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Sample records for surviving fraction sf

  1. Tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    H.D Thames, Jr. and H.R. Withers propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data

  2. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on proliferation and survival of Sf9 cells: radioresistance in a Lepidopteran insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, R.K.; Lovell, K.V.; Reynolds, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Sf9 cells of Spodoptera frugiperda, when exposed to gamma-irradiation from a 60 Co source, were found markedly less sensitive to ionising radiation than mammalian cells in terms of both growth kinetics and survival. Following irradiation at 1.2 Gy S -1 there was a dose-dependent delay in Sf9 cell proliferation and plateau cell density was reduced. These effects were dependent on dose rate too. In the range 0.3 - 1.2 Gy s -1 , growth was delayed longer and reached a lower plateau with increasing dose rate. Exposure to radiation caused a decrease in adherence of cells to the substrate, and an increase in number of enlarged ('giant') cells. Analysis of colony formation after irradiation at 1.2 Gy s -1 gave a survival curve of conventional shape but with a very large D o value of 24 Gy. Extrapolation number (N) was 2.9, a value within the normal range for mammalian cells. At 0.12 Gy s -1 N had a similar value of 3.2, but D o was higher (30 Gy) than at the higher dose rate. This study indicates that the relative insensitivity of lepidoptera insects may be attributed to some extent to the intrinsic properties of their constituent cells. (author)

  4. Prolongation of experimental islet transplant survival by fractionated splenic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.; Casanova, M.; Largiader, F.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments designed to delay the rejection of intrasplenic pancreatic fragment allotransplants in dogs showed increased transplant survival times from 3.1 days (controls) to 5.5 days with fractionated splenic irradiation and to 7.5 days with combined local irradiation and immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Drug treatment alone had no beneficial effect

  5. Evaluation of surviving fraction using nonclonogenic staining densitometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Iku; Ogawa, Koichi; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1994-01-01

    This study was performed to compare our nonclonogenic survival assay (densitometry assay, DM assay) with the widely used clonogenic assay. The established cell lines (HaLa, RMUG, IMR, GOTO) were grown in F 10 medium. The cells were spread in 24-well plates, irradiated with different doses, cultured for about one week and stained with crystal violet after the culture period. Taking the transparent images of the stained well on the light source with the CCD camera, the images were collected with the matrix size 64 x 64, and the integrated optical density of the entire surface of each well was determined by computer with our original program. As the number of cells in the well is reflected by its staining density, the surviving fraction was calculated as the fraction of growth in the irradiated wells relative to controls. The survival curves obtained by the densitometry method showed good correlations with those obtained by clonogenic assay. It is possible to predict intrinsic radiosensitivity with this assay, even if the cells do not form good colonies. However, this method is based on measurements in cultures which depend on the metabolism and growth kinetics of the irradiated cells. Cells should grow exponetially in the same manner in any well to obtain a result similar to that of clonogenic assay, although growth kinetics may be altered by irradiation. This, the endpoint must be strictly standardized. (author)

  6. On the surviving fraction in irradiated multicellular tumour spheroids: calculation of overall radiosensitivity parameters, influence of hypoxia and volume effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horas, Jorge A; Olguin, Osvaldo R; Rizzotto, Marcos G

    2005-01-01

    We model the heterogeneous response to radiation of multicellular tumour spheroids assuming position- and volume-dependent radiosensitivity. We propose a method to calculate the overall radiosensitivity parameters to obtain the surviving fraction of tumours. A mathematical model of a spherical tumour with a hypoxic core and a viable rim which is a caricature of a real tumour is constructed. The model is embedded in a two-compartment linear-quadratic (LQ) model, assuming a mixed bivariated Gaussian distribution to attain the radiosensitivity parameters. Ergodicity, i.e., the equivalence between ensemble and volumetric averages is used to obtain the overall radiosensitivities for the two compartments. We obtain expressions for the overall radiosensitivity parameters resulting from the use of both a linear and a nonlinear dependence of the local radiosensitivity with position. The model's results are compared with experimental data of surviving fraction (SF) for multicellular spheroids of different sizes. We make one fit using only the smallest spheroid data and we are able to predict the SF for the larger spheroids. These predictions are acceptable particularly using bounded sensitivities. We conclude with the importance of taking into account the contribution of clonogenic hypoxic cells to radiosensitivity and with the convenience of using bounded local sensitivities to predict overall radiosensitivity parameters

  7. Test of equal effect per fraction and estimation of initial clonogen number in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thames, H.D.; Withers, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    In the use of multifraction microcolony assays to infer the low-dose response of in situ renewal systems such as intestinal crypts, the assumption of equal effect per dose fraction is required. Moreover, the construction of a cell-survival curve requires knowledge of the initial count of cells capable of repopulating each renewal structure. We describe a method of designing fractionation protocols which provides a regression estimate of the initial number of clonogens per renewal structure and a test of the hypothesis of equal effect per fraction. The essential factor in the experimental design is the use of common dose fractions (use of the same dose per fraction in series with different numbers of fractions). Applications of the method to data for which the assumption of equal effect per fraction holds (four-hour fractionation interval murine testis study) and does not hold (one-hour fractionation interval murine jejunal crypt study) are presented. (author)

  8. The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzidic, S.; Salaj-Smic, E.; Trgovcevic, Z.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between survival and mutagenesis in Escherichia coli after fractionated ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied. The cells were incubated either in buffer or nutrient media. Regardless of incubation conditions, greater survival is observed after fractionated irradiation than after acute irradiation. When the cells are incubated in buffer, UV mutagenesis decreases with an increase in the number of dose fractions. However, when the cells are cultivated in nutrient media, the increased survival is coupled with the enhanced capacity for UV mutagenesis. The authors, therefore, assume that during incubation in nutrient media, fractionated irradiation leads to full and prolonged expression of all UV inducible (SOS) genes, including those required for mutagenesis. (Auth.)

  9. Area-based cell colony surviving fraction evaluation: A novel fully automatic approach using general-purpose acquisition hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Rundo, Leonardo; Conti, Vincenzo; Minafra, Luigi; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Porcino, Nunziatina

    2017-10-01

    The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent. Considering that the Area Covered by Colony (ACC) is proportional to the colony number and size as well as to the growth rate, we propose a novel fully automatic approach exploiting Circle Hough Transform, to automatically detect the wells in the plate, and local adaptive thresholding, which calculates the percentage of ACC for the SF quantification. This measurement relies just on this covering percentage and does not consider the colony number, preventing inconsistencies due to intra- and inter-operator variability. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we compared the SFs obtained by our automatic ACC-based method against the conventional counting procedure. The achieved results (r = 0.9791 and r = 0.9682 on MCF7 and MCF10A cells, respectively) showed values highly correlated with the measurements using the traditional approach based on colony number alone. The proposed computer-assisted methodology could be integrated in laboratory practice as an expert system for the SF evaluation in clonogenic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The survival of patients with heart failure with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF).......A substantial proportion of patients with heart failure have preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Previous studies have reported mixed results whether survival is similar to those patients with heart failure and reduced EF (HF-REF)....

  11. The influence of fractionation on cell survival and premature differentiation after carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Li Renming; Guo Chuanling; Fournier, C.; K-Weyrather, W.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the influence of fractionation on cell survival and radiation induced premature differentiation as markers for early and late effects after X-rays and carbon irradiation. Normal human fibroblasts NHDF, AG1522B and WI-38 were irradiated with 250 kV X-rays, or 266 MeV/u, 195 MeV/u and 11 MeV/u carbon ions. Cytotoxicity was measured by a clonogenic survival assay or by determination of the differentiation pattern. Experiments with high-energy carbon ions show that fractionation induced repair effects are similar to photon irradiation. The relative biological effective (RBE) 10 values for clonogenic survival are 1.3 and 1.6 for irradiation in one or two fractions for NHDF cells and around 1.2 for AG1522B cells regardless of the fractionation scheme. The RBE for a doubling of post mitotic fibroblasts (PMF) in the population is 1 for both single and two fractionated irradiation of NHDF cells. Using 11 MeV/u carbon ions, no repair effect can be seen in WI-38 cells. The RBE 10 for clonogenic survival is 3.2 for single irradiation and 4.9 for two fractionated irradiations. The RBE for a doubling of PMF is 3.1 and 5.0 for single and two fractionated irradiations, respectively. For both cell lines the effects of high-energy carbon ions representing the irradiation of the skin and the normal tissue in the entrance channel are similar to the effects of X-rays. The fractionation effects are maintained. For the lower energy, which is representative for the irradiation of the tumor region, RBE is enhanced for clonogenic survival as well as for premature terminal differentiation. Fractionation effects are not detectable. Consequently, the therapeutic ratio is significantly enhanced by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions. (author)

  12. Altered fractionated radiotherapy has a survival benefit for head and neck cancers. Is it true?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Sakai, Mitsuhiro; Araki, Hitoshi; Doi, Katsuyuki; Asano, Takanori; Fujikawa, Akira

    2007-01-01

    There was a significant survival benefit with altered fractionated radiotherapy, corresponding to an absolute benefit of 3.4% at 5 years. The benefit was significantly higher with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (8% at 5 years) than with accelerated radiotherapy (2% with accelerated fractionation without total dose reduction and 1.7% with total dose reduction at 5 years). The effect was greater for the primary tumor than for nodal disease. The effect was also more pronounced in younger patients and in those with good performance status. Hyperfractionation seemed to yield a more consistent advantage for survival than accelerated fractionated radiotherapy. However, accelerated radiotherapy might be associated with higher non-cancer related death. We have to evaluate whether the benefit of hyperfractionated radiotherapy versus standard radiotherapy persists when combined with concomitant chemotherapy and the benefit of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with altered fractionation. (author)

  13. Optimal fractionation for the radiotherapy of tumour cells possessing wide-shouldered survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    A recent publication (Zeitz, L., and McDonald, J.M., 1978, Br. J. Radiol., vol. 51, 637) has considered the use of in vitro survival curves in the evaluation of different treatment schedules. Several studies of oxygenated melanoma cell have demonstrated a wider than average shoulder width for the survival curves. It is possible that hypoxia reduces the width of this shoulder. Theoretical cell survival probabilities were calculated for each of the four treatment schedules considered by Zeitz and McDonald. The calculations were based on hypothetical survival curves for anoxic melanoma cells with the shoulder either fully retained or completely abolished. No allowance was made for either re-population or re-oxygenation. The advantage of small doses per fraction was demonstrated for both types of survival curve. Re-oxygenation during therapy could therefore mean that a non-uniform treatment schedule is the appropriate choice for this type of tumour. (U.K.)

