwives, social workers, teachers, and parents. Topics discussed include child…

  7. Nitrogen metabolism in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. van Goudoever (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe underlying theme of this work has been to try to understand the protein metabolism in the premature human infant, and its response to perturbations including disease and diet. Since the early work of Schoenheimer et al. it has been recognized that growth takes place as a result of

  8. America's Infant-Mortality Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Nicholas

    1991-01-01

    Conventional explanations attributing the high infant mortality rate in United States to the prevalence of poverty and lack of adequate health care do not tell the whole story. Contributions of parental behavior, lifestyles, and public health care availability versus utilization must be examined in determining public policies to address the…

  9. Shaken infant syndrome: developmental neuropathology, progressive cortical dysplasia, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Padilla, Miguel; Parisi, Joseph E; Armstrong, Dawna L; Sargent, Steve K; Kaplan, James A

    2002-04-01

    This study describes the developmental neuropathology of two infants who survived 7 and 9 years, respectively, an episode of violent shaking (shaken infant syndrome) early in their lives. The shaking injuries include cortical and subcortical contusions, hemorrhages, hypoxic/ischemic and axonal damage, and severe edema. The types, distribution, and resolution of these shaking injuries are detailed by sequential radiographic studies and by pathologic examination at postmortem. Despite their severity and extent, these injuries resolved in a relatively short period of time. By 6 months, the original injuries are repaired and the resultant encephaloclastic encephalopathies (e.g., multicystic encephalomalacia, porencephaly, generalized white matter attenuation, diffuse cortical atrophy, microgyria, ulegyria, and hydrocephalus ex vacuo) are well established. No appreciable pathologic differences are detected when radiographic findings at 6 months of age are compared to postmortem observations. On the other hand, undamaged and/or partially damaged cortical regions survive the original insult and undergo post-injury reorganization that transforms the residual cortex structural and presumably functional organization. Prominent features of this post-injury reorganization include progressive cortical dysplasia with cytoarchitectural disorganization, laminar obliteration, morphologic and functional (synaptic reorganization) transformation of some neurons, preservation of layer 1 intrinsic fibers and Cajal-Retzius cells, and the presence of large (hypertrophic) intrinsic neurons with intense neurofilament immunoreactivity. We propose that this progressive dysplastic process modifies the residual cortex structural and functional organization, influences the child's neurological and psychological maturation, and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ensuing neurological and/or psychological sequelae.

  10. Infants' learning of phonological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants' discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I'm should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I'd, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants' sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11 months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

  11. Determinants of infant and child mortality in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayasgalan, B

    1996-10-01

    This study describes differences in infant and child mortality in Mongolia and examines the main possible determinants of mortality. The policy implications are discussed. Data were obtained from the 1994 Demographic Survey of Mongolia among 2030 women and 1026 men aged 15-49 years and 4685 children. Analysis was limited by the small sample size and the unavailability of data on access to health services and nutrition. Birth history data revealed 25.9% of births in the capital city, 24% in provincial capitals, and 50.1% in rural areas. The sex ratio was 100 females to 102 males. Rural mothers were less educated. Fertility was 4 children/woman in rural areas, 3.4 children/woman in provincial capitals, and 2.8 children/woman in the capital city. Over 60% of mothers were unemployed, and 76.5% of mothers were unemployed in rural areas. Rural mothers received lower salaries. About 50% had electricity in their homes. Almost 95% of the rural population lived in single rooms, portable tents made of felt. 31.3% lived in tents in the capital city. Hot and cold running water was available to 50% in the central city and to 19.1% in provincial capitals. Higher socioeconomic status was associated with lower infant and child mortality. There was a wide range in mortality levels by maternal salary. Infant and child mortality was lower in households that had consumer goods. The number of cows owned by the household was unrelated to child survival. 90% of Mongolian women were literate. The educational status of the mother had the strongest and most significant effect on the level of infant and child mortality. The level of infant and child mortality was still too high for all educational groups. Mortality was high for infants and children living in tents. Findings suggest that early-age mortality in Mongolia is not consistent with the level of social development. Access to health care and quality of health care may be key reasons for this disparity.

  12. Accuracy of a Staging System for Prognosis of 5-Year Survival of Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Who Underwent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-I; Chen, Li-Fu; Chang, Shih-Lun; Wu, Hung-Chang; Ting, Wei-Chen; Yang, Ching-Chieh

    2017-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy delivers a high level of tumor control and survival benefits for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, many uncertainties still exist regarding the outcomes of chemoradiotherapy, making a more precise survival prognostic system necessary. To introduce a new staging system that combines tumor and clinical characteristics to improve the accuracy of prognosis for patients with NPC. This cohort study enrolled 207 patients with newly diagnosed NPC who underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, at Chi-Mei Medical Center in Tainan, Taiwan. Data on these patients were collected from the cancer registry database of the Chi-Mei Medical Center. Patients who had a history of cancer or were unable to complete a full course of radiotherapy were excluded. Follow-up was completed on September 30, 2016, and the data analysis was performed from January 1, 2017, to February 28, 2017. The risk factors associated with 5-year disease-specific survival were incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the International Union Against Cancer TNM staging system to construct a new prognostic staging system. The χ2 test for linear trend, the Akaike information criterion, and the C statistic were used to evaluate the monotonicity and discriminatory ability of the new prognostic staging system and the AJCC TNM staging system. Of the 207 patients enrolled in the study, 157 (75.8%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 48 (11) years. Multivariate analysis identified advanced clinical T stage (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.20; 95% CI, 1.58-6.48), poor performance status (aHR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.30-5.28), and cumulative cisplatin dose lower than 100 mg/m2 (aHR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.10-4.74) as independent prognostic factors. The β coefficients from the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to develop an integer-based, weighted point system; advanced clinical T stage, poor

  13. Occipitocervical fusion in an infant with atlantooccipital dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, Edward C; Zhang, Donald H; Iannotti, Christopher; Refai, Daniel; Ruggieri, Paul; Krishnaney, Ajit

