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Sample records for surviving historical patagonian

  1. Surviving historical Patagonian landscapes and climate: molecular insights from Galaxias maculatus

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    Carrea Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic geological and climatic histories of temperate South America have played important roles in shaping the contemporary distributions and genetic diversity of endemic freshwater species. We use mitochondria and nuclear sequence variation to investigate the consequences of mountain barriers and Quaternary glacial cycles for patterns of genetic diversity in the diadromous fish Galaxias maculatus in Patagonia (~300 individuals from 36 locations. Results Contemporary populations of G. maculatus, east and west of the Andes in Patagonia, represent a single monophyletic lineage comprising several well supported groups. Mantel tests using control region data revealed a strong positive relationship when geographic distance was modeled according to a scenario of marine dispersal. (r = 0.69, P = 0.055. By contrast, direct distance between regions was poorly correlated with genetic distance (r = -0.05, P = 0.463. Hierarchical AMOVAs using mtDNA revealed that pooling samples according to historical (pre-LGM oceanic drainage (Pacific vs. Atlantic explained approximately four times more variance than pooling them into present-day drainage (15.6% vs. 3.7%. Further post-hoc AMOVA tests revealed additional genetic structure between populations east and west of the Chilean Coastal Cordillera (coastal vs. interior. Overall female effective population size appears to have remained relatively constant until roughly 0.5 Ma when population size rapidly increased several orders of magnitude [100× (60×-190×] to reach contemporary levels. Maximum likelihood analysis of nuclear alleles revealed a poorly supported gene tree which was paraphyletic with respect to mitochondrial-defined haplogroups. Conclusions First diversifying in the central/north-west region of Patagonia, G. maculatus extended its range into Argentina via the southern coastal regions that join the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. More recent gene flow between northern

  2. Whole-community facilitation regulates biodiversity on Patagonian rocky shores.

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    Brian R Silliman

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation.Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity.These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change.

  3. The endemic Patagonian vespertilionid assemblage is a depauperate ecomorphological vicariant of species-rich neotropical assemblages

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    Analía L.GIM(E)NEZ; Norberto P. GIANNINI

    2017-01-01

    Vespertilionidae is the most diverse chiropteran family,and its diversity is concentrated in warm regions of the World;however,due to physiological and behavioral adaptations,these bats also dominate bat faunas in temperate regions.Here we performed a comparative study of vespertilionid assemblages from two broad regions of the New World,the cold and harsh Patagonia,versus the remaining temperate-to-subtropical,extra-Patagonian eco-regions of the South American Southern Cone.We took an ecomorphological approach and analyzed the craniodental morphological structure of these assemblages within a phylogenetic framework.We measured 17 craniodental linear variables from 447 specimens of 22 currently recognized vespertilionid species of the study regions.We performed a multivariate analysis to define the morphofunctional space,and calculated the pattern and degree of species packing for each assemblage.We assessed the importance of phylogeny and biogeography,and their impact on depauperate (Patagonian) versus rich (extra-Patagonian) vespertilionid assemblages as determinants of morphospace structuring.We implemented a sensitivity analysis associated to small samples of rare species.The morphological patterns were determined chiefly by the evolutionary history of the family.The Patagonian assemblage can be described as a structurally similar but comparatively depauperate ecomorphological version of those assemblages from neighboring extra-Patagonian eco-regions.The Patagonian assemblage seems to have formed by successively adding populations from Northern regions that eventually speciated in the region,leaving corresponding sisters (vicariants) in extraPatagonian eco-regions that continued to be characteristically richer.Despite being structurally akin,degree of species packing in Patagonia was comparatively very low,which may reflect the effect of limited dispersal success into a harsh region for bat survival.

  4. Knee disarticulation : Survival, wound healing and ambulation. A historic cohort study

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    Ten Duis, K.; Bosmans, J. C.; Voesten, H. G. J.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze survival, wound healing and ambulation after knee disarticulation (KD). A historic cohort study using medical records and nursing home records was performed. Data included demographics, reason for amputation, concomitant diseases, survival, wound healing,

  5. Historical notes on immaturity. Part 2: surviving against the odds.

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    Obladen, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Survivors of immaturity of outstanding intelligence include Fortunio Licetus, born in 1577, and Isaac Newton, born in 1643. Reliable descriptions began appearing around 1820, and over a dozen infants were born weighing under 1000 g and before World War II, who developed normally. From 1876 to 2006, the birth weight at which half of the infants survived dropped from 2200 to 600 g. Statistics depended on how abortion, stillbirth and live birth were defined, which differed greatly from country to country. WHO definitions in 1993 required the registration of all infants weighing 500 g (22 complete weeks) or above. This definition was not universally adopted, resulting in considerable underreporting. Many medical societies issued ethical recommendations concerning the obligatory or optional treatment of immature infants. The "window", at which treatment is optional has been set at 22-23 weeks (Japan, Germany), 23-24 weeks (UK, USA, Canada), or 24-26 weeks (France, Netherlands, Switzerland). Instead of assessing an infant's individual prognosis, and ignoring its gender, co-morbidities, and particular cause of premature delivery, these rules frequently relied on gestational age alone to initiate or withhold life support.

  6. "We're still in a struggle": Diné resilience, survival, historical trauma, and healing.

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    Goodkind, Jessica R; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P

    2012-08-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors, and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for behavioral health inequities, understood within the context of resilience and survival, is appropriate. Our findings also highlight the salience of current stressors such as poverty and violence exposure. We explore the fit of an historical trauma healing framework and present implications for intervention and transformation through revitalization of traditional knowledge, culturally based healing practices, intergenerational education, and social change strategies designed to eliminate social inequities.

  7. Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Metastases and survival in a historical and a concurrent group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

    1980-01-01

    A historical group consisting of 35 patients with osteosarcoma was compared to a concurrent group of 23 patients. The treatment for the primary tumors differed only slghtly in the two groups. A more active approach was adopted for treatment of pulmonary metastases in the concurrent group. The percentage of patients not developing metastases and the survival rate in the historical group were approximately one half those for the concurrent group. An analysis of prognostic factors disclosed differences between the two groups as regards the size and histological type of the tumor. The results of the study cast doubt on the suitability of historical controls in current clinical trials conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of adjuvant therapy for osteosarcoma

  8. Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in high altitude sites of the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park (Argentina

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    María Silvana Velázquez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in National Parks is essential for the establishment of policies for conservation. The aim of this study was to characterize the AMF communities in the Patagonian Altoandina region in Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina. We surveyed AMF spores associated with the rhizospheres of 9 plant species in the Patagonian Steppe (PS, Challhuaco Hill (ChH, Catedral Hill (CH, and Tronador Hill (TH regions and detected a total of 27 Glomeromycota species. Acaulospora laevis was dominant at all sites. The AMF community was dominated by Acaulosporaceae, as regards the number of species and contribution of each one to the total number of spores. Three Glomeromycota families were detected at PS, the site with the lowest elevation; whereas five to six families were detected at ChH, CH, and TH. Cluster analysis indicated that the AMF communities were grouped according to habitat. We concluded that certain patterns of the AMFcommunity structure detected were equivalent to those of high-altitude environments from other studies, while others were unique to the Patagonian region; thus suggesting that historical influences like dispersion and speciation played a critical role in shaping AMF community composition in such high-altitude environments.

  9. Survival of flexible, braided, bonded stainless steel lingual retainers : a historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, D. J. Lie Sam; Ozcan, M.; Verkerke, G. J.; Sandham, John; Dijkstra, P. U.

    The objectives of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of flexible, braided, rectangular bonded stainless steel lingual retainers, and to investigate the influence of gender, age of the patient, and operator experience on survival after orthodontic treatment at the

  10. Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation

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    Metcalf, Jessica L.; Turney, Chris; Barnett, Ross; Martin, Fabiana; Bray, Sarah C.; Vilstrup, Julia T.; Orlando, Ludovic; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Loponte, Daniel; Medina, Matías; De Nigris, Mariana; Civalero, Teresa; Fernández, Pablo Marcelo; Gasco, Alejandra; Duran, Victor; Seymour, Kevin L.; Otaola, Clara; Gil, Adolfo; Paunero, Rafael; Prevosti, Francisco J.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.; Wheeler, Jane C.; Borrero, Luis; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts. PMID:27386563

  11. THE SURVIVING HISTORIC HAMMĀMS OF THE MEDINA OF TRIPOLI - LIBYA: TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE DIMENSIONS

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    Magda Sibley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the other medinas in the Arab-Islamic world, the medina of Tripoli (capital city of Libya, has never had many historic public baths. This is probably due to a more conservative tradition where most of the Libyan women use the hamm.m only once, as part of their pre-wedding preparation and celebration. This paper presents an analysis of the three and only remaining hamm.ms of Tripoli and the way they are used and perceived today. Based on the results of a survey conducted by the authors in July 2008 (as part of an AHRC funded research project on the historic hammams of North Africa the architectural characteristics of these historic structures are presented along with their increasing usage by a cosmopolitan population (Tunisians, Moroccans and Sudanese living inside the medina. This paper also outlines a number of guidelines for the sustainable use and adaptation of the hamm.m within the Libyan context.

  12. Freezing resistance in Patagonian woody shrubs: the role of cell wall elasticity and stem vessel size.

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    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Bucci, Sandra J; Arias, Nadia S; Scholz, Fabian G; Hao, Guang-You; Cao, Kun-Fang; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2016-08-01

    Freezing resistance through avoidance or tolerance of extracellular ice nucleation is important for plant survival in habitats with frequent subzero temperatures. However, the role of cell walls in leaf freezing resistance and the coordination between leaf and stem physiological processes under subzero temperatures are not well understood. We studied leaf and stem responses to freezing temperatures, leaf and stem supercooling, leaf bulk elastic modulus and stem xylem vessel size of six Patagonian shrub species from two sites (plateau and low elevation sites) with different elevation and minimum temperatures. Ice seeding was initiated in the stem and quickly spread to leaves, but two species from the plateau site had barriers against rapid spread of ice. Shrubs with xylem vessels smaller in diameter had greater stem supercooling capacity, i.e., ice nucleated at lower subzero temperatures. Only one species with the lowest ice nucleation temperature among all species studied exhibited freezing avoidance by substantial supercooling, while the rest were able to tolerate extracellular freezing from -11.3 to -20 °C. Leaves of species with more rigid cell walls (higher bulk elastic modulus) could survive freezing to lower subzero temperatures, suggesting that rigid cell walls potentially reduce the degree of physical injury to cell membranes during the extracellular freezing and/or thaw processes. In conclusion, our results reveal the temporal-spatial ice spreading pattern (from stem to leaves) in Patagonian shrubs, and indicate the role of xylem vessel size in determining supercooling capacity and the role of cell wall elasticity in determining leaf tolerance of extracellular ice formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spring northward juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus from the Northwest Patagonian waters of Chile

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    Luis A Cubillos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Important nursery grounds for Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus are located mainly in the Northwest Patagonian Inner Sea (42ºS-44ºS, from which juvenile must to disperse or migrate offshore, then along the Chilean coast either northward or southward. The objective of this paper was to estimate northward spring juvenile migration of the Patagonian grenadier from nursery to feeding areas, which are located near Talcahuano (35º00’S-37º10’S. Length-frequency data (LFD were obtained from an acoustic survey carried out in November 1999, which covered from 35ºS to 47ºS. Generalized linear model was used to describe the presence of juvenile per latitude and depth, and to infer the origin and displacement of juveniles. Subsequently, LFD data were grouped according to latitudinal strata. Grouped LFD were decomposed into normal component groups, from which mean, standard deviation and proportion were estimated from the mixed LFD. The average length of the identified groups were sorted from south to north, and linked to compute significant increment in fish length and age per kilometers. The length increment per time was not due to growth, rather they was due to spatial displacement of juvenile from southern nursery grounds to northern feeding areas. Although homing to feeding areas and/or high residency (partial migration have been postulated, it seems that recruitment of juveniles to northern feeding areas are origintaed from NPIS nurseries. The West Wind Drift Current seems to be the main drive for dispersion of Patagonian grenadier to recruit northward in open waters along the continental shelf.

  14. Synoptic events force biological productivity in Patagonian fjord ecosystems

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    Daneri, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The annual cycle of primary productivity of the Patagonian fjords has, to date, been described as a two phase system consisting of a short non productive winter phase (during June and July) and a productive phase extending from late winter (August) to autumn (May). Low levels of primary production, phytoplankton biomass and high concentrations of surface nutrients have been described as characterizing winter conditions while pulsed productivity events typifies the productivity pattern during the extended productive season. Pulsed productivity events characterize coastal waters where inorganic nutrients in surface layers are replenished following periods of intensive utilization by autotrophs. Freshwater input in Patagonian fjords in southern Chile (41-55°S) results in one of the largest estuarine regions worldwide. Here strong haline water column stratification prevents nutrient mixing to the surface layers thus potentially shutting off algal production. Our working hypothesis considered that in order to reconcile the observed pulsed productivity pattern, periodic breaking (associated to surface nutrient replenishment) and re-establishment of estuarine conditions (associated to water column stratification) would be required. Up to now however our understanding of the physical processes that control water column conditions in the Patagonian fjord area has been extremely limited. Here we present evidence linking the passage of synoptic low pressure fronts to pulsed productivity events in the Patagonian fjord area. These front controls and influence local processes of interaction between the fjord and the atmosphere generating a rapid water column response. In the specific case of the Puyuhuapi fjord we have been able to show that such synoptic fronts induce surface flow reversal and water column mixing. Phytoplankton blooming occurs after the passage of the synoptic front once calmer conditions prevail and estuarine conditions are re established. The occurrence of

  15. Predicting treatment effect from surrogate endpoints and historical trials: an extrapolation involving probabilities of a binary outcome or survival to a specific time.

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    Baker, Stuart G; Sargent, Daniel J; Buyse, Marc; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2012-03-01

    Using multiple historical trials with surrogate and true endpoints, we consider various models to predict the effect of treatment on a true endpoint in a target trial in which only a surrogate endpoint is observed. This predicted result is computed using (1) a prediction model (mixture, linear, or principal stratification) estimated from historical trials and the surrogate endpoint of the target trial and (2) a random extrapolation error estimated from successively leaving out each trial among the historical trials. The method applies to either binary outcomes or survival to a particular time that is computed from censored survival data. We compute a 95% confidence interval for the predicted result and validate its coverage using simulation. To summarize the additional uncertainty from using a predicted instead of true result for the estimated treatment effect, we compute its multiplier of standard error. Software is available for download. © 2011, The International Biometric Society No claim to original US government works.

  16. First estimates of the probability of survival in a small-bodied, high-elevation frog (Boreal Chorus Frog, Pseudacris maculata), or how historical data can be useful

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    Muths, Erin L.; Scherer, R. D.; Amburgey, S. M.; Matthews, T.; Spencer, A. W.; Corn, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In an era of shrinking budgets yet increasing demands for conservation, the value of existing (i.e., historical) data are elevated. Lengthy time series on common, or previously common, species are particularly valuable and may be available only through the use of historical information. We provide first estimates of the probability of survival and longevity (0.67–0.79 and 5–7 years, respectively) for a subalpine population of a small-bodied, ostensibly common amphibian, the Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata (Agassiz, 1850)), using historical data and contemporary, hypothesis-driven information–theoretic analyses. We also test a priori hypotheses about the effects of color morph (as suggested by early reports) and of drought (as suggested by recent climate predictions) on survival. Using robust mark–recapture models, we find some support for early hypotheses regarding the effect of color on survival, but we find no effect of drought. The congruence between early findings and our analyses highlights the usefulness of historical information in providing raw data for contemporary analyses and context for conservation and management decisions.

  17. Patagonian and southern South Atlantic view of Holocene climate

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    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Denton, G. H.; Anderson, R. F.; Vandergoes, M. J.; Finkel, R. C.; Schwartz, R.; Travis, S. G.; Garcia, J. L.; Martini, M. A.; Nielsen, S. H. H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a comprehensive 10Be chronology for Holocene moraines in the Lago Argentino basin, on the east side of the South Patagonian Icefield. We focus on three different areas, where prior studies show ample glacier moraine records exist because they were formed by outlet glaciers sensitive to climate change. The 10Be dated records are from the Lago Pearson, Herminita Península-Brazo Upsala, and Lago Frías areas, which span a distance of almost 100 km adjacent to the modern Icefield. New 10Be ages show that expanded glaciers and moraine building events occurred at least at 6120 ± 390 (n = 13), 4450 ± 220 (n = 7), 1450 or 1410 ± 110 (n = 18), 360 ± 30 (n = 5), and 240 ± 20 (n = 8) years ago. Furthermore, other less well-dated glacier expansions of the Upsala Glacier occurred between 1400 and ∼1000 and ∼2300 and ∼2000 years ago. The most extensive glaciers occurred over the interval from ∼6100 to ∼4500 years ago, and their margins over the last ∼600 years were well within and lower than those in the middle Holocene. The 10Be ages agree with 14C-limiting data for the glacier histories in this area. We then link southern South American, adjacent South Atlantic, and other Southern Hemisphere records to elucidate broader regional patterns of climate and their possible causes. In the early Holocene, a far southward position of the westerly winds fostered warmth, small Patagonian glaciers, and reduced sea ice coverage over the South Atlantic. Although we infer a pronounced southward displacement of the westerlies during the early Holocene, these conditions did not occur throughout the southern mid-high latitudes, an important exception being over the southwest Pacific sector. Subsequently, a northward locus and/or expansion of the winds over the Patagonia-South Atlantic sector promoted the largest glaciers between ∼6100 and ∼4500 years ago and greatest sea ice coverage. Over the last few millennia, the South Patagonian Icefield has experienced

  18. Zoonotic parasites associated with felines from the Patagonian Holocene

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    Martín Horacio Fugassa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Feline coprolites were examined for parasites with the aim of studying ancient infections that occurred in the Patagonian region during the Holocene period. Eggs compatible to Trichuris sp., Calodium sp., Eucoleus sp., Nematodirus sp., Oesophagostomum sp. (Nematoda, Monoecocestus sp. (Cestoda and Eimeria macusaniensis (Coccidia were recovered from faecal samples. The results obtained from the analysis provide evidence of consumption by felids of the viscera of both rodents and camelids. This knowledge allows for improved explanations as to the distribution of parasitism and its significance to the health of humans and animals inhabiting the area under study during the Middle Holocene.

  19. Null models for study Rotifers and Crustaceans Zooplankton species richness in Chilean Patagonian lakes

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    Escalante, Patricio de los Ríos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The Patagonian lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy that is the cause of low species number in their zooplankton assemblage. The aim of the present study is to analyze the crustacean and rotifers species number pattern in Patagonian lakes among a latitudinal gradient (40-51 °S). Results The results revealed that there are direct significant correlations between total species with rotifer species, and chlorophyll concentration with crustacean species number, and an inve...

  20. “We’re Still in a Struggle”: Diné Resilience, Survival, Historical Trauma, and Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; Hess, Julia Meredith; Gorman, Beverly; Parker, Danielle P.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a community/university collaborative effort to promote the mental health and well-being of Diné (Navajo) youth, we explored the relevance of addressing historical trauma and current structural stressors and of building on individual and community strengths through healing and social transformation at multiple levels. Qualitative analyses of 74 ethnographic interviews with 37 Diné youth, parents, and grandparents suggested that a focus on historical trauma as a conceptual frame for ...

  1. Complex brittle deformation pattern along the Southern Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

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    Barberón, Vanesa; Sue, Christian; Ronda, Gonzalo; Ghiglione, Matías

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes is located in the southern extreme of the Pacific subduction zone, where the Antartic oceanic plate sinks underneath South America. The history of the area begins with compression during Paleozoic, Jurassic extension associated to the rift and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, then a sag stage in the Lower Cretaceous followed by a foreland phase as a result of plate tectonics (Ghiglione et al., 2016). The kinematic study is concentrated in the Argentinean foothills, between 46°40' and 48° SL. We measured around 800 fault planes and their striaes with the sense of movement in order to characterize the stress field. The software used to make the stress inversion were Tensor (Delvaux, 2011) and Multiple Inverse Method MIM (Yamaji et al., 2011). The stress field map was built with the results of the MIM. We present new data from 48 sites located in the northern sector of the Southern Patagonian Andes. The measurements were made in several rocks from Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous, even though most were taken in pyroclastic jurassic rocks from El Quemado Complex. Paleostress tensors obtained are mostly strike-slip, although a 25% is normal and there are a few compresional. The pattern of faults found is complex. In some sites the tensor can be locally linked to satellite images and observations from the field or be related to a major thrust front. There is no clear correlation between the age and/or lithology with the tensor since the youngest rocks measured are Lower Cretaceous. Probably there are several generations of family faults connected to different and recent tectonic phases then the paleostress tensors might correspond to the latest tectonic events.

  2. Effects of Patagonian pine forestry on native breeding birds

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    Moises Pescador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective is to assess the influences of the tree stand age and other forestry management practices on species richness, composition, and distribution of the Patagonian pine plantation bird assemblages. Area of Study: The work was carried out in forested plots of Ponderosa pine located at the Lanín National Park (Patagonia, Argentina.Material and Methods: Birds were sampled using 25 m fixed radius point counts, at four plots varying in age, management, and forest structure. Main Results: A total of 2090 individuals belonging to 34 bird species were observed, their numbers vary significantly depending on the different modes of plantation management. The population density of the 14 most abundant bird species was compared among the four plantation plots and ten species don’t show statistically significant differences in their population density among the different forest plots. The California Quail, the White-Crested Elaenia and the Southern House Wren showed higher densities in pine plantations with lower tree densities and fewer cutting treatments. The Diuca Finch had high densities in the younger plantations not subjected to any treatment. Research highlights: Most of these bird species are opportunistic and a few are found more regularly in these non-native woods than in other native forested or afforested areas. Our data suggest that a mixed scenario based on a mosaic of plantation with patches of native deciduous forest may help maximize the bird diversity in the management of northwestern Patagonian plantation landscapes.Keywords: Bird population; diversity; exotic plantations; Patagonia; tree-age.

  3. How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

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    Orselli, Iole B. M.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Ito, Rosane G.; Tavano, Virginia M.; Mendes, Carlos Rafael B.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg- 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of - 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of - 0.0010 yr- 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones-a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean-are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Pyroclastic Eruption Boosts Organic Carbon Fluxes Into Patagonian Fjords

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    Mohr, Christian H.; Korup, Oliver; Ulloa, Héctor; Iroumé, Andrés.

    2017-11-01

    Fjords and old-growth forests store large amounts of organic carbon. Yet the role of episodic disturbances, particularly volcanic eruptions, in mobilizing organic carbon in fjord landscapes covered by temperate rainforests remains poorly quantified. To this end, we estimated how much wood and soils were flushed to nearby fjords following the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano in south-central Chile, where pyroclastic sediments covered >12 km2 of pristine temperate rainforest. Field-based surveys of forest biomass, soil organic content, and dead wood transport reveal that the reworking of pyroclastic sediments delivered 66,500 + 14,600/-14,500 tC of large wood to two rivers entering the nearby Patagonian fjords in less than a decade. A similar volume of wood remains in dead tree stands and buried beneath pyroclastic deposits ( 79,900 + 21,100/-16,900 tC) or stored in active river channels (5,900-10,600 tC). We estimate that bank erosion mobilized 132,300+21,700/-30,600 tC of floodplain forest soil. Eroded and reworked forest soils have been accreting on coastal river deltas at >5 mm yr-1 since the eruption. While much of the large wood is transported out of the fjord by long-shore drift, the finer fraction from eroded forest soils is likely to be buried in the fjords. We conclude that the organic carbon fluxes boosted by rivers adjusting to high pyroclastic sediment loads may remain elevated for up to a decade and that Patagonian temperate rainforests disturbed by excessive loads of pyroclastic debris can be episodic short-lived carbon sources.

  5. Mohorovicic discontinuity depth analysis beneath North Patagonian Massif

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    Gómez Dacal, M. L.; Tocho, C.; Aragón, E.

    2013-05-01

    The North Patagonian Massif is a 100000 km2, sub-rectangular plateau that stands out 500 to 700 m higher in altitude than the surrounding topography. The creation of this plateau took place during the Oligocene through a sudden uplift without noticeable internal deformation. This quite different mechanical response between the massif and the surrounding back arc, the short time in which this process took place and a regional negative Bouguer anomaly in the massif area, raise the question about the isostatic compensation state of the previously mentioned massif. In the present work, a comparison between different results about the depth of the Mohorovicic discontinuity beneath the North Patagonian Massif and a later analysis is made. It has the objective to analyze the crustal thickness in the area to contribute in the determination of the isostatic balance and the better understanding of the Cenozoic evolution of the mentioned area. The comparison is made between four models; two of these were created with seismic information (Feng et al., 2006 and Bassin et al., 2000), another model with gravity information (Barzaghi et al., 2011) and the last one with a combination of both techniques (Tassara y Etchaurren, 2011). The latter was the result of the adaptation to the work area of a three-dimensional density model made with some additional information, mainly seismic, that constrain the surfaces. The work of restriction and adaptation of this model, the later analysis and comparison with the other three models and the combination of both seismic models to cover the lack of resolution in some areas, is presented here. According the different models, the crustal thickness of the study zone would be between 36 and 45 Km. and thicker than the surrounding areas. These results talk us about a crust thicker than normal and that could behave as a rigid and independent block. Moreover, it can be observed that there are noticeable differences between gravimetric and seismic

  6. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

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    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  7. Phylogeography and historical demography of the Lusitanian snail Elona quimperiana reveal survival in unexpected separate glacial refugia

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    Bellido Alain

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Present day distributions of Palearctic taxa in northern latitudes mainly result from populations having survived in local patches during the Late Pleistocene and/or from recolonizing populations from southern temperate refugia. If well-studied Mediterranean and eastern European refugia are widely accepted, some recent biogeographical assumptions still remain unclear, such as the occurrence of multiple glacial refugia in Iberia and cryptic refugia in northern Europe during the last glaciations. The Lusitanian snail Elona quimperiana has a remarkably disjunct distribution, limited to northwestern France (Brittany, northwestern Spain and the Basque Country. By describing the phylogeographical structure of this species across its entire range, the present study attempts to identify refugia and subsequent recolonization routes. Results Results based on 16S and COI gene sequences showed that the low genetic diversity observed in the Brittany populations should be associated with a recent demographic expansion. By contrast, populations from Spain exhibit several differentiated lineages and are characterized by demographic equilibrium, while the Basque populations are the only ones harboring typical distinct haplotypes. The center of the star-like networks of both gene sequences is occupied by a common ancestral-like haplotype found in Brittany and Spain, which might have originated from the middle of Northern Spain (i.e. Asturias, eastern Lugo and western Cantabria. Estimates of the divergence time between the Spain-Brittany and Basque lineages strongly suggest that E. quimperiana survived the Pleistocene glaciations in distinct refugia on the Iberian Peninsula, one of which is situated in Picos de Europa, and the other in the Basque Country. The occurrence of a northern refugium in France cannot be rejected as of yet. Conclusion Present results confirm the Iberian origin of the land snail E. quimperiana and strongly support the

  8. Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Maria E. Arce

    2009-01-01

    We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Leaf) hydraulic conductivity, wood density (Pw), rooting depth, and specific leaf...

  9. Miocene block uplift and basin formation in the Patagonian foreland: The Gastre Basin, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmes, A.; D'Elia, L.; Franzese, J. R.; Veiga, G. D.; Hernández, M.

    2013-08-01

    The intraplate fault-block mountains and intermontane deposits of the Gastre Basin, which are recorded more than 550 km east of the Andean trench in central Patagonia, Argentina, are analyzed. The Gastre Basin is one of the largest Patagonian intermontane basins, limited by uplifted blocks strongly oblique to the Andean chain. It was originated by reverse faulting and inversion of pre-existing normal faults associated with a Mesozoic rift basin and defined by older crustal heterogeneities. The deformational event occurred during the middle Miocene, related to a short contractional episode (16.1-14.86 Ma), probably in response to an eastward migration of the Andean fold and thrust belt. During Pliocene to Quaternary times, neither younger fault-block uplifts nor reconfigurations of the basin occurred. Similarities between the study area and other parts of the Patagonian foreland - such as the presence of Miocene reverse or inversion tectonics, as well as the accommodation of the Miocene sedimentary successions - suggest that the Gastre Basin is part of a major late early to middle Miocene broken foreland system (i.e. the Patagonian broken foreland) that exhumed discrete fault-block mountains and generated contemporary basins along more than 950 km parallel to the Andean trench (i.e. between 40°00' and 48°00' south latitude). Based on recent studies on the southern Andean Margin, this continental-scale contractional episode may be the result of a flat-slab subduction segment. Nevertheless, such a hypothesis is very difficult to support when analyzing such a large flat subduction segment along the entire Patagonian trench. This suggests the need to consider alternative flat-slab trigger mechanisms or other factors in the generation of broken foreland systems.

  10. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides or "Chilean sea bass".

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    Peter B Marko

    Full Text Available Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides, also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of

  11. Testate amoebae communities sensitive to surface moisture conditions in Patagonian peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Booth, R.; Charman, D.; van Bellen, S.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Here we examine moss surface samples that were collected during three field campaigns (2005, 2010, 2014) across southern Patagonian peatlands to assess the potential use of testate amoebae and 13C isotope data as proxy indicators of soil moisture. These proxies have been widely tested across North America, but their use as paleoecological tools remains sparse in the southern hemisphere. Samples were collected along a hydrological gradient spanning a range of water table depth from 0cm in wet hollows to over 85cm in dry hummocks. Moss moisture content was measured in the field. Over 25 taxa were identified, with many of them not found in North America. Ordinations indicate statistically significant and dominant effects of soil moisture and water table depth on testate assemblages, though interestingly 13C is even more strongly correlated with testates amoebae than direct soil conditions. It is possible that moss 13C signature constitutes a compound indicator that represents seasonal soil moisture better than opportunistic sampling during field campaigns. There is no significant effect of year or site across the dataset. In addition to providing a training set that translates testate amoebae moisture tolerance range into water tabel depth for Patagonian peatlands, we also compare our results with those from the North American training set to show that, despite 'novel' Patagonian taxa, the robustness of international training sets is probably sufficient to quantify most changes in soil moisture from any site around the world. We also identify key indicator species that are shown to be of universal value in peat-based hydrological reconstructions.

  12. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  13. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  14. Numerical modelling of the M2 tide on the northern Patagonian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, P. D.; Simpson, J. H.

    1994-02-01

    The previously reported occurrence of tidal fronts on the Patagonian Shelf ( CARRETOet al., 1986 , Journal of Plankton Research, 8, 15-28; GLORIOSO, 1987 , Continental Shelf Research, 7, 27-34), motivated the application of a numerical model to solve the shallow-water equations with external forcing by the principal-lunar semidiurnal tide (M2) prescribed along the open boundary. The mean width of the Patagonian Shelf is comparable with a quarter wavelength of the semidiurnal tide, giving the conditions for standing wave resonance at that frequency ( WEBB, 1975 , Deep-Sea Research, 23, 1-15). The region is well recognized by its large tidal elevations and by the speed of the tidal wave changing phase very rapidly. Some of the results obtained from the modelling exercise include the mapping of the M2 tidal constants, the Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter, the mean sea surface elevation, and the distribution of tidal energy dissipation by bottom friction. These results agree qualitatively with the ship data available and with satellite infrared imagery.