  14. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  15. Fractionation study: survival of mouse intestinal crypts to exposure of 60Co and 11 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine a statistical procedure for the quantification of time, dose, fraction relations for mouse intestinal crypt survival after fractionated Co-60 and 11-MeV electron irradiation. In the initial phase of the investigation CDF/1 male mice were exposed to fractionated Co-60 irradiation. A completely randomized experimental design with three factors, total time from initiation to completion of fractionation schedule, number of fractions, and total dose was utilized. The experimental animals were irradiated with a Co-60 panoramic irradiator unit at an absorbed dose rate of approximately 51 rads per minute. Two days after completion of the fractionation schedule, the experimental animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Sections of intestinal jejunum were resected and routine histological preparations performed. The surviving crypts were scored with a compound microscope using a quantitative counting technique. The resulting crypt survival was observed to increase for increasing total times and fraction numbers

  16. Universal Survival Curve and Single Fraction Equivalent Dose: Useful Tools in Understanding Potency of Ablative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Clint; Papiez, Lech; Zhang Shichuan; Story, Michael; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Overprediction of the potency and toxicity of high-dose ablative radiotherapy such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by the linear quadratic (LQ) model led to many clinicians' hesitating to adopt this efficacious and well-tolerated therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to offer an alternative method of analyzing the effect of SBRT by constructing a universal survival curve (USC) that provides superior approximation of the experimentally measured survival curves in the ablative, high-dose range without losing the strengths of the LQ model around the shoulder. Methods and Materials: The USC was constructed by hybridizing two classic radiobiologic models: the LQ model and the multitarget model. We have assumed that the LQ model gives a good description for conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) for the dose to the shoulder. For ablative doses beyond the shoulder, the survival curve is better described as a straight line as predicted by the multitarget model. The USC smoothly interpolates from a parabola predicted by the LQ model to the terminal asymptote of the multitarget model in the high-dose region. From the USC, we derived two equivalence functions, the biologically effective dose and the single fraction equivalent dose for both CFRT and SBRT. Results: The validity of the USC was tested by using previously published parameters of the LQ and multitarget models for non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. A comparison of the goodness-of-fit of the LQ and USC models was made to a high-dose survival curve of the H460 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Conclusion: The USC can be used to compare the dose fractionation schemes of both CFRT and SBRT. The USC provides an empirically and a clinically well-justified rationale for SBRT while preserving the strengths of the LQ model for CFRT

  17. In vitro cytotoxicity of {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab in human breast cancer cell lines: effect of specific activity and HER2 receptor heterogeneity on survival fraction

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    Akabani, Gamal [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Carlin, Sean [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Welsh, Phil [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: Radioimmunotherapy with anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as trastuzumab is a promising strategy for treating HER2-positive breast and ovarian carcinoma patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effectiveness of trastuzumab labeled with the 7.2-h half-life {alpha}-particle emitter {sup 211}At. Methods: Experiments were performed on SKBr-3, BT-474 and the transfected MCF7/HER2-18 human breast carcinoma cell lines. Intrinsic radiosensitivity was determined after exposure to external beam irradiation. The cytotoxicity of {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab was measured by clonogenic assays. The distribution of HER2 receptor expression on the cell lines was measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A pharmacokinetic (PK)/microdosimetric model was established to assess the effects of specific activity (SA), HER2 receptor expression and absorbed dose on survival fraction (SF). Results: With external beam irradiation, the 2-Gy SF for BT-474, SKBr-3 and MCF7/HER2-18 cells was 0.78, 0.53 and 0.64 Gy, respectively. Heterogeneous HER2 expression was observed, with a subpopulation of cells lacking measurable receptor (14.5%, SKBr-3; 0.34%, MCF-7/HER2; 1.73%, BT-474). When plotted as a function of activity concentration, SF curves were biphasic and inversely proportional to SA; however, when the model was applied and absorbed doses calculated, the SF curve was monoexponential independent of SA. Thus, the PK model was able to demonstrate the effects of competition between cold and labeled mAb. These studies showed that the relative biological effectiveness of {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzaumab was about 10 times higher than that of external beam therapy. Conclusion: These in vitro studies showed that {sup 211}At-labeled trastuzumab mAb is an effective cytotoxic agent for the treatment of HER2-positive tumor cells. The SA of the labeled mAb and the homogeneity of HER2 receptor expression are important variables influencing

  18. Influence of radiation fractionation on survival of mice and spleen colony-forming units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    C57B1/6 mice were given Gy X-rays fractionated in several ways. There was a cyclical pattern of animal survival which was correlated to the fractionation interval and which indicated a periodicity of 6 h. Ten grays given a single dose is fatal to 100% of the mice and depresses the CFU-S to about one per leg with no evidence of proliferation during the remaining life. Ten grays given in 2.5-Gy increments at 24-h intervals causes no fatalities and results in a similar CFU-S depression but is followed by an exponential increase in CFU-S over the ensuing 12 days. Although bone marrow from survivors of such treatment was comparable to control marrow in its capacity for short-term rescue, it was clearly, inferior in its capability for long-term rescue. The periodicity of 6 h suggests that the cells responsible for survival of the mice have been synchronized into more or less radiosensitive and radioresistant stages of the cell cycle as a result of the time between the 25-Gy increments. Implications for the CFU-S and long-term repopulating cells are discussed. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. Prescription dose and fractionation predict improved survival after stereotactic radiotherapy for brainstem metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeman Jonathan E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brainstem metastases represent an uncommon clinical presentation that is associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment options are limited given the unacceptable risks associated with surgical resection in this location. However, without local control, symptoms including progressive cranial nerve dysfunction are frequently observed. The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes associated with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery (SRT/SRS of brainstem metastases. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 38 tumors in 36 patients treated with SRT/SRS between February 2003 and December 2011. Treatment was delivered with the Cyberknife™ or Trilogy™ radiosurgical systems. The median age of patients was 62 (range: 28–89. Primary pathologies included 14 lung, 7 breast, 4 colon and 11 others. Sixteen patients (44% had received whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT prior to SRT/SRS; ten had received prior SRT/SRS at a different site (28%. The median tumor volume was 0.94 cm3 (range: 0.01-4.2 with a median prescription dose of 17 Gy (range: 12–24 delivered in 1–5 fractions. Results Median follow-up for the cohort was 3.2 months (range: 0.4-20.6. Nineteen patients (52% had an MRI follow-up available for review. Of these, one patient experienced local failure corresponding to an actuarial 6-month local control of 93%. Fifteen of the patients with available follow-up imaging (79% experienced intracranial failure outside of the treatment volume. The median time to distant intracranial failure was 2.1 months. Six of the 15 patients with distant intracranial failure (40% had received previous WBRT. The actuarial overall survival rates at 6- and 12-months were 27% and 8%, respectively. Predictors of survival included Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA score, greater number of treatment fractions, and higher prescription dose. Three patients experienced acute treatment-related toxicity consisting of

  20. Single-Fraction Versus 5-Fraction Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Epidural Spinal Cord Compression in Patients With Limited Survival Prognoses: Results of a Matched-Pair Analysis

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    Rades, Dirk, E-mail: Rades.Dirk@gmx.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Lubeck, Lubeck (Germany); Šegedin, Barbara; Perpar, Ana [Department of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Conde, Antonio J.; Garcia, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Consorcio Hospital Provincial de Castellón, Castellón (Spain); Veninga, Theo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dr Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands); Stalpers, Lukas J.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacicedo, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Vizcaya (Spain); Rudat, Volker [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saad Specialist Hospital, Al Khobar (Saudi Arabia); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: This study compared single-fraction to multi-fraction short-course radiation therapy (RT) for symptomatic metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) in patients with limited survival prognosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients who received 8 Gy × 1 fraction were matched (1:1) to 121 patients treated with 4 Gy × 5 fractions for 10 factors including age, sex, performance status, primary tumor type, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, interval between tumor diagnosis and MESCC, pre-RT ambulatory status, and time developing motor deficits prior to RT. Endpoints included in-field repeated RT (reRT) for MESCC, overall survival (OS), and impact of RT on motor function. Univariate analyses were performed with the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test for in-field reRT for MESCC and OS and with the ordered-logit model for effect of RT on motor function. Results: Doses of 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 4 Gy × 5 fractions were not significantly different with respect to the need for in-field reRT for MESCC (P=.11) at 6 months (18% vs 9%, respectively) and 12 months (30% vs 22%, respectively). The RT regimen also had no significant impact on OS (P=.65) and post-RT motor function (P=.21). OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 24% and 9%, respectively, after 8 Gy × 1 fraction versus 25% and 13%, respectively, after 4 Gy × 5 fractions. Improvement of motor function was observed in 17% of patients after 8 Gy × 1 fraction and 23% after 4 Gy × 5 fractions, respectively. Conclusions: There were no significant differences with respect to need for in-field reRT for MESCC, OS, and motor function by dose fractionation regimen. Thus, 8 Gy × 1 fraction may be a reasonable option for patients with survival prognosis of a few months.

  1. Proliferation and clonal survival of human lung cancer cells treated with fractionated irradiation in combination with paclitaxel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Johannes van; Berg, Jaap van den; Meijer, Otto W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to determine the effects of a continuous exposure to paclitaxel (taxol) in combination with fractionated irradiation on cell proliferation and survival. Methods and Materials: Human lung carcinoma cells (SW1573) were given a daily treatment with 3 Gy of x-rays during 5 days in the continuous presence of 5 nM taxol. The surviving fraction and the total number of cells were determined every 24 h before and immediately after irradiation. Results: Irradiation with 5 x 3 Gy and 5 nM taxol cause approximately the same inhibition of cell proliferation. In combination these treatments have an additional effect and the cell population increases no further after the first 24 h. Whereas the cells become more resistant to taxol after the first 24 h with a minimum survival of 42%, taxol progressively reduces the population of surviving cells in combination with x-rays when the number of fractions increases, up to 25-fold relative to irradiation alone. The enhancement effect of 5 nM taxol is likely to be attributed to an inhibition of the repopulation during fractionated irradiation and not to an increased radiosensitivity. Only after treatment with 10 or 100 nM taxol for 24 h, which is attended with a high cytotoxicity, is moderate radiosensitization observed. Conclusion: Taxol, continuously present at a low concentration with little cytotoxicity, causes a progressive reduction of the surviving cell population in combination with fractionated irradiation, mainly by an inhibition of the repopulation of surviving cells between the dose fractions

  2. A two-zone cosmic ray propagation model and its implication of the surviving fraction of radioactive cosmic ray isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.

    1977-01-01

    In cosmic ray propagation calculations one can usually assume a homogeneous distribution of interstellar matter. The crucial astrophysical parameters in these models are: The path length distribution, the age of the cosmic ray particles and the interstellar matter density. These values are interrelated. The surviving fraction of radioactive cosmic ray isotopes is often used to determine a mean matter density of that region, where the cosmic ray particles may mainly reside. Using a Monte Carlo Propagation Program we calculated the change in the surviving fraction quantitatively assuming a region around the sources with higher matter density. (author)

  3. Impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses following exposure to intensity modulated radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Coffey, Caroline B.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    To limit toxicity to normal tissues adjacent to the target tumour volume, radiotherapy is delivered using fractionated regimes whereby the total prescribed dose is given as a series of sequential smaller doses separated by specific time intervals. The impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses was determined in AGO-1522 primary human fibroblasts and MCF-7 breast tumour cells using uniform and modulated exposures delivered using a 225 kVp x-ray source. Responses to fractionated schedules (two equal fractions delivered with time intervals from 4 h to 48 h) were compared to those following acute exposures. Cell survival and DNA damage repair measurements indicate that cellular responses to fractionated non-uniform exposures differ from those seen in uniform exposures for the investigated cell lines. Specifically, there is a consistent lack of repair observed in the out-of-field populations during intervals between fractions, confirming the importance of cell signalling to out-of-field responses in a fractionated radiation schedule, and this needs to be confirmed for a wider range of cell lines and conditions.