    2012-12-01

    For children who survive traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), early surgical stabilization and arthrodesis of the occipitoatlantoaxial complex is typically performed. Because of the unique and crowded anatomy of the occipitocervical junction, the creation of a fusion construct that is both safe and biomechanically sound is extremely challenging, especially in infants. We present a technical report of a patient with infantile type I AOD with gross instability, who underwent surgical stabilization consisting of occiput to C2 arthrodesis using autologous rib, augmented with bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2), Mersilene suture, and Ethibond suture as "cross-connectors." The patient is a 12-month-old female infant who was involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident and sustained a type I AOD. Definitive surgical stabilization consisting of arthrodesis from the occiput to C2 using autologous rib augmented with BMP-2, Mersilene suture, and Ethibond suture as cross-connectors was performed. There were no intraoperative complications. A follow-up cervical spine computed tomography obtained 12 weeks postoperatively demonstrated excellent occipitocervical alignment, with evidence of modest bony fusion from the occiput to C2. Neurologic examination demonstrated modest, but progressive, improvement, with partial resolution of bilateral sixth nerve palsies, and improvement in upper- and lower-extremity muscle strength and tone. Significant surgical challenges exist regarding occipitocervical fusion in infants with AOD and gross instability. This case report illustrates the successful application of BMP-2-augmented occipitocervical fusion using autologous rib, in combination with Mersilene and Ethibond suture, in the treatment of an infant with type I AOD with gross instability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Soy infant formula: is it that bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry; Hauser, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study is to review the indications of soy infant formula (SIF). Structured review of publications is made available through standard search engines (Pubmed,…). The medical indications for SIF are limited to galactosaemia and hereditary lactase deficiency. In the treatment of cow's milk allergy, SIF is used for economic reasons, as extensive hydrolysates are expensive. SIF is dissuaded mainly because of its phytooestrogen content. Isoflavone serum levels are much higher in SIF-fed infants than in breastfed or cow milk formula-fed infants. Administration of pure isoflavones to animals causes decreased fertility, but clinically relevant adverse effects of SIF in infants are not reported.   Soy infant formula remains an option for feeding of term born infants if breastfeeding is not possible and if standard infant formula is not tolerated. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  15. Reflections on informed choice in resource-poor settings: the case of infant feeding counselling in PMTCT programmes in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våga, Bodil Bø; Moland, Karen Marie; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; Blystad, Astrid

    2014-03-01

    A growing emphasis on patient involvement in health care has brought 'informed choice' to the core of the debate on provider-patient interaction in global health-care programmes. How the principles of patient involvement and informed choice are implemented and experienced in diverging health systems and cultural contexts are issues of increasing interest. Infant feeding and infant feeding counselling of HIV-positive women have posed particular challenges related to choice. Based on ethnographic research conducted from 5 November 2008 to 5 August 2009 within prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes in two hospitals in rural and semi-urban Tanzania, this study explores nurse counsellors' and HIV-positive women's experiences of infant feeding counselling and patient choice. One of the hospitals (hospital A) promoted exclusive breastfeeding as the only infant feeding option, while the other hospital (hospital B) aimed to follow the Tanzanian PMTCT infant feeding guidelines of 2007 promoting patient choice in infant feeding methods. Women in hospital A expressed trust in the advice given and confidence in their own ability to practice exclusive breastfeeding, while women in hospital B expressed great uncertainty and confusion about how best to feed their infants. This paper reflects on the feasibility of a counselling procedure that promotes choice of infant feeding methods in PMTCT programmes in severely resource-poor settings where HIV-positive women have limited access to resources and to up-to-date knowledge on HIV and infant feeding outside the counselling room. We suggest that a universalistic procedure presenting the same unambiguous message on infant feeding to all women enrolled in the PMTCT programme in this and similar settings is likely to produce more confidence, less confusion and, hence, better results in terms of HIV-free survival of the baby. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preference for infant-directed singing in 2-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, N

    1999-07-01

    L. J. Trainor (1996) reported preferences for infant-directed versus infant-absent singing in English in 4-7-month-old hearing infants of English-speaking hearing parents. In this experiment, the author tested preferences for infant-directed singing versus adult-directed singing in 15 two-day-old hearing infants of deaf parents for a Japanese and an English play song. Using a modified visual-fixation-based auditory-preference procedure, the author found that infants looked longer at a visual stimulus when looking produced infant-directed singing as opposed to adult-directed singing. These results suggest that infants prefer infant-directed singing over adult-directed singing and that the preference is present from birth and is not dependent on any specific prenatal or postnatal experience.

  17. Infant mortality statistics from the 2007 period linked birth/infant death data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, T J; MacDorman, Marian F

    2011-06-29

    This report presents 2007 period infant mortality statistics from the linked birth/infant death data set (linked file) by a variety of maternal and infant characteristics. The linked file differs from the mortality file, which is based entirely on death certificate data. Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. infant mortality rate was 6.75 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 2007, not significantly different than the rate of 6.68 in 2006. Infant mortality rates ranged from 4.57 per 1,000 live births for mothers of Central and South American origin to 13.31 for non-Hispanic black mothers. Infant mortality rates were higher for those infants who were born in multiple deliveries; for those whose mothers were born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia; and for mothers who were unmarried. Infant mortality was also higher for male infants and infants born preterm or at low birthweight. The neonatal mortality rate was essentially unchanged from 2006 (4.46) to 2007 (4.42). The postneonatal mortality rate increased 5 percent from 2.22 in 2006 to 2.33 in 2007, similar to the rate in 2005 (2.32). Infants born at the lowest gestational ages and birthweights have a large impact on overall U.S. infant mortality. For example, more than one-half of all infant deaths in the United States in 2007 (54 percent) occurred to the 2 percent of infants born very preterm (less than 32 weeks of gestation). Still, infant mortality rates for late preterm infants (34-36 weeks of gestation) were 3.6 times, and those for early term (37-38 weeks) infants were 1.5 times, those for infants born at 39-41 weeks of gestation, the gestational age with the lowest infant mortality rate. The three leading causes of infant death--congenital malformations, low birthweight, and sudden infant death syndrome--accounted for 45 percent of all infant deaths. The percentage of infant deaths that were "preterm-related" was 36.0 percent in 2007. The preterm-related infant

  18. Holding-on: co-evolution between infant carrying and grasping behaviour in strepsirrhines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckre, Louise; Fabre, Anne-Claire; Wall, Christine E; Brewer, David; Ehmke, Erin; Haring, David; Shaw, Erin; Welser, Kay; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle

    2016-11-24

    The origin and evolution of manual grasping remain poorly understood. The ability to cling requires important grasping abilities and is essential to survive in species where the young are carried in the fur. A previous study has suggested that this behaviour could be a pre-adaptation for the evolution of fine manipulative skills. In this study we tested the co-evolution between infant carrying in the fur and manual grasping abilities in the context of food manipulation. As strepsirrhines vary in the way infants are carried (mouth vs. fur), they are an excellent model to test this hypothesis. Data on food manipulation behaviour were collected for 21 species of strepsirrhines. Our results show that fur-carrying species exhibited significantly more frequent manual grasping of food items. This study clearly illustrates the potential novel insights that a behaviour (infant carrying) that has previously been largely ignored in the discussion of the evolution of primate manipulation can bring.

  19. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring for prevention of brain injury in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral injury and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment is common in extremely preterm infants. Cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables continuous estimation of cerebral oxygenation. This diagnostic method coupled with appropriate interventions if NIRS is out of normal......: To evaluate the benefits and harms of interventions that attempt to alter cerebral oxygenation guided by cerebral NIRS monitoring in order to prevent cerebral injury, improve neurological outcome, and increase survival in preterm infants born more than 8 weeks preterm. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard...... and was assessed at low risk of bias. One hundred and sixty-six infants were randomised to start continuous cerebral NIRS monitoring less than 3 hours after birth until 72 hours after birth plus appropriate interventions if NIRS was out of normal range according to a guideline versus conventional monitoring...