  15. Late cenozoic magmatism in the South Patagonian batholith: SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, C.M; Herve, F; Pankhurst, R.J; Thomson, S; Faundez, V

    2001-01-01

    The North Patagonian Batholith (NPB) has a zonal age pattern which includes a well defined belt of Miocene and Mio-Pliocene plutons in its central portion (Pankhurst et al., 1999) which are spatially, and probably genetically related to the Liquine-Ofqui Fault Zone. Previous geochronological studies in the Southern Patagonian Batholith (SPB), as summarized by Bruce et al. (1991), have yielded 9 late Cenozoic K-Ar or Ar-Ar ages out of a total of 116 age determinations. None of these young ages correspond to U-Pb determinations on zircons, and some of the young ages correspond to satellite plutons east of the SPB proper, such as the Torres del Paine intrusion. In this paper we present the first late Cenozoic SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages in the area of the SPB. The morphology of the analysed zircon crystals is described and leads to some inferences on the methodology and on the geological interpretation of the obtained ages (au)

  16. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  17. Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

  18. Reproductive traits of the small Patagonian octopus Octopus tehuelchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storero, Lorena P.; Narvarte, Maite A.; González, Raúl A.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the reproductive features of Octopus tehuelchus in three coastal environments of San Matías Gulf (Patagonia). Monthly samples of O. tehuelchus were used to estimate size at maturity, compare seasonal changes in oocyte size frequency distributions between sites as well as oocyte number and size between female maturity stage and sites. Females in Islote Lobos had a smaller size at maturity than females in San Antonio Bay and El Fuerte, probably as a consequence of a generally smaller body size. Males in San Antonio Bay were smaller at maturity than females. O. tehuelchus is a simultaneous terminal spawner. Fecundity (expressed as number of vitellogenic oocytes in ovary) was lower in Islote Lobos, and an increase in oocyte number in relation to female total weight was found. Females in San Antonio Bay had the largest oocytes, which may indicate higher energy reserves for the embryo and therefore higher juvenile survival. There was a close relationship between reproduction, growth and condition, represented as size at maturity, number and size of vitellogenic oocytes and period of maturity and spawning. Given the local variation in some reproductive features of O. tehuelchus, studies should focus on the environmental factors, which bring about this variation, and on how it affects the dynamics of local populations.

  19. Impact of glaciations on the long-term erosion in Southern Patagonian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Herman, Frederic; Baumgartner, Lukas; Shuster, David L.; Braun, Jean; Reiners, Pete W.; Valla, Pierre G.; Leuthold, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are an ideal setting to study the impact of Late-Cenozoic climate cooling and onset of glaciations impact on the erosional history of mountain belts. The lack of tectonic activity during the last ~12 Myr makes the denudation history mainly controlled by surface processes, not by tectonics. Moreover, the glaciations history of Patagonia shows the best-preserved records within the southern hemisphere (with the exception of Antarctica). Indeed, the dry climate on the leeward side of Patagonia and the presence of lava flows interbedded with glacial deposits has allowed an exceptional preservation of late Cenozoic moraines with precise dating using K-Ar analyses on lava flow. The chronology of moraines reveals a long history covering all the Quaternary, Pliocene, and up to the Upper Miocene. The early growth of large glaciers flowing on eastern foothills started at ~7-6 Myr, while the maximum ice-sheet extent dates from approximately 1.1 Myr. In order to quantify the erosion history of the Southern Patagonian Andes and compare it to the glaciations sediment record, we collected samples along an age-elevation profile for low-temperature thermochronology in the eastern side of the mountain belt (Torres del Paine massif). The (U-Th)/He age-elevation relationship shows a clear convex shape providing an apparent long-term exhumation rate of ~0.2 km/Myr followed by an exhumation rate increase at ~6 Myr. Preliminary results of 4He/3He thermochronometry for a subset of samples complete the erosion history for the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. We used inverse procedure predicting 4He distributions within an apatite grain using a radiation-damage and annealing model to quantify He-diffusion kinetics in apatite. The model also allows quantifying the impact of potential U-Th zonation throughout each apatite crystal. Inversion results reveal a denudation history composed by a pulse of denudation at ~6 Ma, as suggested by the age-elevation relationship

  20. Pluton emplacement and magmatic arc construction: A model from the Patagonian batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Robert; Nelson, Eric; Weaver, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    A model of batholithic construction in Andean arcs and its applicability to possibly similar environments in the past is described. Age and compositional data from the Patagonian batholith of southern Chile show a long history of magmatism in any given area (total age range is 15 to 157 Ma), but different regions appear to have different magmatic starting ages. Furthermore, mafic rocks seem to be the oldest components of any given region. An assembly line model involving semicontinuous magmatism and uplift was outlined, which has implications for other terranes: uplift rates will be proportional to observed ranges in age, and total uplift will be proportional to the age of the oldest pluton in any given area. It is suggested that misleading results would be obtained if only small areas of similar terranes in the Archean were available for study.

  1. Analysis of Production and Delivery Center Hydrogen Applied to the Southern Patagonian Circuit

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    Maximiliano Fernando Medina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Desire department of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, presents the greatest potential electrolytic Hydrogen Production Country, From Three primary sources of sustainable energy: wind, solar, biomass. There, the Hydrogen Plant of Pico Truncado has capacity central production of hydrogen 100m3 of H2 / day, enough to supply 353 vehicles with hybrid fuel called HGNC, made by cutting 12% V / V of hydrogen in CNG (in situ at each station. Puerto Deseado, Fitz Roy, Caleta Olivia, Las Heras, Comodoro Rivadavia, Sarmiento and the Ancients: From the production cost, the cost of delivering hydrogen to the Southern Patagonian circuit comprised analyzed. Considering various local parameters are determined as a way of delivering more profitable virtual pipeline, with total cost of hydrogen estimated 6.5 USD / kg H2 and HGNC shipped in the station at 0.50 USD / Nm3.

  2. A winter dinoflagellate bloom drives high rates of primary production in a Patagonian fjord ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, P.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Daneri, G.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Igor, G.; Seguel, R.; Purdie, D.; Crawford, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    A dense winter bloom of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra was observed at a fixed station (44°35.3‧S; 72°43.6‧W) in the Puyuhuapi Fjord in Chilean Patagonia during July 2015. H. triquetra dominated the phytoplankton community in the surface waters between 2 and 15 m (13-58 × 109 cell m-2), with abundances some 3 to 15 times higher than the total abundance of the diatom assemblage, which was dominated by Skeletonema spp. The high abundance of dinoflagellates was reflected in high rates of gross primary production (GPP; 0.6-1.6 g C m-2 d-1) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a; 70-199.2 mg m-2) that are comparable to levels reported in spring diatom blooms in similar Patagonian fjords. We identify the main forcing factors behind a pulse of organic matter production during the non-productive winter season, and test the hypothesis that low irradiance levels are a key factor limiting phytoplankton blooms and subsequent productivity during winter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that GPP rates were significantly correlated (r = -0.8, p bloom. The bloom occurred under low surface irradiance levels characteristic of austral winter and was accompanied by strong northern winds, associated with the passage of a low-pressure system, and a water column dominated by double diffusive layering. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dense dinoflagellate bloom during deep austral winter in a Patagonian fjord, and our data challenge the paradigm of light limitation as a factor controlling phytoplankton blooms in this region in winter.

  3. Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Arslan, Idris; Reginato, Mariana A; Cenzano, Ana M; Luna, M Virginia

    2016-07-01

    Plants exposed to drought stress, as usually occurs in Patagonian shrublands, have developed different strategies to avoid or tolerate the lack of water during their development. Production of phenolic compounds (or polyphenols) is one of the strategies used by some native species of adverse environments to avoid the oxidative damage caused by drought. In the present study the relationship between phenolic compounds content, water availability and oxidative damage were evaluated in two native shrubs: Larrea divaricata (evergreen) and Lycium chilense (deciduous) of Patagonian shrublands by their means and/or by multivariate analysis. Samples of both species were collected during the 4 seasons for the term of 1 year. Soil water content, relative water content, total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, tartaric acid esters, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation were measured. According to statistical univariate analysis, L. divaricata showed high production of polyphenols along the year, with a phenolic compound synthesis enhanced during autumn (season of greatest drought), while L. chilense has lower production of these compounds without variation between seasons. The variation in total phenols along the seasons is proportional to the antioxidant capacity and inversely proportional to lipid peroxidation. Multivariate analysis showed that, regardless their mechanism to face drought (avoidance or tolerance), both shrubs are well adapted to semi-arid regions and the phenolic compounds production is a strategy used by these species living in extreme environments. The identification of polyphenol compounds showed that L. divaricata produces different types of flavonoids, particularly bond with sugars, while L. chilense produces high amount of non-flavonoids compounds. These results suggest that flavonoid production and accumulation could be a useful indicator of drought tolerance in native species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  4. Effects of being uninsured or underinsured and living in extremely poor neighborhoods on colon cancer care and survival in California: historical cohort analysis, 1996—2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorey Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the mediating effects of health insurance on poverty-colon cancer care and survival relationships and the moderating effects of poverty on health insurance-colon cancer care and survival relationships among women and men in California. Methods We analyzed registry data for 3,291 women and 3,009 men diagnosed with colon cancer between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011 on lymph node investigation, stage at diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, wait times and survival. We obtained socioeconomic data for individual residences from the 2000 census to categorize the following neighborhoods: high poverty (30% or more poor, middle poverty (5-29% poor and low poverty (less than 5% poor. Primary health insurers were Medicaid, Medicare, private or none. Results Evidence of mediation was observed for women, but not for men. For women, the apparent effect of poverty disappeared in the presence of payer, and the effects of all forms of health insurance seemed strengthened. All were advantaged on 6-year survival compared to the uninsured: Medicaid (RR = 1.83, Medicare (RR = 1.92 and private (RR = 1.83. Evidence of moderation was also only observed for women. The effects of all forms of health insurance were stronger for women in low poverty neighborhoods: Medicaid (RR = 2.90, Medicare (RR = 2.91 and private (RR = 2.60. For men, only main effects of poverty and payers were observed, the advantaging effect of private insurance being largest. Across colon cancer care processes, Medicare seemed most instrumental for women, private payers for men. Conclusions Health insurance substantially mediates the quality of colon cancer care and poverty seems to make the effects of being uninsured or underinsured even worse, especially among women in the United States. These findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital is available in more affluent neighborhoods, where women

  5. Marine effect of introduced salmonids: Prey consumption by exotic steelhead and anadromous brown trout in the Patagonian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Pascual, M.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of stable isotope analysis, we estimated the marine diet of the most abundant anadromous salmonid species in Patagonian Atlantic basins. The results were coupled with bioenergetic and population models to estimate the consumption of food by salmonids and was compared with that by seabirds, the most abundant top predators in the area. Amphipods were the main salmonid prey, followed by sprat, silversides, squid, and euphausiids. The total consumption, even assuming large anadromous salmonid populations, represented Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  6. Links between Patagonian Ice Sheet fluctuations and Antarctic dust variability during the last glacial period (MIS 4-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jérôme; Lamy, Frank

    2010-06-01

    Antarctic and Greenland ice-core records reveal large fluctuations of dust input on both orbital and millennial time-scales with potential global climate implications. At least during glacial periods, the Antarctic dust fluctuations appear to be largely controlled by environmental changes in southern South America. We compare dust flux records from two Antarctic ice-cores to variations in the composition of the terrigenous supply at ODP Site 1233 located off southern Chile and known to record fluctuations in the extent of the northern part of the Patagonian ice-sheet (NPIS) during the last glacial period (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS, 4 to 2). Within age uncertainties, millennial-scale glacial advances (retreats) of the NPIS correlate to Antarctic dust maxima (minima). In turn, NPIS fluctuations were closely related to offshore sea surface temperature (SST) changes. This pattern suggests a causal link involving changes in temperature, in rock flour availability, in latitudinal extensions of the westerly winds and in foehn winds in the southern Pampas and Patagonia. We further suggest that the long-term trend of dust accumulation is partly linked to the sea-level related changes in the size if the Patagonian source area due to the particular morphology of the Argentine shelf. We suggest that sea-level drops at the beginning of MIS 4 and MIS 2 were important for long-term dust increases, while changes in the Patagonian dust source regions primarily control the early dust decrease during the MIS 4/3 transition and Termination 1.

  7. Taxonomic review of the species of Helina R.-D. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Andean-Patagonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-12

    Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is the second genus of Muscidae in terms of richness. This genus includes several species collected at high altitudes and high latitudes, and is poorly studied in the Neotropical region. Only 12 species of Helina have been recorded in the southern limit of South America in the Andean-Patagonian forests. In the present work, we studied all the species known from the Andean-Patagonian forests, with the exception of H. viola Malloch, 1934, present three new species, H. araucana sp. nov., H. dorada sp. nov., and H. ouina sp. nov., and provide the first description of the females of H. australis Carvalho & Pont, 1993 and H. rufoapicata Malloch, 1934. We also propose four new synonymies: H. nigrimana basilaris (Carvalho & Pont, 1993) and H. nigrimana grisea (Malloch, 1934) as new junior synonyms of H. nigrimana (Macquart, 1851); and H. fulvocalyptrata Malloch, 1934 and H. simplex Malloch, 1934 as new junior synonyms of H. chilensis Malloch, 1934. Finally, we provide a generic diagnosis and a new key for the Helina species of the Andean-Patagonian forests, as well as notes on the biology and distribution maps of each specimen, and discuss a preliminary contruction of groups of species.

  8. Understanding the Transport of Patagonian Dust and Its Influence on Marine Biological Activity in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.

  9. Disease load at conception predicts survival in later epidemics in a historical French-Canadian cohort, suggesting functional trans-generational effects in humans.

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    Kai Willführ

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional trans-generational and parental effects are potentially important determinants of health in several mammals. For humans, the existing evidence is weak. We investigate whether disease exposure triggers functional trans-generational response effects among humans by analyzing siblings who were conceived under different disease loads, and comparing their mortality in later epidemics. Under functional trans-generational response mechanisms, we expect that those who were conceived under high pathogenic stress load will have relatively low mortality during a later epidemic. METHODS: We use data from the Registre de la Population du Québec Ancien, which covers the historical population living in St. Lawrence Valley, Québec, Canada. Children born in 1705-1724 were grouped according to their exposure during conception to the measles 1714-15 epidemic. The 1714-15 epidemic was followed by two mortality crises in 1729-1734. The cause of the first crises in 1729 is not exactly known. The second crisis in 1732 was caused by a smallpox epidemic. Using proportional hazard Cox regression models with multivariate adjustment and with fixed-effects approach that compare siblings, we analyze whether mortality in 1729-1734 is affected by exposure to the 1714-15 epidemic. RESULTS: Children who were conceived during the peak of the measles epidemic of 1714-15 exhibited significantly lower mortality during the 1729-1734 crisis than those who were born before the 1714-15 epidemic (mortality hazard ratio 0.106, p<.05 in multivariate adjusted models; 0.142 p<.1 in sibling comparison models. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with a trans-generational mechanism that functionally responds to pathogen stress and suggest that early disease exposure may be protective later in life. Alternative explanations for the mortality patterns are discussed and shown to be problematic.

  10. Alkaline lavas from southern Mendoza, Argentina, extend the Patagonian DUPAL mantle field to the north

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    Soager, N.; Holm, P. M.; Llambias, E.

    2010-12-01

    The lavas sampled around Río Colorado ~37°S at the border of Mendoza and Neuquén provinces, Argentina, define an OIB-like end-member composition for the Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the Payún Matrú volcanic field. Although positioned in the far back-arc of the Andes, only a few lavas show signs of involvement of slab fluids or crustal contamination such as relatively high LILEs relative to Nb. The very low La/Nb (~0.66) and Zr/Nb (~5) and high U/Pb (0.3-0.4) of the end-member composition clearly distinguish the source from normal MORB mantle, while high Ba/Nb (~10) and K/Nb (370-400) compared to FOZO and HIMU type OIBs suggest an EM type of mantle. Overall, the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado lavas are similar to the central and north Patagonian intraplate basalts and to South Atlantic E-MORB affected by the Discovery plume and the LOMU component (le Roux et al., 2002, EPSL 203). The isotopic composition of the Río Colorado component has a 206Pb/204Pb = 18.4, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.58, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.3, 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70353 and 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51285. This composition overlaps the central and north Patagonian intraplate basalts in Pb-isotopic space but is slightly less enriched in Sr and Nd-isotopes. It is distinctly different from the FOZO like composition of the south Patagonian intraplate basalts and the nearby Juan Fernandéz plume but similar to the South Atlantic N-MORB and MORB from the southern Chile Ridge segment 4 (Sturm et al., 1999, JGR 104) described as DUPAL type. The DUPAL-MORB type isotopic composition and the plume-like trace element patterns of the Río Colorado lavas suggest the presence of a weak plume beneath the area. The eruption of the large Payún Matrú volcano and the gigantic Pleistocene flood basalts also calls for a thermal anomaly to produce these melts during a weakly compressive tectonic regime with no significant addition of slab fluids. This was supported by Burd et al. (2008, Abstr., 7th Int. Sym. And. Geo

  11. Approving cancer treatments based on endpoints other than overall survival: an analysis of historical data using the PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators™ (CII).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Neon; Campone, Mario; Paddock, Silvia; Shortenhaus, Scott; Grainger, David; Zummo, Jacqueline; Thomas, Samuel; Li, Rose

    2017-01-01

    There is an active debate about the role that endpoints other than overall survival (OS) should play in the drug approval process. Yet the term 'surrogate endpoint' implies that OS is the only critical metric for regulatory approval of cancer treatments. We systematically analyzed the relationship between U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and publication of OS evidence to understand better the risks and benefits of delaying approval until OS evidence is available. Using the PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators (CII) platform, we analyzed the effects of cancer type, treatment goal, and year of approval on the lag time between FDA approval and publication of first significant OS finding for 53 treatments approved between 1952 and 2016 for 10 cancer types (n = 71 approved indications). Greater than 59% of treatments were approved before significant OS data for the approved indication were published. Of the drugs in the sample, 31% had lags between approval and first published OS evidence of 4 years or longer. The average number of years between approval and first OS evidence varied by cancer type and did not reliably predict the eventual amount of OS evidence accumulated. Striking the right balance between early access and minimizing risk is a central challenge for regulators worldwide. We illustrate that endpoints other than OS have long helped to provide timely access to new medicines, including many current standards of care. We found that many critical drugs are approved many years before OS data are published, and that OS may not be the most appropriate endpoint in some treatment contexts. Our examination of approved treatments without significant OS data suggests contexts where OS may not be the most relevant endpoint and highlights the importance of using a wide variety of fit-for-purpose evidence types in the approval process.

  12. Didymosphenia geminata invasion in South America: Ecosystem impacts and potential biogeochemical state change in Patagonian rivers

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    Reid, Brian; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The diatom Didymosphenia geminata has emerged as a major global concern, as both an aggressive invader of rivers and streams in the southern hemisphere, and for its ability to form nuisance blooms in oligotrophic systems in its native range. South American D. geminata blooms were first documented in Chilean Patagonia in May 2010, and have spread to over five regions and three provinces, in Chile and Argentina respectively. The Patagonian invasion represents a distinct challenge compared to other regions; not only are affected systems poorly characterized, but also a general synthesis of the nature and magnitude of ecosystem impacts is still lacking. The latter is essential in evaluating impacts to ecosystem services, forms the basis for a management response that is proportional to the potentially valid threats, or aids in the determination of whether action is warranted or feasible. Based on a revision of the recent literature, some of the most significant impacts may be mediated through physical changes: substantially increased algal biomass, trapping of fine sediment, altered hydrodynamics, and consequent effects on biogeochemical states and processes such as redox condition, pH and nutrient cycling in the benthic zone. Surveys conducted during the early invasion in Chile show a strong correlation between benthic biomass and associated fine sediments, both of which were one-two orders of magnitude higher within D. geminata blooms. Experimental phosphorous amendments showed significant abiotic uptake, while interstitial water in D. geminata mats had nearly 10-20 fold higher soluble reactive phosphorous and a pronounced pH cycle compared to the water column. A dominant and aggressive stalk-forming diatom with this combination of characteristics is in sharp contrast to the colonial cyanobacteria and bare gravel substrate that characterize many Patagonian streams. The potential displacement of native benthic algal communities with contrasting functional groups

  13. Ignition probability of fine dead surface fuels of native Patagonian forests or Argentina

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    Lucas O. Bianchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI is being implemented all over the world. This index is being adapted to the Argentinean ecosystems since the year 2000. With the objective of calibrating the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC of the FWI system to Patagonian forests, we studied the relationship between ignition probability and fine dead surface fuel moisture content (MC as an indicator of potential fire ignition.Area of study: The study area is located in northwestern Patagonia, Argentina, and comprised two main forest types (cypress and ñire grown under a Mediterranean climate, with a dry summer and precipitations during winter and autumn (~500-800 mm per year.Material and Methods: We conducted lab ignition tests fires to determine the threshold of fine dead fuel ignition at different MC levels. Moisture content of dead fine surface fuels in the field was measured every 10-15 days from November to March for three seasons. We calculated the FFMC during these seasons and correlated it with the measured MC by applying a logistic regression model. We combined the results of the ignition tests and of the regressions to suggest FFMC categories for estimating fire danger in Patagonian forests.Main results: The ignition threshold occurred at MC values of 21.5 and 25.0% for cypress and ñire sites, respectively. The MC measured varied from 7.3 to 129.6%, and the calculated FFMC varied between 13.4 and 92.6. Highly significant regressions resulted when FFMC was related to MC. The ignition threshold corresponded to a FFMC=85. We proposed to divide the FFMC scale in three fire danger categories: Low (FFMC≤85, High (8589.Research highlights: Our results provide a useful tool for predicting fire danger in these ecosystems, and are a contribution to the development of the Argentinean Fire Danger Rating and a reference for similar studies in other countries where the FWI is being implemented

  14. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson's and Peale's Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellabianca, Natalia A; Pierce, Graham J; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L; Torres, Mónica A; Paso Viola, M Natalia; Goodall, R Natalie P; Schiavini, Adrián C M

    2016-01-01

    Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson's dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale's dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson's dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale's dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson's dolphins and 20,000 Peale's dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale's dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson's dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures.

  15. Natural Environmental Hazards Reflected in High-Altitude Patagonian Lake Sediments (lake Caviahue, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Scharf, Burkhard; von Tümpling, Wolf; Pirrung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Two 6-m long sediment cores drilled in the two basins of Lake Caviahue give new evidence of the impact of natural hazards such as ash fallouts linked to nearby volcanic eruptions in the ecologically sensitive environment of the high-altitude region of the Argentinan Patagonian Andes. The two cores show distinct signals of changes in autochthonous productivity and terrigenous input into the lake from ash fallout as well as from river load and shore erosion. Multiproxy records of the sediments indicate whether these changes can be related to volcanic activity. High values of magnetic susceptibility in the cores reflect periods of basaltic ash fallouts during eruptions of the nearby Copahue Volcano. The southern basin is located in the prevalent direction of ash fallouts and has been affected by these volcanic inputs more intensely than the northern basin of the lake. In contrast, sedimentation and authochthonous productivity in the northern basin are strongly affected by fluvial inputs such as suspended river load and acidic stream waters.

  16. Do soil organisms affect aboveground litter decomposition in the semiarid Patagonian steppe, Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Patricia I; Yahdjian, Laura; Austin, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Surface litter decomposition in arid and semiarid ecosystems is often faster than predicted by climatic parameters such as annual precipitation or evapotranspiration, or based on standard indices of litter quality such as lignin or nitrogen concentrations. Abiotic photodegradation has been demonstrated to be an important factor controlling aboveground litter decomposition in aridland ecosystems, but soil fauna, particularly macrofauna such as termites and ants, have also been identified as key players affecting litter mass loss in warm deserts. Our objective was to quantify the importance of soil organisms on surface litter decomposition in the Patagonian steppe in the absence of photodegradative effects, to establish the relative importance of soil organisms on rates of mass loss and nitrogen release. We estimated the relative contribution of soil fauna and microbes to litter decomposition of a dominant grass using litterboxes with variable mesh sizes that excluded groups of soil fauna based on size class (10, 2, and 0.01 mm), which were placed beneath shrub canopies. We also employed chemical repellents (naphthalene and fungicide). The exclusion of macro- and mesofauna had no effect on litter mass loss over 3 years (P = 0.36), as litter decomposition was similar in all soil fauna exclusions and naphthalene-treated litter. In contrast, reduction of fungal activity significantly inhibited litter decomposition (P soil fauna have been mentioned as a key control of litter decomposition in warm deserts, biogeographic legacies and temperature limitation may constrain the importance of these organisms in temperate aridlands, particularly in the southern hemisphere.

  17. Tolerance to winemaking stress conditions of Patagonian strains of Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origone, A C; Del Mónaco, S M; Ávila, J R; González Flores, M; Rodríguez, M E; Lopes, C A

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the winemaking stress tolerance of a set of both Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum strains from diverse Patagonian habitats. Yeast strains growth was analysed under increasing ethanol concentrations; all of them were able to grow until 8% v/v ethanol. The effect of different temperature and pH conditions as well as at SO 2 and hexose concentrations was evaluated by means of a central composite experimental design. Only two S. uvarum strains (NPCC 1289 and 1321) were able to grow in most stress conditions. Kinetic parameters analysed (μ max and λ) were statistically affected by temperature, pH and SO 2 , but not influenced by sugar concentration. The obtained growth model was used for predicting optimal growth conditions for both strains: 20°C, 0% w/v SO 2 and pH 4·5. Strains from human-associated environments (chichas) presented the highest diversity in the response to different stress factors. Two S. uvarum strains from chichas demonstrated to be the most tolerant to winemaking conditions. This work evidenced the potential use of two S. uvarum yeast strains as starter cultures in wines fermented at low temperatures. Saccharomyces eubayanus was significantly affected by winemaking stress conditions, limiting its use in this industry. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Interannual variability in the skate assemblage on the South Patagonian shelf and slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A; Pompert, J; Arkhipkin, A; Brewin, P E

    2015-12-01

    Observer data from the commercial fishery on the Patagonian shelf and slope around the Falkland Islands (home to an assemblage of >16 skate species (Rajiformes), for which commercial catches have been recorded since 1987), as well as survey data from an area closed to skate target fishing after exploitation, were summarized by species to examine changes in the population status of individual skate species. Total skate catch per unit effort increased significantly in the target fishery since 1994, and four species have made up >85% of all skate catch. Bathyraja brachyurops and Zearaja chilensis increased significantly in catch proportions and abundance from 1994 to 2013. Bathyraja albomaculata and Bathyraja griseocauda decreased significantly before rebounding with trends of increasing abundance. Concurrently, B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis showed decreasing trends in size at 50% maturity in areas where skates continue to be targeted commercially. The increasing abundances and concomitant reductions in size at maturity of B. brachyurops and Z. chilensis suggest either plasticity in life-history traits or a density-dependent growth response to fishing pressure. Bathyraja griseocauda decreased in size at 50% maturity in the area that was closed to skate target fishing, where it was initially larger, but only decreased to the same average size as in the commercially targeted areas. Bathyraja albomaculata and Z. chilensis are IUCN-listed as vulnerable and B. griseocauda is listed as endangered, but their abundance trends since 1994 indicate that these populations are not declining in Falkland waters. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. The impact of predation by marine mammals on patagonian toothfish longline fisheries.

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    Marta Söffker

    Full Text Available Predatory interaction of marine mammals with longline fisheries is observed globally, leading to partial or complete loss of the catch and in some parts of the world to considerable financial loss. Depredation can also create additional unrecorded fishing mortality of a stock and has the potential to introduce bias to stock assessments. Here we aim to characterise depredation in the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides fishery around South Georgia focusing on the spatio-temporal component of these interactions. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus, and orcas (Orcinus orca frequently feed on fish hooked on longlines around South Georgia. A third of longlines encounter sperm whales, but loss of catch due to sperm whales is insignificant when compared to that due to orcas, which interact with only 5% of longlines but can take more than half of the catch in some cases. Orca depredation around South Georgia is spatially limited and focused in areas of putative migration routes, and the impact is compounded as a result of the fishery also concentrating in those areas at those times. Understanding the seasonal behaviour of orcas and the spatial and temporal distribution of "depredation hot spots" can reduce marine mammal interactions, will improve assessment and management of the stock and contribute to increased operational efficiency of the fishery. Such information is valuable in the effort to resolve the human-mammal conflict for resources.

  20. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson's and Peale's Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters.

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    Natalia A Dellabianca

    Full Text Available Commerson's dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii and Peale's dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals of Commerson's dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals of Peale's dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson's dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale's dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson's dolphins and 20,000 Peale's dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale's dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson's dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures.

  1. Combined impact of ultraviolet radiation and increased nutrients supply: A test of the potential anthropogenic impacts on the benthic amphipod Amphitoe valida from Patagonian waters (Argentina

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    Macarena S. Valiñas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted during the Austral Summer of 2014 to determine the effects of increased nutrient input and ultraviolet radiation (UVR on the food consumption rate (FCR and food preference in the amphipod Amphitoe valida. We collected specimens from the Patagonian coast (Argentina, from beaches close (Barrancas Blancas; BB and further away (Cangrejales; C from the Chubut River, which constitutes the potential source of eutrophication. Organisms were exposed to different radiation regimes (full radiation vs. PAR only and fed with different macroalgae diets (i.e., from different geographical location and with different quality in terms on nutrient content. Males collected from C showed food compensation, consuming more food under low-nutrient diets, while no compensation was observed in males from BB. Regardless of their origin, UVR decreased the FCR when males where fed on ambient nutrient diets, but not when males fed on high-quality diets indicating that in the former case, individuals were in worse physiological conditions to cope with UVR; food quality, however, significantly counteracted the deleterious effects of UVR on FCR. Females collected from the two beaches showed similar FCR under high-nutrient diet and had no food compensation when fed in low-nutrient diets. Females were more vulnerable to UVR, since their FCR were lower when exposed to UV radiation independent of the diet. Our results show that under anthropogenic eutrophication and high solar UVR levels an increase in the nutrient input could favor only males of A. valida, by reducing the negative effects of UVR on their FCR. Nevertheless, these nutrient inputs might cause additional problems like anoxia, as a result of an unusual macroalgal growth, thus affecting amphipod’s survival.

  2. Forms of Recall – Politics of Memory. Memory as the Non-Chronological Narrative Form of Historical-Political Identity Quest in the Kádár Regime and Its Survival in the Postcommunist Period

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    Gelencsér Gábor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the film art of the Kádár regime the modernist non-chronological narrative mode became the dominant form of remembrance and communicative memory. In the 35-year period between 1956 and 1990 we can find thirty-five films of this type (e.g. Dialogue [Párbeszéd, János Herskó, 1963], Twenty Hours [Húsz óra, Zoltán Fábri, 1965], Cold Days [Hideg napok, András Kovács, 1966], Love [Szerelem, Károly Makk, 1971], Lovefilm [Szerelmesfilm, István Szabó, 1970], Diary for My Children [Napló gyermekeimnek, Márta Mészáros, 1982], the majority of which thematize the communicative memory of the recent past of the period (World War II, the Hungarian Holocaust, the 1950s, 1956, the Kádár consolidation as opposed to the amnesia politics of the time. Although this cinematic corpus is connected to the film history of the Kádár era with all its elements (form: modernism; theme: communicative memory; political discourse: recollection; official politics of memory; the counterdiscourse of Kádár’s amnesia politics, it survives in the postcommunist period (e.g. Hungarian Fragment [Pannon töredék, András Sólyom, 1998], White Palms [Fehér tenyér, Szabolcs Hajdu, 2006], Mom and Other Loonies in the Family [Anyám és más futóbolondok a családból, Ibolya Fekete, 2015]. After presenting the non-chronological narrative form of historical-political identity quest, the paper seeks to find reasons for the survival of this form and tries to draw conclusions regarding the social aspect and modes of expression of the Hungarian film history of the postcommunist period.