  4. Impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses following exposure to intensity modulated radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghita, Mihaela; Butterworth, Karl T; McMahon, Stephen J; Prise, Kevin M; Coffey, Caroline B; Schettino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    To limit toxicity to normal tissues adjacent to the target tumour volume, radiotherapy is delivered using fractionated regimes whereby the total prescribed dose is given as a series of sequential smaller doses separated by specific time intervals. The impact of fractionation on out-of-field survival and DNA damage responses was determined in AGO-1522 primary human fibroblasts and MCF-7 breast tumour cells using uniform and modulated exposures delivered using a 225 kVp x-ray source. Responses to fractionated schedules (two equal fractions delivered with time intervals from 4 h to 48 h) were compared to those following acute exposures. Cell survival and DNA damage repair measurements indicate that cellular responses to fractionated non-uniform exposures differ from those seen in uniform exposures for the investigated cell lines. Specifically, there is a consistent lack of repair observed in the out-of-field populations during intervals between fractions, confirming the importance of cell signalling to out-of-field responses in a fractionated radiation schedule, and this needs to be confirmed for a wider range of cell lines and conditions. (paper)

  5. A survival model for fractionated radiotherapy with an application to prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaider, Marco [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: Zaiderm@mskcc.org; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Leibel, Steven A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Hanin, Leonid G. [Department of Mathematics, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Tsodikov, Alexander D.; Yakovlev, Andrei Y. [Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores the applicability of a mechanistic survival model, based on the distribution of clonogens surviving a course of fractionated radiation therapy, to clinical data on patients with prostate cancer. The study was carried out using data on 1100 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The patients were stratified by radiation dose (group 1: <67.5 Gy; group 2: 67.5-72.5 Gy; group 3: 72.5-77.5 Gy; group 4: 77.5-87.5 Gy) and prognosis category (favourable, intermediate and unfavourable as defined by pre-treatment PSA and Gleason score). A relapse was recorded when tumour recurrence was diagnosed or when three successive prostate specific antigen (PSA) elevations were observed from a post-treatment nadir PSA level. PSA relapse-free survival was used as the primary end point. The model, which is based on an iterated Yule process, is specified in terms of three parameters: the mean number of tumour clonogens that survive the treatment, the mean of the progression time of post-treatment tumour development and its standard deviation. The model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The fact that the proposed model provides an excellent description both of the survivor function and of the hazard rate is prima facie evidence of the validity of the model because closeness of the two survivor functions (empirical and model-based) does not generally imply closeness of the corresponding hazard rates. The estimated cure probabilities for the favourable group are 0.80, 0.74 and 0.87 (for dose groups 1-3, respectively); for the intermediate group: 0.25, 0.51, 0.58 and 0.78 (for dose groups 1-4, respectively) and for the unfavourable group: 0.0, 0.27, 0.33 and 0.64 (for dose groups 1-4, respectively). The distribution of progression time to tumour relapse was found to be independent of prognosis group but dependent on dose. As the dose increases the mean progression

  6. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E. [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Lialiaris, Theodoros S. [Department of Medical Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Dimitriou, Thespis [Department of Anatomy, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Papazoglou, Dimitrios [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pappa, Aglaia [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Pistevou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Aristotle University of Thessalonica, Thessalonica (Greece); Kalamida, Dimitra [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Radiobiology and Radiopathology Unit, School of Health Sciences, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2{sub [4h]}) and 24 hours (SF2{sub [24h]}) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2{sub (4h)} was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)} (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio{sub (4h)}/γH2AX-ratio{sub (30min)}) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with

  7. Survival Fraction at 2 Gy and γH2AX Expression Kinetics in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes From Cancer Patients: Relationship With Acute Radiation-Induced Toxicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliliou, Stamatia E.; Lialiaris, Theodoros S.; Dimitriou, Thespis; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Papazoglou, Dimitrios; Pappa, Aglaia; Pistevou, Kyriaki; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Predictive assays for acute radiation toxicities would be clinically relevant in radiation oncology. We prospectively examined the predictive role of the survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) and of γH2AX (double-strand break [DSB] DNA marker) expression kinetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cancer patients before radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: SF2 was measured with Trypan Blue assay in the PBMCs from 89 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy at 4 hours (SF2 [4h] ) and 24 hours (SF2 [24h] ) after ex vivo irradiation. Using Western blot analysis and band densitometry, we further assessed the expression of γH2AX in PBMC DNA at 0 hours, 30 minutes, and 4 hours (33 patients) and 0 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours (56 patients), following ex vivo irradiation with 2 Gy. Appropriate ratios were used to characterize each patient, and these were retrospectively correlated with early radiation therapy toxicity grade. Results: The SF2 (4h) was inversely correlated with the toxicity grade (P=.006). The γH2AX-ratio (30min) (band density of irradiated/non-irradiated cells at 30 minutes) revealed, similarly, a significant inverse association (P=.0001). The DSB DNA repair rate from 30 minutes to 4 hours, calculated as the relative RγH2AX-ratio (γH2AX-ratio (4h) /γH2AX-ratio (30min) ) showed a significant direct association with high toxicity grade (P=.01). Conclusions: Our results suggest that SF2 is a significant radiation sensitivity index for patients undergoing radiation therapy. γH2AX Western blot densitometry analysis provided 2 important markers of normal tissue radiation sensitivity. Low γH2AX expression at 30 minutes was linked with high toxicity grade, suggesting that poor γH2AX repair activity within a time frame of 30 minutes after irradiation predicts for poor radiation tolerance. On the other hand, rapid γH2AX content restoration at 4 hours after irradiation, compatible with efficient DSB repair ability

  8. Effect of single dose, fractionated, and hyperfractionated trunk irradiation on weight gain, respiration frequency, and survival in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Giri, P.G.S.; Giri, U.P.; Cox, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    It is concluded that, in this rat trunk irradiation model, fractionation of a single dose into two equal doses separated by 4-6 h produced a sparing effect of approx. 5Gy as measured by delay in weight gain; approx. 4Gy as measured by increased respiration frequency; and approx. 6Gy as measured by survival. Fractionation into daily doses or hyperfractionation into twice-daily doses permitted an approximate doubling of the dose required for the same suppression of weight gain. For the respiration rates and survival endpoints, fractionation or hyperfractionation produced an even greater sparing effect since there was no increase in the respiration frequency at twice the doses that would produce changes if delivered within a few hours; and since essentially no lethality was observed at twice the doses that would kill 70%-100% of animals if delivered in one day. (UK)

  9. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N; Yartsev, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S 2 in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S 2 and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S 2 for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S 2 reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S 2 can be reconstructed from the tumor volume variation curves measured

  10. SU-E-T-429: Uncertainties of Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvetsov, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate uncertainties of cell surviving fraction reconstructed from tumor-volume variation curves during radiation therapy using sensitivity analysis based on linear perturbation theory. Methods: The time dependent tumor-volume functions V(t) have been calculated using a twolevel cell population model which is based on the separation of entire tumor cell population in two subpopulations: oxygenated viable and lethally damaged cells. The sensitivity function is defined as S(t)=[δV(t)/V(t)]/[δx/x] where δV(t)/V(t) is the time dependent relative variation of the volume V(t) and δx/x is the relative variation of the radiobiological parameter x. The sensitivity analysis was performed using direct perturbation method where the radiobiological parameter x was changed by a certain error and the tumor-volume was recalculated to evaluate the corresponding tumor-volume variation. Tumor volume variation curves and sensitivity functions have been computed for different values of cell surviving fractions from the practically important interval S 2 =0.1-0.7 using the two-level cell population model. Results: The sensitivity functions of tumor-volume to cell surviving fractions achieved a relatively large value of 2.7 for S 2 =0.7 and then approached zero as S 2 is approaching zero Assuming a systematic error of 3-4% we obtain that the relative error in S 2 is less that 20% in the range S2=0.4-0.7. This Resultis important because the large values of S 2 are associated with poor treatment outcome should be measured with relatively small uncertainties. For the very small values of S2<0.3, the relative error can be larger than 20%; however, the absolute error does not increase significantly. Conclusion: Tumor-volume curves measured during radiotherapy can be used for evaluation of cell surviving fractions usually observed in radiation therapy with conventional fractionation

  11. Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterms Resuscitated With Different Oxygen Fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boronat, Nuria; Aguar, Marta; Rook, Denise; Iriondo, Martin; Brugada, María; Cernada, María; Nuñez, Antonio; Izquierdo, Montserrat; Cubells, Elena; Martinez, María; Parra, Anna; van Goudoever, Hans; Vento, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization of preterm infants after birth frequently requires oxygen supplementation. At present the optimal initial oxygen inspiratory fraction (Fio2) for preterm stabilization after birth is still under debate. We aimed to compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants at 24

  12. SU-E-T-427: Cell Surviving Fractions Derived From Tumor-Volume Variation During Radiotherapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Comparison with Predictive Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvetsov, A; Schwartz, J; Mayr, N [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yartsev, S [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To show that a distribution of cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} in a heterogeneous group of patients can be derived from tumor-volume variation curves during radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Our analysis was based on two data sets of tumor-volume variation curves for heterogeneous groups of 17 patients treated for nonsmall cell lung cancer with conventional dose fractionation. The data sets were obtained previously at two independent institutions by using megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT). Statistical distributions of cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} and cell clearance half-lives of lethally damaged cells T1/2 have been reconstructed in each patient group by using a version of the two-level cell population tumor response model and a simulated annealing algorithm. The reconstructed statistical distributions of the cell surviving fractions have been compared to the distributions measured using predictive assays in vitro. Results: Non-small cell lung cancer presents certain difficulties for modeling surviving fractions using tumor-volume variation curves because of relatively large fractional hypoxic volume, low gradient of tumor-volume response, and possible uncertainties due to breathing motion. Despite these difficulties, cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} for non-small cell lung cancer derived from tumor-volume variation measured at different institutions have similar probability density functions (PDFs) with mean values of 0.30 and 0.43 and standard deviations of 0.13 and 0.18, respectively. The PDFs for cell surviving fractions S{sup 2} reconstructed from tumor volume variation agree with the PDF measured in vitro. Comparison of the reconstructed cell surviving fractions with patient survival data shows that the patient survival time decreases as the cell surviving fraction increases. Conclusion: The data obtained in this work suggests that the cell surviving fractions S{sub 2} can be reconstructed from the tumor volume

  13. A theoretical study on the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoqiong; Li Qiang; Zhou Guangming; Li Wenjian; Wang Jufang; Wei Zengquan

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for the homogeneity request of heavy-ion irradiation field, the most important design parameter of the heavy-ion radiotherapy facility planned in IMP (Institute of Modern Physics), the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells was investigated theoretically. A formula for survival fraction of cells irradiated by the un-uniform heavy-ion irradiation field was deduced to estimate the influence of the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field on the survival fraction of cells. The results show that the survival fraction of cells irradiation by the un-uniform irradiation field is larger than that of cells irradiated by the uniform irradiation field, and the survival fraction of cells increases as the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field decreasing. Practically, the heavy-ion irradiation field can be treated as uniform irradiation field when its homogeneity is better than 95%. According to these results, design request for the homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field should be better than 95%. The present results also show that the agreement of homogeneity of heavy-ion irradiation field must be checked while comparing the survival fraction curves obtained by different laboratory

  14. Implications of the quadratic cell survival curve and human skin radiation ''tolerance doses'' on fractionation and superfractionation dose selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of early published multifraction orthovoltage human acute skin irradiation tolerance isoeffect doses is presented. It indicates that human acute skin radiation reactions may result from the repetition, with each dose fraction, of a cell survival curve of the form: S = e/sup -(αD + βD 2 )/). The analysis also shows no need for an independent proliferation related time factor for skin, for daily treatments of six weeks or less in duration. The value obtained for the constant β/α for orthovoltage irradiation from these data is 2.9 x 10 -3 rad -1 for the cell line determining acute skin tolerance. A radiation isoeffect relationship, based on the quadratic cell survival curve, is introduced for human skin. This relationship has some advantages over the nominal standard dose (NSD). First, its use is not restricted to tolerance level reactions. Second, a modification of the relationship, which is also introduced, may be employed in the selection of doses per treatment when irradiation dose fractions are administered at short intervals where repair of sublethal injury is incomplete

  15. Evaluation of stratospheric age of air from CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, HFC-125, HFC-227ea and SF6; implications for the calculations of halocarbon lifetimes, fractional release factors and ozone depletion potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham Elvidge, Emma; Bönisch, Harald; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Engel, Andreas; Fraser, Paul J.; Gallacher, Eileen; Langenfelds, Ray; Mühle, Jens; Oram, David E.; Ray, Eric A.; Ridley, Anna R.; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.; Weiss, Ray F.; Laube, Johannes C.