  20. Epicardial cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in a 4-month-old infant bridged to heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Cristina; Cereda, Alberto Francesco; Annoni, Giuseppe; Marianeschi, Stefano Maria

    2017-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Nevertheless, ICD placement in the paediatric population is still limited because of several technical difficulties. Several implantation techniques have been proposed but experience in infants with very low weight and less than 6 months is very limited. We herein describe a case of a minimally invasive ICD epicardial implantation in a 4-month-old infant weighing 5 kg. A diagnosis of arrhythmic cardiomyopathy with left ventricular non-compaction disease with ventricular tachycardia storms, QT prolongation and Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern was made. Antiarrhythmic drugs, radiofrequency ablation and sympathetic denervation were not effective. ICD implantation was successful allowing the infant to survive and bridging to heart transplantation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. Skin-to-Skin Care and the Development of the Preterm Infant Oral Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Xu, Jie; Parikh, Hardik I; Xu, Ping; Fettweis, Jennifer M; Kim, Yang; Louie, Moi; Buck, Gregory A; Thacker, Leroy R; Sheth, Nihar U

    2015-11-01

    The oral cavity represents an initial entry way for oral and gut indigenous colonization. Skin-to-skin (STS) care, in which the mother holds the diaper clad naked preterm (PT) infant between her breasts, is associated with improved digestive function, decreased stress, and improved survival. This study evaluated the development of oral microbial colonization repertoires and health characteristics in PT infants with or without STS exposure. Saliva from 42 PT infants (care. Corrected for gestational age (CGA) at sampling, bacterial taxa demonstrated increased Streptococcus as a signature of oral repertoire maturation. STS was associated with increased Streptococcus (p  32 weeks CGA, Neisseria and Acinetobacter were more prevalent, 50 vs. 16.7% and 40 vs. 0%, respectively. STS care was associated with shorter hospitalization (p care during earlier gestation was associated with a distinct microbial pattern and an accelerated pace of oral microbial repertoire maturity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Prediction of extubation readiness in extreme preterm infants based on measures of cardiorespiratory variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, Doina; Robles-Rubio, Carlos A; Brown, Karen A; Kanbar, L; Kaczmarek, J; Chawla, S; Sant'Anna, G M; Kearney, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    The majority of extreme preterm infants require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation (ETT-MV) during the first days of life to survive. Unfortunately this therapy is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and consequently, it is desirable to remove ETT-MV as quickly as possible. However, about 25% of extubated infants will fail and require re-intubation which is also associated with a 5-fold increase in mortality and a longer stay in the intensive care unit. Therefore, the ultimate goal is to determine the optimal time for extubation that will minimize the duration of MV and maximize the chances of success. This paper presents a new objective predictor to assist clinicians in making this decision. The predictor uses a modern machine learning method (Support Vector Machines) to determine the combination of measures of cardiorespiratory variability, computed automatically, that best predicts extubation readiness. Our results demonstrate that this predictor accurately classified infants who would fail extubation.

  3. Hospital volume and neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Dorothee B; Wypij, David; Wenzlaff, Paul; Dammann, Olaf; Poets, Christian F

    2006-06-01

    Very low birth weight infants ( 1000 births per year) and large NICUs, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.94 for neonates for whom both units were small, 1.75 for those from large delivery units but small neonatal units, and 1.16 for those for whom only the NICU was large. Stratification according to gestational age revealed the greatest impact on mortality for infants of < 29 weeks. Results suggest that creating larger perinatal centers may improve perinatal health care. The volume of the NICU was associated more strongly with 28-day mortality than was the volume of the delivery hospital, and it had the largest impact on survival for infants of < 29 weeks.

  4. Use of omeprazole during pregnancy--no hazard demonstrated in 955 infants exposed during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källén, B A

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of possible fetal risks involved in maternal use of omeprazole during pregnancy. Infants whose mothers used omeprazole during pregnancy were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. A total of 955 exposed infants born in 1995-1999 were identified: 863 of which were exposed in early pregnancy and 131 later in pregnancy and 39 who had been exposed both in early and late pregnancy. Delivery outcome was studied: presence of congenital malformations, perinatal survival, low birth weight, low Apgar score and hospitalization up to the end of 1997. No clear-cut indication of ill effects were seen. Five infants were stillborn and the rate of congenital heart defects was slightly increased, but both effects may be random. The present dataset and previously published data give no reason for concern after exposure for omeprazole during pregnancy.

  5. Enteral Nutrient Supply for Preterm Infants : Commentary From the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostoni, C.; Buonocore, G.; Carnielli, V. P.; De Curtis, M.; Darmaun, D.; Decsi, T.; Domellof, M.; Embleton, N. D.; Fusch, C.; Genzel-Boroviczeny, O.; Goulet, O.; Kalhan, S. C.; Kolacek, S.; Koletzko, B.; Lapillonne, A.; Mihatsch, W.; Moreno, L.; Neu, J.; Poindexter, B.; Puntis, J.; Putet, G.; Rigo, J.; Riskin, A.; Salle, B.; Sauer, P.; Shamir, R.; Szajewska, H.; Thureen, P.; Turck, D.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Ziegler, E. E.

    The number of surviving children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last 2 decades. The major goal of enteral nutrient supply to these infants is to achieve growth similar to foetal growth coupled with satisfactory functional development. The accumulation of knowledge since the

  6. Brain imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in preterm-born infants: Effects of neonatal hydrocortisone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year cohort of 236 preterm-born infants (gestational age < 32 weeks and/or birth weight < 1500 grams), born between March 1, 1991 and March 1, 1993 and admitted to the NICU of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, was evaluated at school age. This cohort represented 83.4% of the surviving

  7. Of Hissing Snakes and Angry Voices: Human Infants Are Differentially Responsive to Evolutionary Fear-Relevant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to,…

  8. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  9. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...... and conflicting feelings may result in pathological expansion of grief characterized by extremely reduced quality of life involving severe psychical and social consequences. Suicide a subject of taboo In the 1980s WHO drafted a health policy document (‘Health for all year 2000’) with 38 targets for attaining......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...

  10. Obesity in cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V

    2012-08-21

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colo-rectal cancer. We note that the evidence overrepresents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors.

  11. Candida survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polke, Melanie; Hube, Bernhard; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2015-01-01

    Only few Candida species, e.g., Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida parapsilosis, are successful colonizers of a human host. Under certain circumstances these species can cause infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated candidiasis. The success of C. albicans, the most prevalent and best studied Candida species, as both commensal and human pathogen depends on its genetic, biochemical, and morphological flexibility which facilitates adaptation to a wide range of host niches. In addition, formation of biofilms provides additional protection from adverse environmental conditions. Furthermore, in many host niches Candida cells coexist with members of the human microbiome. The resulting fungal-bacterial interactions have a major influence on the success of C. albicans as commensal and also influence disease development and outcome. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge of important survival strategies of Candida spp., focusing on fundamental fitness and virulence traits of C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D P; Ruth, T E; Wagner, L M

    1993-11-06

    We examined the deaths of 28,169 adult Chinese-Americans, and 412,632 randomly selected, matched controls coded "white" on the death certificate. Chinese-Americans, but not whites, die significantly earlier than normal (1.3-4.9 yr) if they have a combination of disease and birthyear which Chinese astrology and medicine consider ill-fated. The more strongly a group is attached to Chinese traditions, the more years of life are lost. Our results hold for nearly all major causes of death studied. The reduction in survival cannot be completely explained by a change in the behaviour of the Chinese patient, doctor, or death-registrar, but seems to result at least partly from psychosomatic processes.