  3. Conflicting evolutionary patterns due to mitochondrial introgression and multilocus phylogeography of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis.

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    Brian R Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple loci and population genetic methods were employed to study the phylogeographic history of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis (Aeglidae: Decopoda. This taxon occurs in two large river systems in the Patagonian Steppe, from the foothills of the Andes Mountains east to the Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nuclear phylogeny and multilocus nested clade phylogeographic analysis detected a fragmentation event between the Negro and Chico-Chubut river systems. This event occurred approximately 137 thousand years ago. An isolation-with-migration analysis and maximum-likelihood estimates of gene flow showed asymmetrical exchange of genetic material between these two river systems exclusively in their headwaters. We used information theory to determine the best-fit demographic history between these two river systems under an isolation-with-migration model. The best-fit model suggests that the Negro and the ancestral populations have the same effective population sizes; whereas the Chico-Chubut population is smaller and shows that gene flow from the Chico-Chubut into the Negro is four times higher than in the reverse direction. Much of the Chico-Chubut system appears to have only been recently colonized while the Negro populations appear to have been in place for most of the evolutionary history of this taxon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Due to mitochondrial introgression, three nuclear loci provided different phylogeographic resolution than the three mitochondrial genes for an ancient fragmentation event observed in the nuclear phylogeny. However, the mitochondrial locus provided greater resolution on more recent evolutionary events. Our study, therefore, demonstrates the need to include both nuclear and mitochondrial loci for a more complete understanding of evolutionary histories and associated phylogeographic events. Our results suggest that gene flow between these systems, before and after fragmentation

  4. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina: assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery

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    Torales Susana L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Results Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts. The non-assembled sequences (singletons were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. Conclusions This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus.

  5. Geodetic Mass Balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield from 2000 to 2012 Using Two Independent Methods

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    Inés Dussaillant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We compare two independent estimates of the rate of elevation change and geodetic mass balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI between 2000 (3,856 km2 and 2012 (3,740 km2 from space-borne data. The first is obtained by differencing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM from February 2000 and a Satellite pour l'Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 DEM from March 2012. The second is deduced by fitting pixel-based linear elevation trends over 118 DEMs calculated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo images acquired between 2000 and 2012. Both methods lead to similar and strongly negative icefield-wide mass balance rates of −1.02 ± 0.21 and −1.06 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr−1 respectively, which is in agreement with earlier studies. Contrasting glacier responses are observed, with individual glacier mass balance rates ranging from −0.15 to −2.30 m w.e. yr−1 (standard deviation = 0.49 m w.e. yr−1; N = 38. For individual glaciers, the two methods agree within error bars, except for small glaciers poorly sampled in the SPOT5 DEM due to clouds. Importantly, our study confirms the lack of penetration of the C-band SRTM radar signal into the NPI snow and firn except for a region above 2,900 m a.s.l. covering <1% of the total area. Ignoring penetration would bias the mass balance by only 0.005 m w.e. yr−1. A strong advantage of the ASTER method is that it relies only on freely available data and can thus be extended to other glacierized areas.

  6. How much is too much? Assessment of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins in Patagonian colonies.

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    Juan E Sala

    Full Text Available Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles ('wiggles' for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus by Simeone and Wilson (2003. Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN, Bahía Bustamente (BB, Puerto Deseado (PD and Puerto San Julián (PSJ, all located in Argentina between 42-49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies. We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific 'prey type'. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.

  7. K-Ar ages of rocks from Lago Alumine, Rucachoroi and Quillen, North Patagonian Andes, Neuquen, Republica Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, Carlos O.; Vattuone, M.E; Linares, Enrique; Leal, Pablo R

    2001-01-01

    This study presents new K-Ar ages of granitic rocks from the Patagonian Batholit in the North Patagonian Andes (38 o 00'- 39 o 30' SL), from localities near Alumine lake and from Norquinco lake to Quillen valley, in the Neuquen Province, Argentine. The granitic rocks of Patagonia had been recognized as Upper Paleozoic to Middle Jurassic batholits and as Late Jurassic to Tertiary batholiths (Rapela and Pankhurst, 1992). Geochronologically, Rapela and Kay (1988) had distinguished Early Cretaceous (140 to 120 Ma) and Late Cretaceous (110 to 75 Ma ) magmatic episodes based in potassium-argon data. For the granitic rocks of the area of Paso Icalma, Moquehue and the Rahue granodiorites, Cingolani et al. (1991) presented Rb-Sr whole rock isochron ages of 70±10 Ma, 209±13 Ma and 237±37 Ma, respectively, and Varela et al. (1994), with the same method, cited an age of 285±5 Ma for the Rahue granodiorites and diorites (au)

  8. Traveling around Cape Horn: Otolith chemistry reveals a mixed stock of Patagonian hoki with separate Atlantic and Pacific spawning grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchert, P.C.; Arkhipkin, A.I.; Koenig, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Trace element fingerprints of edge and core regions in otoliths from 260 specimens of Patagonian hoki, Macruronus magellanicus L??nnberg, 1907, were analyzed by LA-ICPMS to reveal whether this species forms one or more population units (stocks) in the Southern Oceans. Fish were caught on their spawning grounds in Chile and feeding grounds in Chile and the Falkland Islands. Univariate and multivariate analyses of trace element concentrations in the otolith edges, which relate to the adult life of fish, could not distinguish between Atlantic (Falkland) and Pacific (Chile) hoki. Cluster analyses of element concentrations in the otolith edges produced three different clusters in all sample areas indicating high mixture of the stocks. Cluster analysis of trace element concentrations in the otolith cores, relating to juvenile and larval life stages, produced two separate clusters mainly distinguished by 137Ba concentrations. The results suggest that Patagonian hoki is a highly mixed fish stock with at least two spawning grounds around South America. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus and a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Díaz-Ayala

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is an infectious, zoonotic and parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In this manucript, two cases of infection with T. gondii in captive animals from a zoological park in the central region of Chile are described. One case was a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus, which is highly susceptible to the infection, and the other was a Patagonian mara (Dolichotis patagonum, a rodent in which there is no previous report of the infection. Both animals had myocarditis, with the presence of intralesional tachizoites and cysts suggestive of infection with T. gondii. This infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in both animals. The origin of the infection is unknown, but it is likely that free ranging domestic felines were associated with the dissemination of the parasites. This highlights the importance of controlling the domestic animal populations in zoological parks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that T. gondii infection is described in a Patagonian mara, adding a new host for this infectious agent.

  10. New insights into the morphology, reproduction and distribution of the large-tuberculate octopus Graneledone macrotyla from the Patagonian slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Guerra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The new information reported in this paper is based on 11 specimens of the large-tuberculate octopus Graneledone macrotyla. These specimens were caught in bottom trawl surveys ATLANTIS 2009 and 2010 carried out on the Patagonian slope off the Argentinean Economic Exclusive Zone between 24 February and 1 April 2009 and from 9 March to 5 April 2010 respectively. A new diagnosis and a complete description of the species are provided. This is the first time that stylets, beaks and spermatophores are described. This is also the first time in which mature females have been studied and the female genitalia described. Like other eledonid octopods, G. macrotyla does not have spermathecae in the oviducal glands. The presence of fertilized eggs inside the ovary suggests that fertilization takes place within the ovary. The simultaneous occurrence of oocyte cohorts at different oogenic stages suggests that the species is a multiple spawner. G. macrotyla inhabits shallower waters on the Patagonian slope (475-921 m than in the subantartic area (1647-2044 m. From a biogeographical point of view, our data show that G. macrotyla inhabits the plume of cold subantarctic waters, which is pushed far north into the southwestern Atlantic by the Falkland (Malvinas Current.

  11. Native and exotic fishes in a Patagonian reservoir with rainbow trout cage culture: spatial and trophic resource use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabaes Jodar Diego N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the interactions of exotic salmonids with native Patagonian fishes are well known, little is known about the ecology and impact of farmed fish escapees. Salmonid production in Argentina is largely concentrated in the Alicurá reservoir in north Patagonia, where fish community studies have been scarce. Here, we assess and compare the spatial distribution, body size–condition and diet of the different fish species in this reservoir. Strong vertical segregation was observed between exotic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (both escapees and wild, dominating the littoral zone, and native Percichthys trucha which dominate the medium and deep strata. Low piscivory–benthivory and high zooplanktivory were observed for rainbow trout, both traits being uncommon at a regional scale. Escaped farmed rainbow trout (ERT diet included abundant indigestible items along with wild prey. Higher body condition of P. trucha close to farms, as well as the regionally unprecedented high incidence of Daphnia sp. in the guts of all the species suggest that farm nutrient discharges have had significant impacts. Finally, the high body condition of ERT, together with their wild food diet and the long dispersal distance observed, demonstrate post-escape success, drawing our attention to potential upstream dispersion affecting the biodiversity and fisheries of Patagonian rivers and lakes.

  12. The Patagonian Orocline: Paleomagnetic evidence of a large counter-clockwise rotation during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando; Roperch, Pierrick; Herve, Francisco; Ramirez, Cristobal; Arriagada, Cesar

    2014-05-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure, the Patagonian Orocline. Despite the fact that this major structure was already described by Alfred Wegener in his famous textbook in 1929, few paleomagnetic studies have been attempted to describe the rotations associated with the formation of the Patagonian Orocline. In this study we present a paleomagnetic and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) study from more than 130 sites obtained from the Ultima Esperanza region (NS structures at ~51°S) to Península Hardy, south of the Beagle Channel at ~55°S. 45 sites were sampled in early-cretaceous gabbros (gabbro complex), mid-cretaceous tonalites and granodiorites (Canal Beagle group) and Paleocene intrusive rocks (Seno Año Nuevo group) from the South Patagonian batholith, 4 sites from the late Jurassic Hardy formation, a volcanic succession outcropping in Hardy Peninsula and Stewart Island, 9 sites were drilled in the lower cretaceous sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes Basin, 3 sites from the Tortuga ophiolite, a quasi-oceanic crust related to the opening of the Rocas Verdes basin. 80 sites were sampled in Cretaceous to Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Magallanes fold and thrust belt and Magallanes Basin. Characteristic Remanent Magnetizations (ChRMs) obtained from the Rocas Verdes Basin tectonic province correspond to secondary magnetizations postdating the early phase of folding. Pyrrhotite is the main magnetic carrier in some of these sites. ChRMs from the South Patagonian Batholith correspond to a primary magnetization. These rocks record about 90° counterclockwise rotations south of the Beagle channel. Few sites from sediments of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt have stable ChRM. The available paleomagnetic results show that no rotation has occurred in the Provincia of Ultima Esperanza (51.5°S), at least, for the last 60 Ma. In the southern part of Provincia de Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego

  13. A model-based telecoupling analysis for the Patagonian shelf: a new suggested template on how to study global seabirds-fisheries interactions for sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettmann, F.; Raya Rey, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and the extended Patagonian shelf in particular, presents us with a very complex ecosystem of global relevance for food security and global peace. It is a highly productive area and it maintains a great diversity and abundance of seabird species. Fisheries have been identified as a main stressor for the marine ecosystems and as one of the main causes of seabird population declines. Using the framework of telecoupling - a sophisticated description of natural and socioeconomic interactions over large distances - here we present a fresh holistic look at the dynamic fisheries and (endangered) seabird interactions for the Patagonian shelf. While data are sparse, we employ machine learning-based predictions for a more holistic overview. We found that these waters of the Patagonian Shelf are significantly affected by many nations and outside players. We found that the input, output and spill-over of the Patagonian shelf ecosystem are distributed virtually all over the globe. In addition, we also found `losers' (=nations and their citizens that are left out entirely from this global resource and its governance). Our findings are based on best-available public trade and fish harvest analysis for this region, linked with predictive modeling (machine learning and geographic information systems GIS) to generalize for nine seabird species. We conveniently extend this analysis with a perspective from the financial sector and policy that enables the Patagonian fisheries as international investment and development projects. As increasingly recognized elsewhere, we believe that telecoupling can serve as a new but rather sophisticated study template highlighting wider complexities, bottlenecks and sensitivities for a vastly improved conservation research on oceans and global sustainability questions.

  14. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    -level time series from Lagos Argentino and Viedma yields the amplitudes and phases of the lake tides for the four major tidal constituents M2, S2, O1 and K1. The maximum amplitude, corresponding to the semi-diurnal moon tide M2 in Lago Argentino, amounts to 3 mm. For the four lakes under investigation the theoretical amplitudes and phases of seven constituents (Q1, O1, P1, K1, N2, M2 and S2) are modelled accounting for the contributions of both the solid earth's body tides and the ocean tidal loading (Marderwald 2014). Both contributions involve a deformation of the earth surface and of the equipotential surfaces of the gravity field. For the load tide computation the global ocean tide model EOT11a (Savcenko and Bosch, 2012) and the Gutenberg-Bullen A earth model (Farrell, 1972) was applied and the conservation of water volume is taken into account. The comparison of the tidal signal extracted from the lake-level observations in Lagos Argentino and Viedma with the lake tide models indicates a phase shift which is most likely explained by an 1 hour phase lag of the employed global ocean tide model in the region of the highly fragmented Pacific coast. REFERENCES: Farrell, W. E., (1972). Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Rev. Geophy. Space Phy., 10(3):761-797. Ivins, E., James, T., 2004. Bedrock response to Llanquihue Holocene and present-day glaciation in southernmost South America. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 (L24613). Doi:10.1029/2004GL021500. Klemann, V., E. R. Ivins, Z. Martinec, and D. Wolf (2007), Models of active glacial isostasy roofing warm subduction: Case of the South Patagonian Ice Field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, B09405, doi: 10.1029/2006JB004818. Lange, H., Casassa, G., Ivins, E. R., Schröder, L., Fritsche, M., Richter, A., Groh, A., Dietrich, R., (2014). Observed crustal uplift near the Southern Patagonian Icefield constrains improved viscoelastic Earth models. Geophysical Research Letters, DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058419. Marderwald ER, 2014. Modelado de las mareas

  15. Melting of the Patagonian Ice Sheet and deglacial perturbations of the nitrogen cycle in the eastern South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Dezileau, Laurent; Kaiser, Jérôme; Lamy, Frank; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2006-02-01

    We report the last glacial-interglacial transition of marine denitrification off northern Chile based on sedimentary nitrogen isotopes. Our results show a relatively early, large and abrupt transition from low to high denitrification regimes consistent with recently-reported data from off Peru. The deglaciation is characterized by millennial-scale adjustments of the oxygen minimum zone that mimic the atmospheric temperature record from Antarctica. We also show that the sharp denitrification onset was not caused by an increase in local primary productivity, nor by ventilation changes occurring in the Southern Ocean, as previously proposed. We found that the magnitude and timing of the deglacial denitrification changes are in close agreement with the fresh-water pulses that resulted from the melting of the Patagonian Ice Sheet. We consequently attribute the deglacial onset of marine denitrification in the area to a collapse of the thermocline ventilation occurred at the mid-latitude subduction region of the eastern South Pacific.

  16. Structural control on arc volcanism: The Caviahue Copahue complex, Central to Patagonian Andes transition (38°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Victor A.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes the volcanostratigraphy, structure, and tectonic implications of an arc volcanic complex in an oblique subduction setting: the Caviahue caldera Copahue volcano (CAC) of the Andean margin. The CAC is located in a first-order morphotectonic transitional zone, between the low and narrow Patagonian and the high and broad Central Andes. The evolution of the CAC started at approximately 4-3 Ma with the opening of the 20 × 15 km Caviahue pull-apart caldera; Las Mellizas volcano formed inside the caldera and collapsed at approximately 2.6 Ma; and the Copahue volcano evolved in three stages: (1) 1.2-0.7 Ma formed the approximately 1 km thick andesitic edifice, (2) 0.7-0.01 Ma erupted andesitic-dacitic subglacial pillow lavas, and (3) 0.01-0 Ma erupted basaltic-andesites and pyroclastic flows from fissures, aligned cones, and summit craters. Magma ascent has occurred along planes perpendicular to the least principal horizontal stress, whereas hydrothermal activity and hot springs also occur along parallel planes. At a regional scale, Quaternary volcanism concentrates along the NE-trending, 90 km long Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, the longest of the southern volcanic zone, which is here interpreted as an inherited crustal-scale transfer zone from a Miocene rift basin. At a local scale within the CAC, effusions are controlled by local structures that formed at the intersection of regional fault systems. The Central to Patagonian Andes transition occurs at the Callaqui-Copahue-Mandolegüe lineament, which decouples active deformation from the intra-arc strike-slip Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone to the south and the backarc Copahue-Antiñir thrust system.

  17. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma on stromata of Cyttaria hariotii in northwestern Patagonian Nothofagus forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Libkind

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous associated with Cyttaria hariotii parasitizing three Nothofagus species (N. dombeyi, N. antarctica and N. pumilio in northwestern Patagonia (Argentina, as well as the factors that may affect this distribution were herein studied. Between 2000 and 2007, samples were obtained from 18 different locations. Based on physiological tests and morphological characteristics of sexual structures, 72 isolates were identified as X. dendrorhous. Representative strains were studied by MSP-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analysis of the ITS region. MSP-PCR fingerprints were similar for the newly isolated strains, and were also identical to the profiles of the strains previously found in this region. Patagonian strains appear to be a genetically uniform and distinct population, supporting the hypothesis that the association with different host species has determined genetically distinct X. dendrorhous populations worldwide. X. dendrorhous was recovered from N. dombeyi and N. antarctica. Approximately half the sampling sites and samples were positive for X. dendrorhous, but the isolation recovery rate was low. X. dendrorhous was absent in the early stages of ascostromata maturation, becoming more abundant in later stages. The present work represents a step forward in the understanding of the natural distribution and ecology of this biotechnologically relevant yeast.Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma asociado a estromas de Cyttaria hariotii en bosques de Nothofagus en el noroeste de la Patagonia. Se estudió la ocurrencia y la distribución de Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous asociado a Cyttaria hariotii en tres especies de Nothofagus (N. dombeyi, N. antarctica y N. pumilio del noroeste de la Patagonia (Argentina, y los factores que podrían afectar esta distribución. El muestreo se realizó entre 2000 y 2007 en 18 sitios diferentes. Según las pruebas fisiológicas y las caracter

  18. Occurrences of ikaite and pseudomorphs after ikaite in Patagonian lakes - crystal morphologies and stable isotope composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlerich, Markus; Mayr, Christoph; Griesshaber, Erika; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Sánchez-Pastor, Nuria; Kremer, Barbara; Lücke, Andreas; Oeckler, Oliver; Schmahl, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Ikaite (CaCO3•6H2O), a hydrated calcium carbonate mineral occasionally found in marine sediments, has so far rarely been reported from non-marine sites. Modern ikaite and calcitic pseudomorphs after ikaite were recently discovered in Patagonian Argentina at the polymictic lakes of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°57´S, 70°23´W) and Laguna Cháltel (49°57´S, 71°07´W), respectively. Both lakes are of volcanic origin and have phosphorous-rich, alkaline waters, but differ in altitude (790 m asl and 110 m asl for Laguna Cháltel and Laguna Potrok Aike, respectively) and water temperature. The aim of this study is (1) to investigate conditions for the formation of ikaite and its transformation to more stable, water-free carbonate pseudomorphs after ikaite and (2) to assess the potential of ikaite and calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite as a paleoenvironmental tool in freshwater lakes. Crystallographic, morphological and isotopic characteristics of the pseudomorphs were investigated. Ikaite crystals were found (in September 2008) primarily on aquatic macrophytes and cyanobacteria colonies at Laguna Potrok Aike. Ikaite crystals transformed quickly to calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite after recovery from the cool lake water (4°C). The crystal structure of ikaite was investigated with single crystal X-ray diffraction on samples that were permanently kept cold (in the lake water). At Laguna Cháltel calcite pseudomorphs after ikaite were discovered in littoral sediment cores from 25 m water depth. The mm-sized, porous, polycrystalline calcium carbonate aggregates from the 104 cm long sediment core of Laguna Cháltel are morphologically pseudomorphs after ikaite. SEM and XRD analyses highlight that these pseudomorphs consist of several µm-small calcite crystals in a calcitic matrix. The shape of these micro-crystals changes from rounded to fibrous with increasing sediment depth. Some specimens show casts of cyanobacteria trichomes. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcite

  19. The Gondwana Orogeny in northern North Patagonian Massif: Evidences from the Caita Có granite, La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural analyses in the northern part of the North Patagonia Massif, in the foliated Caita Có granite and in La Seña and Pangaré mylonites, indicate that the pluton was intruded as a sheet-like body into an opening pull-apart structure during the Gondwana Orogeny. Geochronological studies in the massif indicate a first, lower to middle Permian stage of regional deformation, related to movements during indentation tectonics, with emplacement of foliated granites in the western and central areas of the North Patagonian Massif. Between the upper Permian and lower Triassic, evidence indicates emplacement of undeformed granitic bodies in the central part of the North Patagonian Massif. A second pulse of deformation between the middle and upper Triassic is related to the emplacement of the Caita Có granite, the development of mylonitic belts, and the opening of the Los Menucos Basin. During this pulse of deformation, compression direction was from the eastern quadrant.

  20. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  1. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  2. Further Studies on the Physical and Biogeochemical Causes for Large Interannual Changes in the Patagonian Shelf Spring-Summer Phytoplankton Bloom Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Garcia, Virginia M.T.; Piola, Alberto R.; Evangelista, Heitor; McClain, Charles R.; Garcia, Carlos A.E.; Mata, Mauricio M.

    2009-01-01

    A very strong and persistent phytoplankton bloom was observed by ocean color satellites during September - December 2003 along the northern Patagonian shelf. The 2003 bloom had the highest extent and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations of the entire Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) period (1997 to present). SeaWiFS-derived Chl-a exceeded 20 mg/cu m in November at the bloom center. The bloom was most extensive in December when it spanned more than 300 km across the shelf and nearly 900 km north-south (35degS to 43degS). The northward reach and the deep penetration on the shelf of the 2003 bloom were quite anomalous when compared with other years, which showed the bloom more confined to the Patagonian shelf break (PSB). The PSB bloom is a conspicuous austral spring-summer feature detected by ocean color satellites and its timing can be explained using the Sverdrup critical depth theory. Based on high-resolution numerical simulations, in situ and remote sensing data, we provide some suggestions for the probable mechanisms responsible for that large interannual change of biomass as seen by ocean color satellites. Potential sources of macro and micro (e.g., Fe) nutrients that sustain the high phytoplankton productivity of the Patagonian shelf waters are identified, and the most likely physical processes that maintain the nutrient balance in the region are discussed.

  3. Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora C, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    Short history of the ''Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares''. A short historical review about IAN is made: from 1956 when it was called Instituto Colombiano de Asuntos Nucleares, showing its scientific and technical development and the most important events that have occurred in the last 30 years. The people who had contributed to the progress of the institution are also considered, making emphasis in the important happenings that have guided the routes of the IAN

  4. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  5. Modelling spatial distribution of Patagonian toothfish through life-stages and sex and its implications for the fishery on the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Clara; Welsford, Dirk C.; Ziegler, Philippe; Lamb, Timothy D.; Gasco, Nicolas; Chazeau, Charlotte; Sinègre, Romain; Duhamel, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Size and sex specific habitat preferences are common in animal populations and can have important implications for sound spatial management of harvested species. Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) is a commercially exploited fish species characterised by its longevity (>50 yo) and its extremely broad distribution in depths ranging from 10 m to 2500 m on most of the Plateaux, banks and seamounts of the Southern Ocean. As many bentho-pelagic fish species, Patagonian toothfish exhibits sexual dimorphism and ontogenetic habitat shift towards deeper waters as they grow. In this study, we modelled the spatial structure of Patagonian toothfish population (median total length and sex composition) in a data-rich area, the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Indian Ocean), to better understand the ecological drivers of their distributional patterns and inform current and future fishery management strategies. We applied spatially-explicit statistical models to quantify and predict the effects of the complex topography of the Kerguelen Plateau in structuring the spatial distribution of Patagonian toothfish total length and sex ratio, while controlling for gear selectivity and season. Model predictions showed that juvenile toothfish live in shallow regions (shelf and banks) and move downward progressively up to 600 m while they grow. Between 600 m and 1200 m, the downward movement stops and fish settle at their preferred depths. While in this depth range, fish are ∼75 cm long and most vulnerable to fisheries. As they approach maturity large fish move downward to deep-sea habitats (from 1200 m to >2300 m) and head towards the spawning grounds on the western side of the plateau and around Skiff Bank. Importantly, the sex ratio was not evenly distributed across the Plateau; prediction maps revealed a higher proportion of females in the South whereas a strong male-bias sex ratio (70%) occurred in the North-West. Large-scale prediction maps derived from our models assisted in

  6. New Patagonian Cretaceous theropod sheds light about the early radiation of Coelurosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E Novas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a new theropod, Bicentenaria argentina nov. gen. et nov. sp., from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. It is represented by more than a hundred bones belonging to different sized individuals, which were buried together in disarticulation after little transportation. The available association of skeletal elements suggests a gregarious behaviour for Bicentenaria, an ethological trait also recorded among other theropod clades. Increasing documentation of monospecific assemblages of different groups of theropods suggests that a gregarious behaviour may have constituted the ancestral condition for Theropoda, at least. Bicentenaria characterizes for the surangular bone with a high dorsal margin and a prominent lateral shelf, a retroarticular process that is low, wide and spoon-shaped, and quadrate bone with its lateral condyle larger than the medial one. Phylogenetic analysis found the Chinese Tugulusaurus and the Patagonian Bicentenaria as successive sister taxa of all other coelurosaurs, thus revealing the importance of the new taxon in the understanding of the early diversification of Coelurosauria. In particular, Bicentenaria amplifies the array of basal coelurosaurs that inhabited Gondwana during the Cretaceous, also including compsognathids, Aniksosaurus and Santanaraptor. Although still restricted to a handful of forms, available information indicates that Gondwana was a cradle for the evolution of different lineages of basal coelurosaurs, different from those documented in Upper Cretaceous beds in the northern landmasses. Analysis of body size distribution in averostran theropods results in the identification of two main episodes of drastic size reduction in the evolutionary history of Coelurosauria: one occurred at the initial radiation of the group (as represented by Bicentenaria, Zuolong, Tugulusaurus, compsognathids, and Aniksosaurus, and a second episode occurred at the early diverification of Paraves or avialans

  7. Spatial Models of Abundance and Habitat Preferences of Commerson’s and Peale’s Dolphin in Southern Patagonian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellabianca, Natalia A.; Pierce, Graham J.; Raya Rey, Andrea; Scioscia, Gabriela; Miller, David L.; Torres, Mónica A.; Paso Viola, M. Natalia; Schiavini, Adrián C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Commerson’s dolphins (Cephalorhynchus c. commersonii) and Peale’s dolphins (Lagenorhynchus australis) are two of the most common species of cetaceans in the coastal waters of southwest South Atlantic Ocean. Both species are listed as Data Deficient by the IUCN, mainly due to the lack of information about population sizes and trends. The goal of this study was to build spatially explicit models for the abundance of both species in relation to environmental variables using data collected during eight scientific cruises along the Patagonian shelf. Spatial models were constructed using generalized additive models. In total, 88 schools (212 individuals) of Commerson’s dolphin and 134 schools (465 individuals) of Peale’s dolphin were recorded in 8,535 km surveyed. Commerson’s dolphin was found less than 60 km from shore; whereas Peale’s dolphins occurred over a wider range of distances from the coast, the number of animals sighted usually being larger near or far from the coast. Fitted models indicate overall abundances of approximately 22,000 Commerson’s dolphins and 20,000 Peale’s dolphins in the total area studied. This work provides the first large-scale abundance estimate for Peale’s dolphin in the Atlantic Ocean and an update of population size for Commerson’s dolphin. Additionally, our results contribute to baseline data on suitable habitat conditions for both species in southern Patagonia, which is essential for the implementation of adequate conservation measures. PMID:27783627

  8. Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.D.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Crivelli, E.S.; Gortari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m 2 per year, while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m 2 per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable

  9. Pine Plantations and Invasion Alter Fuel Structure and Potential Fire Behavior in a Patagonian Forest-Steppe Ecotone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Paritsis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Planted and invading non-native plant species can alter fire regimes through changes in fuel loads and in the structure and continuity of fuels, potentially modifying the flammability of native plant communities. Such changes are not easily predicted and deserve system-specific studies. In several regions of the southern hemisphere, exotic pines have been extensively planted in native treeless areas for forestry purposes and have subsequently invaded the native environments. However, studies evaluating alterations in flammability caused by pines in Patagonia are scarce. In the forest-steppe ecotone of northwestern Patagonia, we evaluated fine fuels structure and simulated fire behavior in the native shrubby steppe, pine plantations, pine invasions, and mechanically removed invasions to establish the relative ecological vulnerability of these forestry and invasion scenarios to fire. We found that pine plantations and their subsequent invasion in the Patagonian shrubby steppe produced sharp changes in fine fuel amount and its vertical and horizontal continuity. These changes in fuel properties have the potential to affect fire behavior, increasing fire intensity by almost 30 times. Pruning of basal branches in plantations may substantially reduce fire hazard by lowering the probability of fire crowning, and mechanical removal of invasion seems effective in restoring original fuel structure in the native community. The current expansion of pine plantations and subsequent invasions acting synergistically with climate warming and increased human ignitions warrant a highly vulnerable landscape in the near future for northwestern Patagonia if no management actions are undertaken.

  10. Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Dinghi, P; Corio, C; Medina, A; Maggioni, M; Storero, L; Gosztonyi, A

    2014-02-01

    A genetic study to support morphometric analyses was used to improve the description and validate the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Syngnathidae) on the basis of a large number of specimens collected in the type locality (San Antonio Bay, Patagonia, Argentina). DNA sequence data (from the cytochrome b region of the mitochondrial genome) were used to differentiate this species from its relatives cited for the west Atlantic Ocean. Both phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses supported the hypothesis that H. patagonicus is a species clearly differentiated from others, in agreement with morphometric studies. Hippocampus patagonicus can be distinguished from Hippocampus erectus by the combination of the following morphometric characteristics: (1) in both sexes and all sizes of H. patagonicus, the snout length is always less than the postorbital length, whereas the snout length of H. erectus is not shorter than the postorbital length in the largest specimens; (2) in both sexes of H. patagonicus, the trunk length:total length (LTr :LT ) is lower than in H. erectus (in female H. patagonicus: 0·27-0·39, H. erectus: 0·36-0·40 and in male H. patagonicus: 0·24-0·34, H. erectus: 0·33-0·43) and (3) in both sexes, tail length:total length (LTa :LT ) in H. patagonicus is larger than in H. erectus (0·61-0·78 v. 0·54-0·64). © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Inducing the Alternative Oxidase Forms Part of the Molecular Strategy of Anoxic Survival in Freshwater Bivalves

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    Maria S. Yusseppone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2/L, hypoxia (2 mg O2/L, and normoxia (9 mg O2/L. Specifically, we investigated the expression of an alternative oxidase (AOX pathway assumed to shortcut the regular mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS during metabolic rate depression (MRD in hypoxia-tolerant invertebrates. Whereas, the AOX system was strongly upregulated during anoxia in gills, ETS activities and energy mobilization decreased [less transcription of glycogen phosphorylase (GlyP and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH in gills and mantle]. Accumulation of succinate and induction of malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity could indicate activation of anaerobic mitochondrial pathways to support anoxic survival in D. chilensis. Oxidative stress [protein carbonylation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx expression] and apoptotic intensity (caspase 3/7 activity decreased, whereas an unfolded protein response (HSP90 was induced under anoxia. This is the first clear evidence of the concerted regulation of the AOX and ETS genes in a hypoxia-tolerant freshwater bivalve and yet another example that exposure to hypoxia and anoxia is not necessarily accompanied by oxidative stress in hypoxia-tolerant mollusks.