    2018-03-01

    In a changing climate, potential stratospheric circulation changes require long-term monitoring. Stratospheric trace gas measurements are often used as a proxy for stratospheric circulation changes via the mean age of air values derived from them. In this study, we investigated five potential age of air tracers - the perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 and the hydrofluorocarbons CHF3 (HFC-23) and HFC-125 - and compare them to the traditional tracer SF6 and a (relatively) shorter-lived species, HFC-227ea. A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed on mean ages derived from these new tracers to allow us to confidently compare their efficacy as age tracers to the existing tracer, SF6. Our results showed that uncertainties associated with the mean age derived from these new age tracers are similar to those derived from SF6, suggesting that these alternative compounds are suitable in this respect for use as age tracers. Independent verification of the suitability of these age tracers is provided by a comparison between samples analysed at the University of East Anglia and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. All five tracers give younger mean ages than SF6, a discrepancy that increases with increasing mean age. Our findings qualitatively support recent work that suggests that the stratospheric lifetime of SF6 is significantly less than the previous estimate of 3200 years. The impact of these younger mean ages on three policy-relevant parameters - stratospheric lifetimes, fractional release factors (FRFs) and ozone depletion potentials - is investigated in combination with a recently improved methodology to calculate FRFs. Updates to previous estimations for these parameters are provided.

  16. Dose rate and fractionation: Relative importance in radiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, N.J.; Rosenblatt, M.; Mauch, P.; Hellman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal dose rate and fractionation schedules for total body irradiation (TBI) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are presently unknown. This study compares several fractionation and dose rate schedules that are currently in clinical use. C/sub 3/H/HeJ were given TBI and the bone marrow survival fraction was calculated using the CFU's assay. Irradiation was given as low dose rate (LDR) at 5 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) at 80 cGy/min, in single fraction (SF) and fractionated (FX) regimens. These results indicate no increase in survival for the normal bone marrow stem cells with fractionation either at high or low dose-rates. In fact, fractionation seemed to decrease the bone marrow survival over single fraction radiation

  17. The modified high-density survival assay is the useful tool to predict the effectiveness of fractionated radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Mori, Miyuki; Oikawa, Toshiyuki; Shimura, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Ohtake, Yosuke; Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Mori, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    The high-density survival (HDS) assay was originally elaborated to assess cancer cell responses to therapeutic agents under the influence of intercellular communication. Here, we simplified the original HDS assay and studied its applicability for the detection of cellular radioresistance. We have recently defined clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cells, which continue to proliferate with daily exposure to 2 gray (Gy) of X-rays for more than 30 days in vitro. We established human CRR cell lines, HepG2-8960-R from HepG2, and SAS-R1 and -R2 from SAS, respectively. In an attempt to apply the HDS assay to detect radioresistance with clinical relevance, we simplified the original HDS assay by scoring the total number of surviving cells after exposure to X-rays. The modified HDS assay successfully detected radioresistance with clinical relevance. The modified HDS assay detected CRR phenotype, which is not always detectable by clonogenic assay. Therefore, we believe that the modified HDS assay presented in this study is a powerful tool to predict the effectiveness of fractionated radiotherapy against malignant tumors. (author)

  18. The survival condition and immunoregulatory function of adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF in the early stage of nonvascularized adipose transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing Dong

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue transplantation is one of the standard procedures for soft-tissue augmentation, reconstruction, and rejuvenation. However, it is unknown as to how the graft survives after transplantation. We thus seek out to investigate the roles of different cellular components in the survival of graft. MATERIALS & METHODS: The ratios of stromal vascular fraction (SVF cellular components from human adipose tissue were evaluated using flow cytometry. Human liposuction aspirates that were either mixed with marked SVF cells or PBS were transplanted into nude mice. The graft was harvested and stained on days 1,4,7 and 14. The inflammation level of both SVF group and Fat-only group were also evaluated. RESULTS: Flow cytometric analysis showed SVF cells mainly contained blood-derived cells, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, and endothelial cells. Our study revealed that most cells are susceptible to death after transplantation, although CD34+ ASCs can remain viable for 14 days. Notably, we found that ASCs migrated to the peripheral edge of the graft. Moreover, the RT-PCR and the immuno-fluorescence examination revealed that although the SVF did not reduce the number of infiltrating immune cells (macrophages in the transplant, it does have an immunoregulatory function of up-regulating the expression of CD163 and CD206 and down-regulating that of IL-1β, IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the survival of adipose tissue after nonvascularized adipose transplantation may be due to the ASCs in SVF cells. Additionally, the immunoregulatory function of SVF cells may be indirectly contributing to the remolding of adipose transplant, which may lead to SVF-enriched adipose transplantation.

  19. NTCP modelling of lung toxicity after SBRT comparing the universal survival curve and the linear quadratic model for fractionation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennberg, Berit M.; Baumann, Pia; Gagliardi, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Background. In SBRT of lung tumours no established relationship between dose-volume parameters and the incidence of lung toxicity is found. The aim of this study is to compare the LQ model and the universal survival curve (USC) to calculate biologically equivalent doses in SBRT to see if this will improve knowledge on this relationship. Material and methods. Toxicity data on radiation pneumonitis grade 2 or more (RP2+) from 57 patients were used, 10.5% were diagnosed with RP2+. The lung DVHs were corrected for fractionation (LQ and USC) and analysed with the Lyman- Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model. In the LQ-correction α/β = 3 Gy was used and the USC parameters used were: α/β = 3 Gy, D 0 = 1.0 Gy, n = 10, α 0.206 Gy-1 and d T = 5.8 Gy. In order to understand the relative contribution of different dose levels to the calculated NTCP the concept of fractional NTCP was used. This might give an insight to the questions of whether 'high doses to small volumes' or 'low doses to large volumes' are most important for lung toxicity. Results and Discussion. NTCP analysis with the LKB-model using parameters m = 0.4, D50 = 30 Gy resulted for the volume dependence parameter (n) with LQ correction n = 0.87 and with USC correction n = 0.71. Using parameters m = 0.3, D 50 = 20 Gy n = 0.93 with LQ correction and n 0.83 with USC correction. In SBRT of lung tumours, NTCP modelling of lung toxicity comparing models (LQ,USC) for fractionation correction, shows that low dose contribute less and high dose more to the NTCP when using the USC-model. Comparing NTCP modelling of SBRT data and data from breast cancer, lung cancer and whole lung irradiation implies that the response of the lung is treatment specific. More data are however needed in order to have a more reliable modelling

  20. A retrospective analysis of survival outcomes for two different radiotherapy fractionation schedules given in the same overall time for limited stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettington, Catherine S.; Bryant, Guy; Hickey, Brigid; Tripcony, Lee; Pratt, Gary; Fay, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To compare survival outcomes for two fractionation schedules of thoracic radiotherapy, both given over 3 weeks, in patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). At Radiation Oncology Mater Centre (ROMC) and the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH), patients with LS-SCLC treated with curative intent are given radiotherapy (with concurrent chemotherapy) to a dose of either 40Gy in 15 fractions ('the 40Gy/15⧣group') or 45Gy in 30 fractions ('the 45Gy/30⧣group'). The choice largely depends on institutional preference. Both these schedules are given over 3 weeks, using daily and twice-daily fractionation respectively. The records of all such patients treated from January 2000 to July 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and survival outcomes between the two groups compared. Of 118 eligible patients, there were 38 patients in the 40Gy/15⧣ group and 41 patients in the 45Gy/30⧣ group. The median relapse-free survival time was 12 months in both groups. Median overall survival was 21 months (95% CI 2–37 months) in the 40Gy/15⧣ group and 26 months (95% CI 1–48 months) in the 45Gy/30⧣ group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 20% and 25%, respectively (P=0.24). On multivariate analysis, factors influencing overall survival were: whether prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was given (P=0.01) and whether salvage chemotherapy was given at the time of relapse (P=0.057). Given the small sample size, the potential for selection bias and the retrospective nature of our study it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the efficacy of hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy compared with hyperfractionated accelerated thoracic radiotherapy however hypofractionated radiotherapy may result in equivalent relapse-free survival.

  1. A generalised formulation of the 'incomplete-repair' model for cell survival and tissue response to fractionated low dose-rate irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, P.; Joiner, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized equation for cell survival or tissue effects after fractionated low dose-rate irradiations, when there is incomplete repair between fractions and significant repair during fractions, is derived in terms of the h- and g-functions of the 'incomplete-repair' (IR) model. The model is critically dependent on α/β, repair half-time, treatment time and interfraction interval, and should therefore be regarded primarily as a tool for the analysis of fractionation and dose-rate effects in carefully designed radiobiological experiments, although it should also be useful in exploring, in a general way, the feasibility of clinical treatment protocols using fractionated low dose-rate treatments. (author)

  2. RBEOER: a FORTRAN program for the computation of RBEs, OERs, survival ratios, and the effects of fractionation using the theory of dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Dicello, J.F.

    1978-05-01

    The computer code RBEOER calculates RBEs, OERs and survival curves as a function of the dose delivered to a biological system and the temporal distribution of the dose (fractionation). The method of calculation is based on the theory of dual radiation action. The basic formalism and the input parameters are described. A sample output is presented

  3. TU-H-BRC-07: Therapeutic Benefit in Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (GRID) Using Helical Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanasamy, G; Zhang, X; Paudel, N; Morrill, S; Maraboyina, S; Peacock, L; Penagaricano, J; Meigooni, A; Liang, X

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this project is to study the therapeutic ratio (TR) for helical Tomotherapy (HT) based spatially fractionated radiotherapy (GRID). Estimation of TR was based on the linear-quadratic cell survival model by comparing the normal cell survival in a HT GRID to that of a uniform dose delivery in an open-field for the same tumor survival. Methods: HT GRID plan was generated using a patient specific virtual GRID block pattern of non-divergent, cylinder shaped holes using MLCs. TR was defined as the ratio of normal tissue surviving fraction (SF) under HT GRID irradiation to an open field irradiation with an equivalent dose that result in the same tumor cell SF. The ratio was estimated from DVH data on ten patient plans with deep seated, bulky tumor approved by the treating radiation oncologist. Dependence of the TR values on radio-sensitivity of the tumor cells and prescription dose were also analyzed. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of TR was 4.0±0.7 (range: 3.1 to 5.5) for the 10 patients with single fraction dose of 20 Gy and tumor cell SF of 0.5 at 2 Gy. In addition, mean±SD of TR = 1±0.1 and 18.0±5.1 were found for tumor with SF of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively. Reducing the prescription dose to 15 and 10 Gy lowered the TR to 2.0±0.2 and 1.2±0.04 for a tumor cell SF of 0.5 at 2 Gy. In this study, the SF of normal cells was assumed to be 0.5 at 2 Gy. Conclusion: HT GRID displayed a significant therapeutic advantage over uniform dose from an open field irradiation. TR increases with the radioresistance of the tumor cells and with prescription dose.

  4. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Ambinder, Emily McIntosh; Ghodadra, Anish; Xing, Minzhi; Prajapati, Hasmukh J.; Kim, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low ( 1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  5. SF12: Stata module to alidate sf12 input and calculate sf12 version 2 t scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    sf12 takes 12 variables in correct order (i1 i2a i2b i3a i3b i4a i4b i5 i6a i6b i6c i7), validate the variables with respect to sf12 requirements. Only rows that are correct are used for calculating the sf12 t scores....