  13. Female infant in Egypt: mortality and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Beheiri, F; El-drini, H; Manala-od; Bulbul, A

    1981-01-01

    Deviation from the normative sex-pattern of infant deaths is so large in Egypt that nearly 1/3 of female deaths can be attributed to a sex-specific cause: lesser care of the female child. This article reports on child neglect which may account for the relatively lower survival rate of the female infant, despite its biological advantage over the male. This knowledge is seen as vital in planning interventions. The investigation answers 3 questions relating to the sex-specific factors of death among female infants: do girls display a poorer level of nutrition compared to boys? Is there evidence to show that sickness episodes of female infants are treated more carelessly than those of male infants? Are there reasons to believe that girls are more exposed to life-threatening psychological factors than are boys? A group of 598 families in low-income districts of Cairo was randomly chosen to receive regular monthly visits by a team of trained field invstigators over a 1-year period. The sample is thought to represent life in urban quarters of Egypt, described as pervasively rural in orientations despite urban occupations and living conditions. The study finds no significant sex difference in nutritional status until the 6th month of life. Around this period, 2/5 of the female group but 1/4 of the male show signs of malnutrition as measured by weight. The difference continues to increase and is very statistically significant by the end of the year. Nutritional status of female infants tended to decline with an addition of daughters in the family. Also, at birth orders 2 ot 5 and in large families of 4-5 children, the relative nutritional disadvantage of the female infant is statistically significant. Moreover, a very distinct sex-difference in dietary patterns is observed as no boy was deprived of supplementary feeding during the 2nd 1/2 of the year but only 1/15 girls received food other than breast milk during this period. Despite some evidence highly suggestive of

  14. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks 'from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn't have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  15. Association Between Infant Mortality Attributable to Birth Defects and Payment Source for Delivery - United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almli, Lynn M; Alter, Caroline C; Russell, Rebecca B; Tinker, Sarah C; Howards, Penelope P; Cragan, Janet; Petersen, Emily; Carrino, Gerard E; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2017-01-27

    Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States (1), accounting for approximately 20% of infant deaths. The rate of infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD) in the United States in 2014 was 11.9 per 10,000 live births (1). Rates of IMBD differ by race/ethnicity (2), age group at death (2), and gestational age at birth (3). Insurance type is associated with survival among infants with congenital heart defects (CHD) (4). In 2003, a checkbox indicating principal payment source for delivery was added to the U.S. standard birth certificate (5). To assess IMBD by payment source for delivery, CDC analyzed linked U.S. birth/infant death data for 2011-2013 from states that adopted the 2003 revision of the birth certificate. The results indicated that IMBD rates for preterm (infants whose deliveries were covered by Medicaid were higher during the neonatal (infants whose deliveries were covered by private insurance. Similar differences in postneonatal mortality were observed for the three most common categories of birth defects listed as a cause of death: central nervous system (CNS) defects, CHD, and chromosomal abnormalities. Strategies to ensure quality of care and access to care might reduce the difference between deliveries covered by Medicaid and those covered by private insurance.

  16. VISUAL OUTCOME IN PRETERM INFANTS ANALYSIS OF PRETERM INFANTS BORN IN LJUBLJANA 1990–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Stirn-Kranjc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Improved perinatal care has increased the survival rate of prematurely born infants. An epidemiological fact that 6–18% and more visually impaired children were prematurely born, emphasises the effect of premature birth on both visual function and development. Despite better knowledge on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP it is stressed not to underestimate refractive errors, strabismus and visual impairment after brain lesions, being more common in preterm babies.Methods. Over 1300 preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500 g or less and gestational age of 30 weeks or less, born in Maternity Hospital of Ljubljana, Slovenia in the period 1990– 1999 were examined according to contemporary paediatricophthalmologic recommendations. At least one year ophthalmologic follow-up (average 3.5 years of 594 prematurely born infants with high neonatal risk factors for ROP and with general health problems, was performed. Sex, gestational age, birth weight, artificial ventilation, exchange blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respiratory distress syndrome, apnoea, septicaemia, intraventricular haemorrhage, hyperbilirubinemia were analysed for correlation with ROP and visual impairment.Results. The survival rate of the studied preterm infants was 65–87% (mean 77.3%. ROP stage 1, 2 has developed in 33 children with a birth weight under 900 g and in 10 with a birth weight 900–1200 g (altogether in 8%. ROP stage 3–5 has been registered (with or without plus disease in 7 children (below 6%. In 6 children cryo or argon laser photocoagulation has been performed and vitreoretinal surgery in 1 child (without functional results. In the studied group altogether 4 children (below 1% became blind (visual acuity < 0.05, all of them have had septicaemia. Squint has been registered in 6.9% of children, and has correlated with higher refractive error, mostly myopia. Severe optic nerve atrophy has been noticed already in the first year of follow

  17. IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Zubair H; Saslow, Judy G; Mody, Kartik; Eydelman, Riva; Bhat, Vishwanath; Stahl, Gary; Pyon, Kee; Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The impact of household wealth on child survival in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Stella T; Khanam, Rasheda; Takahashi, Shingo

    2016-11-22

    Improving child health is one of the major policy agendas for most of the governments, especially in the developing countries. These governments have been implementing various strategies such as improving healthcare financing, improving access to health, increasing educational level, and income level of the household to improve child health. Despite all these efforts, under-five and infant mortality rates remain high in many developing nations. Some previous studies examined how economic development or household's economic condition contributes to child survival in developing countries. In Ghana, the question as to what extent does economic circumstances of households reduces infant and child mortality still remain largely unanswered. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which wealth affects the survival of under-five children, using data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Ghana. In this study, we use four waves of data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ghana from 1993 to 2008. The DHS is a detailed data set that provides comprehensive information on households and their demographic characteristics in Ghana. Data was obtained by distributing questionnaires to women (from 6000 households) of reproductive age between 15 and 49 years, which asked, among other things, their birth history information. The Weibull hazard model with gamma frailty was used to estimate wealth effect, as well as the trend of wealth effect on child's survival probability. We find that household wealth status has a significant effect on the child survival in Ghana. A child is more likely to survive when he/she is from a household with high wealth status. Among other factors, birth spacing and parental education were found to be highly significant to increase a child's survival probability. Our findings offer plausible mechanisms for the association of household wealth and child survival. We therefore suggest that the Government of Ghana

  19. The relationship between circulating natural killer cells after reduced intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and relapse-free survival and graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Erin M; Buzzeo, Mathew P; Levine, Jeff B; Schold, Jesse D; Meier-Kriesche, Herwig-Ulf; Reddy, Vijay