  12. Inducing the Alternative Oxidase Forms Part of the Molecular Strategy of Anoxic Survival in Freshwater Bivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusseppone, Maria S.; Rocchetta, Iara; Sabatini, Sebastian E.; Luquet, Carlos M.; Ríos de Molina, Maria del Carmen; Held, Christoph; Abele, Doris

    2018-01-01

    Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2/L), hypoxia (2 mg O2/L), and normoxia (9 mg O2/L). Specifically, we investigated the expression of an alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway assumed to shortcut the regular mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) during metabolic rate depression (MRD) in hypoxia-tolerant invertebrates. Whereas, the AOX system was strongly upregulated during anoxia in gills, ETS activities and energy mobilization decreased [less transcription of glycogen phosphorylase (GlyP) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in gills and mantle]. Accumulation of succinate and induction of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity could indicate activation of anaerobic mitochondrial pathways to support anoxic survival in D. chilensis. Oxidative stress [protein carbonylation, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression] and apoptotic intensity (caspase 3/7 activity) decreased, whereas an unfolded protein response (HSP90) was induced under anoxia. This is the first clear evidence of the concerted regulation of the AOX and ETS genes in a hypoxia-tolerant freshwater bivalve and yet another example that exposure to hypoxia and anoxia is not necessarily accompanied by oxidative stress in hypoxia-tolerant mollusks. PMID:29527172

  13. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Bethe, H.A.; Blair, B.G.; Bracken, P.; Carter, A.B.; Dickinson, H.; Garwin, R.L.; Holloway, D.; Kendall, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  14. Historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  15. Rethinking historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  17. Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the sub-Antarctic ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Rosenfeld

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Egg masses of the Patagonian squid Doryteuthis (Amerigo gahi attached to giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera in the Magellanic channels of the sub-Antarctic ecoregion in southern South America is documented for the first time. Of seven egg masses observed between 2008 and 2011, one was taken to the laboratory to be analysed and photographed. Comprising long transparent capsules containing eggs, the masses were strongly attached to the stipes of M. pyrifera. This macroalgae is a potentially important economic resource due to its multiple industrial uses; this study shows that it also serves an important ecological role as a spawning substrate for D. gahi.

  18. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis, a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Patricia Bravo

    Full Text Available Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May, elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug., birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals

  19. The relationship between survival of Columbia River fall chinook salmon and in-river environmental factors -- Analysis of historic data for juvenile and adult salmonid production: Phase 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Townsend, R.L.; Donnelly, R.F.; Hilborn, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    This project analyzes in greater detail the coded-wire-tag (CWT) returns of Priest Rapids Hatchery fall chinook for the years 1976--1989 initially begun by Hilborn et al. (1993a). These additional analyses were prompted by suggestions made by peer reviews of the initial draft report. The initial draft and the peer review comments are included in this final report (Appendices A and B). The statistical analyses paired Priest Rapids stock with potential downriver reference stocks to isolate in-river survival rates. Thirty-three potential reference stocks were initially examined for similar ocean recovery rates; the five stocks with the most similar recovery patterns (i.e., Bonneville Brights, Cowlitz, Gray's River, Tanner Creek, and Washougal) to the Priest Rapids stock were used in the subsequent analysis of in-river survival. Three alternate forms of multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationship between predicted in-river survival and ambient conditions. Analyses were conducted with and without attempts to adjust for smolt transportation at McNary Dam. Independent variables examined in the analysis included river flows, temperature, turbidity, and spill along with the total biomass of hatchery releases in the Columbia-Snake River Basin

  20. Influence of oceanographic features on the spatial and seasonal patterns of mesozooplankton in the southern Patagonian shelf (Argentina, SW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, M. E.; Reta, R.; Lutz, V. A.; Segura, V.; Daponte, C.

    2016-05-01

    Surveys conducted during spring, summer and late winter in 2005-2006 over the southern Patagonian shelf have allowed the seasonal distribution of mesozooplankton communities in relation to water masses and circulation to be investigated. In this system, most of the shelf is dominated by a distinct low salinity plume that is related to the runoff from the Magellan Strait (MSW), while the outer shelf is highly influenced by the cold and salty Subantarctic water (SAW) of the boundary Malvinas Current. Separating these two, the Subantarctic Shelf water mass (SASW) extends over the middle shelf. Correspondingly, the structure of the MSW and SAW mesozooplankton communities was found to be clearly different, while the former and the SASW assemblages were barely separable. This relatively fresh water mass is actually a variant of Subantarctic water that enters into the region from the south and the shelf-break, and hence its mesozooplankton community was not significantly different from that of the SAW water mass. Dissimilar species abundance, in turn associated with different life histories and population development, was more important than species composition in defining the assemblages. Total mesozooplankton abundance increased about 2.5-fold from the beginning of spring to late summer, and then decreased at least two orders of magnitude in winter. Across all seasons copepods represented > 70-80% of total mesozooplankton over most of the shelf. Copepod species best represented through all seasons, in terms of both relative abundance and occurrence, were Drepanopus forcipatus and Oithona helgolandica. Although seasonal differences in abundance were striking, the spatial distribution of mesozooplankton was largely similar across seasons, with relatively higher concentrations occurring mainly in Grande Bay and surroundings. The well defined spatial patterns of mesozooplankton that appear from our results in conjunction with the southward wide extension of the shelf and

  1. Phylogeography of the Patagonian otter Lontra provocax: adaptive divergence to marine habitat or signature of southern glacial refugia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehébar Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have described the extension of ice cover in western Patagonia during the Last Glacial Maximum, providing evidence of a complete cover of terrestrial habitat from 41°S to 56°S and two main refugia, one in south-eastern Tierra del Fuego and the other north of the Chiloé Island. However, recent evidence of high genetic diversity in Patagonian river species suggests the existence of aquatic refugia in this region. Here, we further test this hypothesis based on phylogeographic inferences from a semi-aquatic species that is a top predator of river and marine fauna, the huillín or Southern river otter (Lontra provocax. Results We examined mtDNA sequences of the control region, ND5 and Cytochrome-b (2151 bp in total in 75 samples of L. provocax from 21 locations in river and marine habitats. Phylogenetic analysis illustrates two main divergent clades for L. provocax in continental freshwater habitat. A highly diverse clade was represented by haplotypes from the marine habitat of the Southern Fjords and Channels (SFC region (43°38' to 53°08'S, whereas only one of these haplotypes was paraphyletic and associated with northern river haplotypes. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of the persistence of L. provocax in western Patagonia, south of the ice sheet limit, during last glacial maximum (41°S latitude. This limit also corresponds to a strong environmental change, which might have spurred L. provocax differentiation between the two environments.

  2. Tectonic evolution of the North Patagonian Andes (41°-44° S) through recognition of syntectonic strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaurren, A.; Folguera, A.; Gianni, G.; Orts, D.; Tassara, A.; Encinas, A.; Giménez, M.; Valencia, V.

    2016-05-01

    The North Patagonian fold-thrust belt (41°-44° S) is characterized by a low topography, reduced crustal thickness and a broad lateral development determined by a broken foreland system in the retroarc zone. This particular structural system has not been fully addressed in terms of the age and mechanisms that built this orogenic segment. Here, new field and seismic evidence of syntectonic strata constrain the timing of the main deformational stages, evaluating the prevailing crustal regime for the different mountain domains through time. Growth strata and progressive unconformities, controlled by extensional or compressive structures, were recognized in volcanic and sedimentary rocks from the cordilleran to the extra-Andean domain. These data were used to construct a balanced cross section, whose deep structure was investigated through a thermomechanical model that characterizes the upper plate rheology. Our results indicate two main compressive stages, interrupted by an extensional relaxation period. The first contractional stage in the mid-Cretaceous inverted Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous half graben systems, reactivating the western Cañadón Asfalto rift border ~ 500 km away from the trench, at a time of arc foreland expansion. For this stage, available thermochronological data reveal forearc cooling episodes, and global tectonic reconstructions indicate mid-ocean ridge collisions against the western edge of an upper plate with rapid trenchward displacement. Widespread synextensional volcanism is recognized throughout the Paleogene during plate reorganization; retroarc Paleocene--Eocene flare up activity is interpreted as product of a slab rollback, and fore-to-retroarc Oligocene slab/asthenospheric derived products as an expression of enhanced extension. The second stage of mountain growth occurred in Miocene time associated with Nazca Plate subduction, reaching nearly the same amplitude than the first compressive stage. Extensional weakening of the upper plate

  3. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian B Canales-Aguirre

    Full Text Available Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords, but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone, and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos. We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  4. Genetic Structure in a Small Pelagic Fish Coincides with a Marine Protected Area: Seascape Genetics in Patagonian Fjords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, Cristian B; Ferrada-Fuentes, Sandra; Galleguillos, Ricardo; Hernández, Cristián E

    2016-01-01

    Marine environmental variables can play an important role in promoting population genetic differentiation in marine organisms. Although fjord ecosystems have attracted much attention due to the great oscillation of environmental variables that produce heterogeneous habitats, species inhabiting this kind of ecosystem have received less attention. In this study, we used Sprattus fuegensis, a small pelagic species that populates the inner waters of the continental shelf, channels and fjords of Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, as a model species to test whether environmental variables of fjords relate to population genetic structure. A total of 282 individuals were analyzed from Chilean Patagonia with eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian and non-Bayesian analyses were conducted to describe the genetic variability of S. fuegensis and whether it shows spatial genetic structure. Results showed two well-differentiated genetic clusters along the Chilean Patagonia distribution (i.e. inside the embayment area called TicToc, and the rest of the fjords), but no spatial isolation by distance (IBD) pattern was found with a Mantel test analysis. Temperature and nitrate were correlated to the expected heterozygosities and explained the allelic frequency variation of data in the redundancy analyses. These results suggest that the singular genetic differences found in S. fuegensis from inside TicToc Bay (East of the Corcovado Gulf) are the result of larvae retention bya combination of oceanographic mesoscale processes (i.e. the west wind drift current reaches the continental shelf exactly in this zone), and the local geographical configuration (i.e. embayment area, islands, archipelagos). We propose that these features generated an isolated area in the Patagonian fjords that promoted genetic differentiation by drift and a singular biodiversity, adding support to the existence of the largest marine protected area (MPA) of continental Chile, which is the Tic-Toc MPA.

  5. Short-term variations in mesozooplankton, ichthyoplankton, and nutrients associated with semi-diurnal tides in a patagonian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L. R.; Cáceres, M. A.; Silva, N.; Muñoz, M. I.; León, R.; Landaeta, M. F.; Soto-Mendoza, S.

    2011-03-01

    The relationships between the distribution of different zooplankton and ichthyoplankton stages and physical and chemical variables were studied using samples and data (CTD profiles, ADCP and current meter measurements, nutrients, mesozooplankton, ichthyoplankton) obtained from different strata during two 24-h cycles at two oceanographic stations in a Chilean Patagonian gulf during the CIMAR 10-Fiordos cruise (November, 2004). A station located at the Chacao Channel was dominated by tidal mixing and small increments in surface stratification during high tides, leading to decreased nutrient availability. This agreed with short periods of increased phytoplankton abundance during slack waters at the end of flood currents. Increases in larval density for all zooplankton and ichthyoplankton taxa corresponded to the flooding phases of the tidal cycle. When the larval density data were fit to a sinusoidal model, the regression coefficients were high, suggesting that tides are important features that modulate short-term variations in plankton abundance. All larvae did not vary synchronously with the tidal phase; rather, time lags were observed among species. The abundances of older individuals of the copepodite Rhincalanus nasutus and all zoea stages of the squat lobster Munida gregaria increased during night flood tides, whereas younger stages increased during daytime flood tides. At a station located at the Queullin Pass, which was dominated by vertical stratification patterns, the variations in peak larval density were better fitted to the semi-diurnal sea level fluctuations. Other evidence indicated internal tides below the pycnocline, which could promote larval transport in deeper layers. In the overall picture that emerges from this study, planktonic organisms from different habitats and phylogenetic origins seem to respond to the local tidal regimes. In some cases, this response might be beneficial, transporting these individuals inshore to areas that are rich in

  6. Occurrence and levels of glyphosate and AMPA in shallow lakes from the Pampean and Patagonian regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Berman, M; Marino, D J G; Quiroga, María Victoria; Zagarese, Horacio

    2018-06-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds that compete with commercial crops. In Argentina, the use of glyphosate-based herbicides increased dramatically (up to ∼200,000 tons on 2012) since the introduction of glyphosate-resistant crops, such as transgenic soy and resistant corn, and the adoption of non-till practices in the 1990's. Sallow lakes within the Pampa region may be potentially impacted by continuous herbicide usage. We surveyed 52 shallow lakes from the Pampa region (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) to assess the occurrence and concentrations of glyphosate and its main degradation product (AMPA). For comparison, we also sampled 24 shallow lakes from an area with no agricultural use of glyphosate (Northern Patagonia). Glyphosate and AMPA were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS ESI (±) in lake water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment samples. Within the Pampa region, glyphosate residues were detected in >40% of samples. Glyphosate residues were detected more frequently in sediment and surface water than in SPM samples. The mean (maximum) concentrations of glyphosate were 2.11 (4.52) μg l -1 for surface water; 0.10 (0.13) μg l -1 for SPM and 10.47 (20.34) μg kg -1 for sediment samples, respectively. Whereas, mean (maximum) concentrations of AMPA were 0.84 and (0.90) μg l -1 for surface water; 0.07 (0.07) μg l -1 for SPM; and 22.53 (32.89) μg kg -1 for sediment samples. The herbicide was not detected in samples from the Patagonian region. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence and concentrations of the herbicide in freshwater lakes of Argentina. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  8. Use of AFLP and RAPD molecular genetic markers and cytogenetic analysis to explore relationships among taxa of the Patagonian Bromus setifolius complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bromus setifolius var. pictus (Hook Skottsb., B. setifolius var. setifolius Presl. and B. setifolius var. brevifolius Ness are three native Patagonian taxa in the section Pnigma Dumort of the genus Bromus L. AFLP and RAPD analysis, in conjunction with genetic distance measurements and statistical techniques, revealed variation within this group and indicated that B. setifolius var. brevifolius was closely related to B. setifolius var. pictus, with both taxa being more distantly related to B. setifolius var. setifolius. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the chromosomal number of B. setifolius var. pictus (2n = 70 and B. setifolius var. setifolius (2n = 28 and showed for the first time that B. setifolius var. brevifolius had 2n = 70. The combination of molecular genetic and cytogenetic evidence supported a species status for two of the three taxa and suggested hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of these complex taxa. Species status was also indicated for B. setifolius var. setifolius. Based on these findings, we suggest that B. setifolius var. pictus be referred to as B. pictus Hook var. pictus, and B. setifolius var brevifolius as B. pictus Hook var brevifolius. The correlation between AFLP diversity and variation in ecological parameters suggested that this marker system could be used to assess breeding progress and to monitor the domestication of Patagonian Bromus species for agronomic use.

  9. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  10. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  11. Synoptic oceanography of San Jorge Gulf (Argentina): A template for Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) spatial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glembocki, Nora Gabriela; Williams, Gabriela Noemí; Góngora, María Eva; Gagliardini, Domingo Antonio; Orensanz, José María (Lobo)

    2015-01-01

    An extensive series of high-resolution satellite images from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWIFS) was used in a synoptic oceanographic characterization of San Jorge Gulf (SJG, Argentine Patagonia), an area of great significance for marine conservation and commercial fishing. Remotely sensed information was combined with on-board observer's data and published information to investigate the role of distinctive oceanographic features in relation to the life cycle of the Patagonian red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri), main target of the industrial fleet in SJG. Three frontal systems-North, South and Outer SJG-are characterized. The North and South SJG fronts are associated with shrimp reproductive aggregations during late spring and summer. While both function as spawning/nursery grounds, they differ from each other in many respects. The thermohaline South SJG front has its maximum expression during the winter, reflecting the influence of the low-salinity Magellanic Plume, while the thermal North SJG front develops during spring and summer as the water column becomes stratified in the central basin of the gulf. Wind-related down-welling inshore of the front prevails in the North SJG, and upwelling in the South SJG frontal area. Chlorophyll a is concentrated near the thermocline on the stratified side of the North SJG, and for that reason, it is not detected by remote sensors during the spring bloom and the summer but becomes apparent offshore from the location of the front when the thermocline deepens during the fall (May). In the South SJG front, Chl-a concentration is apparent inshore from the front all year-round, related in part to upwelling-mediated resuspension. The northern end of the outer front coincides in time and space with a recurrent non-reproductive aggregation of red shrimp between November and January and is presumably related to foraging. It is argued that keeping the North and South

  12. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  13. Late cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the Patagonian Andes between 42oS and 52oS, southern Chile assessed using fission-track thermochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.N; Herve, F; Stockhert, B.; Brix, M.R.; Adriasola, A

    2001-01-01

    Fission-track (FT) analysis has been applied in the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile to assess the late Cenozoic geomorphic and tectonic response of the overriding plate to subduction of the Chile rise active oceanic spreading centre (Thomson et al., 2001). The timing and nature of tectonic uplift and denudation along the southern parts of the major transpression intra-arc Liquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) system have also been investigated (Thomson, 2001, submitted). Results from 130 FT ages (72 zircon and 58 apatite ages) and 39 apatite track length measurements reveal initiation of rapid cooling and denudation at ca. 30 Ma at the western margin of southern continental South America. This was followed by a ca. 200km eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation to the position of the present day topographic divide between ca. 30 Ma and ca. 12 to 10 Ma. East of the Andean divide less than 3 km of denudation has occurred since the Late Cretaceous. Enhanced denudation is interpreted to be the result of increased tectonic uplift driven by a large increase in convergence rates at ca. 28 to 26 Ma that triggered orographically enhanced precipitation on the west-side of the Patagonian Andes allowing increased erosion by fluvial incision and mass transport processes. The eastward migration of the locus of maximum denudation can be related to either coeval eastward migration of the retro-arc deformation front, the effects of subduction erosion in the overriding plate at the Peru-Chile trench or shallowing of the angle of subduction. Away from the influence of the LOF the process of spreading centre subduction and collision itself coincides with an overall slow-down in denudation rates in the overriding plate most likely caused by a major reduction in the main tectonic force driving tectonic uplift in the upper plate to subduction. In contrast to the Andes south of ca. 46 o S, increased cooling and denudation related to transpression induced rock uplift and erosion along

  14. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  15. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel CHILLÓN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  16. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Women in Bamenda : survival strategies and access to land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Adri van den

    1993-01-01

    This report is a historical-anthropological study of the survival strategies of urban women in the town of Bamenda in West Cameroon, insofar as they are related to changing access to land. The emphasis is on historical developments from the sixties on, a period in which the commercialization and

  18. A fuzzy multi-objective linear programming approach for integrated sheep farming and wildlife in land management decisions: a case study in the Patagonian rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metternicht, Graciela; Blanco, Paula; del Valle, Hector; Laterra, Pedro; Hardtke, Leonardo; Bouza, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Wildlife is part of the Patagonian rangelands sheep farming environment, with the potential of providing extra revenue to livestock owners. As sheep farming became less profitable, farmers and ranchers could focus on sustainable wildlife harvesting. It has been argued that sustainable wildlife harvesting is ecologically one of the most rational forms of land use because of its potential to provide multiple products of high value, while reducing pressure on ecosystems. The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is the most conspicuous wild ungulate of Patagonia. Guanaco ?bre, meat, pelts and hides are economically valuable and have the potential to be used within the present Patagonian context of production systems. Guanaco populations in South America, including Patagonia, have experienced a sustained decline. Causes for this decline are related to habitat alteration, competition for forage with sheep, and lack of reasonable management plans to develop livelihoods for ranchers. In this study we propose an approach to explicitly determinate optimal stocking rates based on trade-offs between guanaco density and livestock grazing intensity on rangelands. The focus of our research is on finding optimal sheep stocking rates at paddock level, to ensure the highest production outputs while: a) meeting requirements of sustainable conservation of guanacos over their minimum viable population; b) maximizing soil carbon sequestration, and c) minimizing soil erosion. In this way, determination of optimal stocking rate in rangelands becomes a multi-objective optimization problem that can be addressed using a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (MOLP) approach. Basically, this approach converts multi-objective problems into single-objective optimizations, by introducing a set of objective weights. Objectives are represented using fuzzy set theory and fuzzy memberships, enabling each objective function to adopt a value between 0 and 1. Each objective function indicates the satisfaction of

  19. Historical Dictionaries and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Resensies / Reviews. 309 ... and Historical Dictionary Research: Papers from the International ... "Cambridge, Trinity College Library MS 0.5.4: A Fifteenth-century ... There are among others ten types of manuscript collections that need attention, ..... The collection is rounded off by a selective index, supplementing the Table.

  20. Preliminary study of the effects of gamma radiation on freshness parameters of the 'H and G' portion of Patagonian tooth fish (Dissostichus eleginoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principe, F.; Andreucetti, N.A.; Croci, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to know the influence of gamma radiation ((1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 kGy ) over the average storage lifetime at -18 C degrees of the 'H and G' portion of Patagonian tooth fish in terms of freshness chemical parameters and certain organoleptic characteristics. In the post-irradiation short-term (90 day storage) the evolution was investigated regarding the following items: tissue pH, lipid oxidation regarding TBA index, and the basic volatile nitrogen. In reference to organoleptic quality, smell and taste were evaluated, under raw and cooked conditions. The aqueous extract pH of the 'H and G' was identical (p>0.7) for irradiated and non irradiated tissues during storage at -18 C degrees. The value of pH=7 remained almost constant during the 90 control days, both in the irradiated tissues as in the non-irradiated ones. The TBA index behaviour was similar (p>0.10) in the irradiated and non-irradiated samples throughout time. TBA values for control samples ranged from 4.5 and 5.6; and for irradiated, between 4.5 and 6.2 micro moles of tissue MA/Kg. The NBV values were not affected by the radiation doses applied (p>0.65). However, in every treatment (included the control one) a significant decrease was detected in NBV (p<0.05) from 17.3 to 14.0 mg of tissue N/100 g. Regarding smell and taste of the raw and cooked samples, all qualifications were between good and very good. Although no statistically relevant differences were detected, neither by the radiation dose applied nor by the storage time, the irradiated samples with 5.0 kGy showed a slight change in the typical taste. Based on the data obtained in this study, it can be stated that: a) Patagonian tooth fish in its H and G presentation kept at -18 C degrees shows an optimum commercial quality at least during 90 day storage. b) Ionizing radiation treatment at the doses employed had no adverse effects on the species quality under the experimental conditions used. c) This work is a useful basis for

  1. Lagos Historical Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lagos Historical Review is an international and interdisciplinary journal publishing papers with a historical focus. The journal generates and participates in debates to advance the discipline of history and promote its relevance to development. The journal aims to serve the academic community with a bias towards ...

  2. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, B.

    1993-01-01

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  4. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  5. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  6. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  7. Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo

    2014-12-01

    We estimated Si∗, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si∗ and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

  8. First report on the contribution of small-sized species to the copepod community structure of the southern Patagonian shelf (Argentina, 47-55°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Carolina Antacli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The copepod community structure, with special emphasis on small-sized species, was studied over the southern Patagonian shelf in late summer 2004, applying the first plankton sampling in the region with a fine-mesh (66 μm net. The key role of the copepods Drepanopus forcipatus and Calanus australis was confirmed, but also the high abundance and frequency of occurrence of the microcopepods Oithona helgolandica and Microsetella norvegica and of the medium-sized copepod Ctenocalanus vanus were revealed. Copepod community structure was nearly homogenous over the entire study area. Drepanopus forcipatus, O. helgolandica and M. norvegica were identified as the typical species of the region, although secondarily C. australis and Oithona atlantica also contributed significantly to community similarity across the area. The study of interspecific relationships of dominant copepods indicated that D. forcipatus and C. australis were associated positively with O. helgolandica, while C. vanus, and M. norvegica constituted a separate assemblage with Clausocalanus brevipes and O. atlantica. The importance of fine-mesh-size nets for collecting the smaller size fractions of mesozooplankton and for accurately portraying the mesozooplankton assemblage structure in the area is stressed by this study.

  9. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    1977-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  10. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  11. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  12. VT Roadside Historic Markers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Roadside Historic Site Marker program has proven an effective way to commemorate Vermont’s many people, events, and places of regional, statewide, or national...

  13. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  14. Biblical Interpretation Beyond Historicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biblical Interpretation beyond Historicity evaluates the new perspectives that have emerged since the crisis over historicity in the 1970s and 80s in the field of biblical scholarship. Several new studies in the field, as well as the ‘deconstructive’ side of literary criticism that emerged from...... writers such as Derrida and Wittgenstein, among others, lead biblical scholars today to view the texts of the Bible more as literary narratives than as sources for a history of Israel. Increased interest in archaeological and anthropological studies in writing the history of Palestine and the ancient Near...... and the commitment to a new approach to both the history of Palestine and the Bible’s place in ancient history. This volume features essays from a range of highly regarded scholars, and is divided into three sections: “Beyond Historicity”, which explores alternative historical roles for the Bible, “Greek Connections...

  15. Trace-element and Sr, Nd, Pb, and O isotopic composition of Pliocene and Quaternary alkali basalts of the Patagonian Plateau lavas of southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C.R.; Frey, F.A.; Futa, K.; Zartman, R.E.; Peng, Z.; Kurtis, Kyser T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pliocene and Quaternary Patagonian alkali basalts of southernmost South America can be divided into two groups. The "cratonic" basalts erupted in areas of Cenozoic plateau volcanism and continental sedimentation and show considerable variation in 87Sr/86Sr (0.70316 to 0.70512), 143Nd/144Nd (e{open}Nd) and 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios (18.26 to 19.38, 15.53 to 15.68, and 38.30 to 39.23, respectively). These isotopic values are within the range of oceanic island basalts, as are the Ba/La, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, K/Rb, and Cs/Rb ratios of the "cratonic" basalts. In contrast, the "transitional" basalts, erupted along the western edge of the outcrop belt of the Pliocene and Quaternary plateau lavas in areas that were the locus of earlier Cenozoic Andean orogenic arc colcanism, have a much more restricted range of isotopic composition which can be approximated by 87Sr/86Sr=0.7039??0.0004, e{open}Nd, 206Pb/204Pb=18.60??0.08, 207Pb/204Pb=15.60??0.01, and 208Pb/204Pb=38.50??0.10. These isotopic values are similar to those of Andean orogenic are basalts and, compared to the "cratonic" basalts, are displaced to higher 87Sr/86Sr at a given 143Nd/144Nd and to higher 207Pb/204Pb at a given 208Pb/204Pb. The "transitional" basalts also have Ba/La, Ba/Nb, La/Nb, and Cs/Rb ratios higher than the "cratonic" and oceanic island basalts, although not as high as Andean orogenic are basalts. In contrast to the radiogenic isotopes, ??18O values for both groups of the Patagonian alkali basalts are indistinguishable and are more restricted than the range reported for Andean orogenic are basalts. Whole rock ??18O values calculated from mineral separates for both groups range from 5.3 to 6.5, while measured whole rock ??18O values range from 5.1 to 7.8. The trace element and isotopic data suggest that decreasing degrees of partial melting in association with lessened significance of subducted slabderived components are fundamental factors in the west to east transition from arc

  16. Genetic variation in seedling water-use efficiency of Patagonian Cypress populations from contrasting precipitation regimes assessed through carbon isotope discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorino, M. J.; Aparicio, A. G.; Marchelli, P.; Gallo, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a physiological parameter that plays a significant role in the evolutionary dynamics of many forest tree species. It can be estimated indirectly through carbon isotope discrimination (A). In general, plants of more arid origins have lower values of A. In order to study the degree of genetic control of this parameter and the genetic variation in A of Patagonian Cypress seedlings, three Argentinean natural populations chosen to represent two contrasting precipitation regimes were sampled in a common garden trial. The dry situation was represented by two neighboring marginal forest patches from the steppe, while the humid condition was represented by a population with 1,200 mm higher mean annual precipitation. Height (H) and A were measured in 246 five-year-old seedlings from 41 open-pollinated families. The factor family had a significant effect on both variables; however heritability for A was found not to be significant in two out of the three populations. This could be explained by low sample size in one of them and by a real evolutionary effect in the other. An inverse association between H and A was verified, which is interpreted as evidence of an adaptation process at the intra-population level. The studied populations were not shown to discriminate carbon isotopes differently; hence evidence of adaptation to current environmental conditions could not be obtained. On the other hand, the arid populations proved to be quite different in terms of genetic variation, which seems to be the consequence of genetic drift and isolation. (Author) 49 refs.

  17. The survival and return of institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardiancich, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Opening a new phase in historical institutionalism, Wolfgang Streeck and Kathleen Thelen show how a rigid dichotomy between incremental adaptation and radical transformation fails to capture important transformative processes common to advanced political economies. While their research focuses...... on gradual but radical transformation, the two authors leave open the interpretation of what constitutes abrupt, but only limited change. This article integrates their framework, defines what they call survival and return, and, within this genus, indicates two analytically distinct species: replication...

  18. Born in Auschwitz and Survived: A Triumph Over Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M; Kwiet, Konrad

    2018-04-01

    The discovery of Jewish babies who were born in Nazi concentration camps and survived seems miraculous, but this phenomenon did occur toward the end of World War II. The lives of a small group of mothers and surviving children are of both historical and medical interests. Their survival shows additional support for the hypothesis that maternal nutrition can induce metabolic syndrome and bone demineralization in their offspring. Information obtained through direct contact with some of the surviving children is the basis for this article.

  19. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  20. Historical Collage Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  1. Historical centres: changing definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lazzarotti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War, the architectural and planning culture has been showing a fluctuating attention to the theme of historical centres and their enhancement. First of all this uneven progress explains the difficulty to reach a homogeneous definition and this is still lacking. During a long phase of this period, the historical parts of the town were considered as objects to be preserved in an integral way, as urban monuments. This is mostly due to the high symbolic value of these settlements, that represent fundamental landmarks. Identity building and empowerment of local communities are indispensable conditions for any development programme, especially in the case of centres or other historic environments at risk of abandonment. The progressive evolution of this concept brings awareness of the impossibility of separating – either in analytical or in planning terms ­ historical centres from their urban and territorial contexts, which are linked by mutual, deep relationships. This article attempts to retrace the steps signaled by the publication of international documents and conventions, from the Charter of Gubbio (1960 to the Charter of Krakow and the European Landscape Convention (2000; they obviously represent particular points of view, not exhaustive of the richness of the positions in the debate, but extremely significant in terms of diffusion and consensus.

  2. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1992-01-01

    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  3. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  4. A historical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Scurlock; Deborah M. Finch

    1997-01-01

    This chapter reviews the historical: 1) occupancy, use of and impacts on ponderosa pine forests by early American Indians and European settlers; and 2) the human use of and impacts on birds in ponderosa pine forests. Contemporary ecology and human use of ponderosa pine forests are described in this publication by Moir et al. and Raish et al. Recent human impacts on...