  6. Quantitative studies of transfer in vivo of low density, Sf 12-60, and Sf 60-400 lipoproteins between plasma and arterial intima in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.; Wootton, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Baskerville, P.; Lumley, J.S.; La Ville, A.E.; Quiney, J.; Lewis, B.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the potential of various plasma lipoprotein classes to contribute to the lipid content of the arterial intima, influx and efflux of these plasma lipoprotein fractions into and from the intima of human carotid arteries were measured in vivo. While low density lipoprotein (LDL) is known to transfer from plasma into the arterial wall, there is less information on the atherogenic potential of lipoproteins of intermediate density (Sf 12-60) or of very low density (Sf 60-400). Aliquots of the same lipoprotein (LDL, Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles, or Sf 60-400 lipoprotein particles) iodinated with iodine-125 and iodine-131 were injected intravenously 18-29 hours and 3-6 hours, respectively, before elective surgical removal of atheromatous arterial tissue, and the intimal clearance of lipoproteins, lipoprotein influx, and fractional loss of newly entered lipoproteins were calculated. Intimal clearance of Sf 60-400 particles was not detectable (less than 0.3 microliter x hr-1 x cm-2), whereas the average value for both LDL and Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles was 0.9 microliter x hr-1 x cm-2. Since the fractional loss of newly entered LDL and Sf 12-60 lipoprotein particles was also similar, the results suggest similar modes of entry and exit for these two particles. However, due to lower plasma concentrations of Sf 12-60 lipoproteins as compared with LDL, the mass influx of cholesterol in the Sf 12-60 particles was on the order of one 10th of that in LDL, and that of apolipoprotein B was about one 20th

  7. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  8. SF6 and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjaerde, Anne Cathrine; Rein, Asgaut; Hegerberg, Rolf; Kulsetaas, John

    1997-01-01

    The gas SF 6 (sulfur hexafluoride) is much used as an insulation medium in electric switchgear and breakers. However, there has been some recent concern about the possible contribution of SF 6 to the global greenhouse effect. This report presents some collected facts about SF 6 emission. The concentration of SF 6 in the atmosphere is very low and will probably remain so until the end of the next century. Hence the contribution of SF 6 to the greenhouse effect is negligible. Most of the SF 6 emission comes from the magnesium and aluminium industries. In 1993, SF 6 emission from switchgear in the Norwegian distribution grid corresponded to only 0.2 per million of the CO 2 emission in Norway. But the quantity of SF 6 accumulated in electric switchgear is considerable. However, losing it to the atmosphere can be avoided by using recirculation or destruction systems for SF 6 in connection with maintenance and replacement of components. Norwegian climate policy aims at taking measures against SF 6 and other climate gases on a par with CO 2 . Taxation measures have been suggested for SF 6 . Atmospheric SF 6 does not influence the ozone layer. 3 refs., 8 figs

  9. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandna, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  10. Complete study demonstrating the absence of rhabdovirus in a distinct Sf9 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available A putative novel rhabdovirus (SfRV was previously identified in a Spodoptera frugiperda cell line (Sf9 cells [ATCC CRL-1711 lot 58078522] by next generation sequencing and extensive bioinformatic analysis. We performed an extensive analysis of our Sf9 cell bank (ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 [Sf9L5814] to determine whether this virus was already present in cells obtained from ATCC in 1987. Inverse PCR of DNA isolated from Sf9 L5814 cellular DNA revealed integration of SfRV sequences in the cellular genome. RT-PCR of total RNA showed a deletion of 320 nucleotides in the SfRV RNA that includes the transcriptional motifs for genes X and L. Concentrated cell culture supernatant was analyzed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and revealed a single band at a density of 1.14 g/ml. This fraction was further analysed by electron microscopy and showed amorphous and particulate debris that did not resemble a rhabdovirus in morphology or size. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed that the protein composition did not contain the typical five rhabdovirus structural proteins and LC-MS/MS analysis revealed primarily of exosomal marker proteins, the SfRV N protein, and truncated forms of SfRV N, P, and G proteins. The SfRV L gene fragment RNA sequence was recovered from the supernatant after ultracentrifugation of the 1.14 g/ml fraction treated with diethyl ether suggesting that the SfRV L gene fragment sequence is not associated with a diethyl ether resistant nucleocapsid. Interestingly, the 1.14 g/ml fraction was able to transfer baculovirus DNA into Sf9L5814 cells, consistent with the presence of functional exosomes. Our results demonstrate the absence of viral particles in ATCC CRL-1711 lot 5814 Sf9 cells in contrast to a previous study that suggested the presence of infectious rhabdoviral particles in Sf9 cells from a different lot. This study highlights how cell lines with different lineages may present different virosomes and therefore no general conclusions can

  11. Stability of midazolam in syrspend SF and syrspend SF cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system depressant available as an injection, tablet, or oral syrup. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets and shortages of other forms of the drug have led compounding pharmacies to seek alternatives, mainly solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to use suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of midazolam in sorbitol-free, alcohol-free SyrSpend SF and SyrSpend SF Cherry suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension and stored in low-actinic plastic bottles at temperatures between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 58 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The samples remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on the data collected, the beyond-use date of these preparations is at least 58 days when protected from light at both refrigerated and room temperature storage conditions.

  12. Targeting the AKT/GSK3β/Cyclin D1/Cdk4 Survival Signaling Pathway for Eradication of Tumor Radioresistance Acquired by Fractionated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Kakuda, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yasushi; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Takai, Yoshihiro; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure of radiotherapy (RT) in human cancer. We have recently revealed that acquired radioresistance of tumor cells induced by fractionated radiation is attributable to cyclin D1 overexpression as a consequence of the downregulation of GSK3β-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis mediated by a constitutively activated serine-threonine kinase, AKT. This prompted us to hypothesize that targeting the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 pathway may improve fractionated RT by suppressing acquired radioresistance of tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were exposed to X-rays after incubation with either an AKT inhibitor, AKT/PKB signaling inhibitor-2 (API-2), or a Cdk4 inhibitor (Cdk4-I). Cells were then subjected to immunoblotting, clonogenic survival assay, cell growth analysis, and cell death analysis with TUNEL and annexin V staining. In vivo radiosensitivity was assessed by growth of human tumors xenografted into nude mice. Results: Treatment with API-2 resulted in downregulation of cyclin D1 expression in cells with acquired radioresistance. Cellular radioresistance disappeared completely both in vitro and in vivo with accompanying apoptosis when treated with API-2. Furthermore, inhibition of cyclin D1/Cdk4 by Cdk4-I was sufficient for abolishing radioresistance. Treatment with either API-2 or Cdk4-I was also effective in suppressing resistance to cis-platinum (II)-diamine-dichloride in the cells with acquired radioresistance. Interestingly, the radiosensitizing effect of API-2 was canceled by overexpression of cyclin D1 whereas Cdk4-I was still able to sensitize cells with cyclin D1 overexpression. Conclusion: Cyclin D1/Cdk4 is a critical target of the AKT survival signaling pathway responsible for tumor radioresistance. Targeting the AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1/Cdk4 pathway would provide a novel approach to improve fractionated RT and would have an impact on tumor eradication in

  13. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Johannes M. [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Ambinder, Emily McIntosh [John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ghodadra, Anish [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Prajapati, Hasmukh J. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (<10 %) LSF. Baseline comparisons were performed using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) and multivariate analyses (Cox Proportional Hazard Model) for risk factor analysis were performed.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, tumor properties, or previous treatments between patients with high (n = 15) and low (n = 29) LSF. The median OS was 27.4 months (95 %CI 12.73–55.23), with 4.77 months (95 %CI 2.87–26.73) for high and 42.77 months (95 %CI 18.47–59.73) for low LSF (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified high LSF (p = 0.001), total serum bilirubin >1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  14. The K-SF-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio José Figueredo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to propose an alternative short form for the 199-item Arizona Life History Battery (ALHB, which we are calling the K-SF-42, as it contains 42 items as compared with the 20 items of the Mini-K, the short form that has been in greatest use for the past decade. These 42 items were selected from the ALHB, unlike those of the Mini-K, making direct comparisons of the relative psychometric performance of the two alternative short forms a valid and instructive exercise. A series of secondary data analyses were performed upon a recently completed five-nation cross-cultural survey, which was originally designed to assess the role of life history strategy in the etiology of interpersonal aggression. Only data from the ALHB that were collected in all five cross-cultural replications were used for the present analyses. The single immediate objective of this secondary data analysis was producing the K-SF-42 such that it would perform optimally across all five cultures sampled, and perhaps even generalize well to other modern industrial societies not currently sampled as a result of the geographic breadth of those included in the present study. A novel method, based on the use of the Cross-Sample Geometric Mean as a criterion for item selection, was used for generating such a cross-culturally valid short form.

  15. Comparison of long-term survival and toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost vs conventional fractionation with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao HM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hengmin Tao,1,2 Yumei Wei,1 Wei Huang,1 Xiujuan Gai,1,2 Baosheng Li11Department of 6th Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, People’s Republic of ChinaAim: In recent years, the intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB and intensity-modulated radiotherapy with conventional fractionation (IMRT-CF have been involved in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the potential clinical effects and toxicities are still controversial.Methods: Here, 107 patients with biopsy-proven locally advanced NPC between March 2004 and January 2011 were enrolled in the retrospective study. Among them, 54 patients received IMRT-SIB, and 53 patients received IMRT-CF. Subsequently, overall survival (OS, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS, 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS, and relevant toxicities were analyzed.Results: In the present study, all patients completed the treatment, and the overall median follow-up time was 80 months (range: 8–126 months. The 5-year OS analysis revealed no significant difference between the IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF groups (80.9% vs 80.5%, P=0.568. In addition, there were also no significant between-group differences in 5-year PFS (73.3% vs 74.4%, P=0.773 and 5-year LRFS (88.1% vs 90.8%, P=0.903. Notably, the dose to critical organs (spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland in patients treated by IMRT-CF was significantly lower than that in patients treated by IMRT-SIB (all P<0.05.Conclusion: Both IMRT-SIB and IMRT-CF techniques are effective in treating locally advanced NPC, with similar OS, PFS, and LRFS. However, IMRT-CF has more advantages than IMRT-SIB in protecting spinal cord, brainstem, and parotid gland from acute and late toxicities, such as xerostomia. Further prospective study is warranted to confirm our findings.Keywords: intensity

  16. Dielectric properties for SF6 and SF6 mixtures predicted from basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Davies, D.K.; Chen, C.L.; Chantry, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have calculated α and eta, the ionization and attachment coefficients, and (E/N) *, the limiting breakdown electric-field--to--gas-density ratio, in SF 6 and SF 6 mixtures by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution. The calculations require a knowledge of several electron collision cross sections. Published momentum transfer and ionization cross sections for SF 6 were used. We measured various attachment cross sections for SF 6 using electron-beam techniques with mass spectrometric ion detection. We determined a total cross section for electronic excitation of SF 6 by comparing the predicted values of α, eta, and (E/N) * with our measured values obtained from spatial current growth experiments in SF 6 in uniform fields over an extended range of E/N. With this self-consistent set of SF 6 cross sections, together with published He and N 2 cross sections, it was then possible to predict the dielectric properties of SF 6 -He and SF 6 -N 2 mixtures. Published experimental values of α for the SF 6 -He mixtures lie between the values of α calculated with and without ionization of SF 6 by excited He atoms. Published experimental values of (E/N) * agree with our calculations to within 5% in both the SF 6 -He and the SF 6 -N 2 mixtures

  17. Two-temperature transport coefficients of SF6–N2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin; Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) is widely adopted in electric power industry, especially in high-voltage circuit breakers and gas-insulated switchgear. However, the use of SF 6 is limited by its high liquidation temperature and high global warming potential. Recently, research shows SF 6 –N 2 mixture, which shows environmental friendliness and good electrical properties, may be a feasible substitute for pure SF 6 . This paper is devoted to the calculation of and transport coefficients of SF 6 –N 2 mixture under both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE condition. The two–temperature mass action law was used to determine the composition. The transport coefficients were calculated by classical Chapman–Enskog method simplified by Devoto. The thermophysical properties are presented for electron temperatures of 300–40 000 K, ratios of electron to heavy species temperature of 1–10 and N 2 mole fraction of 0%–100% at atmospheric pressure. The ionization processes under both LTE and non-LTE have been discussed. The results show that deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium significantly affect the properties of SF 6 –N 2 plasma, especially before the plasma is fully ionized. The different influence of N 2 on properties for SF 6 –N 2 plasma in and out of LTE has been found. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of the behavior of SF 6 –N 2 plasmas

  18. LOH at 6q and 10q in fractionated circulating DNA of ovarian cancer patients is predictive for tumor cell spread and overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhlmann Jan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that LOH proximal to M6P/IGF2R locus (D6S1581 in primary ovarian tumors is predictive for the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC in the bone marrow (BM. For therapy-monitoring, it would be highly desirable to establish a blood-based biomarker. Therefore, we quantified circulating DNA (cirDNA in sera of 63 ovarian cancer patients before surgery and after chemotherapy, measured incidence of LOH at four cancer-relevant chromosomal loci, correlated LOH with tumor cell spread to the BM and evaluated prognostic significance of LOH. Methods cirDNA was fractionated into high- and low molecular-weight fraction (HMWF, LMWF for LOH-profiling, utilizing PCR-based fluorescence microsatellite analysis. BM aspirates were analyzed for DTC by immunocytochemistry using the pan-cytokeratin antibody A45-B/B3. Results cirDNA levels in the HMWF before surgery were predictive for residual tumor load (p = 0.017. After chemotherapy, we observed a significant decline of cirDNA in the LMWF (p = 0.0001 but not in the HMWF. LOH was prevalently detected in the LMWF with an overall frequency of 67%, only moderately ablating after chemotherapy (45%. Before surgery, LOH in the LMWF at marker D10S1765 and D13S218 significantly correlated with tumor grading and FIGO stage (p = 0.033, p = 0.004, respectively. In both combined fractions, LOH at D6S1581 additionally associated with overall survival (OS (p = 0.030. Moreover, solely LOH at D10S1765 in LMWF after therapy correlated with DTC in BM after therapy (p = 0.017. Conclusion We demonstrate the applicability and necessity of DNA-fractionation prior to analyzing circulating LOH and identify LOH at D10S1765 and D6S1581 as novel blood-based biomarkers for ovarian cancer, being relevant for therapy-monitoring.