    2008-12-01

    Natural killer cells are known to have anti-tumor activity in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that reconstituted circulating natural killer cells may be associated with improved relapse-free survival after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Serial peripheral blood absolute natural killer cell counts were prospectively measured by flow cytometry of lymphocytes expressing CD56 and CD16 in 167 patients. Cluster analysis was used at engraftment and 60 days post-transplant to distinguish patients with high and low absolute natural killer cell counts. At engraftment 80 patients had high counts (> 22.2/mm3) and 43 had low counts. At 60 days post-transplant 84 patients had high counts (> 18.2/mm3) and 38 had low counts. The primary study end-points were death, relapse and acute graft-versus-host disease. The median follow-up was 373 days (range, 67-1767). Among patients given reduced intensity conditioning, a low absolute natural killer cell count at 60 days post-transplant was independently associated with relapse [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 28.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3-186.4] and death (AHR = 17.5, 95% CI 4.3-71.3). Furthermore, patients given reduced intensity conditioning who had a high absolute natural killer cell count at 60 days had a significantly better 1-year survival than those with a low count by Kaplan-Meier analysis (83% vs. 11%, pkiller count in patients given reduced intensity conditioning was independently associated with an increase in relapse or death (AHR = 20.22, 95% CI 4.76-85.40). In contrast, there was no significant association between 60-day absolute natural killer cell counts and clinical outcomes in patients receiving myeloablative conditioning. There was no significant association between absolute natural killer cell count and graft-versus-host disease. High natural killer cell reconstitution is associated with reduced relapse and death without an increased incidence of

  20. Distinguishing Mother-Infant Interaction from Stranger-Infant Interaction at 2, 4, and 6 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Ann E.; Power, Michelle; Mcquaid, Nancy; Ward, Ashley; Rochat, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Observers watched videotaped face-to-face mother-infant and stranger-infant interactions of 12 infants at 2, 4, or 6 months of age. Half of the observers saw each mother paired with her own infant and another infant of the same age (mother tapes) and half saw each infant paired with his or her mother and with a stranger (infant tapes). Observers…

  1. High-density diffuse optical tomography of term infant visual cortex in the nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Steve M.; Ferradal, Silvina L.; White, Brian R.; Gregg, Nicholas; Inder, Terrie E.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2012-08-01

    Advancements in antenatal and neonatal medicine over the last few decades have led to significant improvement in the survival rates of sick newborn infants. However, this improvement in survival has not been matched by a reduction in neurodevelopmental morbidities with increasing recognition of the diverse cognitive and behavioral challenges that preterm infants face in childhood. Conventional neuroimaging modalities, such as cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, provide an important definition of neuroanatomy with recognition of brain injury. However, they fail to define the functional integrity of the immature brain, particularly during this critical developmental period. Diffuse optical tomography methods have established success in imaging adult brain function; however, few studies exist to demonstrate their feasibility in the neonatal population. We demonstrate the feasibility of using recently developed high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) to map functional activation of the visual cortex in healthy term-born infants. The functional images show high contrast-to-noise ratio obtained in seven neonates. These results illustrate the potential for HD-DOT and provide a foundation for investigations of brain function in more vulnerable newborns, such as preterm infants.

  2. Infants preferentially approach and explore the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Zi L; Xu, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Looking time experiments based on the violation-of-expectation (VOE) method have consistently demonstrated that infants look longer when their expectations are violated. However, it remains an open question whether similar effects will be observed in infants' approach behaviours. Specifically, do infants selectively approach and explore sources that violate their expectations? In this study, we address this question by examining how infants' looking times are related to their approach and exploration behaviours. Using a traditional VOE method and a crawling paradigm, we demonstrate a strong correspondence between looking time and approach behaviours, which indicates that 13-month-old infants preferentially explore sources of unexpected events. Such spontaneous exploration may provide learning opportunities and allow infants to play an active role in driving their own development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Infants look longer when their expectations are violated. There is some evidence that infants also preferentially explore objects that violate their 'core' physical expectations. What the present study adds? There is a clear correspondence between infants' looking behaviour and their approach behaviour. Expectancy violations involving non-core knowledge can similarly influence infants' exploration. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  4. Cigarette Tax Increase and Infant Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Stephen W; Warner, Kenneth E; Pordes, Elisabeth; Davis, Matthew M

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking increases the risk for preterm birth, low birth weight, and sudden infant death syndrome, which are all causes of infant mortality. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in cigarette taxes and prices over time in the United States were associated with a decrease in infant mortality. We compiled data for all states from 1999 to 2010. Time-series models were constructed by infant race for cigarette tax and price with infant mortality as the outcome, controlling for state per-capita income, educational attainment, time trend, and state random effects. From 1999 through 2010, the mean overall state infant mortality rate in the United States decreased from 7.3 to 6.2 per 1000 live births, with decreases of 6.0 to 5.3 for non-Hispanic white and 14.3 to 11.3 for non-Hispanic African American infants (P infant deaths of -0.19 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to -0.05) per 1000 live births overall, including changes of -0.21 (-0.33 to -0.08) for non-Hispanic white infants and -0.46 (-0.90 to -0.01) for non-Hispanic African American infants. Models for cigarette price yielded similar findings. Increases in cigarette taxes and prices are associated with decreases in infant mortality rates, with stronger impact for African American infants. Federal and state policymakers may consider increases in cigarette taxes as a primary prevention strategy for infant mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Predictors of Survival among Adult Ethiopian Patients in the National ART Program at Seven University Teaching Hospitals: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekade, Daniel; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Teklu, Alula M; Damen, Melake; Abdella, Saro; Baraki, Nega; Belayhun, Bekele; Berhan, Eyoel; Kebede, Amha; Assefa, Yibeltal

    2017-02-01

    In Ethiopia, the publicly funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program was started in 2005. Two hundred seventy-five thousand patients were enrolled in the national ART program by 2012. However, there is limited data on mortality and predictors of death among adult patients in the ART program. The study aimed to estimate mortality and risk factors for death among adult, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program from January 2009 to July 2013. Multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study of adult, age > 18 years, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program at seven university-affiliated hospitals from January 2009 - July 2013. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate survival and determine risk factors for death. A total of 976 patients, 594 females (60.9 %), were enrolled into the study. Median age of the cohort was 33years. The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 ART. Cox regression analyses showed that the following measures independently predicted mortality: age >51 years, (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 4.01, P=0.003), WHO stages III&IV, (AHR 1.76, p = 0.025), CD4 count, 5 log copies /ml (CHR 1.71, p = 0.037). There is high early on- ART mortality in patients presenting with advanced immunodeficiency. Detecting cases and initiating ART before onset of advanced immunodeficiency might improve survival.