  5. Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8 {+-} 10.9 thousand tons y{sup -1}. The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tons y{sup -1}, respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp Gulls have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101 000 and 209 000 Kelp Gulls. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management.

  6. Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8 ± 10.9 thousand tons y -1 . The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tons y -1 , respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp Gulls have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101 000 and 209 000 Kelp Gulls. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management

  7. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  8. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.; Atchinson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  9. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  10. Historic timber roof structures

    OpenAIRE

    Magina, Miguel Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Estruturas e Geotecnia This dissertation covers the study of historic timber roof structures in Transylvania area - Romania, the structures type, its elements and connection variety between them. Procedures to study a structure of this category are approached. It is also referred semi and non-destructive tests that can be done to better understand the present wood characteristics, and potential reparation or strengthening...

  11. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  12. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  13. ACHP | Tribal Historic Preservation Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    preservation of significant historic properties. Those functions include identifying and maintaining Working with Section 106 Federal, State, & Tribal Programs Training & Education Publications Search skip specific nav links Home arrow Historic Preservation Programs & Officers arrow THPOs

  14. USGS Historical Topographic Map Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Historical Quadrangle in GeoPDF. The USGS Historical Quadrangle Scanning Project (HQSP) is scanning all scales and all editions of topographic maps published by...

  15. Land-ocean gradient in haline stratification and its effects on plankton dynamics and trophic carbon fluxes in Chilean Patagonian fjords (47-50°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, H. E.; Castro, L. R.; Daneri, G.; Iriarte, J. L.; Silva, N.; Tapia, F.; Teca, E.; Vargas, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Patagonian fjord systems, and in particular the fjords and channels associated with the Baker/Pascua Rivers, are currently under conspicuous natural and anthropogenic perturbations. These systems display very high variability, where limnetic and oceanic features overlap generating strong vertical and horizontal physicochemical gradients. The CIMAR 14-Fiordos cruise was conducted in the Chilean fjords located between 47° and 50°S during the spring (October-November) of 2008. The main objectives were to study vertical and horizontal gradients in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water column, and to assess plankton dynamics and trophic carbon fluxes in the fjords and channels of central-south Patagonia. The water column was strongly stratified, with a pycnocline at ca. 20 m depth separating a surface layer of silicic acid-rich freshwater discharged by rivers, from the underlying nitrate- and orthophosphate-rich Subantarctic waters. The outflows from the Baker and Pascua Rivers, which range annually between 500 and 1500 m3 s-1, generate the strong land-ocean gradient in salinity (1-32 psu) and inorganic nutrient concentrations (2-8 and 2-24 μM in nitrate and silicic-acid, respectively) we observed along the Baker Fjord. The POC:chl-a ratio fluctuated from 1087 near the fjord’s head to 175 at its oceanic end in the Penas Gulf. This change was mainly due to an increase in diatom dominance and a concurrent decrease in allochthonous POC towards the ocean. Depth-integrated net primary production (NPP) and bacterial secondary production (BSP) fluctuated between 49 and 1215 and 36 and 150 mg C m-2 d-1, respectively, with higher rates in oceanic waters. At a time series station located close to the Baker River mouth, the average NPP was lower (average 360 mg C m-2 d-1) than at more oceanic stations (average 1063 mg C m-2 d-1), and numerically dominated (45%) by the picoplankton (food web is the main trophic pathway in these environments.

  16. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  17. Reductions of plant cover induced by sheep grazing change the above-belowground partition and chemistry of organic C stocks in arid rangelands of Patagonian Monte, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larreguy, C; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the size and chemical quality of the total organic C stock and its partition between above-belowground plant parts and soil at sites with different plant cover induced by sheep grazing in the arid Patagonian Monte. This study was conducted at six representative sites with increasing signs of canopy disturbance attributed to grazing pressure. We used faeces density as a proxy of grazing pressure at each site. We assessed the total plant cover, shrub and perennial grass cover, total standing aboveground biomass (AGB), litter mass and belowground biomass (BGB) at each site. We further estimated the content of organic C, lignin and soluble phenols in plant compartments and the content of organic C, organic C in humic substances (recalcitrant C) and water soluble C (labile C) in soil at each site. Total plant cover was significantly related to grazing pressure. Standing AGB and litter mass decreased with increasing canopy disturbance while BGB did not vary across sites. Total organic C stock and the organic C stock in standing AGB increased with increasing total plant, shrub, and perennial grass cover. The organic C stock in litter mass increased with increasing total plant and shrub cover, while the organic C stock in BGB did not vary across sites. Lignin content in plant compartments increased with increasing total and shrub cover, while soluble phenols content did not change across sites. The organic C stock and the water soluble C content in soil were positively associated with perennial grass cover. Changes in total plant cover induced by grazing pressure negatively affected the size of the total organic C stock, having minor impact on the size of belowground than aboveground components. The reduction of perennial grass cover was reflected in decreasing chemical quality of the organic C stock in soil. Accordingly, plant managerial strategies should not only be focused on the amount of organic C sequestered but also on the

  18. Intermediate Genre Study. Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan; Lasky, Kathryn

    1996-01-01

    Students can learn to appreciate history as readers and writers of historical fiction. This section presents an introduction to historical fiction, a display idea, a mystery history game, discussion of character-building, charts for students to fill in with information on historical characters, suggestions for customizing writing centers and for…

  19. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  20. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  1. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  2. Retrieving Historical Electrorefining Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Meagan Daniella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Pyrochemical Operations began at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during 1962 (1). Electrorefining (ER) has been implemented as a routine process since the 1980’s. The process data that went through the ER operation was recorded but had never been logged in an online database. Without a database new staff members are hindered in their work by the lack of information. To combat the issue a database in Access was created to collect the historical data. The years from 2000 onward were entered and queries were created to analyze trends. These trends will aid engineering and operations staff to reach optimal performance for the startup of the new lines.

  3. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that have...... ever appeared in the warehouse), the size of the portion of the data warehouse history needed to answer the queries is also bounded by a function of the active data do-main size and therefore does not depend on the age of the warehouse (the length of the history)....

  4. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  5. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  6. Survival predictors in paraquat intoxification and role of immunosuppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng-Hee Koh

    2014-01-01

    In contrast, there was no difference in survival with immunosuppression regime (38 out of 64 patients (59.4% compared to historical control (30 out of 52 patients (57.7% (p = 0.885 in those with eGFR > 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 or WBC 11,000/μL.

  7. Critique of historical reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Richardson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El enfoque aquí desarrollado presupone una nueva visión del mundo civilizado (Weltanschauungen. La idea del historiador de los hechos históricos presupone una visión global del mundo, a excepción de las sociedades que carecen de un lenguaje escrito. Por eso, la razón histórica discutida aquí se limita al tipo de historia que trata de civilizaciones más elevadas. El análisis de visiones del mundo aquí utilizado presupone que los símbolos son muy importantes y que pierden su poder simbólico si se cristalizan en un único sentido. Como en la teoría de Jung, un símbolo tiene la capacidad de estar activo en la mente como un transformador de la conciencia, libre de asociarse con nuevas experiencias y pensamientos. Esta teoría presta especial atención al problema de Dilthey: es decir, el problema de la calidad racional de los hechos históricos. Las visiones del mundo, que dan un significado profundo a muchos hechos históricos, se componen de símbolos y metáforas, incluyendo ideas, imágenes, valores y emociones. Estos tipos de visiones son casi todos instintivos. Es cierto que los historiadores pueden haber formulado, consciente definiciones de estos tipos de visiones del mundo así como ocurrió por las civilizaciones griega y china. Dado que la actual Weltbilt es mucho más compleja e inconsciente, se necesita algo más que una definición lógica para entenderla. Este artículo indica la forma en que puede ser alcanzada una comprensión racional de estas visiones del mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The approach here entertained presupposes a fresh theory of world pictures (Weltanschauungen of higher civilizations. For the historian's idea of historical facts presupposes a world picture, except for societies which lack a written language. That is why the historical reason discussed here is limited to the kind of history which deals with higher civilizations. The analysis of world pictures used here itself presupposes that symbols are

  8. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  9. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  10. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  11. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  12. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  13. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  15. Historical consciousness - Contemporary history and the problem of historical perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hollander, JC

    2002-01-01

    Historical consciousness is an elusive concept, as long as we try to understand it from the narrow perspective of professional historians. Therefore, a wider perspective is needed. If we accept that historical understanding has become a general trait of modern culture, we may try to explain it in

  16. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  17. Matthew Jones House: Historic Maintenance and Repair Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    results to be of value. • Sandblasting brick or stone surfaces using dry or wet grit or other abrasives. These methods of cleaning permanently erode...is any possibility of freezing temperatures. • Cleaning with chemical products that will damage masonry, such as using acid on limestone or marble ...features when there are surviving proto- types such as terra cotta brackets or stone balusters. • Applying new or non-historic surface treatments

  18. Changing Pattern in Malignant Mesothelioma Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Faig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival for mesothelioma has been shown to be poor, with marginal improvement over time. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of mesothelioma may impact therapy to improve survival that may not be evident from available clinical trials that are often small and not randomized. Therapies may affect survival differently based on mesothelioma location (pleural vs peritoneal. Data are conflicting regarding the effect of asbestos exposure on mesothelioma location. OBJECTIVES: We examined survival in a large cohort of mesothelioma subjects analyzed by tumor location and presence and mode of asbestos exposure. METHODS: Data were analyzed from cases (n = 380 diagnosed with mesothelioma from 1992 to 2012. Cases were either drawn from treatment referrals, independent medical evaluation for medical legal purposes, or volunteers who were diagnosed with mesothelioma. Subjects completed an occupational medical questionnaire, personal interview with the examining physician, and physician review of the medical record. RESULTS: This study reports better survival for mesothelioma than historical reports. Survival for peritoneal mesothelioma was longer than that for pleural mesothelioma (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.54, P < .001 after adjusting for gender and age at diagnosis. Non-occupational cases were more likely to be 1 diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, 2 female, 3 exposed, and 4 diagnosed at a younger age and to have a 5 shorter latency compared to occupational cases (P < .001. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal mesothelioma was more likely associated with non-occupational exposure, thus emphasizing the importance of exposure history in enhancing early diagnosis and treatment impact.

  19. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF PHALLOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kyzlasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the penis in transgender operations, amputation of the penis, congenital deformities and anomalies of the penis was and remains today an important issue in plastic surgery of the urogenital region. The only method to restore the penis is phalloplasty. In general, over the past decades, generations of clinicians have different ways and flaps for total fallouretheral reconstruction. Thus was formulated the characteristics of an ideal flap for the formation of neophallos, which should be safe, sensitive, without hair, and with long leg. However, despite the fact that the characteristics of a perfect flap, nowadays there is no “gold standard” in the formation of neophallos, as phalloplasty is a fairly complicated surgery, and the choice of method depends on many factors. The choice of methodology is determined by the plastics surgeon and to each patient is individual, depends on the etiology of the disease and the possibility of choosing the form of the donor’s transplant. This article presents a literature review devoted to the historical aspects of phalloplasty. In the article, in chronological order reflected the evolution of the different forming methods neofallos, phallourethrоplasty, describes their advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  1. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat

  2. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashkpour, Ashkan; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Mandemakers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    Historical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  3. The Aggregate Dutch Historical Censuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ashkpour (Ashkan); A. Meronõ-Peñuela (Albert); C.A. Mandemakers (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHistorical censuses have an enormous potential for research. In order to fully use this potential, harmonization of these censuses is essential. During the last decades, enormous efforts have been undertaken in digitizing the published aggregated outcomes of the Dutch historical censuses

  4. The Return of Historical Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycik, Mary Taylor; Rosler, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Recently, historical fiction has begun to dominate major children's book awards. This article describes the values of using high-quality historical fiction in the classroom and presents different ways to respond to this genre including using modern technology. Two tables, one of picture books and one of novels, with paired nonfiction texts, are…

  5. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer using a Random Survival Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Davoud; Abbasgholizadeh, Nategh; Abazari, Malek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third top cause of cancer related death with about 1 million new cases and 700,000 deaths in 2012. The aim of this investigation was to identify important factors for outcome using a random survival forest (RSF) approach. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 128 gastric cancer patients through a historical cohort study in Hamedan-Iran from 2007 to 2013. The event under consideration was death due to gastric cancer. The random survival forest model in R software was applied to determine the key factors affecting survival. Four split criteria were used to determine importance of the variables in the model including log-rank, conversation?? of events, log-rank score, and randomization. Efficiency of the model was confirmed in terms of Harrell’s concordance index. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 63 ±12.57 and mean and median survival times were 15.2 (95%CI: 13.3, 17.0) and 12.3 (95%CI: 11.0, 13.4) months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, and three-year rates for survival were 51%, 13%, and 5%, respectively. Each RSF approach showed a slightly different ranking order. Very important covariates in nearly all the 4 RSF approaches were metastatic status, age at diagnosis and tumor size. The performance of each RSF approach was in the range of 0.29-0.32 and the best error rate was obtained by the log-rank splitting rule; second, third, and fourth ranks were log-rank score, conservation of events, and the random splitting rule, respectively. Conclusion: Low survival rate of gastric cancer patients is an indication of absence of a screening program for early diagnosis of the disease. Timely diagnosis in early phases increases survival and decreases mortality. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  7. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  8. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  9. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  10. Christoph Hein's Horns Ende. Historical Revisionism: A Process of Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Bulmahn

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available In light of recent developments, the historical record of the German Democratic Republic will be closely reexamined as the two Germanies merge into one country. Christoph Hein's novel Horns Ende undoubtedly will play a role in the debate about the GDR past, because it is a clear repudiation of official historical mythmaking. The novel examines in detail the political and social fiber of a small town in the GDR during the fifties. Horn returns to the town some thirty years after his death, and entices the townspeople to recount their lives during the early years of the socialist republic. These recollections initiate a dialogue between author, reader and the townspeople. The outcome of these exchanges is a skillful dissection of the effects of Stalinism on ordinary citizens, and it revises perceptions of a period in GDR history that officially had been touted as politically and socially harmonious. Hein challenges the reader to reconstruct a historical record that more closely reflects the experiences of ordinary people, and in doing so he exposes past official historical mythmaking. He is convinced that a society's survival is dependent upon the accuracy of its history; historical revision therefore must not be left to those in power.

  11. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    findings for Austro-German (linear increase, Adj. R2 = .489, F(1, 19) = 20.138, p analysis, we provide quantitative support for music-historical accounts of an Italian-dominated Baroque (composer birth years 1600...

  12. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  13. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  14. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  15. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism – particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann – stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  16. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  17. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  18. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  19. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  20. Breast cancer data analysis for survivability studies and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Win, Khin Than; Yang, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. Breast cancer survivability prediction is challenging and a complex research task. Existing approaches engage statistical methods or supervised machine learning to assess/predict the survival prospects of patients. The main objectives of this paper is to develop a robust data analytical model which can assist in (i) a better understanding of breast cancer survivability in presence of missing data, (ii) providing better insights into factors associated with patient survivability, and (iii) establishing cohorts of patients that share similar properties. Unsupervised data mining methods viz. the self-organising map (SOM) and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is used to create patient cohort clusters. These clusters, with associated patterns, were used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP) model for improved patient survivability analysis. A large dataset available from SEER program is used in this study to identify patterns associated with the survivability of breast cancer patients. Information gain was computed for the purpose of variable selection. All of these methods are data-driven and require little (if any) input from users or experts. SOM consolidated patients into cohorts of patients with similar properties. From this, DBSCAN identified and extracted nine cohorts (clusters). It is found that patients in each of the nine clusters have different survivability time. The separation of patients into clusters improved the overall survival prediction accuracy based on MLP and revealed intricate conditions that affect the accuracy of a prediction. A new, entirely data driven approach based on unsupervised learning methods improves understanding and helps identify patterns associated with the survivability of patient. The results of the analysis can be used to segment the historical patient data into clusters or subsets, which share common variable values and

  1. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  2. Historical earthquake research in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Christa

    2017-12-01

    Austria has a moderate seismicity, and on average the population feels 40 earthquakes per year or approximately three earthquakes per month. A severe earthquake with light building damage is expected roughly every 2 to 3 years in Austria. Severe damage to buildings ( I 0 > 8° EMS) occurs significantly less frequently, the average period of recurrence is about 75 years. For this reason the historical earthquake research has been of special importance in Austria. The interest in historical earthquakes in the past in the Austro-Hungarian Empire is outlined, beginning with an initiative of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the development of historical earthquake research as an independent research field after the 1978 "Zwentendorf plebiscite" on whether the nuclear power plant will start up. The applied methods are introduced briefly along with the most important studies and last but not least as an example of a recently carried out case study, one of the strongest past earthquakes in Austria, the earthquake of 17 July 1670, is presented. The research into historical earthquakes in Austria concentrates on seismic events of the pre-instrumental period. The investigations are not only of historical interest, but also contribute to the completeness and correctness of the Austrian earthquake catalogue, which is the basis for seismic hazard analysis and as such benefits the public, communities, civil engineers, architects, civil protection, and many others.

  3. By-catch composition of the Patagonian scallop fishery: the fishes Composición de la captura incidental en la pesquería de vieira patagónica: los peces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schejter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of 24 fish species incidentally caught by the Patagonian scallop fleet in the SW Atlantic Ocean is provided for the first time. The most frequent species were Psammobatis spp. (81.4%, Bathyraja brachyurops (75.1%, B. macloviana (73.5%, Patagonotothen ramsayi (66.1%, Merluccius hubbsi (53.7% and B. albomaculata (50.3%. Many of the recorded chondrichthyes are considered vulnerable or endangered species. The number of taxa (fishes + invertebrates that conforms the by-catch of the fishery was increased and updated to nearly 200 species.Este estudio presenta por primera vez un inventario con 24 especies de peces registradas en la captura incidental de la pesca de la vieira patagónica en el Océano Atlántico sudoccidental por la flota pesquera comercial. Las especies más frecuentes fueron Psammobatis spp. (81,4%, Bathyraja brachyurops (75,1%, B. macloviana (73,5%, Patagonotothen ramsayi (66,1%, Merluccius hubbsi (53,7% y B. albomaculata (50,3%. Muchos de los condrictios registrados se encuentran actualmente considerados como especies vulnerables o en peligro. El número de taxa (peces + invertebrados que conforman la captura incidental de esta pesquería se incrementó y actualizó con estos resultados a aproximadamente 200 especies.

  4. 32 CFR 174.18 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 174.18 Section 174.18... Historic preservation. (a) The transfer, lease, or sale of National Register-eligible historic property to... the regulations implementing the National Historic Preservation Act (36 CFR 800.5(a)(2)(vii)). One way...

  5. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  6. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  7. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  8. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  9. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  10. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  11. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  12. The dental calculus metabolome in modern and historic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velsko, Irina M.; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Speller, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dental calculus is a mineralized microbial dental plaque biofilm that forms throughout life by precipitation of salivary calcium salts. Successive cycles of dental plaque growth and calcification make it an unusually well-preserved, long-term record of host-microbial interaction...... in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens. Objective: We...... present the first comprehensive characterization of the human dental calculus metabolome using a multi-platform approach. Methods: Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) quantified 285 metabolites in modern and historic (200 years old) dental calculus, including...

  13. READING THE PSALMS HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach. The Alexandrians tried to solve the problem of the interpretation .... classified the psalms in four groups, namely historical, prophetical and ethical, as well as .... This is the case, he says ..... H.W. Havelaar & L. Teugels (eds.), The use ...

  14. Modern Time as Historical Artifact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Explores different aspects of how Americans have understood and used time since the late eighteenth century through the historical transition that has led to the present 24/7 world, where time-keeping is built into a myriad of devices that record and to some degree direct our actions....

  15. The Structure of Historical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2017-01-01

    History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…

  16. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  17. Inter-Division IV-V-IX / Working Group Historic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Davies, Rodney D.; Débarbat, Suzanne V.; Morimoto, Masaki; Slysh, Slava; Swarup, Govind; van Woerden, Hugo; Wall, Jasper V.; Wielebinski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Working Group was formed at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, as a joint initiative of Commissions 40 Radio Astronomy and Commission 41 History of Astronomy, in order to assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and associated instrumentation found

  18. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012." DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  19. Surviving Sepsis Campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhodes, Andrew; Evans, Laura E; Alhazzani, Waleed

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update to "Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012". DESIGN: A consensus committee of 55 international experts representing 25 international organizations was convened. Nominal groups were assembled at key international meetings...... (for those committee members attending the conference). A formal conflict-of-interest (COI) policy was developed at the onset of the process and enforced throughout. A stand-alone meeting was held for all panel members in December 2015. Teleconferences and electronic-based discussion among subgroups......, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low...

  20. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    and that suicide has become a subject of research, prevention and treatment. Auxiliary Strategies In the 1990s there have been established the Centre for Suicide Research and the Centre for Prevention of Suicide in Denmark and there has been drafted a national policy document which focuses on the need......We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  1. Information field for historical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatets, Yu. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main information collision of historical knowledge, which consists in physical inaccessibility of events and phenomena of the past as an object of historical science for a historian as an investigator. The aim of the research is to formulate and discuss a working hypothesis about the information field of historical science. The article provides an analytical background on the main ideas and approaches in the field of modern information field theory. The author carries out the projection of the main provisions of the information field theory on historical research. It is shown that the information field is a really existing information carrier that provides its acquisition, transportation, storage and visualization, as well as provides information and knowledge recorded in various forms, realizes cultural communications. One of the manifestations of such a culture is the sign systems, which determine certain contexts. Signs are characterized by polysemy. Despite artificial origin, semiotic reality is objective. Simultaneously, signs provide intellectual activity of people. Mental signs in the historical process of use by society acquire additional meanings, generating new symbols. Polysemy shapes the problem of epistemological uncertainty of two stages – identifying the problem and solving it. Historians as researchers resort to cognitive models, which, thanks to the translational function, ensure the transfer of information from the known to the unknown. One of the explanations of polysemy is the theory of conceptual integration, according to which the structures of the original mental spaces are projected onto a new, constructed, mental space – blend. This is the result of a personʼs intellectual ability to create new meanings on the basis of the available ones. Since signs and symbols are multi-valued, they form a multiplicity of retrospective scenarios of historical research at the stage of problem formulation

  2. 75 FR 6406 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... County Asbury Grove Historic District, Around Asbury St., Hamilton, 09000935, Listed, 11/18/09 Middlesex County Middlesex Canal Historic and Archaeological District, Address Restricted, Boston vicinity...

  3. 75 FR 1075 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: January 4, 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks... VIRGINIA Logan County Blair Mountain Battlefield, Address Restricted, Logan vicinity, 08000496, REMOVED...

  4. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  5. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments of its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant; still within the broad studies in the subject it is not yet recognised, in particular within the seismic area, a unitary approach to deal with Masonry structures. This successful book contributes to clarify the issues with a rigorous approach offering a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. This third edition has been driven by some recent developments of the research in the field, and it gives the fundamentals of Statics with an original and rigorous mathematical formulation, further in-depth inquired in this new version. With many refinements and improvements, the book investigates the static behaviour of many historic monuments, such as the Gothic Cathedrals, the Mycenaean Tholoi, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, the dome...

  6. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  7. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  8. Historical overview of immunological tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ronald H

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental property of the immune system is its ability to mediate self-defense with a minimal amount of collateral damage to the host. The system uses several different mechanisms to achieve this goal, which is collectively referred to as the "process of immunological tolerance." This article provides an introductory historical overview to these various mechanisms, which are discussed in greater detail throughout this collection, and then briefly describes what happens when this process fails, a state referred to as "autoimmunity."

  9. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  10. Historical spaces of social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...

  11. HARMONIZATION, HISTORICAL COST AND INVESTMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2016-01-01

    Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firm...

  12. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  13. Mind's historicity: its hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarroso, Noemí

    2013-02-01

    Whereas psychological research can hardly accept the idea of a changing psychological architecture, mind's historicity seems to be commonplace among historians of psychology, at least in recent decades. Attempts to promote a convergence between psychology and history have always existed, though mainly in the margins of both disciplines. Among these attempts, there is a tradition in French psychology that remains quite marginal even to the history of the discipline and is practically unknown out of the French context. Our goal is to introduce this approach, through the work of its main architect, Ignace Meyerson, to an English speaking reader, in the light of current pleas for historicity. Developed within the core of the discipline of psychology, though in dialogue with many others disciplines, Meyerson's historical psychology appears to be more ambitious than other attempts, as it aims at studying psychological activity itself, beyond the history of its conceptualizations. It is concerned not with the analysis of fragmented, isolated, and mechanistic behaviors or cognitive process, but with the study of mind in its functioning through the multiple and changing fields of experience where human beings are involved.

  14. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources. PMID:28408774

  15. Network survivability performance (computer diskette)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    File characteristics: Data file; 1 file. Physical description: 1 computer diskette; 3 1/2 in.; high density; 2.0MB. System requirements: Mac; Word. This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunication networks to user expectations for network survivability.

  16. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.

    2003-08-01

    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used to explain the peculiar geochemical features (e.g. the mild alkalinity and relatively low ratios between large ion lithophile and high field strength elements) of the Hudson volcano, which is located even closer to the slab window than the Cay and Maca volcanoes are.

  17. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  18. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ship Systems Survivability Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Area for testing survivability of shipboard systems to include electrical, communications, and fire suppression. Multipurpose test range for supporting gun firing,...

  20. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  1. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  2. A survival programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vester, F.

    1978-01-01

    The book is a non-speculative information source on ecological problems and their possible solutions. It is a 'programme' from a twofold point of view: it determines political and scientific-technological objectives and it transfers knowledge by mental steps with techniques of programmed instruction. Thus emphasis is laid on detailed problems, especially by conscionsly challenged redundancies, and, on the other hand, a greater context is presented. Selected facts are examined under their different aspects, interactions and control circuits are described. Each chapter will speak for itself after the introduction has been read but is related to other chapters by cross references, illustrative material, a glossary and a comprehensive list of references. The 'Survival Programme' is a realistic and challenging discussion with the problem of 'Ecology in the Industrial Age'. It adresses scientists from various disciplines but also offers itself as a compendium to laymen in search of information, members of citizens initiatives and responsible representants of the political and industrial world. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Historical ecology: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó, Péter

    2014-01-01

    The term ‘historical ecology’ has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and c...

  4. Teaching English and History through Historical Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alun; Martin, Dave

    1997-01-01

    Explores the appeal of historical fiction for young readers and describes its place within any school curriculum. Describes a project in Dorset Middle Schools which used historical fiction to teach medieval history and English. Notes that students' historical thinking was improved, their knowledge of medieval world advanced, and their writing was…

  5. Principles Of Researching In The Historical Places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatmusaev Tokhir Shaydulovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to researches of historical places also are seen the special phrases used in town planning and architecture component of historical cities historical framework linear system and the significance of centers in the development of cities also researches of dwellings which are the basic component of cities.

  6. Historical ecology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-11-01

    The term 'historical ecology' has been used with various meanings since the first half of the 20th century. Studies labelled as historical ecology have been produced in at least four academic disciplines: history, ecology, geography and anthropology. Although all those involved seem to agree that historical ecology concerns the historical interconnectedness of nature and human culture, this field of study has no unified methodology, specialized institutional background and common publication forums. Knowledge of the development of historical ecology is also limited. As a result, the current multitude of definitions of historical ecology is accompanied by divergent opinions as to where the origins of the field are to be sought. In this review, I follow the development of historical ecology from the 18th century to the present. In the first part, I briefly describe some early examples of historical ecological investigations, followed by a description of the various scientific strands in the 20th century that contributed to the formation of historical ecology. In the second part, I discuss the past five decades of historical ecological investigations in more detail, focusing mostly (but not exclusively) on works that their respective authors identified as historical ecology. I also examine the appearance and interconnectedness of the two main trends (ecological and anthropological) in historical ecological research. In the last part, I attempt to outline the future of historical ecology based on common features in existing research. It appears that at present historical ecology is at a crossroads. With rapidly growing interest in historical ecological research, it may move towards institutionalization or remain an umbrella term. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  7. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...

  8. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  9. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  10. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  11. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement......A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...

  12. HARMONIZATION, HISTORICAL COST AND INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing depreciation of assets; revaluation of tangible or keeping their historical cost; registration, whilst the tangible assets are entered in the conservation of amortization expenses or a corresponding adjustment to depreciation expense ascertained; choosing the method of evaluating stocks is accounting policies. IAS 40 is significant because it was the first time the International Accounting Standards Board has introduced a fair value accounting model for non-financial assets. All firms must provide fair value for their real estate assets either directly in the balance sheet in accordance with the fair value model choice, either in the footnotes below cost model selection.

  13. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  14. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  15. Gondeshapur Revisited; What Historical Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, in European academic circles, there has been a trend to dismiss Gondeshapur as a myth perpetrated by the Bokhtishu family in early Islamic era, despite many historiographical attestations. The writings of Islamic historians such as Al-Qifti and Ibn Abi Usaibia have been discounted as exaggerations by non-contemporary historians, and the lack of primary Pahlavi sources blamed for historical hyperbole. In this essay, I have attempted to show through primary Syriac Christian texts, that there was both a medical school and a bimarestan in Gondeshapur in pre-Islamic Sassanid era, and that Galenic medical texts had been translated and taught in that institution.

  16. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  17. Potential zooplankton preys (Copepoda and Appendicularia for Engraulis anchoita in relation to early larval and spawning distributions in the Patagonian frontal system (SW Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela L. Spinelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution of the abundance, biomass and size of zooplankton (nauplii, calanoids, cyclopoids and appendicularians in relation to the distribution of first-feeding larvae and eggs of Engraulis anchoita across the frontal system of Peninsula Valdés. Twelve samples of zooplankton and ichthyoplankton were taken with small Bongo (67 μm and Pairovet (200 μm nets during the spring of 2004 along two transects. The total abundance of zooplankton and the chlorophyll a concentration were higher in homogeneous waters, while total biomasses were higher in stratified waters. Temperature was negatively correlated with biological variables and was the main factor affecting the zooplankton distribution. In both transects, abundance peaks of first-feeding larvae were detected at coastal stations along with the smallest fraction of zooplankton ( < 500 μm, while the largest fraction was dominant at the external stations, coinciding with the highest egg abundance. The physical structure of this front generates different levels of food availability for first-feeding larvae. Calanoids (southern transect and cyclopoids (northern transect are predominant followed by nauplii and appendicularians. The biomass of zooplankton preys contributes to the carbon transfer to the upper trophic levels and is probably important for the survival and growth of anchovy larvae in this frontal system.

  18. Predictive model for survival in patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshayeshi, Ladan; Hoseini, Benyamin; Yousefli, Zahra; Khooie, Alireza; Etminani, Kobra; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Golabpour, Amin

    2017-12-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world. Characterized by poor prognosis, it is a frequent cause of cancer in Iran. The aim of the study was to design a predictive model of survival time for patients suffering from gastric cancer. This was a historical cohort conducted between 2011 and 2016. Study population were 277 patients suffering from gastric cancer. Data were gathered from the Iranian Cancer Registry and the laboratory of Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Patients or their relatives underwent interviews where it was needed. Missing values were imputed by data mining techniques. Fifteen factors were analyzed. Survival was addressed as a dependent variable. Then, the predictive model was designed by combining both genetic algorithm and logistic regression. Matlab 2014 software was used to combine them. Of the 277 patients, only survival of 80 patients was available whose data were used for designing the predictive model. Mean ?SD of missing values for each patient was 4.43?.41 combined predictive model achieved 72.57% accuracy. Sex, birth year, age at diagnosis time, age at diagnosis time of patients' family, family history of gastric cancer, and family history of other gastrointestinal cancers were six parameters associated with patient survival. The study revealed that imputing missing values by data mining techniques have a good accuracy. And it also revealed six parameters extracted by genetic algorithm effect on the survival of patients with gastric cancer. Our combined predictive model, with a good accuracy, is appropriate to forecast the survival of patients suffering from Gastric cancer. So, we suggest policy makers and specialists to apply it for prediction of patients' survival.