  19. Preliminary comparison of MP sparking characteristics for SF6 insulating gas mixtures and pure SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, R.; Wegner, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of the Brookhaven MP-7 tandem Van de Graaff accelerator with pure SF 6 insulating gas is described. Sparking and terminal voltage were monitored and are compared for operation with a mixture of SF 6 , N 2 , CO 2 and O 2 . The accelerator was found to be more difficult to operate with pure SF 6

  20. Genome-wide identification of SF1 and SF2 helicases from archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Hala; Ibrahim, Hiba; Kozah, Juliana

    2016-01-15

    Archaea microorganisms have long been used as model organisms for the study of protein molecular machines. Archaeal proteins are particularly appealing to study since archaea, even though prokaryotic, possess eukaryotic-like cellular processes. Super Family I (SF1) and Super Family II (SF2) helicase families have been studied in many model organisms, little is known about their presence and distribution in archaea. We performed an exhaustive search of homologs of SF1 and SF2 helicase proteins in 95 complete archaeal genomes. In the present study, we identified the complete sets of SF1 and SF2 helicases in archaea. Comparative analysis between archaea, human and the bacteria E. coli SF1 and SF2 helicases, resulted in the identification of seven helicase families conserved among representatives of the domains of life. This analysis suggests that these helicase families are highly conserved throughout evolution. We highlight the conserved motifs of each family and characteristic domains of the detected families. Distribution of SF1/SF2 families show that Ski2-like, Lhr, Sfth and Rad3-like helicases are ubiquitous among archaeal genomes while the other families are specific to certain archaeal groups. We also report the presence of a novel SF2 helicase specific to archaea domain named Archaea Specific Helicase (ASH). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ASH has evolved in Euryarchaeota and is evolutionary related to the Ski2-like family with specific characteristic domains. Our study provides the first exhaustive analysis of SF1 and SF2 helicases from archaea. It expands the variety of SF1 and SF2 archaeal helicases known to exist to date and provides a starting point for new biochemical and genetic studies needed to validate their biological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. SF3B1-initiating mutations in MDS-RSs target lymphomyeloid hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortera-Blanco, Teresa; Dimitriou, Marios; Woll, Petter S; Karimi, Mohsen; Elvarsdottir, Edda; Conte, Simona; Tobiasson, Magnus; Jansson, Monika; Douagi, Iyadh; Moarii, Matahi; Saft, Leonie; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva

    2017-08-17

    Mutations in the RNA splicing gene SF3B1 are found in >80% of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS). We investigated the origin of SF3B1 mutations within the bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell compartments in patients with MDS-RS. Screening for recurrently mutated genes in the mononuclear cell fraction revealed mutations in SF3B1 in 39 of 40 cases (97.5%), combined with TET2 and DNMT3A in 11 (28%) and 6 (15%) patients, respectively. All recurrent mutations identified in mononuclear cells could be tracked back to the phenotypically defined hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in all investigated patients and were also present in downstream myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells. While in agreement with previous studies, little or no evidence for clonal ( SF3B1 mutation) involvement could be found in mature B cells, consistent involvement at the pro-B-cell progenitor stage was established, providing definitive evidence for SF3B1 mutations targeting lymphomyeloid HSCs and compatible with mutated SF3B1 negatively affecting lymphoid development. Assessment of stem cell function in vitro as well as in vivo established that only HSCs and not investigated progenitor populations could propagate the SF3B1 mutated clone. Upon transplantation into immune-deficient mice, SF3B1 mutated MDS-RS HSCs differentiated into characteristic ring sideroblasts, the hallmark of MDS-RS. Our findings provide evidence of a multipotent lymphomyeloid HSC origin of SF3B1 mutations in MDS-RS patients and provide a novel in vivo platform for mechanistically and therapeutically exploring SF3B1 mutated MDS-RS. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Reproductive death and population kinetics in survival fractions of in vitro hamster cells during 48 hours after X-irradiation with doses up to 800 Rds. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1976-01-01

    By means of a quantitative analysis, the time dependency of the number of dead cells and the resulting statement of cell numbers are compared with colony survival curves and with the distribution of colony sizes. The obtained periodical variation of reproductively killed cells is analyzed through population kinetics and is reduced to the number of those among the irradiated cells which show radiation-induced lethal reproductive damage. Therefrom, together with both sorts of interphase-dead cells, the dose dependency of the three lethal fractions results, taking into consideration the quantitative cellular statement. The formation of maxima of reproductively killed cells at the intervals of generation time until F 3 -generation is explained by an autosynchronization of partly lethally injured cell populations. From colony size distributions a linear dose dependency of the mean colony size group can be derived; this is discussed in connection with DNA double strand breaks regarded as a possible cause of reproductive lethal damages. The data obtained concerning the development of a cell population with radiation damages are evaluated by the construction of phylogenetic schedules for every 300 rd and 500 rd. By this means, the underlying population kinetics is being revised quantitatively. (orig.) [de

  3. Prognose: SF den store vinder af kommunalvalget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2009-01-01

    KV-09: SF stormer ifølge Altinget.dks prognose ind i byråd og ikke mindst regionsråd ved valget til november, mens Radikale halveres.......KV-09: SF stormer ifølge Altinget.dks prognose ind i byråd og ikke mindst regionsråd ved valget til november, mens Radikale halveres....

  4. Dielectric properties for SF6 and SF6 mixtures predicted from basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, L.E.; Davies, D.K.; Chen, C.L.; Chantry, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    α and eta, the ionization and attachment coefficients, and (E/N)*, the limiting breakdown electric field-to-gas density ratio, in SF 6 and SF 6 mixtures were calculated by numerically solving the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution. The calculations require a knowledge of several electron collision cross sections. Published momentum transfer and ionization cross sections for SF 6 were used. Various attachment cross sections for SF 6 were measured by using electron beam techniques with mass spectrometric ion detection. A total cross section for electronic excitation of SF 6 was determined by comparing the predicted values of α, eta, and (E/N)* with measured values obtained from spatial current growth experiments in SF 6 in uniform fields over an extended range of E/N. With this self-consistent set of SF 6 cross sections, together with published He cross sections, it was then possible to predict the dielectric properties of SF 6 --He mixtures. Published experimental values of α for these mixtures lie between the values of α calculated with and without ionization of SF 6 by excited He atoms. Published experimental values of (E/N)* agree with the calculations to within 5%. 11 figures

  5. The "11K" gene family members sf68, sf95 and sf138 modulate transmissibility and insecticidal properties of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beperet, Inés; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2015-05-01

    The "11K" gene family is notable for having homologs in both baculoviruses and entomopoxviruses and is classified as either type 145 or type 150, according to their similarity with the ac145 or ac150 genes of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). One homolog of ac145 (sf138) and two homologs of ac150 (sf68 and sf95) are present in Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV). Recombinant bacmids lacking sf68, sf95 or sf138 (Sf68null, Sf95null and Sf138null, respectively) and the respective repair bacmids were generated from a bacmid comprising the complete virus genome. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of the Sf138null virus were ∼15-fold less orally infective to insects, which was attributed to a 100-fold reduction in ODV infectious titer. Inoculation of insects with Sf138null OBs in mixtures with an optical brightener failed to restore the pathogenicity of Sf138null OBs to that of the parental virus, indicating that the effects of sf138 deletion on OB pathogenicity were unlikely to involve an interaction with the gut peritrophic matrix. In contrast, deletion of sf68 and sf95 resulted in a slower speed-of-kill by 9h, and a concurrent increase in the yield of OBs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that sf68 and sf95 were not generated after a duplication event of an ancestral gene homologous to the ac150 gene. We conclude that type 145 genes modulate the primary infection process of the virus, whereas type 150 genes appear to have a role in spreading systemic infection within the insect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron-transport, ionization, attachment, and dissociation coefficients in SF6 and its mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.V.; Van Brunt, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An improved set of electron-collision cross sections is derived for SF 6 and used to calculate transport, ionization, attachment, and dissociation coefficients for pure SF 6 and mixtures of SF 6 with N 2 , O 2 , and Ne. The SF 6 cross sections differ from previously published sets primarily at very low and high electron energies. At energies below 0.03 eV the attachment cross section is adjusted to fit recent electron swarm experiments, while the elastic momentum transfer cross section is increased to the theoretical limit. At high energies an allowance is made for the excitation of highly excited levels as observed in electron beam experiments. The cross-section sets used for the admixed gases have previously been published. Electron kinetic energy distributions computed from numerical solutions of the electron-transport (Boltzmann) equation using the two-term, spherical harmonic expansion approximation were used to obtain electron-transport and reaction coefficients as functions of E/N and the fractional concentration of SF 6 . Here E is the electric field strength and N is the gas number density. Attachment rate data for low concentrations of SF 6 in N 2 are used to test the attachment cross sections. Particular attention is given to the calculation of transport and reaction coefficients at the critical E/N = (E/N)/sub c/ at which the ionization and attachment rates are equal

  7. Two-temperature transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Wu, Yi, E-mail: wuyic51@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui [Electric Power Research Institute of State Grid Shaanxi Electric Power Company, Xian (China)

    2015-10-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is widely adopted in electric power industry, especially in high-voltage circuit breakers and gas-insulated switchgear. However, the use of SF{sub 6} is limited by its high liquidation temperature and high global warming potential. Recently, research shows SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture, which shows environmental friendliness and good electrical properties, may be a feasible substitute for pure SF{sub 6}. This paper is devoted to the calculation of and transport coefficients of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} mixture under both LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE condition. The two–temperature mass action law was used to determine the composition. The transport coefficients were calculated by classical Chapman–Enskog method simplified by Devoto. The thermophysical properties are presented for electron temperatures of 300–40 000 K, ratios of electron to heavy species temperature of 1–10 and N{sub 2} mole fraction of 0%–100% at atmospheric pressure. The ionization processes under both LTE and non-LTE have been discussed. The results show that deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium significantly affect the properties of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma, especially before the plasma is fully ionized. The different influence of N{sub 2} on properties for SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasma in and out of LTE has been found. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of the behavior of SF{sub 6}–N{sub 2} plasmas.