  6. Infant Mortality Trends and Differences Between American Indian/Alaska Native Infants and White Infants in the United States, 1989–1991 and 1998–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M.; Qin, Cheng; Hsia, Jason; Iyasu, Solomon; Barfield, Wanda D.; Flowers, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. Methods. We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989–1991 and 1998–2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at ≥20 weeks’ gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0–364 days) and in the neonatal (0–27 days) and postneonatal (28–364 days) periods. Results. Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998–2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. Conclusions. Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities. PMID:17077400

  7. Infant mortality trends and differences between American Indian/Alaska Native infants and white infants in the United States, 1989-1991 and 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomashek, Kay M; Qin, Cheng; Hsia, Jason; Iyasu, Solomon; Barfield, Wanda D; Flowers, Lisa M

    2006-12-01

    To describe changes in infant mortality rates, including birthweight-specific rates and rates by age at death and cause. We analyzed US linked birth/infant-death data for 1989-1991 and 1998-2000 for American Indians/Alaska Native (AIAN) and White singleton infants at > or =20 weeks' gestation born to US residents. We calculated birthweight-specific infant mortality rates (deaths in each birthweight category per 1000 live births in that category), and overall and cause-specific infant mortality rates (deaths per 100000 live births) in infancy (0-364 days) and in the neonatal (0-27 days) and postneonatal (28-364 days) periods. Birthweight-specific infant mortality rates declined among AIAN and White infants across all birthweight categories, but AIAN infants generally had higher birthweight-specific infant mortality rates. Infant mortality rates declined for both groups, yet in 1998-2000, AIAN infants were still 1.7 times more likely to die than White infants. Most of the disparity was because of elevated post-neonatal mortality, especially from sudden infant death syndrome, accidents, and pneumonia and influenza. Although birthweight-specific infant mortality rates and infant mortality rates declined among both AIAN and White infants, disparities in infant mortality persist. Preventable causes of infant mortality identified in this analysis should be targeted to reduce excess deaths among AIAN communities.

  8. Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, William M; MacDorman, Marian F; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-01-01

    2007 to 37.5% in 2013. Gestational age-specific mortality decreased for each gestational age category between 2007 and 2013 except 33 weeks and >42 weeks. About 31% of the decrease in the US infant mortality rate from 2007 through 2013 was due to changes in the gestational age distribution, and 69% was due to improvements in gestational age-specific survival. Improvements in the gestational age distribution from 2007 through 2013 benefited infants of non-Hispanic white women (48%) the most, followed by infants of non-Hispanic black (31%) and Hispanic (14%) women. Infant mortality improved between 2007 and 2013 as a result of both improvements in the distribution of gestational age at birth and improvements in survival after birth. The differential contribution of improvements in the gestational age distribution at birth by race and ethnicity suggests that preconception and antenatal health and health care aimed at preventing or delaying preterm birth may not be reaching all populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michele C; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Martin, Camilia R; Cnaan, Avital; Keller, Roberta L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Martin, Richard J; Truog, William E; Ballard, Philip L; Zadell, Arlene; Wadlinger, Sandra R; Coburn, Christine E; Ballard, Roberta A

    2010-04-01

    In a randomized multi-center trial, we demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide begun between 7 and 21 days and given for 24 days significantly increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in ventilated premature infants weighing score <70 on the Bayley Scales II), compared with 114 of 234 (49%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.75-1.12; P = .39). No differences on any subcomponent of neurodevelopmental impairment or growth variables were found between inhaled nitric oxide or placebo. Inhaled nitric oxide improved survival free of BPD, with no adverse neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years of age. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  11. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  12. Orientational anisotropy in infant vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen Leehey, S.; Moskowitz-Cook, A.; Brill, S.; Held, R.

    1975-01-01

    Infants prefer to look at horizontal and vertical gratings rather than at oblique gratings only when they are at or near threshold spatial frequencies, as would be expected if acuity for oblique edges is lower than that for horizontal and vertical edges. That such a bias exists as early as 6 weeks of age suggests that the orientational asymmetry of the visual system depends on endogeneous maturation rather than exposure to a carpentered world.

  13. Cerebellar neuroblastoma in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, S; Inamura, T; Morioka, T; Ishihara, S; Hirano, K; Murakami, N; Fukui, M

    2000-03-01

    A cerebellar neoplasm in an 8-month-old boy is reported. While this tumour was composed of small cells and had regions resembling desmoplastic medulloblastoma, it showed ultrastructural neuronal characteristics including bundles of microtubules in the cell processes, numerous synaptic vesicles, and occasional abortive or complete synapses. These characteristic features warranted the diagnosis of a neuroblastoma of the cerebellum. The nature of this rare intraparenchymal tumour in infants is also briefly discussed.

  14. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Effect of Plurality and Gestation on the Prevention or Postponement of Infant Mortality: 1989–1991 Versus 1999–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in perinatal technology that improved survival may have also resulted in prolonged death from the neonatal to the postneonatal period for some infants. The objectives of this study were to determine if the medical advances that occurred in the 1990s benefited infants of multiple births more than their singleton counterparts, and if these changes prevented or postponed mortality for the smallest and most immature infants. The study population included live births of 22 to 43 weeks’ gestation from the 1989–1991 and 1999–2001 US Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Sets. Odds ratios were calculated to evaluate the change in risk by plurality, gestation, and to compare the change to that for singletons. Neonatal and infant mortality rates declined for all pluralities; postneonatal mortality increased for births at less than 26 weeks, but declined at later gestations. In general, the risk of death for twins and triplets compared to singletons decreased, and the improvement in survival was greater for multiples during the early neonatal period and overall. Infant mortality rates improved by 28% for singletons, 32% for twins and triplets during the 1990s, although for the most premature infants, some deaths were postponed from the early to the late neonatal period. PMID:17564510

  16. The Impact of Breast Milk, Respiratory Insufficiency and GERD on Enteral Feeding in Infants with Omphalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Shelly; St Peter, Shawn; Ramlogan, Sandhya; Goff, Donna; Thorpe, Donna; Hopper, Andrew; Baerg, Joanne

    2016-11-05

    The aim of this study was to document the process of achieving full enteral feeding in infants with omphalocele and to identify factors that affect feeding success. After Institutional Review Board approval (5100169), 123 infants with omphalocele, born between 1993 and 2011 were reviewed. Mortalities were excluded. All survivors had complete follow-up. Variables suspected to impact enteral feeding in infants with non-giant versus giant omphalocele were compared. Independent t-test, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test were utilized. Regression evaluated for variable independence. Of 123 infants with omphalocele, 97 (79%) survived, 62/97 (64%) had non-giant and 35/97 (36%) giant omphalocele. For survivors, the mean gestational age was 37+/-4 weeks with median follow-up of 4.4 years (range: 1.4 to 7.4 years).The median time to full feeds was 4 days (range: 0 to 85 days) for non-giant versus 8 days (range: 1 to 96 days) for giant, a significant difference (p respiratory insufficiency at birth (p Respiratory insufficiency at birth (p respiratory insufficiency at birth independently delay feeding in infants with omphalocele.