  19. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  20. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  1. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  2. The dental calculus metabolome in modern and historic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsko, Irina M; Overmyer, Katherine A; Speller, Camilla; Klaus, Lauren; Collins, Matthew J; Loe, Louise; Frantz, Laurent A F; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Lewis, Cecil M; Martinez, Juan Bautista Rodriguez; Chaves, Eros; Coon, Joshua J; Larson, Greger; Warinner, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized microbial dental plaque biofilm that forms throughout life by precipitation of salivary calcium salts. Successive cycles of dental plaque growth and calcification make it an unusually well-preserved, long-term record of host-microbial interaction in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens. We present the first comprehensive characterization of the human dental calculus metabolome using a multi-platform approach. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) quantified 285 metabolites in modern and historic (200 years old) dental calculus, including metabolites of drug and dietary origin. A subset of historic samples was additionally analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-MS (GC-MS) and UPLC-MS/MS for further characterization of metabolites and lipids. Metabolite profiles of modern and historic calculus were compared to identify patterns of persistence and loss. Dipeptides, free amino acids, free nucleotides, and carbohydrates substantially decrease in abundance and ubiquity in archaeological samples, with some exceptions. Lipids generally persist, and saturated and mono-unsaturated medium and long chain fatty acids appear to be well-preserved, while metabolic derivatives related to oxidation and chemical degradation are found at higher levels in archaeological dental calculus than fresh samples. The results of this study indicate that certain metabolite classes have higher potential for recovery over long time scales and may serve as appropriate targets for oral microbiome evolutionary studies.

  3. 06491 Summary -- Digital Historical Corpora- Architecture, Annotation, and Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Burnard, Lou; Dobreva, Milena; Fuhr, Norbert; Lüdeling, Anke

    2007-01-01

    The seminar "Digital Historical Corpora" brought together scholars from (historical) linguistics, (historical) philology, computational linguistics and computer science who work with collections of historical texts. The issues that were discussed include digitization, corpus design, corpus architecture, annotation, search, and retrieval.

  4. A historical examination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallinson, L.G.; Li Davies, I.

    1987-01-01

    The requirement that concrete in radioactive waste repositories be stable physically and chemically for very long times has initiated studies of ancient and old concretes. This report is a contribution to this effort. After a description of the history of cement and concrete, the published literature relating to the analysis of old and ancient concrete is reviewed. A series of samples spanning the history of concrete has been obtained; a variety of physical and chemical techniques have been employed to characterize these samples. Reasons for survival of ancient concretes, and for durability of early, reinforced concretes are identified. Recommendations for further studies are given. 132 refs

  5. Probabilistic Survivability Versus Time Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, James J., Sr.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation documents Kennedy Space Center's Independent Assessment work completed on three assessments for the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program to assist the Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer during key programmatic reviews and provided the GSDO Program with analyses of how egress time affects the likelihood of astronaut and ground worker survival during an emergency. For each assessment, a team developed probability distributions for hazard scenarios to address statistical uncertainty, resulting in survivability plots over time. The first assessment developed a mathematical model of probabilistic survivability versus time to reach a safe location using an ideal Emergency Egress System at Launch Complex 39B (LC-39B); the second used the first model to evaluate and compare various egress systems under consideration at LC-39B. The third used a modified LC-39B model to determine if a specific hazard decreased survivability more rapidly than other events during flight hardware processing in Kennedy's Vehicle Assembly Building.

  6. The Survival of the Wisest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that humans differ from other living organisms in the ability to exercise learned behavior and the individual will, which may allow people to make the changes in values necessary to survive on this planet. (DW)

  7. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  8. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  9. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  10. Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the historical scanned maps in 2011, is to provide a digital repository of USGS topographic maps, available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of printed topographic maps, and prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic printing process. As the USGS continues the release of a new generation of topographic maps (US Topo) in electronic form, the topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, land management planning, and leisure.

  11. Customer service skills for survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAtee, L F

    1999-11-01

    As APICS practitioners, we all must share a common goal. How can we contribute to our company's success? Success can be measured in positive terms of market share, growth, profitability, return on investment, or some combination thereof. Each company must establish its own definition of success. For the purposes of this article, success will be equated to one word that we can all readily identify with: survival. What skills do we need to survive in the marketplace of the next millennium?

  12. Prolongation of islet allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacy, P.E.; Davie, J.M.; Finke, E.H.; Scharp, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica followed by in vitro culture of the islets for 1 to 2 days prolonged survival of allografts across a minor histocompatibility barrier if hand-picked, clean islets were used for transplantation. Pretreatment of donor rats with irradiation and silica in conjunction with a single injection of antilymphocyte serum (ALS) into the recipient produced a prolongation of survival of hand-picked islets transplanted across a major histocompatibility barrier

  13. Operational slack and venture survival

    OpenAIRE

    Azadegan, Arash; Patel, Pankaj; Parida, Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Slack can act as a double-edged sword. While it can buffer against environmental threats to help ensure business continuity, slack canalso be costly and reduce profitability. In this study, we focus on operational slack, the form related to the firm’s production processes. We investigate the role of operational slack on firm survival during its venture stage, when its survival is significantly challenged by environmental threats. Specifically, we explore how change in three types of environme...

  14. Historical Literature in the ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  15. The other in the Albanian historical novel

    OpenAIRE

    Myrvete Dreshaj – Baliu

    2018-01-01

    Main aim of this study is to identify the reflective dimension of the other in relation to the self in the Albanian historical novel. Written over a longer period of time (in comparison to the other types), the Albanian historical novel, only during the recent decades has presented other views of redimensioning the other within novels. Regardless of the writing period, pattern, or style, in the Albanian historical novel, the concept on the other generally preserves a national dimension, or th...

  16. ACHP | Sustainability and Historic Preservation Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preservation) Solar Panels Incorporating Solar Panels in a Rehabilitation Project (National Park Service ) Installing Solar Panels on Historic Buildings: A Survey of the Regulatory Environment (Department of Energy

  17. Reverse survival method of fertility estimation: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Spoorenberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the most part, demographers have relied on the ever-growing body of sample surveys collecting full birth history to derive total fertility estimates in less statistically developed countries. Yet alternative methods of fertility estimation can return very consistent total fertility estimates by using only basic demographic information. Objective: This paper evaluates the consistency and sensitivity of the reverse survival method -- a fertility estimation method based on population data by age and sex collected in one census or a single-round survey. Methods: A simulated population was first projected over 15 years using a set of fertility and mortality age and sex patterns. The projected population was then reverse survived using the Excel template FE_reverse_4.xlsx, provided with Timæus and Moultrie (2012. Reverse survival fertility estimates were then compared for consistency to the total fertility rates used to project the population. The sensitivity was assessed by introducing a series of distortions in the projection of the population and comparing the difference implied in the resulting fertility estimates. Results: The reverse survival method produces total fertility estimates that are very consistent and hardly affected by erroneous assumptions on the age distribution of fertility or by the use of incorrect mortality levels, trends, and age patterns. The quality of the age and sex population data that is 'reverse survived' determines the consistency of the estimates. The contribution of the method for the estimation of past and present trends in total fertility is illustrated through its application to the population data of five countries characterized by distinct fertility levels and data quality issues. Conclusions: Notwithstanding its simplicity, the reverse survival method of fertility estimation has seldom been applied. The method can be applied to a large body of existing and easily available population data

  18. Efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación en la Estepa Patagónica Grazing effects on soil and vegetation in the Patagonian Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gaitán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La ganadería ovina durante más de 100 años produjo grandes cambios en los ecosistemas y es una de las principales causas de la desertificación en la estepa patagónica. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo evaluar los efectos del pastoreo sobre el suelo y la vegetación mediante la aplicación de una versión modificada de la metodología «Landscape Function Analysis» desarrollada en Australia. El estudio se realizó en siete sitios con distintos niveles de degradación por pastoreo en Pilcaniyeu (noroeste de Río Negro: tres clausurados al pastoreo (CLA, tres bajo pastoreo moderado (PM y uno bajo pastoreo intenso (PI. Se evaluaron indicadores de la composición florística y estructura espacial de la vegetación, del estado de la superficie del suelo en los interparches, los cuales fueron integrados en tres Índices de Función (Estabilidad -EST-, Infiltración -INFy Reciclaje de nutrientes -NUT- y el stock de carbono orgánico (CO. Al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo se observó una disminución en la cobertura basal de la vegetación (47,4; 23,2 y 17,4% en CLA, PM y PI, respectivamente, parches vegetados más distanciados entre sí (61,9; 117,9 y 181,7 cm, menor cobertura de gramíneas palatables (26,3; 3,4 y 2,1% y mayor de no palatables (4,4; 15,8 y 17,6%. También se observó una tendencia a disminuir en los Índices de Función del suelo (EST: 43,0; 42,3 y 36,2; INF: 48,3; 41,7 y 36,2; NUT: 33,1; 23,5 y 18,1 y del CO (33,8; 26,5 y 7,9 t/ha al incrementarse la intensidad de pastoreo. Se requieren más estudios para adaptar esta metodología a las condiciones de Patagonia y testear con datos experimentales de que manera los índices reflejan adecuadamente los procesos y funciones de estos ecosistemas.More than 100 years of sheep breeding has caused profound changes to ecosystems and is one of the main causes of desertification in the Patagonian steppe. The aim of this study was to evaluate sheep grazing effects on soils and

  19. An evaluation of methods for modelling distribution of Patagonian insects Una evaluación de los métodos para modelizar la distribución de insectos patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO F TOGNELLI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that model performance may vary depending on the species being modelled, the study área, or the number of sampled localities, and suggest that it is necessary to assess which model is better for a particular situation. Thus, in this study we evalúate the performance of different techniques for modelling the distribution of Patagonian insects. We applied eight of the most widely used modelling methods (artificial neural networks, BIOCLIM, classification and regression trees, DOMAIN, generalized additive models, GARP, generalized linear models, and Maxent to the distribution of ten Patagonian insect species. We compared model performance with five accuracy measures. To overeóme the problem of not having reliable absence data with which to evalúate model performance, we used randomly selected pseudo-absences located outside of the polygon área defined by taxonomic experts. Our analyses show significant differences among modelling methods depending on the chosen accuracy measure. Maxent performed the best according to four out of the five accuracy measures, although its accuracy did not differ significantly from that obtained with artificial neural networks. When assessed on per species basis, Maxent was also one of the strongest performing methods, particularly for species sampled from a relatively low number of localities. Overall, our study identified four groups of modelling techniques based on model performance. The top-performing group is composed of Maxent and artificial neural networks, followed closely by the DOMAIN technique. The third group includes GARP, GAM, GLM, and CART, and the fourth best performer is the BIOCLIM technique. Although these results may allow obtaining better distributional predictions for reserve selection, it is necessary to be cautious in their use due to the provisional nature of these simulations.Varios estudios han mostrado que el desempeño de los modelos de distribución puede

  20. 75 FR 17766 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY..., LISTED, 1/21/10 (World War II Home Front Efforts in Arkansas, MPS) Logan County Liberty Schoolhouse...

  1. 75 FR 4415 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... by W. Cherry on the South by W. Court, on the E. by S. Throgmorton and the W. by Clay, Piggott...

  2. 75 FR 8109 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    .... Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program. KEY.... Cherry Ln., Greensboro vicinity, 09000963, LISTED, 12/02/09 Leverton, Jacob and Hannah, House, 3531...

  3. 75 FR 10814 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ..., 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places/National Historic Landmarks Program...., Garner vicinity, 09001106, LISTED, 12/16/09 UTAH San Juan County Neck and Cabin Spings Grazing Area...

  4. Possibilities and limitations of using historic provenance tests to infer forest species growth responses to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura P. Leites; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Andrew P. Robinson; Nicholas L. Crookston; Barry Jaquish

    2012-01-01

    Under projected changes in global climate, the growth and survival of existing forests will depend on their ability to adjust physiologically in response to environmental change. Quantifying their capacity to adjust and whether the response is species- or population-specific is important to guide forest management strategies. New analyses of historic provenance tests...

  5. Using Augmented Reality and Virtual Environments in Historic Places to Scaffold Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sara K.; Newbill, Phyllis; Ogle, Todd; Terry, Krista

    2018-01-01

    The authors explore how 3D visualizations of historical sites can be used as pedagogical tools to support historical empathy. They provide three visualizations created by a team at Virginia Tech as examples. They discuss virtual environments and how the digital restoration process is applied. They also define historical empathy, explain why it is…

  6. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Mai A.; Maibach, Howard I.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  7. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duresa, Bekele Negeri; Vakula, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  8. Historical model evaluation data requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; McCain, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Several studies about tank waste contents have been published using historical records of tank transactions and various analytical measurements. While these records offer a wealth of information, the results are questionable until error estimates associated with the results can be established. However, they do provide a direction for investigation. Two principal observations from the studies are: (1) Large quantities of individual waste types from the various separations processes were widely distributed throughout the tank farms, and (2) The compositions of many of these waste types are quite distinct from one another. A key assumption associated with these observations is that the effects of time and location on the tank wastes are either nominal or not discernable. Since each waste type has a distinct composition, it would benefit all programs to better quantify that composition, and establish an uncertainty for each element of that composition. Various process, disposal, or other decisions could then be made based on current information reducing the need for extended sampling and analysis

  9. Historic physics reprints come home

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In a surprise happy ending, six boxes of historic reprints have returned home to CERN - more than 30 years after they went missing! The 146 items had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. After his death in 1958, Pauli's widow bequeathed his scientific legacy to CERN, and part of this valuable archival collection was stored in Salle Pauli, the room dedicated to his memory. In those trustful days the room was always left open so that Pauli's Library could be freely consulted; but then 170 preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others - some with dedications to Pauli from the author - disappeared in 1972. Regretfully, the room was then locked. Use of the collection was henceforth ‘by appointment only', but it was assumed that the damage was done and the missing items had gone forever. However, in 2002 the CERN Archivist was surprised by a phone call from a representative of Christie's, New York, who explained that some reprints bearing the stamp of the CERN...

  10. Detection capabilities. Some historical footnotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Part I Summary of relevant topics from 1923 to present-including: Currie (Anal Chem 40:586-593, 1968) detection concepts and capabilities; International detection and uncertainty standards; Failure of classical "1"4C dating and birth of new scientific disciplines; Exploratory nuclear data analysis of "8"5Kr monitors found coincident with the collapse of the Iron Curtain (1989); Faulty statistics proved responsible for mistaken assertions that Currie's LC yields excessive false positives; Low-level counting and AMS for atmospheric "3"7Ar and µmolar fossil/biomass carbon in the environment; Erroneous assumption that our low-level background is a Poisson Process, linked to ∼8 % spurious anticoincidence events. Part II. Exact treatment of bivariate Poisson data-solved in 1930s by Przyborowski and Wilenski, Krakow University, for detecting extreme trace amounts of a malicious contaminant (dodder) in high purity seed standards. We adapted their treatment to detection capabilities in ultra-low-level nuclear counting. The timing of their work had great historical significance, marking the start of World War II, with the invasion of Poland (1939). (author)

  11. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  12. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  13. ACHP | Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrating NEPA and Section 106 (2013) Measuring Economic Impacts of Historic Preservation (2013) Celebrating Enhancing Federal Management of Historic Properties (2004) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government : Summit II—Report of Proceedings (2003) Heritage Tourism and the Federal Government: Summit I—Report of

  14. ACHP | Federal Highway Administration Historic Preservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    arrow FHWA Case Study - Kentucky and Indiana Heritage Tourism and Economic Support is the Focus of avoidance of impacts to historic Madison is not possible. In addition to FHWA, KYTC, INDOT, the Kentucky and remains economically viable and that construction impacts on historic buildings are minimized. The MOA

  15. Historical events of the Chemical Processing Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, W.A.

    1965-11-12

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the significant historical events pertinent to the operation of the Chemical Processing facilities at Hanford. The report covers, in chronological order, the major construction activities and historical events from 1944 to September, 1965. Also included are the production records achieved and a history of the department`s unit cost performance.

  16. Historical sites at the Prince Edward islands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This report gives the results of a workshop held on historical sites at the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward islands, southern Indian Ocean. All known visits and sojourns on the Prince Edward islands up to 1948 are tabulated. All known historical sites...

  17. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of historical…

  18. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  19. 20 CFR 638.304 - Historical preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical preservation. 638.304 Section 638.304 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... § 638.304 Historical preservation. The Job Corps Director shall review the “National Register of...

  20. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  1. Historic Preservation Vocabulary, Designations, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    Preservationists use a common language that had its beginnings in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. This act created the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties, which defined the terms and treatments that have become the standard for preservation projects and plans. These terms have been used…

  2. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. From a historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what Robert C.

  3. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuvolari, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. When looked in historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what

  4. Historical and Conceptual Foundation of Diagrammatical Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Uckelman, Sara L.; Schärfe, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    During the Renaissance there was a growing interest for the use of diagrams within conceptual studies. This paper investigates the historical and philosophical foundation of this renewed use of diagrams in ontology as well as the modern relevance of this foundation. We discuss the historical and ...

  5. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  6. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  7. Raising the energy performance of historical dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krugten, L.T.F.; Hermans, L.M.C.; Havinga, L.C.; Pereira Roders, A.R.; Schellen, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies assume that historical dwellings and post-war dwellings in particular, are less sustainable than modern dwellings, justifying its demolition. Over time, historical buildings have been transformed and their energy performance improved. However, there is little known on the

  8. Historical review of our knowledge of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Salvador

    2018-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of most common causes of consultation due to abdominal pain in medical emergency units and it requires hospital admission. Although the majority of cases are mild and patients tend to recover quickly, a small percentage of cases is severe, with mortality in the region of 5-10%. This historical review considers how our understanding of this disease has changed since it was first described in 1579 thanks to the contributions of renowned experts such as Nicolaes Tulp, Reginald Fitz, Nicholas Senn and many others who, through their expertise and dedication, have improved the survival of patients with this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  10. Hermeneutics and the Historicity of Human Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Jamshidnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Whether objectivity in the understanding of history is achivable? Putting  in another way, whether it is possible to account a historical event purely objectively, and free of one's own values, attitudes, and interests? Whether it is possible to have a "complete history'' and a complete explanation of any historical matter? If it is not possible, then it necessarily leads to a relativistic approach which finds any historical narrative acceptable? Are there any criteria according to which one could compare truthfulness of various historical narratives? The present study approach these questions hermeneutically. However, not all hermeneutical approaches answer them alike. Denying the relativist approach, this study attempts to analyze historicity of the human understanding and that of the interpreter him/herself.

  11. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  12. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability in The Low Altitude Regime, Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    elevation, sun location, temperature, humidity, ozone level, visibility, cloud coverage, and wind speed and direction. Survivability in the Low Altitude...JASP Summer PMSG 14–16 July 2009 Key West, FL AUG 45th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit 2–5 August 2009 Denver, CO

  13. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.

  14. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  15. The Historical Origins of Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott

    The idea of spacetime investigated in this chapter, with a view toward understanding its immediate sources and development, is the one formulated and proposed by Hermann Minkowski in 1908. Until recently, the principle source used to form historical narratives of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime has been Minkowski's own discovery account, outlined in the lecture he delivered in Cologne, entitled Space and time [1]. Minkowski's lecture is usually considered as a bona fide first-person narrative of lived events. According to this received view, spacetime was a natural outgrowth of Felix Klein's successful project to promote the study of geometries via their characteristic groups of transformations. Or as Minkowski expressed the same basic thought himself, the theory of relativity discovered by physicists in 1905 could just as well have been proposed by some late-nineteenth-century mathematician, by simply reflecting upon the groups of transformations that left invariant the form of the equation of a propagating light wave. Minkowski's publications and research notes provide a contrasting picture of the discovery of spacetime, in which group theory plays no direct part. In order to relate the steps of Minkowski's discovery, we begin with an account of Poincaré's theory of gravitation, where Minkowski found some of the germs of spacetime. Poincaré's geometric interpretation of the Lorentz transformation is examined, along with his reasons for not pursuing a four-dimensional vector calculus. In the second section, Minkowski's discovery and presentation of the notion of a world line in spacetime is presented. In the third and final section, Poincaré's and Minkowski's diagrammatic interpretations of the Lorentz transformation are compared.

  16. VIRTUAL WOLVERHAMPTON: RECREATING THE HISTORIC CITY IN VIRTUAL REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Ramsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While many towns and cities have historic origins, the modern urban landscape is often unrecognisable from the past. Over the last two thousand years innumerable changes have occurred, from the Roman period to the Industrial Revolution, culminating in wide scale development and redevelopment of towns and cities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Fragments of the past survive as extant buildings, monuments, and areas, and are offered protection through mechanisms such as the National Heritage List for England. However, these buildings are part of a dynamic and changing environment, and their place within their original landscape not always visible. Meanwhile, the advent of mainstream and accessible immersive virtual reality offers opportunities to recreate and explore the past, and to disseminate a deeper understanding of the history and historic context of our heritage assets to a broader audience via new technologies. This paper discusses a project based on Wolverhampton that aims to create immersive and 360° experiences of the historic city that allows the user or viewer to explore how the city might have been in the past from a ‘first person’ perspective. It uses multiple approaches to gather, verify and validate archival data, records, maps and building style information. The project itself is a work-in-progress, with various approaches being explored. It looks at sources of information used to inform the virtual world; software and methodologies used to create the model; different forms of VR output; potential forms of funding for wider dissemination; and problems encountered so far.

  17. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  18. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  19. Genetic aspects of piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, E.F.

    2001-01-01

    Piglet mortality is high. In the USA nearly 20% of the piglets do not survive between late gestation and weaning; 7% of the piglets die during farrowing and some 13% are lost during lactation. These statistics from the USA are no exception to the norm. Selection for increased piglet

  20. Survival analysis II: Cox regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, Vianda S.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards regression can provide an effect estimate by quantifying the difference in survival between patient groups and can adjust for confounding effects of other variables. The purpose of this article is to explain the basic concepts of the

  1. Environmental survival of Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Y-L; Martin, L E; Stephens, D S

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is transmitted through the inhalation of large human respiratory droplets, but the risk from contaminated environmental surfaces is controversial. Compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumanni, meningococcal viability after desiccation on plastic, glass or metal surfaces decreased rapidly, but viable meningococci were present for up to 72 h. Encapsulation did not provide an advantage for meningococcal environmental survival on environmental surfaces.

  2. Survivability of SCADA Control Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, José; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The endorsement of information technologies for critical infrastructures control introduces new threats in their security and surveillance. Along with certain level of protection against attacks, it is desirable for critical processes to survive even if they succeed. A stochastic Petri Nets-based

  3. Survival in Response to Multimodal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongsook, Naiyarat; Kumar, Aditi; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan; Molina, Julian; Garces, Yolanda; Ma, Daniel; Wittich, Michelle A Neben; Rubin, Joseph; Richardson, Ronald; Morris, John; Hay, Ian; Fatourechi, Vahab; McIver, Bryan; Ryder, Mabel; Thompson, Geoffrey; Grant, Clive; Richards, Melanie; Sebo, Thomas J; Rivera, Michael; Suman, Vera; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smallridge, Robert C; Bible, Keith C

    2017-12-01

    Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been dismal. To determine whether an initial intensive multimodal therapy (MMT) is associated with improved ATC survival. MMT was offered to all patients with newly diagnosed ATC treated at the Mayo Clinic from 2003 through 2015; MMT vs care with palliative intent (PI) was individualized considering clinical status and patient preferences. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and treatments compared with patient cohort data from 1949 through 1999. Forty-eight patients (60% male; median age, 62 years); 18 treated with PI, 30 with MMT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival determined by Kaplan-Meier method. Median OS and 1-year survival for the later cohort were 9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 22 months] and 42% (95% CI, 28% to 56%) vs 3 months and 10% for the earlier cohort. Median OS was 21 months compared with 3.9 months in the pooled MMT vs PI groups for the later cohort [hazard ratio (HR), 0.32; P = 0.0006]. Among only patients in the later cohort who had stage IVB disease, median OS was 22.4 vs 4 months (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.44; P = 0.0001), with 68% vs 0% alive at 1 year (MMT vs PI). Among patients with stage IVC cancer, OS did not differ by therapy. MMT appears to convey longer survival in ATC among patients with stage IVA/B disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  5. Historical tradition in Serbian genre literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two Serbian science-fiction stories with a special emphasis on the motives in their narrative structure; the motive analysis is focused on those motives that represent a transposition of 'historical tradition' elements. The key words connecting images appearing in this context are: fear of losing (national identity and a strategy of resistance towards those, who presumably, want to 'take over' the identity. In this sense, a return to 'the historical tradition', in the analyzed texts, aims to reassess certain past models indicating at the same time those that have successfully served and endured as historical models in this discourse.

  6. Respuesta barotrópica de los golfos norpatagónicos argentinos forzados por mareas y vientos Barotropic response of north Patagonian gulfs in Argentina to tidal and wind forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano H Tonini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un modelo hidrodinámico barotrópico de alta resolución no-lineal tridimensional para examinar la respuesta de los golfos norpatagónicos argentinos, San Matías (GSM, Nuevo (GN y San José (GSJ, ante forzante de marea y patrones idealizados de viento superficial. La estructura de la circulación inducida por el viento predominante (Oeste en los tres golfos consiste en dos giros independientes: uno anticiclónico en el Oeste con una corriente costera más intensa que fluye hacia el sur y un retorno más débil por el centro de los golfos y otro giro ciclónico en el Este, que establece la conexión con la Plataforma en el caso del GSM. El GN y GSJ tienen la comunicación con el exterior muy restringida. La inclusión de efectos disipativos producidos por la marea reduce la intensidad de los giros, pero la estructura espacial de la circulación permanece. Si se incrementa la magnitud del viento se intensifican principalmente los giros anticiclónicos y el transporte de intercambio en la boca del GSM y se profundiza la capa superficial de Ekman. En los experimentos forzados con vientos meridionales la circulación media se divide en dos giros cuyo sentido de circulación depende de la dirección del viento: un giro Norte ciclónico (anticiclónico y un giro Sur anticiclónico (ciclónico para vientos del Sur (Norte. Cuando los golfos son forzados simultáneamente por marea y vientos, las corrientes residuales de marea dominan la circulación media y contribuyen a un mayor aislamiento dinámico de los mismos con la plataforma exterior.This work presents the results of a high resolution three dimensional non-linear barotropic hydrodynamic model used to examine the response of three north Patagonian gulfs in Argentina (San Matías, SMG; Nuevo, NG; and San José, SJG forced by tides and idealized patterns of surface winds. The structure of the circulation induced by the dominant winds (Westerly in all

  7. Historical Development of Origins Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  8. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  9. ORAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION IN IGBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    control, which exists in all societies that make for near accurate preservation of traditions ... historical sources from written sources and from material objects. ..... traditions were detached very early from the rural to the urban areas, where urban.

  10. Historical Aspects in Tolerance Phenomenon Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janat A. Karmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the historical aspect of the tolerance phenomenon research, particularly the study of tolerance in the age of Antiquity, Middle Ages, New Times, Enlightenment. It is remarkable that the problem of tolerance, emerged in Western civilization on religious grounds, laid the foundation for all other freedoms, attained in many countries. Besides, the article attaches special attention to the researchers of the East, such as Abu Nasr al-Farabi, Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, studies the historical aspect of works by Kazakhstan thinkers A. Kunanbayev, C. Valikhanova, K.B. Zharikbayev, S.K. Kaliyev, A.N. Nysanbayev, A.I. Artemev and others. The analysis of historical research of the tolerance phenomenon brings the author to the conclusion that religious freedom was the starting point for the emergence of new areas of tolerance display. The content of this phenomenon changed according to the historical peculiarities of the societies’ development

  11. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  12. Fort Davis National Historic Site : acoustical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    During the summer of 2010 (September - October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Fort Davis National Historic Site (FODA)at two sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period ...

  13. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  14. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  15. Historical account of venereal diseases in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Conde-Glez, C J; Calderón, E; Juárez-Figueroa, L; Hernández-Avila, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of sexually acquired diseases in Mexico. It is divided into four major chronological sections which discuss social attitudes and values, the development of services and of official policy, and historical epidemiology.

  16. Historical Tsunami Event Locations with Runups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  17. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  18. Moral Education: Its Historical and Phenomenological Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorpen, Erling

    1984-01-01

    Presents a historically based outline of six stages of human normative development. Elucidates this outline phenomenologically and derives a hierarchical scheme of normative behavior from which to develop programs of moral education. (SK)

  19. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  20. Climate control in historic buildings in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Klenz Larsen, Poul; Broström, Tor

    2011-01-01

    In many historic buildings, conservation heating has been used to control the RH in winter. Heat pumps are much more energy efficient than direct electric heating, so this technology may be adapted for climate control. Dehumidification has not been regarded as appropriate for historic buildings due to poor regulation, but recent development in electronic hygrostats makes this technology an attractive alternative. The annual energy consumption for both control strategies was calculated from st...

  1. Rural and historical tourism in Dobrugea

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2014-01-01

    By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...

  2. A Python Library for Historical Comparative Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Moran , Steven; List , Johann-Mattis

    2012-01-01

    Awarded best paper award; International audience; In this talk we will discuss a European Research Council funded collaborative effort to build a Python library for undertaking academic research in historical-comparative linguistics. Our aim of implementing quantitative methods, specifically in Python, is to transform historical-comparative linguistics from a primarily handcrafted scientific scholarly endeavor, performed by individual researchers, into a quantitative and collaborative field o...

  3. Historical hotels in “Golden Prague”

    OpenAIRE

    Bończak, Bartosz

    2008-01-01

    Prague, with its monuments of great historical and artistic value, has been gaining popularity in recent years. It has become one of the most important tourist destinations in Central Europe. This is the reason why hotel industry in this city is developing so quickly – there are 654 collective tourist accommodation establishments with 547 hotels, motels, pensions and residences, which is more than 83%. Establishments, located in the old, historical buildings, are among the m...

  4. Rural and historical tourism in Dobrogea

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2014-01-01

    By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...

  5. Historic Landscape Survey, Maxwell AFB, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    signifies Maxwell AFB’s historic landscapes. 2.1 The pre-military landscape Prehistory in the southeastern United States is generally designated as...the period of Native American occupation before Spanish explorers made contact in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In Alabama, the prehistory ... prehistory or history is made clear.56 A historic property is determined to be either significant or not significant by applying standardized National

  6. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  7. Complexity for survival of livings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed

  8. Individual social capital and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlskov, Linda; Mortensen, Rikke N; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of social capital has received increasing attention as a determinant of population survival, but its significance is uncertain. We examined the importance of social capital on survival in a population study while focusing on gender differences. METHODS: We used data from...... a Danish regional health survey with a five-year follow-up period, 2007-2012 (n = 9288, 53.5% men, 46.5% women). We investigated the association between social capital and all-cause mortality, performing separate analyses on a composite measure as well as four specific dimensions of social capital while...... controlling for covariates. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models by which hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: For women, higher levels of social capital were associated with lower all-cause mortality regardless of age, socioeconomic status, health...