  8. Broad horizons SETI, SF and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Martin

    2004-04-01

    Science fiction (SF) is often perceived as a ‘fringe’ form of entertainment that excites the socially challenged. This misperception detracts from the critical, scientific and interpretive nature of the genre which can be directed into science teaching at school and university levels as an innovative way of exploring the cultural background, politics, leitmotif and themes of society, science and their operation. One example is the ‘alien’ theme in SF; it is perceptually one of the driving factors in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Such a topic can become an introduction to current technology, the motives and politics of science and the sociological implications inherent in a confrontation with the ideal of man's uniqueness in the cosmos. When applied to the SETI, SF engenders a constructive convergence in studies such as biological determinism, the evolution of life, communication, interstellar travel and methods of contact, thus enriching the consideration of possible life in the cosmos. Adopting elements of SF in lifelong learning therefore enables informed, imaginative reflection and debate that educates, trains and instructs, broadening the potential of students and their future roles by invoking an analysis of vital public, scientific and humanistic fields.

  9. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  10. ARCPHdb: A comprehensive protein database for SF1 and SF2 helicase from archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Mirna; Chaar, Wafi; Abdel-Razzak, Ziad; Khalil, Mohamad; Taha, Samir; Chamieh, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Superfamily 1 and Superfamily 2 helicases, two of the largest helicase protein families, play vital roles in many biological processes including replication, transcription and translation. Study of helicase proteins in the model microorganisms of archaea have largely contributed to the understanding of their function, architecture and assembly. Based on a large phylogenomics approach, we have identified and classified all SF1 and SF2 protein families in ninety five sequenced archaea genomes. Here we developed an online webserver linked to a specialized protein database named ARCPHdb to provide access for SF1 and SF2 helicase families from archaea. ARCPHdb was implemented using MySQL relational database. Web interfaces were developed using Netbeans. Data were stored according to UniProt accession numbers, NCBI Ref Seq ID, PDB IDs and Entrez Databases. A user-friendly interactive web interface has been developed to browse, search and download archaeal helicase protein sequences, their available 3D structure models, and related documentation available in the literature provided by ARCPHdb. The database provides direct links to matching external databases. The ARCPHdb is the first online database to compile all protein information on SF1 and SF2 helicase from archaea in one platform. This database provides essential resource information for all researchers interested in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-dose and fractionated irradiation of four human lung cancer cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, O.; Lennartsson, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four established human lung cancer cell lines were exposed to single-dose irradiation. The survival curves of 2 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) were characterized by a limited capacity for repair with small and moderate shoulders with extrapolation numbers (n) of 1.05 and 1.60 respectively. Two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, one squamous cell (SQCLC) and one large cell (LCLC) had large shoulders with n-values of 73 and 15 respectively. The radiosensitivity when measured as D 0 did not, however, differ as much from cell line to cell line, with values from 1.22 to 1.65. The surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.24 and 0.42 respectively in the SCLC cell lines and 0.90 and 0.88 respectively in the NSCLC cell lines. Fractionated irradiation delivered according to 3 different schedules was also investigated. All the schedules delivered a total dose of 10 Gy in 5 days and were applied in 1, 2 and 5 Gy dose fractions respectively. Survival followed the pattern found after single-dose irradiation; it was lowest in the SCLC cell line with the lowest SF and highest in the two NSCLC cell lines. In the SCLC cell lines all schedules were approximately equally efficient. In the LCLC and in the SQCLC cell lines, the 5 Gy schedule killed more cells than the 1 and 2 Gy schedules. The results indicate that the size of the shoulder of the survival curve is essential when choosing the most tumoricidal fractionation schedule. (orig.)

  12. Survival of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry to adulthood following a 10-day exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble fraction of crude oil and release to the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtwell, I. K.; Fink, R.; Brand, D.; Alexander, R.; McAllister, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential effects of hydrocarbons on salmonids were investigated. In the course of the experiment pink salmon fry were exposed for 10 days to seawater containing varying controlled doses of the water-soluble fractions of North Slope crude oil, comprised primarily of monoaromatics. After exposure the fry were released into the Pacific Ocean to complete their life cycle. The experiments were replicated for three years following the original experiment. No consistent dose-dependent effect of the 10-day exposure on the growth and survival to maturity of the pink salmon was observed, although there was high mortality following each initial release. These results may be considered as one measure of resistance to exposure to contaminants, however, the method is not recommended for general use because it is based on a highly selected sample (i.e. those that survived the initial exposure), and the same results may not apply to populations that have not been subjected to intensive nonselective fishing pressures. In summary, the survival of some fraction of the population of pink salmon is evidence of the robustness of some of these fish, but it is at best a crude indicator of environmental health. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Ground-based FTIR retrievals of SF6 on Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minqiang; Langerock, Bavo; Vigouroux, Corinne; Wang, Pucai; Hermans, Christian; Stiller, Gabriele; Walker, Kaley A.; Dutton, Geoff; Mahieu, Emmanuel; De Mazière, Martine

    2018-02-01

    SF6 total columns were successfully retrieved from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) on Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E) between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget were presented. The FTIR SF6 retrieval has independent information in only one individual layer, covering the whole of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The trend in SF6 was analysed based on the FTIR-retrieved dry-air column-averaged mole fractions (XSF6) on Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO) and the collocated satellite measurements (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, MIPAS, and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS) in the southern tropics. The SF6 annual growth rate from FTIR retrievals is 0.265 ± 0.013 pptv year-1 for 2004-2016, which is slightly weaker than that from the SMO in situ measurements (0.285 ± 0.002 pptv year-1) for the same time period. The SF6 trend in the troposphere from MIPAS and ACE-FTS observations is also close to the ones from the FTIR retrievals and the SMO in situ measurements.

  14. Ground-based FTIR retrievals of SF6 on Reunion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SF6 total columns were successfully retrieved from FTIR (Fourier transform infrared measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo on Reunion Island (21° S, 55° E between 2004 and 2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget were presented. The FTIR SF6 retrieval has independent information in only one individual layer, covering the whole of the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The trend in SF6 was analysed based on the FTIR-retrieved dry-air column-averaged mole fractions (XSF6 on Reunion Island, the in situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO and the collocated satellite measurements (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, MIPAS, and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer, ACE-FTS in the southern tropics. The SF6 annual growth rate from FTIR retrievals is 0.265 ± 0.013 pptv year−1 for 2004–2016, which is slightly weaker than that from the SMO in situ measurements (0.285 ± 0.002 pptv year−1 for the same time period. The SF6 trend in the troposphere from MIPAS and ACE-FTS observations is also close to the ones from the FTIR retrievals and the SMO in situ measurements.

  15. Self-focusing in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerhalt, J.R.; Galbraith, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by explicit calculation of previously published quasicontinuum model that the molecular susceptibility rapidly approaches zero as higher excited states of the molecule become populated. Hence the overtones of the ν 3 -pumped mode are totally responsible for the self focusing effects in SF 6 . The ν 3 ladder contribution to the susceptibility is calculated. The vibrational model is a classical triply degenerate anharmonic oscillator in the Cartesian basis with the anharmonicity parameters chosen to be consistent with the latest spectroscopic analysis of the 3ν 3 overtone spectrum. The rotational structure is represented by a distribution of these oscillators where the distribution is chosen to correspond to the spectrum of the ν 3 fundamental. Good agreement is found with the 300 0 in self-focusing data of Nowak and Ham at CO 2 P(28), P(20) and P(10) in SF 6

  16. SMART SfM: SALINAS ARCHAEOLOGICAL MUSEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Inzerillo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  17. Smart SfM: Salinas Archaeological Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerillo, L.

    2017-08-01

    In these last years, there has been an increasing use of the Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques applied to Cultural Heritage. The accessibility of SfM software can be especially advantageous to users in non-technical fields or to those with limited resources. Thanks to SfM using, everyone can make with a digital camera a 3D model applied to an object of both Cultural Heritage, and physically Environment, and work arts, etc. One very interesting and useful application can be envisioned into museum collection digitalization. In the last years, a social experiment has been conducted involving young generation to live a social museum using their own camera to take pictures and videos. Students of university of Catania and Palermo were involved into a national event #digitalinvasion (2015-2016 editions) offering their personal contribution: they realized 3D models of the museums collection through the SfM techniques. In particular at the National Archaeological Museum Salinas in Palermo, it has been conducted an organized survey to recognize the most important part of the archaeological collection. It was a success: in both #digitalinvasion National Event 2015 and 2016 the young students of Engineering classes carried out, with Photoscan Agisoft, more than one hundred 3D models some of which realized by phone camera and some other by reflex camera and some other with compact camera too. The director of the museum has been very impressed from these results and now we are going to collaborate at a National project to use the young generation crowdsourcing to realize a semi-automated monitoring system at Salinas Archaeological Museum.

  18. Sf29 Gene of Spodoptera frugiperda Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Is a Viral Factor That Determines the Number of Virions in Occlusion Bodies▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; Asensio, Aaron C.; Ros, Sarhay; Gaya, Andrea; Caballero, Primitivo; Possee, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    The genome of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was inserted into a bacmid (Sfbac) and used to produce a mutant lacking open reading frame 29 (Sf29null). Sf29null bacmid DNA was able to generate an infection in S. frugiperda. Approximately six times less DNA was present in occlusion bodies (OBs) produced by the Sf29null bacmid in comparison to viruses containing this gene. This reduction in DNA content was consistent with fewer virus particles being packaged within Sf29null bacmid OBs, as determined by fractionation of dissolved polyhedra and comparison of occlusion-derived virus (ODV) infectivity in cell culture. DNA from Sfbac, Sf29null, or Sf29null-repair, in which the gene deletion had been repaired, were equally infectious when used to transfect S. frugiperda. All three viruses produced similar numbers of OBs, although those from Sf29null were 10-fold less infectious than viruses with the gene. Insects infected with Sf29null bacmid died ∼24 h later than positive controls, consistent with the reduced virus particle content of Sf29null OBs. Transcripts from Sf29 were detected in infected insects 12 h prior to those from the polyhedrin gene. Homologs to Sf29 were present in other group II NPVs, and similar sequences were present in entomopoxviruses. Analysis of the Sf29 predicted protein sequence revealed signal peptide and transmembrane domains, but the presence of 12 potential N-glycosylation sites suggest that it is not an ODV envelope protein. Other motifs, including zinc-binding and threonine-rich regions, suggest degradation and adhesion functions. We conclude that Sf29 is a viral factor that determines the number of ODVs occluded in each OB. PMID:18550678

  19. Radiobiological effect of different irradiation fractionated regimens in human brain glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai Xue; Yang Weizhi; Gao Li; Jiang Heng; Wang Mianrong; Shi Huizhen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the radiobiological effect of different irradiation fractionated regimens in human glioma cells (BT 325 cell line). Methods: The xenografts in Balb/c-nude mice were irradiated with different single and fractionated regimens. The single fraction dose was 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 Gy, respectively. The fractionated regimens were 2 Gy x 5 fractions ( irradiated every day), and 3 Gy x 3 fractions (irradiated every other day), 3 Gy x 5 fractions (irradiated every day) and 4 Gy x 3 fractions (irradiated every other day), with total doses of 125 Gy, 114 Gy, 126 Gy and 112 Gy, respectively. The growth curve was used to evaluate the tumor doubling time. clonogenic assays was performed to draw the cell survival curve and analyze the radiobiological parameters with doses of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. T 1/2 was measured by comet assay. Results: Tumor regression were not observed by single fraction irradiation, 2 Gy x 5 fractions and 3 Gy x 3 fractions irradiation regimens. The tumor regress was more significant with the increas of fraction dose. The 4 Gy x 3 fractions inhibited tumor more though not curing tumor. The cell doubling time of the BT 325 cell was 30. 16 h and the tumor doubling time of the xenograft was 43 days.When fitted with L-Q model, α was 0. 36 Gy -1 and β was 0. 057 Gy -2 . When fitted with the single-hit multi target model, D 0 was 1. 394 Gy, Dq was 2. 127 Gy and SF 2 was 0.714, respectively. The T 1/2 was 9.999 min. Conclusions: Glioma is a radioresistant tumor. Increase of the fraction dose improves recent effect.Further study is needed to control the tumor stem cells. (authors)

  20. 48 CFR 53.232 - Contract financing (SF 1443).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract financing (SF 1443). 53.232 Section 53.232 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.232 Contract financing (SF 1443). SF 1443 (JUL...