  17. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Weight Gaining of Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Basiry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:The quality of life and standard of health care in a society is measured  by its preterm infants' mortality rate. The popularity and credibility of alternative treatment such as touch therapy may be effective in preterm and low birth weightinfants in order to increase their survival rate.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of touch intervention on the weight gain of preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unite(NICU. Methods:This study was a randomized controlled trial performed in NICU of  Emamreza hospital,Mashhad,Iran,from July 2007 to November 2007. There were two groups (the control group and the case group and one response variable (weight gain.Infants in the control group received routine nursing care. Infants in the case  group,in addition to the routine care,received stroking/passive limb movement therapy  for three 15 minute sessions per day for a 10 day period.Then weight gaining was compared between the two groups .  Results:The weight gain data was analyzed by SPSS software. Over the 10 day study period, the case group gained significantly more weight compared to the control  group (p(p<0.001(.Conclusion:The data suggest that stroking/passive limb movement can be an efficientand cost effective way of enhancing growth in stable preterm infants .

  18. Seasonal Variation in Solar Ultra Violet Radiation and Early Mortality in Extremely Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Ariel A; Smith, Kelly A; Rodgers, Mackenzie D; Phillips, Vivien; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2015-11-01

    Vitamin D production during pregnancy promotes fetal lung development, a major determinant of infant survival after preterm birth. Because vitamin D synthesis in humans is regulated by solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, we hypothesized that seasonal variation in solar UVB doses during fetal development would be associated with variation in neonatal mortality rates. This cohort study included infants born alive with gestational age (GA) between 23 and 28 weeks gestation admitted to a neonatal unit between 1996 and 2010. Three infant cohort groups were defined according to increasing intensities of solar UVB doses at 17 and 22 weeks gestation. The primary outcome was death during the first 28 days after birth. Outcome data of 2,319 infants were analyzed. Mean birth weight was 830 ± 230 g and median gestational age was 26 weeks. Mortality rates were significantly different across groups (p = 0.04). High-intensity solar UVB doses were associated with lower mortality when compared with normal intensity solar UVB doses (hazard ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.54-0.91; p = 0.01). High-intensity solar UVB doses during fetal development seem to be associated with risk reduction of early mortality in preterm infants. Prospective studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Recurrent group B streptococcal infections in infants: clinical and microbiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P A; Singh, K V; Murray, B E; Baker, C J

    1994-12-01

    To describe the potential for recurrence of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection in infants, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis as an epidemiologic tool. Retrospective review of cases identified by laboratory records and review of the literature. Neonatal nurseries of a county hospital system. Retrospective review of infants with second episodes of GBS bacteremia or meningitis. Digestion of chromosomal DNA with the restriction enzyme Sma I and separation of fragments by use of contour-clamped homogeneous electric field. Nine cases of recurrent GBS infection were identified during a 14-year period. Eight of the nine infants were born at 25 to 36 weeks of gestation, and one was born at term. The first episode of invasive GBS infection occurred at a mean age of 10.4 days (median, 3 days; range, 1 to 27 days). Parenteral antibiotic therapy was administered for a mean of 13.9 days (median, 14 days; range, 10 to 21 days). Recurrence occurred at a mean age of 42.3 days (median, 48 days; range, 23 to 68 days). One patient died during the second episode; eight infants survived to discharge home. Of seven sets of isolates analyzed from first and second GBS episodes, five were confirmed to be the same genotypically. Recurrence of GBS disease in infants may be associated with the original infecting strain or a second acquired strain.

  1. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  2. Early (bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L

    2017-10-24

    dysplasia at 36 weeks) because of weak evidence of publication bias or moderate heterogeneity (death or cerebral palsy). Benefits of early postnatal corticosteroid treatment (≤ 7 days), particularly dexamethasone, may not outweigh adverse effects associated with this treatment. Although early corticosteroid treatment facilitates extubation and reduces risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and patent ductus arteriosus, it causes short-term adverse effects including gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and growth failure. Long-term follow-up studies report increased risk of abnormal findings on neurological examination and increased risk of cerebral palsy. However, the methodological quality of studies examining long-term outcomes is limited in some cases: Surviving children have been assessed predominantly before school age; no study has been sufficiently powered to detect important adverse long-term neurosensory outcomes; and no study has been designed with survival free of adverse long-term neurodevelopmental disability as the primary outcome. There is a compelling need for long-term follow-up and reporting of late outcomes, especially neurological and developmental outcomes, among surviving infants who participated in all randomised trials of early postnatal corticosteroid treatment. Hydrocortisone reduced rates of patent ductus arteriosus, of mortality, and of the combined outcome of mortality or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, without causing any obvious long-term harm. However, gastrointestinal perforation was more frequent in the hydrocortisone group. Longer-term follow-up into late childhood is vital for assessment of important effects or other effects that cannot be assessed in early childhood, such as effects of early hydrocortisone treatment on higher-order neurological functions, including cognitive function, academic performance, behaviour, mental health, and motor function. Further randomised

  3. Scientifically-based strategies for nutrition of the high-risk low birth weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Valentine, C; Meetze, W

    1990-11-01

    Technological advances in the intensive care of low birth weight (LBW) infants have resulted in major increases in their survival. New challenges in meeting their nutritional needs have emerged. Very low birth (VLBW) weight infants have very little body fat or glycogen reserves at birth, making them susceptible to starvation. If fed enterally, they require at least 120 calories/kg per day for growth. Numerous immaturities in the gastrointestinal tract and liver limit protein digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Several amino acids not considered essential to the older child or adult are essential to the VLBW infant. Supplying a high protein load with an inappropriate amino acid composition may lead to metabolic imbalances. The digestion and absorption of fats differs from the older child or adult. Lingual and gastric lipases are important, and the lack of bile acids limits fat absorption. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency causes problems when too much fat or fat of incorrect composition is provided. There are controversies regarding the most appropriate carbohydrate source, but research shows that lactose remains an important carbohydrate source for most of these infants. Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus requirements pose questions in both enterally and parenterally nourished infants. Studies of iron usage suggest that VLBW infants fed either human milk or formula should receive iron supplements. Vitamin E may be helpful in preventing oxygen toxicity. Vitamin D deficiency contributes to bone demineralization and rickets. Controversy exists regarding the correlation between vitamin A nutrition and development of chronic lung disease. Guidelines have been developed for recommended intakes, but much needs to be learned to provide a sound scientific basis upon which to provide optimal nourishment for the high risk, LBW infant.

  4. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caregivers can take to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related deaths. Grief ... researchers don’t know the exact causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, research shows parents and caregivers ...

  5. Lower Extremity Abscess Formation in Premature Infants due to Routine Infant Vaccinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of vaccines, the impact of vaccinations has been immeasurable. Under the current immunization guidelines, infants receive the first of their routine infant vaccinations at 2 months of age. While the benefits of routine infant vaccinations in premature infants have been demonstrated, there is relatively little data on the dosing of these vaccines in premature infants. The medical records of two premature infants who developed intramuscular abscesses after receiving their routine infant vaccinations were reviewed. Both patients developed pain in the area of the injection after receiving their vaccinations. Magnetic resonance imaging findings confirmed the formation of an abscess. No other causes of abscess formation were observed. Both patients required surgical intervention and were treated with a course of antibiotics. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to suggest routine vaccinations as a potential cause of abscess formation in premature infants.