  9. Complexity for survival of livings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, Michail [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Advance Computing Algorithms and IVHM Group, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)]. E-mail: Michail.Zak@jpl.nasa.gov

    2007-05-15

    A connection between survivability of livings and complexity of their behavior is established. New physical paradigms-exchange of information via reflections, and chain of abstractions-explaining and describing progressive evolution of complexity in living (active) systems are introduced. A biological origin of these paradigms is associated with a recently discovered mirror neuron that is able to learn by imitation. As a result, an active element possesses the self-nonself images and interacts with them creating the world of mental dynamics. Three fundamental types of complexity of mental dynamics that contribute to survivability are identified. Mathematical model of the corresponding active systems is described by coupled motor-mental dynamics represented by Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations, respectively, while the progressive evolution of complexity is provided by nonlinear evolution of probability density. Application of the proposed formalism to modeling common-sense-based decision-making process is discussed.

  10. Saudi sands, SCUDS, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, M P

    1993-01-01

    SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival.

  11. Historical development of modern anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel H; Toledo, Alexander H

    2012-06-01

    Of all milestones and achievements in medicine, conquering pain must be one of the very few that has potentially affected every human being in the world. It was in 1846 that one of mankind's greatest fears, the pain of surgery, was eliminated. This historical review article describes how the various elements of anesthesiology (gasses, laryngoscopes, endotracheal tubes, intravenous medications, masks, and delivery systems) were discovered and how some brilliant entrepreneurs and physicians of the past two centuries have delivered them to humanity. One name stands out amongst all others when the founder of modern anesthesia is discussed, William T.G. Morton (1819-1868). A young Boston Dentist, Dr. Morton had been in the search for a better agent than what had been used by many dentists: nitrous oxide. With Dr. Morton's tenacity driven by enthusiasm and discovery, he and renowned surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital, John Collins Warren (1778-1856) made history on October 16, 1846 with the first successful surgical procedure performed with anesthesia. Dr. Morton had single-handedly proven to the world that ether is a gas that when inhaled in the proper dose, provided safe and effective anesthesia. One of the first accounts of an endotracheal tube being used for an airway comes from the pediatrician Joseph O'Dwyer (1841-1898). He used the metal "O'dwyer" tubes in diphtheria cases and passed them into the trachea blindly. Adding a cuff to the tube is credited to Arthur Guedel (1883-1956) and Ralph M. Waters (1883-1979) in 1932. This addition suddenly gave the practitioner the ability to provide positive pressure ventilation. The anesthesiologist Chevalier Jackson (1865-1958) promoted his handheld laryngoscope for the insertion of endotracheal tubes and its popularity quickly caught hold. Sir Robert Reynolds Macintosh's (1897-1989) breakthrough technique of direct laryngoscopy came after being appointed Nuffield professor of anesthetics at the University of Oxford

  12. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  13. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  14. 75 FR 12790 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    [email protected] . Dated: March 9, 2010. J. Paul Loether, Chief, National Register of Historic Places... Logan County Blair Mountain Battlefield, Address Restricted, Logan vicinity, 08000496, Removed...

  15. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  16. Life-Cycle Models for Survivable Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linger, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Current software development life-cycle models are not focused on creating survivable systems, and exhibit shortcomings when the goal is to develop systems with a high degree of assurance of survivability...

  17. Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Amin, Mitesh; Santee, William R

    2008-01-01

    A Probability of Survival Decision Aid (PSDA) is developed to predict survival time for hypothermia and dehydration during prolonged exposure at sea in both air and water for a wide range of environmental conditions...

  18. IPO survival in a reputational market

    OpenAIRE

    Espenlaub, Susanne; Khurshed, Arif; Mohamed, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We examine IPO survival in a 'reputational' market, the Alternative Investment Market (AIM), where principle-based regulation pivots on the role of a regulatory agent, the nominated advisor (Nomad) to the IPO company. We find that Nomad reputation has a significant impact on IPO survival. IPOs backed by reputable Nomads 'survive longer (by about two years) than those backed by other Nomads. We also find that survival rates of AIM IPOs are broadly comparable to those of North American IPOs. Wh...

  19. Survival Patterns Among Newcomers To Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Bates

    1997-01-01

    This study analyzes survival patterns among franchisee firms and establishments that began operations in 1986 and 1987. Differing methodologies and data bases are utilized to demonstrate that 1) franchises have higher survival rates than independents, and 2) franchises have lower survival rates than independent business formations. Analyses of corporate establishment data generate high franchisee survival rates relative to independents, while analyses of young firm data generate the opposite ...

  20. Treatment and conditioning of historical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Ghe.; Dragolici, F.; Ionascu, L.; Rotarescu, Ghe.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)

  1. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Yaicha D; Lowenstein, Tim K; Timofeeff, Michael N

    2015-11-12

    Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea-microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich) and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena) sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media) from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation) in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1

  2. Ghrelin as a Survival Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin administration induces food intake and body weight gain. Based on these actions, the ghrelin system was initially proposed as an antiobesity target. Subsequent studies using genetic mouse models have raised doubts about the role of the endogenous ghrelin system in mediating body weight homeostasis or obesity. However, this is not to say that the endogenous ghrelin system is not important metabolically or otherwise. Here we review an emerging concept in which the endogenous ghrelin system serves an essential function during extreme nutritional and psychological challenges to defend blood glucose, protect body weight, avoid exaggerated depression, and ultimately allow survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaicha D. Winters

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claiming to revive ancient microorganisms trapped in fluid inclusions in halite have warranted an investigation of long-term microbial persistence. While starvation-survival is widely reported for bacteria, it is less well known for halophilic archaea—microorganisms likely to be trapped in ancient salt crystals. To better understand microbial survival in fluid inclusions in ancient evaporites, laboratory experiments were designed to simulate growth of halophilic archaea under media-rich conditions, complete nutrient deprivation, and a controlled substrate condition (glycerol-rich and record their responses. Haloarchaea used for this work included Hbt. salinarum and isolate DV582A-1 (genus Haloterrigena sub-cultured from 34 kyear Death Valley salt. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 reacted to nutrient limitation with morphological and population changes. Starved populations increased and most cells converted from rods to small cocci within 56 days of nutrient deprivation. The exact timing of starvation adaptations and the physical transformations differed between species, populations of the same species, and cells of the same population. This is the first study to report the timing of starvation strategies for Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1. The morphological states in these experiments may allow differentiation between cells trapped with adequate nutrients (represented here by early stages in nutrient-rich media from cells trapped without nutrients (represented here by experimental starvation in ancient salt. The hypothesis that glycerol, leaked from Dunaliella, provides nutrients for the survival of haloarchaea trapped in fluid inclusions in ancient halite, is also tested. Hbt. salinarum and DV582A-1 were exposed to a mixture of lysed and intact Dunaliella for 56 days. The ability of these organisms to utilize glycerol from Dunaliella cells was assessed by documenting population growth, cell length, and cell morphology. Hbt. salinarum

  4. Survival of translocated sharp-tailed grouse: Temporal threshold and age effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Steven; Coates, Peter S.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) is a subspecies of conservation concern in the western United States, currently occupying ≤10% of its historic range. Land and management agencies are employing translocation techniques to restore Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (CSTG) populations. However, establishing self-sustaining populations by translocating grouse often is unsuccessful, owing, in part, to low survivorship of translocated grouse following release.Aims: We measured and modelled patterns of CSTG mortality for 150 days following translocation into historic range, to better understand patterns and causes of success or failure in conservation efforts to re-establish grouse populations.Methods: We conducted two independent multi-year translocations and evaluated individual and temporal factors associated with CSTG survival up to 150 days following their release. Both translocations were reintroduction attempts in Nevada, USA, to establish viable populations of CSTG into their historic range.Key results: We observed a clear temporal threshold in survival probability, with CSTG mortality substantially higher during the first 50 days following release than during the subsequent 100 days. Additionally, translocated yearling grouse exhibited higher overall survival (0.669 ± 0.062) than did adults (0.420 ± 0.052) across the 150-day period and higher survival than adults both before and after the 50-day temporal threshold.Conclusions: Translocated CSTG are especially vulnerable to mortality for 50 days following release, whereas translocated yearling grouse are more resistant to mortality than are adult grouse. On the basis of the likelihood of survival, yearling CSTG are better candidates for population restoration through translocation than are adult grouse.Implications: Management actions that ameliorate mortality factors for 50 days following translocation and translocations that employ yearling grouse will

  5. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  6. 46 CFR 199.201 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.201 Section 199.201 Shipping COAST... craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be... addition to the survival craft required in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, additional liferafts must be...

  7. 46 CFR 199.261 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 199.261 Section 199.261 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.261 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as follows: (1) Each lifeboat must be a totally...

  8. 46 CFR 28.120 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 28.120 Section 28.120 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.120 Survival craft. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (h) of this section and 28.305, each vessel must carry the survival craft specified in Table 28...

  9. 46 CFR 133.105 - Survival craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft. 133.105 Section 133.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.105 Survival craft. (a) Each survival craft must be approved and equipped as...

  10. Narrowing Historical Uncertainty: Probabilistic Classification of Ambiguously Identified Tree Species in Historical Forest Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Mladenoff; Sally E. Dahir; Eric V. Nordheim; Lisa A. Schulte; Glenn G. Gutenspergen

    2002-01-01

    Historical data have increasingly become appreciated for insight into the past conditions of ecosystems, Uses of such data include assessing the extent of ecosystem change; deriving ecological baselines for management, restoration, and modeling; and assessing the importance of past conditions on the composition and function of current systems. One historical data set...

  11. 75 FR 9926 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties Pursuant to (36 CFR 60.13(b,c)) and (36 CFR 63.5), this notice, through.../09 (Cobblestone Architecture of New York State MPS) NORTH CAROLINA Currituck County Jarvisburg...

  12. Luminescence dating of some historical/pre-historical natural hazards of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartia, R.K.

    2008-01-01

    The Indian sub-continent is characterized by host of natural hazards like earthquake, tsunami, cyclones, floods, landslides/mudflows. It is necessary to build-up a database of historical/pre-historical natural hazards for planning scenarios for emergency response to various them. In short, there is a vast scope of providing chronology to hazardous events by using known techniques of dating including luminescence dating which has an excellent window span down from few hundred years to one hundred thousand years. In this work we report the dates of some historical/pre-historical natural hazards of India. In particular we focus on three kinds of natural hazards namely, earthquakes, tsunami, and mudflows. For example of earthquake we cover a historical earthquake of Manipur that created two massive fissures at Kumbi, 25 km from the state capital, Imphal. For pre-historical ones, we cover Assam-Shillong area known for its highest levels of seismicity in India. We demonstrate the evidence of a paleo-tsunami that devastated Mahabalipuram near Chennai. Incidentally, Mahabalipuram was badly affected by the great tsunami of 26th Dec 2004. Finally, luminescence dating technique has been applied to some historical/pre-historical mudflows of Manipur. A recent mudflow on 10th July 2004 damaged more than 90 houses, block National Highway-39, the life-line of Manipur for more than a fort-night. (author)

  13. Rilem TC 203-RHM: Repair mortars for historic masonry. Requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Groot, C.; Hughes, J.J.; Balen, K. van; Bicer-Simsir, B.; Binda, L.; Elsen, J.; Konow, T. von; Lindqvist, J.E.; Papayanni, I.; Subercaseaux, M.; Tedeschi, C.; Toumbakari, E.E.; Thompson, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives a summary of functional and performance requirements for repointing mortars for historic masonry (design, execution and maintenance). Successful performance of repair and conservation of mortar in historic masonry requires more care with design and execution than with modern

  14. 28 CFR 36.405 - Alterations: Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alterations: Historic preservation. 36... Alterations: Historic preservation. (a) Alterations to buildings or facilities that are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places under the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C...

  15. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farges, Francois; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; Haddi, Amine; Trocellier, Patrick; Curti, Enzo; Brown, Gordon E. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context

  16. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  17. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  18. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  19. Survival strategies in arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. C. Tyler

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ungulates usually neither freeze nor starve to death despite the rigours of winter. Physiological adaptations enable them to survive and reproduce despite long periods of intense cold and potential undernutrition. Heat conservation is achieved by excellent insulation combined with nasal heat exchange. Seasonal variation in fasting metabolic rate has been reported in several temperate and sub-arctic species of ungulates and seems to occur in muskoxen. Surprisingly, there is no evidence for this in reindeer. Both reindeer and caribou normally maintain low levels of locomotor activity in winter. Light foot loads are important for reducing energy expenditure while walking over snow. The significance and control of selective cooling of the brain during hard exercise (e.g. escape from predators is discussed. Like other cervids, reindeer and caribou display a pronounced seasonal cycle of appetite and growth which seems to have an intrinsic basis. This has two consequences. First, the animals evidently survive perfectly well despite enduring negative energy balance for long periods. Second, loss of weight in winter is not necessarily evidence of undernutrition. The main role of fat reserves, especially in males, may be to enhance reproductive success. The principal role of fat reserves in winter appears to be to provide a supplement to, rather than a substitute for, poor quality winter forage. Fat also provides an insurance against death during periods of acute starvation.

  20. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  1. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  2. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  3. The Historical Thought of Jiang Mengyin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文杰[1; Xu Sangyi[2

    2016-01-01

    Jiang Mengyin (蒋孟引) (1907–1988), originally named Jiang Deheng (蒋德恒), also known as Baihuan (百幻),was a renowned Chinese historian. He was born in 1907 at Changping Village, Gaoqiao Town, Xinning County, Hunan Province. Studying in an old–style private school in his youth, Jiang showed his talents and special interests in history, as he frequently discussed historical issues with his tutor and formulated his own opinions. He then took historical research as his life–long pursuit. In 1928, Jiang was enrolled in the Department of History at National Central University.

  4. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju

    1999-03-01

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  5. [Vygotsky's Social-Historic Constructivism and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thofehrn, Maira Buss; Leopardi, Maria Tereza

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect, in the theoretical scope, about the Vygotsky's socio-historical constructivism and the contributions from this Russian researcher to build the nursing knowledge. The Vygotskian approach has as its philosophical, epistemological and methodological purposes, the principles of the historical materialism, it emphasizes the social and cultural context in the working process, also in the use of instruments and in the dialectical interaction between human beings and environment. We understand that the ideas preconized by Vygotsky can represent an alternative method to the practical and theoretical studies, specially, as the subjective dimension of the working process near by the nursing staff.

  6. Introductory modern algebra a historical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Stahl offers the solvability of equations from the historical point of view...one of the best books available to support a one-semester introduction to abstract algebra.""-CHOICE Introductory Modern Algebra: A Historical Approach, Second Edition presents the evolution of algebra and provides readers with the opportunity to view modern algebra as a consistent movement from concrete problems to abstract principles. With a few pertinent excerpts from the writings of some of the greatest mathematicians, the Second Edition uniquely facilitates the understanding of pi

  7. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  8. The studies of historical seismicity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levret, A.

    1987-11-01

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes who entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and their critical analysis in order to obtain a new interpretation, led to compile a computer file covering a period of time of about a millenary. The abundant contributions result of continuous researches involve annualy up-date of the file where macroseismic data each one assigned with a degree of reliability are recorded [fr

  9. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI{>=}VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI{>=}VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps.

  10. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Oliver [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Section of Economic, Social and Environmental History (WSU)

    2017-07-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  11. Big Data and historical social science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bearman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Big Data” can revolutionize historical social science if it arises from substantively important contexts and is oriented towards answering substantively important questions. Such data may be especially important for answering previously largely intractable questions about the timing and sequencing of events, and of event boundaries. That said, “Big Data” makes no difference for social scientists and historians whose accounts rest on narrative sentences. Since such accounts are the norm, the effects of Big Data on the practice of historical social science may be more limited than one might wish.

  12. The Ellipse A Historical and Mathematical Journey

    CERN Document Server

    Mazer, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Explores the development of the ellipse and presents mathematical concepts within a rich, historical context The Ellipse features a unique, narrative approach when presenting the development of this mathematical fixture, revealing its parallels to mankind's advancement from the Counter-Reformation to the Enlightenment. Incorporating illuminating historical background and examples, the author brings together basic concepts from geometry, algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to uncover the ellipse as the shape of a planet's orbit around the sun. The book begins with a discussion that tells the st

  13. THE CONCEPTION CULTURAL-HISTORICAL OF LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire dos Santos Dangió

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article on screen calls into question the cultural-historical conception of literacy in order to point out the relationship between it and the psychic development process of individuals, arguing - in accordance with the theoretical assumptions of historical-cultural psychology, that literacy takes place within a broader process of cultural development and, consequently, a developmental education from an early age. Thus, we defend the thesis that the teacher literacy needs to know the internal connections between literacy, oral language development and the abstractive leap required for its conversion into written language.

  14. Estado del conocimiento de humedales del norte patagónico (Argentina: aspectos relevantes e importancia para la conservación de la biodiversidad regional State of the knowledge of north Patagonian wetlands (Argentina: major aspects and importance for regional biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA G PEROTTI

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas de humedal ocupan casi el 5 % del territorio de la Patagonia argentina. En la zona extrandina y el desierto patagónico estos ecosistemas son esenciales para sostener numerosas especies de fauna y flora silvestre. Además, los humedales del norte patagónico permiten el desarrollo de comunidades acuáticas complejas y constituyen el hábitat crítico de grupos de organismos como los peces y los anfibios incluidos en listados de conservación prioritaria. Estos ecosistemas tienen un funcionamiento complejo que depende estrechamente de las fluctuaciones de las variables meteorológicas y son por lo tanto muy sensibles a los efectos del cambio climático. En la actualidad el uso de la tierra, la introducción de especies y la interacción de estos aspectos con el cambio climático constituyen las variables de mayor impacto sobre estos ambientes patagónicos. En este trabajo se presenta información geográfica, geomorfológica y climática de un número de humedales del norte de la Patagonia argentina. Por otra parte, se sintetiza información sobre la flora y la distribución de peces y anfibios con el propósito de enfatizar la importancia de estos ambientes en el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad regional. Por último, se señalan los procesos que actualmente afectan a estos sistemas poniendo en evidencia la necesidad de obtención de conocimientos básicos para el diseño de planes de manejo y conservación de sus comunidades biológicasAlmost 5 % of the lansdscape of Patagonia is occupied by wetlands. In the extra-andean region and the patagonian desert, wetlands are essential for sustaining biodiversity and wildlife. Besides, North patagonian wetlands present complex aquatic communities and provide habitat for threatened species of fishes and amphibians. These ecosystems have complex dynamics mostly driven by climatic fluctuations which make them vulnerable to the effect of climate change. Nowadays, the main impact on patagonian

  15. On the concept of survivability, with application to spacecraft and space-based networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    Survivability is an important attribute and requirement for military systems. Recently, survivability has become increasingly important for public infrastructure systems as well. In this work, we bring considerations of survivability to bear on space systems. We develop a conceptual framework and quantitative analyses based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to characterize and compare the survivability of different space architectures. The architectures here considered are a monolith spacecraft and a space-based network. To build the stochastic Petri net models for the degradations and failures of these two architectures, we conducted statistical analyses of historical multi-state failure data of spacecraft subsystems, and we assembled these subsystems, and their SPN models, in ways to create our monolith and networked systems. Preliminary results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, a space-based network is more survivable than the monolith spacecraft with respect to on-orbit anomalies and failures. For space systems, during the design and acquisition process, different architectures are benchmarked against several metrics; we argue that if survivability is not accounted for, then the evaluation process is likely to be biased in favor of the traditional dominant design, namely the monolith spacecraft. If however in a given context, survivability is a critical requirement for a customer, the survivability framework here proposed, and the stochastic modeling capability developed, can demonstrate the extent to which a networked space architecture may better satisfy this requirement than a monolith spacecraft. These results should be of interest to operators whose space assets require high levels of survivability, especially in the light of emerging threats.

  16. The cultural and historical heritage of towns Trebinje and Jajce: A resource for the growth of tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzijan Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of including cultural heritage in cultural and tourist development policies. The tourist potential of historically and artistically significant urban entities will be described and assessed in the paper, with a focus on the cases of Trebinje and Jajce two Bosnian and Herzegovinian towns with preserved historical town cores. The two towns were both founded in the Middle Ages and have developed to this day, with their urban areas continuously expanding and being built up. Their spatial and cultural historical complexes are diverse and multilayered, with various natural and man-made structures dating back to different epochs. They are the greatest cultural monuments and a testimony of the past, of the physical and spiritual development of these communities. Trebinje is an old town located at the intersection of various influences and interests, with a rich and long history which has altered not only the appearance and contents of its town core, but also its significance and its functional impact on the broader surroundings. The Old Town, a surviving historical complex, which originated in the Middle Ages and developed considerably under Turkish rule is one of Trebinje's tourist resources. Nowadays, tourism is becoming one of the world's most important industries, its appeal coming from the natural cultural and historical values of towns and cities. Due to that, the natural cultural and historical values of Trebinje and Jajce can be preserved only if their economic potential is also taken into account.

  17. Cambios latitudinales en la pesquería pelágica de merluza de cola (Macruronus magellanicus de la zona centro-sur (1986-2003 Latitudinal changes in the Patagonian grenadier (Macruronus magellanicus pelagic fishery off central-southern Chile (1986-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Cubillos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los cambios espacio-temporales de las capturas de merluza de cola obtenidas por la flota industrial de cerco en la zona centro-sur de Chile (34°-41°30'S, para revisar la hipótesis de migración hacia el norte de la fracción juvenil de merluza de cola en primavera. Se utilizaron datos de bitácoras de pesca del periodo 1986-2003, y a partir de éstos se calcularon centros de gravedad de las capturas y su varianza. Se postula que si la flota sigue el comportamiento migratorio de la fracción juvenil, se esperaría que los centros de gravedad de las capturas migren latitudinalmente de sur a norte conforme la estación de pesca avanza. No obstante, sólo se encontró cuatro casos en que ocurrió una migración hacia el norte de los centroides. Más bien, los centros de gravedad se presentan estacionarios, al interior de cada temporada de pesca. Se postula que existe una fracción juvenil residente que sólo incrementa su accesibilidad y vulnerabilidad en aguas superficiales en primavera debido al régimen ambiental, que se caracteriza por la dominancia de eventos de surgencia y no a una migración de sur a norte.We analyzed spatio-temporal changes in Patagonian grenadier catches by the purse-seine fleet off central-southern Chile (34°-41°30'S in order to check the hypothesis that the juvenile fraction of the population migrates northward in spring. Log-book data from 1986 to 2003 were used to calculate the center of gravity of and variance of each catch. We proposed that, if the fleet follows the migratory behavior of the juvenile fraction, the centers of gravity of the catches will migrate from south to north as the fishing season progresses. Nevertheless, the centers of gravity migrated northward in only four cases. Unexpectedly, the centers of gravity remained stationary within each fishing season. Now we propose that, in spring, a resident juvenile fraction of Patagonian grenadier increases its accessibility and vulnerability

  18. Surviving Scientific Academia . . . and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    It's been 16 years since I first took a physics class at Weber State University. Since them, I've survived graduate school in Nuclear Engineering, and a postdoc appointment doing nuclear nonproliferation. Now I'm a Technical Staff Member at Los Alamos National Laboratory working with nuclear data, the physics behind the numerical simulations of nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. Along the way, I've learned a few things. First, scientific computing is everywhere in science. If you are not writing codes, you will be analyzing their output, and generally there will be more output than a human can correctly and accurately interpret in a timely manner. Second, a career in science or engineering can be very rewarding with opportunities to collaborate with and generate friendships with very bright people from all over the world.

  19. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...... is the relevant measure of interest. Multiplicative survival models, such as the Cox proportional hazards model, are often used to estimate the association between exposure and risk of disease in prospective studies. In Cox models, deviations from additivity have usually been assessed by surrogate measures...

  20. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  1. It’s About Valence: Historical Continuity or Historical Discontinuity as a Threat to Social Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available National identity is underpinned by historical representations. Recent research shows that narratives presenting an in-group’s history as discontinuous rather than continuous raise collective angst, suggesting that historical discontinuity threatens social identity. This previous research has focused on positive aspects of an in-group’s past. The present research aims to extend the findings to go beyond positive histories. We suggest that when the in-group’s actions in the past are presented as negative, historical continuity instead of discontinuity will increase perceived identity threat because a negative, continuous history threatens group members’ need for a positive social identity in the present. In an experiment with a sample size of N = 316, we manipulated the narrated valence of in-group actions during the historical event of the approval of the German constitutional law by framing the group’s actions in either positive or negative terms. In addition, we presented the in-group’s history as connected or disconnected to the in-group’s present. Results demonstrate that historical continuity only decreased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity when the in-group’s past behavior was presented as positive. When the in-group’s past was presented as negative, continuity even increased identity threat compared to historical discontinuity. These results were particularly pronounced for people who strongly identified with their national in-group. We discuss implications of the findings for political communication and managing a nation’s perception of social identity threat.

  2. Fingertip replantation: determinants of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Zheng; Zhu, Qingsheng; Lei, Wei; Han, Yisheng; Li, Mingquan; Wang, Zhen

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for an unsuccessful replanted fingertip. Two hundred eleven complete fingertip amputations in 211 patients who underwent replantation surgery between August of 1990 and March of 2006 were included in this study. The patients' age, gender, smoking history, digit position, dominant hand, amputation level, injury mechanism, platelet count, ischemia time, preservation method of the amputated part, anesthesia, number of arteries repaired, venous drainage, use of vein grafting, neurorrhaphy, bone shortening, and smoking after operation were tested for their impact on fingertip survival. One hundred seventy-two of 211 patients (81.5 percent) had a successful replantation. Univariate analysis showed crush or avulsion injury, high platelet count, and inappropriate preservation of the amputated part in saline solution or ethanol to be associated with a high incidence of replantation failure. Twenty-two of 54 patients (41 percent) who had a crush or avulsion trauma had failed replantation. Logistic regression analysis identified injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of the amputated part, and the use of vein grafting as statistically significant predictive factors for success or failure. Injury mechanism, platelet count, smoking after operation, preservation method of amputated part, and the use of vein grafting were found to be the main predictors for the survival of the replanted fingertip. Applying external bleeding in zone 1 and venous drainage through the medullary cavity in zone 2 or venous anastomosis combined with vein grafting rather than venous anastomosis alone were strongly recommended in the fingertip replantation of crush or avulsion injury.

  3. Historical understanding and rethinking the foundations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    climate, the geography, the vegetation, all contributed to Renan's historical ... step – in the passing cloud, the germinating seed, the ripening corn. – they saw the sign of ... world; tears were turned into joy; it was the advent upon earth of universal ... burial practices To accomplish his goal Craffert employed social models or.

  4. Sima Qian and His Historical Records

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> Sima Qian (145-86 BC), a native of Xiayang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi Province), is regarded as China’s greatest historiographer. He is best known for his history book, Historical Records (Shi Ji).Son of Sima Tan, who held the post of the Grand Historian (Tai Shi Ling ) of the Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 25), Sima

  5. RETROFITTING DENIZ PALACE HISTORIC BUILDING FOR REUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi KORKMAZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a big stock of historic structures in Turkey. Many of those structures continue to serve by changing their functions which brings new loads to the building. During their long life, historic structures have experienced many actions occurred over long periods of time and endured long term deteriorating effects and earthquake loads, besides these effects changing of the function affects the load bearing capacity of the building. This study is focused on restoration and retrofitting of historic multi storey masonry building named Deniz Palace Building which is located in Istanbul where the whole city is seismic prone area itself. Earthquake resistance is the main purpose of decision for retrofitting and strengthening of the building. In this sense walls are sheathed by concrete, floors are strengthened by steel I profiles and concrete, and foundations are reconstructed. During the restoration, interventions are made based on prevention of historic values. Static calculations are done particularly. For this purpose, foundation retrofitting is made primarily and some critical walls are sheathed by concrete. Fire protection system is designed and according to the evacuation plan some additions such as elevator shaft are constructed.

  6. Using historic earnings to value hydro energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, I.A.; Whittington, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    This article briefly presents a technique for assigning a value to the water held in and removed from the hydro reservoir. Using historic earnings as the basis for a series of equations, it aims to give engineers trading energy a reliable means of placing a value on what is effectively a ''free'' resource. (Author)

  7. Teaching Historical Geography in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighren, Innes M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the pedagogical and practical challenges associated with teaching historical geography, and archival research specifically, in the context of the undergraduate field trip. In so doing, it draws upon students' own reflections on the experience of conducting archival research during a field trip to New York City and presents the…

  8. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  9. Teaching Historical Memories in an Intercultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibel, Katrine Vinther; Wrochem, Oliver

    How can we approach historical remembrance in history teaching? This question lies at the heart of the three-year, EU-funded project TeacMem,which involves partners from Denmark, Germany and Norway. The participants (teacher trainers, historians, teachers, memorial educators, disseminators...

  10. Historical Bibliography of Sea Mine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Naval Studies Board. At the termination of the Committee there remained a single piece of unfinished business --the compilation of "a "Historical...Submarine; New Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia, Vol. XXIII, Unicorn Publishing Co., 19521 New York. pp. 8492-8493. 6. Mine, Submarine; New International

  11. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  12. Historic landscapes in Europe: highlights and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, H.; Ruiz del Árbol, M.; Orejas, A.; Orejas, A.; Mattingly, D.; Clavel-Lévêque, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the scientific collaboration developed through the COST A27 meetings and common projects concerning the two major themes of our Action: the close relation between historical-archaeological research and its application

  13. Democracy in Kazakhstan: Historical Fiction or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilzhanov, Nurlykhan B.; Kozhirova, Svetlana B.; Azizian, Rouben

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in the development of transitional societies at the present stage of historical development is the impact of "global democracy" system of government. Trends of such influence in the post-Soviet space, in particular, are becoming more tangible in the context of globalization and especially after the so-called…

  14. Andries van Aarde as historical Jesus scholar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... This article focuses on Andries van Aarde's work on the historical Jesus and especially his book .... No one can control this infinite stream or formulate its ...... could be found all along the Sea of Galilee and also a few miles.

  15. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  16. Historical Text Comprehension Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadou, Maria; Tsaganou, Grammatiki; Cavoura, Theodora

    2005-01-01

    The Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System (ReTuDiS) is a system for learner modelling historical text comprehension through reflective dialogue. The system infers learners' cognitive profiles and constructs their learner models. Based on the learner model the system plans the appropriate--personalized for learners--reflective tutorial dialogue in…

  17. The Amazon Caboclo: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eugene Philip, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a general sketch of the events and processes leading to the evolution and development of Caboclo culture in the Amazonia region of South America. Following the foreword and introduction, the book is divided into two parts. Part one contains historical background about the period from 1615 to 1920 within three…

  18. Tutorial on earthquake rotational effects: historical examples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozák, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 99, 2B (2009), s. 998-1010 ISSN 0037-1106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : rotational seismic models * earthquake rotational effects * historical earthquakes Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2009

  19. Ideological and Historical Challenges in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Lana

    2011-01-01

    Business schools bear a central mission in our society and are responsible for training business managers who work in, lead, and indeed control our corporations and drive our economy's wealth. Historical and ideological challenges have influenced business education and steered it off the expected path. Several theoretical frameworks such as…

  20. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  1. Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...

  2. Play under Siege: A Historical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Edward F.; Bishop-Josef, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    In this updated version of their chapter from "Children's Play: The Roots of Reading" (published by ZERO TO THREE in 2004), the authors describe the recent attack on play, in both early childhood and elementary education. They provide a historical overview of the contentious relationship between play and cognitive development. The authors stress…

  3. Using Historical Simulations to Teach Political Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, William; Havercroft, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    As teachers of political theory, our goal is not merely to help students understand the abstract reasoning behind key ideas and texts of our discipline. We also wish to convey the historical contexts that informed these ideas and texts, including the political aims of their authors. But the traditional lecture-and-discussion approach tends to…

  4. Moral regulation: historical geography and scale

    OpenAIRE

    Legg, Stephen; Brown, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a special issue on the historical geography of moral regulation and scale. The paper examines the rich and varied work of geographers on moral geographies before looking at wider work on moral regulation influenced by Michel Foucault. Highlighting the significance of the\\ud neglected dimension of scale, the paper introduces the themes examined in the subsequent papers.

  5. Bodie State Historic Park. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento.

    This guide is intended to assist teachers in organizing and preparing a field trip to Bodie State Historic Park (California). Although it is intended to assist in the trip to Bodie, it also provides information for organizing group tours or family outings to other areas. Activities include before, during, and after visit exercises focusing on the…

  6. Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the

  7. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  8. The Historical Significance of the Universal Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Asbjorn

    1998-01-01

    Explains the historical significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Focuses on the initiative for the Declaration and its elaboration, the precursors to modern human rights, the foundation of the Declaration, the rights contained in the Universal Declaration, three modes of human rights analysis, and global governance and human…

  9. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  10. Against the Grain: Teaching Historical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers and scholars have written about the importance of inquiry in effective history instruction. At its core, inquiry involves student investigation of a significant historical problem. Experienced teachers, however, often reveal their skill in purposely teaching against the grain. Skilled teachers help students appreciate historical…

  11. Causality and Time in Historical Institutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahoney, James; Mohamedali, Khairunnisa; Nguyen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the dual concern with causality and time in historical institutionalism using a graphical approach. The analysis focuses on three concepts that are central to this field: critical junctures, gradual change, and path dependence. The analysis makes explicit and formal the logi...

  12. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  13. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  14. Perfumed historic buildings: Issues of authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Jovana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary historical preservation practice includes olfactory preservation as an experimental method of architectural preservation. The implementation of manufactured scents in historic buildings raises important issues of authenticity. This paper focuses on three important issues in the relation between olfactory preservation and authenticity: the importance of phenomenology in memory evocation; the relative character of the authenticity concept; and the significance of social values in historic preservation. This requires a critical examination of charters, documents and theoretical interpretations which reflect a broader concept of authenticity. The paper discusses certain articles of the Venice Charter, the Nara Document on Authenticity, as well as the sense of smell in architectural experience through critical analysis of the theories of John Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, Roger Scruton and Juhani Pallasmaa and their concepts of authenticity. Authenticity issues are illustrated by the examples of olfactory preservation: olfactory reconstruction of Philip Johnson’s Glass House; interior restoration and olfactory reconstruction of the Arts Club in Mayfair, London; and the creation process of the perfume brand Arquiste, a meaningful example which relocates the olfactory reconstruction context. These critical analyses raise the question of scent in historic buildings as a value in itself.

  15. Historic Hydroclimatic Variability in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Villanueva-Diaz; J. Cerano-Paredes; D.W. Stahle; B. H. Luckman; M.D. Therrell; M.K. Cleaveland; G. Gutierrez-Garcia

    2006-01-01

    The understanding of historic hydroclimatic variability is basic to plan for a proper management of limited water resources in northern Mexico. The objective of this study was to develop a network of tree-ring chronologies for climate reconstruction and to analyze the influence of circulatory patterns, such as ENSO. Climatic sensitive treering chronologies were...

  16. Historic and Cultural Roots of Apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonco, Seshi

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the historical and cultural roots of the South African system of apartheid. Covers early Dutch settlement, the Anglo-Boer War, the Native Land Act of 1913, and the rise of the National Party. Concludes with a discussion of the different perspectives held by black and white South Africans on the "progress" made in recent years.…

  17. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives across Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Daan; Garbacea, Cristina; Schoegje, Thomas; Hollink, Laura; de Boer, Victor; Ribbens, Kees; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  18. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives Across Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Gârbacea, C.; Schoegje, T.; Hollink, L.; de Boer, V.; Ribbens, K.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Kapidakis, S.; Mazurek, C.; Werla, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  19. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regard to height, scale, proportion, rhythm, texture, materials, architectural detail, and the amount of variety among the structures with respect to these qualities as well as style and date of erection) to ensure that these structures maintain their historic or architectural integrity, but will not necessarily...

  20. Regional identities of Czech historical lands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, Antonín; Zapletalová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2016), s. 15-25 ISSN 2064-5031 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : regional identity * administrative division * historical lands * Bohemia * Moravia - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.mtafki.hu/konyvtar/kiadv/HunGeoBull2016/HunGeoBull_65_1_2.pdf

  1. Mentoring in nursing: a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, W L

    1991-01-01

    Most nurses today have or have had mentors. Several historical nurse leaders also had mentors. Florence Nightingale's mentor gave her the opportunity to work as a nurse during the Crimean War. Linda Richards, Mary Adelaide Nutting, and Annie Goodrich were all encouraged by their respective mentors to develop professionally.

  2. Historical ecology: past, present and future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2015), s. 997-1014 ISSN 1464-7931 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : interdisciplinarity * human -nature interactions * historical ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 10.725, year: 2015

  3. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  4. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM. This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL that supports higher level of details (LoD while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we’ll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  5. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  6. Historical emissions critical for mapping decarbonization pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, J.; Kopp, R. E.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2016-12-01

    Policymakers have set a goal of limiting temperature increase from human influence on the climate. This motivates the identification of decarbonization pathways to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2. In this context, the future behavior of CO2 sources and sinks define the CO2 emissions necessary to meet warming thresholds with specified probabilities. We adopt a simple model of the atmosphere-land-ocean carbon balance to reflect uncertainty in how natural CO2 sinks will respond to increasing atmospheric CO2 and temperature. Bayesian inversion is used to estimate the probability distributions of selected parameters of the carbon model. Prior probability distributions are chosen to reflect the behavior of CMIP5 models. We then update these prior distributions by running historical simulations of the global carbon cycle and inverting with observationally-based inventories and fluxes of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean and atmosphere. The result is a best-estimate of historical CO2 sources and sinks and a model of how CO2 sources and sinks will vary in the future under various emissions scenarios, with uncertainty. By linking the carbon model to a simple climate model, we calculate emissions pathways and carbon budgets consistent with meeting specific temperature thresholds and identify key factors that contribute to remaining uncertainty. In particular, we show how the assumed history of CO2 emissions from land use change (LUC) critically impacts estimates of the strength of the land CO2 sink via CO2 fertilization. Different estimates of historical LUC emissions taken from the literature lead to significantly different parameterizations of the carbon system. High historical CO2 emissions from LUC lead to a more robust CO2 fertilization effect, significantly lower future atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and an increased amount of CO2 that can be emitted to satisfy temperature stabilization targets. Thus, in our model, historical LUC emissions have a

  7. The Historical Foundations of Religious Restrictions in Contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP abolished its total ban on religious activities in 1982. However, the distrust that the CCP feels for religions remains obvious today, and the religious restrictions in contemporary China remain tight. Conventional wisdom tells us that the official atheist ideology of Marxism-Leninism is the main reason behind the CCP’s distrust for, and restriction of, religion. However, taking a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper argues that the religious restrictions in contemporary China are in fact rooted in the fierce political struggles of the country’s two major revolutions in the first half of the twentieth century. Without the support of religious groups, the Nationalist Republicans would have found it difficult to survive and succeed in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty during the Chinese Republican Revolution in the first decade of the twentieth century. Likewise, without cooperating with a wide range of religious groups, the CCP would have struggled to defeat the Nationalist regime and the Japanese invaders in the Chinese Communist Revolution between 1920s and 1940s. Thanks to the collaborations and struggles with various religious groups during the two revolutions which lead to its eventual ascent to power, the CCP thoroughly understands the organisational strength and mobilising capability embedded within religious groups. The tight restrictions on religious affairs in contemporary China is therefore likely to stem from the CCP’s worry that prospective competitors could mobilise religious groups to challenge its rule through launching, supporting, or sponsoring collective actions.

  8. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  9. 75 FR 5627 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    .../10/09 NEW YORK Greene County Brandow, William, House, 480 Rt. 385, Athens vicinity, 09000908, Listed... Blackstone Boulevard-Cole Avenue-Grotto Avenue Historic District, Roughly bounded by Blackstone Blvd., Cole...

  10. Survivability Assessment: Modeling A Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Paputungan, Irving Vitra; Abdullah, Azween

    2009-01-01

    Survivability is the ability of a system to continue operating, in a timely manner, in the presence ofattacks, failures, or accidents. Recovery in survivability is a process of a system to heal or recover from damageas early as possible to fulfill its mission as condition permit. In this paper, we show a preliminary recoverymodel to enhance the system survivability. The model focuses on how we preserve the system and resumes itscritical service under attacks as soon as possible.Keywords: surv...

  11. Historical Inflation Program. A Computer Program Generating Historical Inflation Indices for Army Aircraft. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Helicopter, Helicopter Cost Growth, Historical Cost, Historical Inflation R~ates, Indexes, Inflation ( Economic ), Methodology, Model, , Prices, Procurement...Producer Price Index and hourly: wace data were suzplied by the Kansas City Regional office of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. The...most closely related commodities. To minimize the effect from related commodities which have relatively little economic impact, each price per pound

  12. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods.

  13. Survival after stereotactic biopsy of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, R.J.; Lunsford, L.D.; Taylor, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    For many patients with malignant gliomas in inaccessible or functionally important locations, stereotactic biopsy followed by radiation therapy (RT) may be a more appropriate initial treatment than craniotomy and tumor resection. We studied the long term survival in 91 consecutive patients with malignant gliomas diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: 64 had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and 27 had anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Sixty-four per cent of the GBMs and 33% of the AAs involved deep or midline cerebral structures. The treatment prescribed after biopsy, the tumor location, the histological findings, and the patient's age at presentation (for AAs) were statistically important factors determining patient survival. If adequate RT (tumor dose of 5000 to 6000 cGy) was not prescribed, the median survival was less than or equal to 11 weeks regardless of tumor histology or location. The median survival for patients with deep or midline tumors who completed RT was similar in AA (19.4 weeks) and GBM (27 weeks) cases. Histology was an important predictor of survival only for patients with adequately treated lobar tumors. The median survival in lobar GBM patients who completed RT was 46.9 weeks, and that in lobar AA patients who completed RT was 129 weeks. Cytoreductive surgery had no statistically significant effect on survival. Among the clinical factors examined, age of less than 40 years at presentation was associated with prolonged survival only in AA patients. Constellations of clinical features, tumor location, histological diagnosis, and treatment prescribed were related to survival time

  14. Clustered survival data with left-truncation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Frank; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Left-truncation occurs frequently in survival studies, and it is well known how to deal with this for univariate survival times. However, there are few results on how to estimate dependence parameters and regression effects in semiparametric models for clustered survival data with delayed entry....... Surprisingly, existing methods only deal with special cases. In this paper, we clarify different kinds of left-truncation and suggest estimators for semiparametric survival models under specific truncation schemes. The large-sample properties of the estimators are established. Small-sample properties...

  15. Surviving severe traumatic brain injury in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Lene; Poulsen, Ingrid; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify all hospitalized patients surviving severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Denmark and to compare these patients to TBI patients admitted to highly specialized rehabilitation (HS-rehabilitation). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients surviving severe TBI were identified from...... severe TBI were admitted to HS-rehabilitation. Female sex, older age, and non-working status pre-injury were independent predictors of no HS-rehabilitation among patients surviving severe TBI. CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of hospitalized patients surviving severe TBI was stable in Denmark...

  16. Assessing historical empathy through simulation – How do Finnish teacher students achieve contextual historical empathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Rantala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international debate about introducing historical empathy as the focus in teaching history. However, as it is, the contents of the concept have been included in the curricula in many countries. Nevertheless, practising stepping into the shoes of a person from a previous era is still in its infancy in schools in many locations – Finland included. This article discusses Finnish class teacher students' understanding of historical empathy. The article is based on a study where 360 class teacher students played a game simulating the Cuban Missile Crisis. Their task was to assume the roles of the superpower leaders and make decisions on the basis of these roles. The simulation showed that a majority of the student teachers are able to attain a level of contextual historical empathy. They were able to empathize with the historical context in question and make such decisions that would have been possible for the historical actors. Some of the playing groups on the other hand, referred to their current knowledge and attitudes, which, according to Ashby and Lee's empathy classification, shows lower-level empathy. The study corroborates previous research results concerning great discrepancies in the understanding of empathy prevalent within one age group. Moreover, the study raises the question of how historical empathy should be handled in teaching if many future teachers have difficulties in understanding it.

  17. Improving Survival in Decompensated Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nath Mukerji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in cirrhosis is consequent of decompensation, only treatment being timely liver transplantation. Organ allocation is prioritized for the sickest patients based on Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD score. In order to improve survival in patients with high MELD score it is imperative to preserve them in suitable condition till transplantation. Here we examine means to prolong life in high MELD score patients till a suitable liver is available. We specially emphasize protection of airways by avoidance of sedatives, avoidance of Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure, elective intubation in grade III or higher encephalopathy, maintaining a low threshold for intubation with lesser grades of encephalopathy when undergoing upper endoscopy or colonoscopy as pre transplant evaluation or transferring patient to a transplant center. Consider post-pyloric tube feeding in encephalopathy to maintain muscle mass and minimize risk of aspiration. In non intubated and well controlled encephalopathy, frequent physical mobility by active and passive exercises are recommended. When renal replacement therapy is needed, night-time Continuous Veno-Venous Hemodialysis may be useful in keeping the daytime free for mobility. Sparing and judicious use of steroids needs to be borne in mind in treatment of ARDS and acute hepatitis from alcohol or autoimmune process.

  18. Survival Strategies: LCTLs in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Manley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an example of successful curriculum de-velopment and methodology for the study of the Quechua language at the university level. This recipe for success falls in line with rec-ommendations made by the MLA Ad Hoc Committee on Foreign Languages, as expressed in their May 2007 report, “Foreign Lan-guages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World”, and may be applied to the case of other LCTLs. This paper argues that, while the MLA’s report was intended for a general audi-ence of foreign language educators, its recommendations are especial-ly vital to the study of the less commonly taught languages. Among the many recommendations included in the report, two in particular stand out as being most essential to the survival of the LCTLs. These are an increase in interdisciplinary courses and inter-departmental alliances as well as a greater integration of cultural study in foreign language teaching.

  19. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  20. The Patagonian scallop fishing grounds in shelf break frontal areas: the non assessed benthic fraction Bancos de pesca de vieira patagónica en áreas del frente de talud: fracción bentónica no evaluada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Picard dredge was used to sample the benthic community in shelf break frontal areas off Argentina in order to detect species that could be sensitive to fishing activities but are not usually caught during the annual monitoring of Patagonian scallop and associated fauna. The present results show at least 62 taxa not reported previously as components of the benthos in the scallop grounds that are potentially subjected to trawling disturbance.En este trabajo se utilizó una rastra Picard para muestrear la comunidad bentónica en áreas del frente de talud, Argentina, para detectar especies que serían sensibles a la actividad pesquera pero no son capturadas usualmente durante los monitoreos anuales de vieira patagónica y fauna asociada. Los resultados muestran que al menos 62 taxa, no reportados previamente como componentes del bentos en los bancos de vieira, están potencialmente sujetos a perturbaciones por el arrastre.

  1. Comparison of historical documents for writership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.

  2. An evolution of orchiopexy: historical aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwanjin; Choi, Hwang

    2010-03-01

    The history of treatment for cryptorchidism dates back more than 200 years. This review is intended to highlight some historical aspect that led us to our current surgical treatment of this condition. The medical and historical surgical literatures pertaining to cryptorchidism were reviewed. Data sources were PubMed, Embase, conference proceedings, and bibliographies. No language, date, or publication status restrictions were imposed. The study of cryptorchidism began with the anatomical descriptions of Baron Albrecht von Haller and John Hunter. Attempts at surgical correction of the undescended testis began in the early 1800s, culminating in the first successful orchiopexy by Thomas Annandale in 1877. Max Schüller, Arthur Dean Bevan and Lattimer contributed to the establishment of current techniques for standard orchiopexy. Later, laparoscopy, high inguinal incision (Jones' approach) and scrotal approach were added to the list of current orchiopexy.

  3. Comparative Studies: historical, epistemological and methodological notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Piovani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article some historical, epistemological and methodological issues related to comparative studies in the social sciences are addressed, with specific reference to the field of education. The starting point is a discussion of the meaning of comparison, its logical structure and its presence in science and in everyday life. It follows the presentation and critical appraisal of the perspectives regarding comparison as a scientific method. It is argued that, even rejecting this restrictive meaning of comparison as a method, there is some consensus on the specificity of comparative studies within the social sciences. And in relation to them, the article address in more detail those studies that can be defined as trans-contextual (cross-national and cross-cultural, with emphasis on the main methodological and technical challenges they face. The socio-historical comparative perspective, which has gained importance in recent years in the field of education, is also discussed.

  4. Liability of Foreignness in Historical Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2014-01-01

    vis-à-vis local firms and raise doubts about the assumption that more distance necessarily translates into higher costs. This article adds to this criticism with a historical analysis of German multinational enterprises in preindependence India. The case proves (1) the relevance of specific......Much of international business literature has dealt with the costs of engaging in business abroad. Recently, several authors have called into question the basic assumptions of the “liability of foreignness” argument. They plead for a more nuanced look at nationality beyond the dichotomy of foreign...... with nationality are, thus making a thorough historical analysis of commercial, political, and cultural links between host and home country indispensable....

  5. [Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-02-01

    Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba), contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice.

  6. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba, contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice.

  7. Scanning and georeferencing historical USGS quadrangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Davis, Larry R.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the Historical Topographic Map Collection in 2011, is to provide access to a digital repository of USGS topographic maps that is available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of traditional topographic maps, and, prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic process. The next generation of topographic maps, US Topo, is being released by the USGS in digital form, and newer technologies make it possible to also deliver historical maps in the same electronic format that is more publicly accessible.

  8. Postmodernism, historical denial, and history education:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Parkes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available History educators frequently ignore, or engage only reluctantly and cautiously with postmodernism. This is arguably because postmodernism is frequently accused of assaulting the epistemological foundations of history as an academic discipline, fostering a climate of cultural relativism, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, and providing fertile ground for historical denial. In the Philosophy of History discipline, Frank Ankersmit has become one of those scholars most closely associated with ‘postmodern history’. This paper explores Ankersmit’s ‘postmodern’ philosophy of history, particularly his key notion of ‘narrative substances’; what it might do for our approach to a problem such as historical denial; and what possibilities it presents for history didactics.

  9. Historical Network Analysis of the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses some of the fundamental methodological challenges related to doing historical network analyses of the web based on material in web archives. Since the late 1990s many countries have established extensive national web archives, and software supported network analysis...... of the online web has for a number of years gained currency within Internet studies. However, the combination of these two phenomena—historical network analysis of material in web archives—can at best be characterized as an emerging new area of study. Most of the methodological challenges within this new area...... revolve around the specific nature of archived web material. On the basis of an introduction to the processes involved in web archiving as well as of the characteristics of archived web material, the article outlines and scrutinizes some of the major challenges which may arise when doing network analysis...

  10. Economics of Historic Preservation: Dollars and Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D. ALLEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The built environment expresses diversity, identity, individuality, and differentiation. In economics, it is the differentiated product that commands a monetary premium. Historic preservation protects our diverse building stock while creating more construction jobs, returning under-utilized buildings to the tax rolls, attracting heritage tourists, and maximizing the use of existing infrastructure. It has been said that the greenest building is the one that is already built. Four out of five existing buildings will be renovated over the next generation while two new buildings are added. With an overwhelming vastness of existing building stock, this becomes the elephant in the room. We cannot build our way to sustainability but must conserve our way to it. Economically, this makes good sense. Historic preservation, sustainability and conservation go hand in hand to protect our built environment while providing healthy, aesthetically pleasing buildings in which to live, work, and play, thus growing the local economy.

  11. Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    with the present state building. Next step is to identify what historic conditions that should be reconstructions, especially architectural details, surface materials, obstacles, textiles, performing persons and audience, and typical sounds or music. The computer model is then modified according to these data......The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some...... of the difficulties involved. If the building exists as a whole or partly the first step is collection of geometrical and architectural data from the site. The level of detail may be huge, e.g. if laser scanning is used for providing the geometrical data, and some degree of simplification may be necessary...

  12. Segeberg 1600 - Reconstructing a Historic Town for Virtual Reality Visualisation as AN Immersive Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggim, S.; Kersten, T. P.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Hinrichsen, N.

    2017-11-01

    The 3D reconstruction of historic buildings and cities offers an opportunity to experience the history of relevant objects and their development over the centuries. Digital visualisations of such historic objects allow for a more natural view of history as well as showing information that is not possible in a real world setting. New presentation forms, such as the virtual reality (VR) system HTC Vive, can be used to disseminate information in another dimension and simplify the access by changing the user's viewpoint from a listener and viewer into being an integrated part of an interactive situation. In general, this approach is a combination of education and entertainment, also known as "edutainment" or "gamification", a term used in the education sector as describing where motivation to learn is encouraged through adding a competitive element. It is thus a step away from simple consumption of information towards experiencing information and a more literal interpretation of "living history". In this contribution, we present the development of a 3D reconstruction of the two towns Segeberg and Gieschenhagen (today: Bad Segeberg) in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany in the Early Modern Age around 1600. The historic landscape and its conversion from a reconstructed virtual town model into an interactive VR application is also described. The reconstruction is based on a recent digital terrain model as well as survey data of surviving buildings, historic visual information based on historic drawings and written accounts from that era. All datasets are combined to a single walkable virtual world that spans approximately 3 km2.

  13. SEGEBERG 1600 – RECONSTRUCTING A HISTORIC TOWN FOR VIRTUAL REALITY VISUALISATION AS AN IMMERSIVE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deggim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of historic buildings and cities offers an opportunity to experience the history of relevant objects and their development over the centuries. Digital visualisations of such historic objects allow for a more natural view of history as well as showing information that is not possible in a real world setting. New presentation forms, such as the virtual reality (VR system HTC Vive, can be used to disseminate information in another dimension and simplify the access by changing the user’s viewpoint from a listener and viewer into being an integrated part of an interactive situation. In general, this approach is a combination of education and entertainment, also known as “edutainment” or “gamification”, a term used in the education sector as describing where motivation to learn is encouraged through adding a competitive element. It is thus a step away from simple consumption of information towards experiencing information and a more literal interpretation of “living history”. In this contribution, we present the development of a 3D reconstruction of the two towns Segeberg and Gieschenhagen (today: Bad Segeberg in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany in the Early Modern Age around 1600. The historic landscape and its conversion from a reconstructed virtual town model into an interactive VR application is also described. The reconstruction is based on a recent digital terrain model as well as survey data of surviving buildings, historic visual information based on historic drawings and written accounts from that era. All datasets are combined to a single walkable virtual world that spans approximately 3 km².

  14. Performer rights and responsibilities in historical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 2014, fortepianist and Mozart specialist John Irving recorded a CD of solo keyboard sonatas by Joseph Haydn, using a modern copy of a Viennese fortepiano of Haydn’s era. This is an account of the project written from the performer’s perspective, examining some relevant issues of historical performance practice, organology, and detailed reflections upon the performer’s preparations (of various musical and technical kinds for the recording.

  15. Historical perspectives on evidence-based nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyea, Suzanne C; Slattery, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The authors of this article offer a review and historical perspective on research utilization and evidence-based practice in nursing. They present the evolution of research utilization to the more contemporary framework of evidence-based nursing practice. The authors address the role of qualitative research in the context of evidence-based practice. Finally, some approaches and resources for learning more about the fundamentals of evidence-based healthcare are provided.

  16. Endoscopic surgery of pituitary adenomas. Historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Azizyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century pituitary surgery has undergone multiple revolutions in surgical technique and technological advancements that have resulted in what is now recognized as modern transsphenoidal surgery. Although the procedure is well established in the current neurosurgical literature, the historical maze that led to its development continues to be of interest because it allows us to appreciate better the unique contributions made by the pioneers of the technique as well as the innovative spirit that continues to fuel neurosurgery.

  17. A historical overview of advertising in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2016-01-01

    Growing number of advertising agencies, substantial increase of advertising budgets of both local and international companies in Serbia and proliferation of advertising messages targeting Serbian consumers in recent years have contributed to a belief that advertising in Serbia has been a brand new phenomenon brought in during its transition to a market economy. The truth however is quite different. Therefore, the paper aims to show and discuss historical evidence confirming that advertising p...

  18. Solution of Fire Protection in Historic Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iringová, Agnes; Idunk, Róbert

    2016-12-01

    The paper introduces optimization of the functional use of renovated spaces in historic buildings in terms of fire risk. It brings assessment of fire protection in the folk house Habánsky Dvor, situated in the village of Veľké Leváre, whose function was changed into the museum. It goes into static analysis of existing load-bearing structures and assessment of their fire resistance according to Eurocodes.

  19. Artificial Heart Research: An Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Rayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper tracks the historical evolution of artificial heart technology, from its humble beginnings, to its relatively staggering current potential. While examining various milestones along this fascinating timeline, the paper attempts to shed light on some of the ethical, economic, and social dilemmas that have infused this history. In doing so, it strives to provide the reader with a sense of the various factors, some technical in nature and others purely societal, that have wielded influ...

  20. Historic Building Inventory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    installation into compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of i9bo ana its amendments, and related federal laws and regulations. To this ena, the...century. OLD BALTIMORE The first formal authorization for the establishment of a Court House was the 1674 Act of Assembly for the construction of a Court...official recorded meeting at the Court House was in 1692, at which Thomas Heath, innkeeper , filed suit for expenses incurreo by tne Justices at the 1687

  1. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    OpenAIRE

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descrip...

  2. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  3. Historical Footage of John Glenn Friendship 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    The Friendship mission launch on the 20th day of February marked the first time that an American attempts to orbit the Earth. Historical footage of John Glenn's suit up, ride out to the launch pad, countdown, liftoff, booster engine cutoff, and separation of the booster engine escape tower is shown. Views of the Earth, Glenn's manual control of the electrical fly-by wire system, and the recovery of the landing vehicle from the ocean are presented.

  4. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...

  5. Flood damage to historic buildings and structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2010), s. 439-445 ISSN 0887-3828 Grant - others:evropská komise(XE) FP6 Project cultural heritage protection against flood CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood impact * historic structures * damage category Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.293, year: 2010

  6. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Irwin

    2017-01-01

    American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more cur...

  7. The historical development of radiation protection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The present internationally largely corresponding radiation protection limits are based on recommendations given by the ICRP in 1965. In order to better understand the underlying concepts, a historical sketch of the development is presented including actual discussions of trends to be excepted. Although exposure of healthy individuals by man-made sources up to these maximum levels is legally permissible, it should be emphasized again and again that any unavoidable exposure must be justified by the need for its associated cause. (author)

  8. Masers and lasers an historical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the progress of research and practical use of lasers chronologically, covering the fundamental science in detail alongside fascinating biographical sketches of famous physicists and summaries of seminal papers. It supplies helpful drawings of prototype devices, conceptual diagrams to aid in understanding, and remarkable historical photographs. The Second Edition features new chapters on ultrashort pulse lasers and nonlinear optics, incorporates the latest developments and insights from key scientists, and includes extensive updates on fiber lasers, amplifiers, ultraviolet an

  9. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  10. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2009-12-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with 'expert' classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how 'Schneiderian' symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured.

  11. Nationalist Netizens in China: Online Historical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Bislev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government is currently performing a delicate act of balance: attempting to foster a "healthy" nationalism among the young generation in China while, at the same time, having to deal with the at times rather loud and uncompromising expression of this nationalism online. By examining examples of online debates on issues of national interest; in this case the Spratly Islands and the animosity between a Chinese and a Japanese child, this article discusses the use of historical imagery in online historical debates and demonstrates a linkage between the version of Chinese history promulgated in the so-called patriotic education campaign and the rhetoric used online. Even though the viewpoints expressed in the two debates vary widely, the central theme of how to deal with China’s past plays a strong role in both debates. I argue that though the Chinese government has been rather successful in promoting this reliance on a certain historical perspective to understand present day China’s place in the world, the online nationalist expressions take on a life of their own partly due to China’s very special internet culture.

  12. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  13. Historical gardens of the Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegedűs Noémi Melitta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of a frequently seen phenomenon, which is the loss of value as far as some buildings and their surroundings are concerned, which, at the moment of their construction, held great historical and architectural value, but in time they have gradually lost their value due to political, social, and cultural changes. In the Banat region of the first half of the 19th century, we can remark the dominance of the neoclassical style. The parks of the Banat region, apart from their role of satisfying the visual aesthetic appearances, are very well adapted to the place. They are unique, but the pattern after which they were conceived is common, according to the fashion of the era in which they were created. The subject of the research develops around the historical gardens belonging to certain historical monuments. The aim of researching these landscape arrangements is the investigation of the present-day situation and their evolution that has led to their actual transformation.

  14. Shifting paradigms in the estimation of survival for castration-resistant prostate cancer: A tertiary academic center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mehran; Evison, Felicity; James, Nicholas D; Patel, Prashant

    2015-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has retained a guarded prognosis, with historical survival estimates of 18 to 24 months. However, the landscape of available therapy has changed, and the emphasis has altered from supportive to active treatment. Few large series from real-world populations exist in the contemporary era with fully mature survival data to confirm the indication based on clinical trials that patients with CRPC are surviving far longer than the historical estimates. We aim to review a large patient cohort with CRPC and provide mature survival data. Using the electronic histopathology database at Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK, all prostate-specific antigentest results between April 2006 and September 2007 were extracted, and patients satisfying the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) definition of hormone failure were identified. Electronic records were reviewed and variables were collected, including survival, treatment, biochemistry, histopathology, and demographics. Probability of survival, and of developing metastasis or CRPC, was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were stratified into 3 groups, namely, D0--no metastasis at diagnosis but later appearance, D1--no metastasis at diagnosis or at last follow-up, and D2--metastasis at diagnosis. From 8,062 patient-prostate-specific antigen episodes, we identified 447 patients meeting the criteria. A notes review revealed 147 patients with CRPC. Median overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was 84.7 months (95% CI: 73-89), and 129 deaths had occurred (88%). Median OS from diagnosis for D0, D1, and D2 patients was 100.4, 180.1, and 58.9 months, respectively (Pdata benefit clinicians and patients in understanding prognosis and treatment choices. Importantly, our patients were diagnosed before the current wave of novel therapeutics for CRPC, so survival for men diagnosed today may be more than our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods and...

  16. Learners as Historians: Making History Come Alive through Historical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2007-01-01

    Historians explore historical accounts, memoirs, diaries, letters, newspaper articles, speeches, historical documents, relevant legislation, maps, ship manifests, genealogical records, official certificates, photographs, and paintings. In short, historians examine any official or unofficial document that might provide relevant information about…

  17. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  18. Testing a pedagogy for promoting historical contextualization in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented

  19. The historical theme in the poetry of Esenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunarikova P. H.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the historical theme in the poetry of Esenin. The author explores in his work historical problems in poetry Esenin, shows the role of the poet in contemporary Russia.

  20. ISLSCP II Historical Croplands Cover, 1700-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Historical Croplands Cover data set was developed to understand the consequences of historical changes in land use and land cover for ecosystem goods...