  6. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  7. Surviving a Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Maqbali, Mandhar; Al-Sinawi, Hamed

    2016-09-01

    Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors) and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support). All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  8. Will the olympics survive?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, T.

    1977-01-01

    The United States of America dominated 58 events in athletics, field and swimming, which between them accounted for 35 per cent of all events in the Munich Olympiad. 1972; these events favour taller individuals. But, in 25 per cent of other events (1) cycling, (2) fencing, (3) gymnastics, (4) judo, (5) weightlifting and (6) Graeco Roman wrestling the U.S.A. did not win a single medal. The failure of the U.S.A. to maintain her lead in Munich was largely due to weaknesses in these other events in many of which the potential medallists can be derived from the lower half of the height distribution (events 3 to 6). These weaknesses are Russia's strength and they continued to remain unstrengthened at Montreal. Also, the domination held by the U.S.A. in swimming was seriously challenged by East Germany. The present trends indicate that the U.S.A.'s ranking is likely to slip further to the third position in Moscow 1980. Factors inhibiting the survival of the Olympics are pointed. PMID:861436

  9. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  10. Preterm Infants Exhibit Greater Variability in Cerebrovascular Control than Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Wong, Flora Y.; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains an important cause of infant death, particularly among infants born preterm. Prone sleeping is the major risk factor for SIDS and this has recently been shown to alter cerebrovascular control in term infants. As preterm infants are at greater risk for SIDS than those born at term, we hypothesized that their cerebrovascular control in the prone position would be reduced compared to term infants. Patients or Participants: There were 35 preterm (mean gestation 31.2 ± 0.4 w) and 17 term (mean gestation 40.1 ± 0.3 w) infants. Design: Infants underwent daytime polysomnography at 2–4 w, 2–3 mo, and 5–6 mo postterm age. Infants slept both prone and supine and were presented with cardiovascular challenges in the form of 15° head-up tilts (HUT). Measurements and Results: Cerebral tissue oxygenation index (TOI) was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRO-200 spectrophotometer, Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Japan) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded using a Finometer cuff (Finapres Medical Systems, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). In the prone position TOI increased following the HUT (P < 0.05), whereas no change was seen in the supine position. The overall pattern of response was similar in both groups, but more variable in preterm than term infants (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Cerebrovascular control differs between the prone and supine positions in preterm infants. Although overall the responses to head-up tilts were similar between term and preterm infants, greater variability of responses in preterm infants suggests persisting immaturity of their cerebrovascular control in the first year of life, which may contribute to their increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Citation: Fyfe KL, Odoi A, Yiallourou SR, Wong FY, Walker AM, Horne RS. Preterm infants exhibit greater variability in cerebrovascular control than term infants. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1411–1421. PMID:25669192

  11. CORRECTION OF INTESTINAL COLIC IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the contemporary vision of the causes, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and clinical manifestation of intestinal colic in infants. The article also provides a detailed description of to correction of the gastrointestinal tract in the infants. Also the article opens a discussion about the benefits of using vegetable medications with a soft spasmolytic effect for this purpose.Key words: infants, intestinal colic, gastrointestinal tract dysfunction.

  12. An Ecological Model for Premature Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk for poor health, feeding difficulties, and impaired mother-infant interaction leading to developmental delay. Social-environmental risks, such as poverty or minority status, compound these biologic risks, placing premature infants in double jeopardy. Guided by an ecological model, the Hospital-Home Transition: Optimizing Prematures’ Environment (H-HOPE) intervention combines the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular intervention with participatory g...

  13. Current Methodologies in Baby and Infant Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Boldišová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Thesis describes history of infant a baby swimming in Czech republic and worlwide. It brings an overview of current methods and methodologies of infant a baby swimming worlwide and in the Czech republic. Thesis describes in a reasonable detail methodology, developed by BabyClub Plaváček. Second - practical part of the thesis tries to evaluate hypothesis concerning methodologies used in infant and baby swimming. Evaluation is done upon questionaries and their evaluation. This thesis describes ...

  14. Primacy/recency effects in infant categorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Gliozzi Valentina; Althaus Nadja; Mayor Julien; Plunkett Kim

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence that primacy and/or recency effects play a crucial role in infant visual categorization. First, we demonstrate that a connectionist model of infant categorization based number and type of categories formed is modulated by the on a self-organizing map (Gliozzi, Mayor, Hu, & Plunkett, 2009) predicts an increased influence of the first and the last stimuli during familiarization on the category boundaries. We then present data from 10-month-old infants which confirm recency e...

  15. Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Bellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements.

  16. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  17. Infants' unprovoked acts of force toward others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Audun

    2016-11-01

    Infants harm others at higher rates than older children and adults. A common explanation is that infants fail to regulate their frustration, becoming aggressive when they do not get what they want. The present research investigated whether infants also use force against others without provocation, for instance because they seek to explore the consequences of hitting or try to pet someone using too much force. Two studies with infants aged 11 to 24 months investigated infants' use of force against others in everyday life using maternal report (Study 1) and direct observation (Study 2). In both studies, a large proportion of infants' acts of force were unprovoked and occurred without signs of infant distress. Unlike provoked acts, unprovoked acts showed a decrease late in the second year and were positively associated with reports of infant pleasure-proneness. The presence of unprovoked acts of harm may reflect that infants' actions are not reliably guided by an aversion for harming others and may provide unique opportunities for early moral development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sleep in infants with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ykeda, Daisy Satomi; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Lopes, Antonio A B; Alves, Rosana S C

    2009-01-01

    To investigate hypoxia and sleep disordered breathing in infants with congenital heart disease. Prospective study. In-hospital full polysomnography was performed on 14 infants with congenital heart disease, age 7 +/-1 months, and in 7 normal infants, age 10 +/-2 months. Congenital heart disease infants were classified as acyanotic (n=7) or cyanotic (n=7). Nutritional status, assessed by the Gomez classification and expressed as % weight for age, was 70 +/-7, 59 +/-11 and 94 +/-16 in the acyanotic, cyanotic congenital heart disease and control infants, respectively (pcongenital heart disease infants (11 out of 14) and only one control infant had an AHI >1 event/hour. The minimum oxygen saturation was 79% (74-82), 73% (57-74) and 90% (90-91) in the acyanotic, cyanotic congenital heart disease infants and controls, respectively (p congenital heart disease frequently present with sleep-disordered breathing associated with oxygen desaturations but not arousals. Therefore, sleep may represent a significant burden to infants with congenital heart disease.

  19. Chronic Malnutrition Among Infants of Varanasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of infants in Varanasi? Objectives: To find out the magnitude of PEM among infants of Varanasi district. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Urban slum and rural areas. Participants: 360 infants. Study variables: Age, height (length, weight. Outcome variables: Protein Energy Malnutrition. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions; Chi- square test. Results: As per the height for age criteria; only 10.56% of infants were stunted (<90% of reference standard and according to Seoane Latham classification; 44.96%, 6.05% and 4.03% were suffering from acute malnutrition and nutritional dwarfing respectively (90% of reference standard as entry point

  20. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...