  1. EPA's SF6 Emission Reduction Partnership: Maximizing the Benefits of SF6 Emission Reductions for Electric Utilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackman, Jerome; Kantamaneni, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    .... Under ideal conditions, SF6 would remain contained within transmission equipment. In reality, however, SF6 is inadvertently emitted into the atmosphere as leaks develop during various stages of the equipment's life cycle...

  2. Brachytherapy Improves Biochemical Failure–Free Survival in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Compared With Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led

  3. Association between spironolactone added to beta-blockers and ACE inhibition and survival in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Katus, H A; Grundtvig, M; Hole, T; de Blois, J; Schellberg, D; Atar, D; Zugck, C; Agewall, S

    2013-10-01

    Heart failure (CHF) guidelines recommend mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for all symptomatic patients treated with a combination of ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers. As opposed to both eplerenone trials, patients in RALES (spironolactone) received almost no beta-blockers. Since pharmacological properties differ between eplerenone and spironolactone, the prognostic benefit of spironolactone added to this baseline combination therapy needs clarification. We included 4,832 CHF patients with chronic systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and the heart failure outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg. Propensity scores for spironolactone receipt were calculated for each patient and used for matching to patients without spironolactone. During a total follow-up of 17,869 patient-years, 881 patients (27.0 %) died in the non-spironolactone group and 445 (28.4 %) in the spironolactone group. Spironolactone was not associated with improved survival, neither in the complete sample (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.07; HR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88-1.20; multivariate and propensity score adjusted respectively), nor in the propensity-matched cohort (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82-1.18). In CHF outpatients we were unable to observe an association between the use of spironolactone and improved survival when administered in addition to a combination of ACE/ARB and beta-blockers.

  4. Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 Health Survey, V.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham William E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 and SF-12 summary scores were derived using an uncorrelated (orthogonal factor solution. We estimate SF-36 and SF-12 summary scores using a correlated (oblique physical and mental health factor model. Methods We administered the SF-36 to 7,093 patients who received medical care from an independent association of 48 physician groups in the western United States. Correlated physical health (PCSc and mental health (MCSc scores were constructed by multiplying each SF-36 scale z-score by its respective scoring coefficient from the obliquely rotated two factor solution. PCSc-12 and MCSc-12 scores were estimated using an approach similar to the one used to derive the original SF-12 summary scores. Results The estimated correlation between SF-36 PCSc and MCSc scores was 0.62. There were far fewer negative factor scoring coefficients for the oblique factor solution compared to the factor scoring coefficients produced by the standard orthogonal factor solution. Similar results were found for PCSc-12, and MCSc-12 summary scores. Conclusion Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 derived from an obliquely rotated factor solution should be used along with the uncorrelated summary scores. The new scoring algorithm can reduce inconsistent results between the SF-36 scale scores and physical and mental health summary scores reported in some prior studies. (Subscripts C = correlated and UC = uncorrelated

  5. SU-F-T-02: Estimation of Radiobiological Doses (BED and EQD2) of Single Fraction Electronic Brachytherapy That Equivalent to I-125 Eye Plaque: By Using Linear-Quadratic and Universal Survival Curve Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y; Waldron, T; Pennington, E [University Of Iowa, College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the radiobiological impact of hypofractionated choroidal melanoma brachytherapy, we calculated single fraction equivalent doses (SFED) of the tumor that equivalent to 85 Gy of I125-BT for 20 patients. Corresponding organs-at-risks (OARs) doses were estimated. Methods: Twenty patients treated with I125-BT were retrospectively examined. The tumor SFED values were calculated from tumor BED using a conventional linear-quadratic (L-Q) model and an universal survival curve (USC). The opposite retina (α/β = 2.58), macula (2.58), optic disc (1.75), and lens (1.2) were examined. The % doses of OARs over tumor doses were assumed to be the same as for a single fraction delivery. The OAR SFED values were converted into BED and equivalent dose in 2 Gy fraction (EQD2) by using both L-Q and USC models, then compared to I125-BT. Results: The USC-based BED and EQD2 doses of the macula, optic disc, and the lens were on average 118 ± 46% (p < 0.0527), 126 ± 43% (p < 0.0354), and 112 ± 32% (p < 0.0265) higher than those of I125-BT, respectively. The BED and EQD2 doses of the opposite retina were 52 ± 9% lower than I125-BT. The tumor SFED values were 25.2 ± 3.3 Gy and 29.1 ± 2.5 Gy when using USC and LQ models which can be delivered within 1 hour. All BED and EQD2 values using L-Q model were significantly larger when compared to the USC model (p < 0.0274) due to its large single fraction size (> 14 Gy). Conclusion: The estimated single fraction doses were feasible to be delivered within 1 hour using a high dose rate source such as electronic brachytherapy (eBT). However, the estimated OAR doses using eBT were 112 ∼ 118% higher than when using the I125-BT technique. Continued exploration of alternative dose rate or fractionation schedules should be followed.

  6. Arc modelling in SF6 circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, J.C.; Boucher, T.; Comte, A.; Delalondre, C.; Robin-Jouan, P.; Serres, E.; Texier, V.; Barrault, M.; Chevrier, P.; Fievet, C.

    1995-06-01

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author)

  7. CF3SF5 : a ‘super’ greenhouse gas

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    One molecule of the anthropogenic pollutant trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride (CF\\(_3\\)SF\\(_5\\)), an adduct of the CF\\(_3\\) and SF\\(_5\\) free radicals, causes more global warming than one molecule of any other greenhouse gas yet detected in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is, it has the highest per molecule radiative forcing of any greenhouse pollutant, and the value of its global warming potential is only exceeded by that of SF\\(_6\\). First, the greenhouse effect is described, the propertie...

  8. Theoretical and experimental studies of N and SF2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuqin; Zhou Xiaoguo

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, free radical reaction of N+SF 2 induced by dc discharge in N 2 and SF 6 system was examined. Although the NS + (m/z = 46) ion signals were detected, NS + is not the spectral carrier from obtained REMPI spectra analysis. Ab initio quantum calculation shows that NSF is the main product of N + SF 2 . It is confirmed from this calculation that NS + obtained in experiment was produced by multiphoton ionization and dissociation of NSF which is real product of N + SF 2 reaction. (author)

  9. Electron Transport Coefficients and Effective Ionization Coefficients in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air Mixtures Using Boltzmann Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Linsheng; Xu, Min; Yuan, Dingkun; Zhang, Yafang; Hu, Zhaoji; Tan, Zhihong

    2014-10-01

    The electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function (EEDF), density-normalized effective ionization coefficient and density-normalized longitudinal diffusion velocity are calculated in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures. The experimental results from a pulsed Townsend discharge are plotted for comparison with the numerical results. The reduced field strength varies from 40 Td to 500 Td (1 Townsend=10-17 V·cm2) and the SF6 concentration ranges from 10% to 100%. A Boltzmann equation associated with the two-term spherical harmonic expansion approximation is utilized to gain the swarm parameters in steady-state Townsend. Results show that the accuracy of the Boltzmann solution with a two-term expansion in calculating the electron drift velocity, electron energy distribution function, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient is acceptable. The effective ionization coefficient presents a distinct relationship with the SF6 content in the mixtures. Moreover, the E/Ncr values in SF6-Air mixtures are higher than those in SF6-O2 mixtures and the calculated value E/Ncr in SF6-O2 and SF6-Air mixtures is lower than the measured value in SF6-N2. Parametric studies conducted on these parameters using the Boltzmann analysis offer substantial insight into the plasma physics, as well as a basis to explore the ozone generation process.

  10. Outcomes and Toxicity for Hypofractionated and Single-Fraction Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Sarcomas Metastasizing to the Spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, Michael R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bilsky, Mark H. [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Tom, Ashlyn K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Oh, Jung Hun [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Laufer, Ilya [Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Tap, William D. [Department of Medical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yamada, Yoshiya, E-mail: yamadaj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation treatment (20-40 Gy in 5-20 fractions, 2-5 Gy per fraction) for sarcoma metastatic to the spine provides subtherapeutic doses, resulting in poor durable local control (LC) (50%-77% at 1 year). Hypofractionated (HF) and/or single-fraction (SF) image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (IG-SRS) may provide a more effective means of managing these lesions. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven high-grade sarcoma metastatic to the spine treated with HF and SF IG-SRS were included. LC and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the use of Kaplan-Meier statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the use of Cox regression with competing-risks analysis; all confidence intervals are 95%. Toxicities were assessed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: From May 2005 to November 11, 2012, 88 patients with 120 discrete metastases received HF (3-6 fractions; median dose, 28.5 Gy; n=52, 43.3%) or SF IG-SRS (median dose, 24 Gy; n=68, 56.7%). The median follow-up time was 12.3 months. At 12 months, LC was 87.9% (confidence interval [CI], 81.3%-94.5%), OS was 60.6% (CI, 49.6%-71.6%), and median survival was 16.9 months. SF IG-SRS demonstrated superior LC to HF IG-SRS (12-month LC of 90.8% [CI, 83%-98.6%] vs 84.1% [CI, 72.9%-95.3%] P=.007) and retained significance on multivariate analysis (P=.030, hazard ratio 0.345; CI, 0.132-0.901]. Treatment was well tolerated, with 1% acute grade 3 toxicity, 4.5% chronic grade 3 toxicity, and no grade >3 toxicities. Conclusions: In the largest series of metastatic sarcoma to the spine to date, IG-SRS provides excellent LC in the setting of an aggressive disease with low radiation sensitivity and poor prognosis. Single-fraction IG-SRS is associated with the highest rates of LC with minimal toxicity.

  11. Risbjerg: SF vandt valgkampen, NA og R tabte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: Endnu engang flyttede en valgkamp for alvor stemmer. SF gik undervejs 27 pct. frem, mens NA gik 34 pct. tilbage og R 26 pct. Udgivelsesdato: 25. november......ANALYSE: Endnu engang flyttede en valgkamp for alvor stemmer. SF gik undervejs 27 pct. frem, mens NA gik 34 pct. tilbage og R 26 pct. Udgivelsesdato: 25. november...

  12. Are decisions using cost-utility analyses robust to choice of SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Surrey M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost utility analysis (CUA using SF-36/SF-12 data has been facilitated by the development of several preference-based algorithms. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how decision-making could be affected by the choice of preference-based algorithms for the SF-36 and SF-12, and provide some guidance on selecting an appropriate algorithm. Methods Two sets of data were used: (1 a clinical trial of adult asthma patients; and (2 a longitudinal study of post-stroke patients. Incremental costs were assumed to be $2000 per year over standard treatment, and QALY gains realized over a 1-year period. Ten published algorithms were identified, denoted by first author: Brazier (SF-36, Brazier (SF-12, Shmueli, Fryback, Lundberg, Nichol, Franks (3 algorithms, and Lawrence. Incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs for each algorithm, stated in dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY, were ranked and compared between datasets. Results In the asthma patients, estimated ICURs ranged from Lawrence's SF-12 algorithm at $30,769/QALY (95% CI: 26,316 to 36,697 to Brazier's SF-36 algorithm at $63,492/QALY (95% CI: 48,780 to 83,333. ICURs for the stroke cohort varied slightly more dramatically. The MEPS-based algorithm by Franks et al. provided the lowest ICUR at $27,972/QALY (95% CI: 20,942 to 41,667. The Fryback and Shmueli algorithms provided ICURs that were greater than $50,000/QALY and did not have confidence intervals that overlapped with most of the other algorithms. The ICUR-based ranking of algorithms was strongly correlated between the asthma and stroke datasets (r = 0.60. Conclusion SF-36/SF-12 preference-based algorithms produced a wide range of ICURs that could potentially lead to different reimbursement decisions. Brazier's SF-36 and SF-12 algorithms have a strong methodological and theoretical basis and tended to generate relatively higher ICUR estimates, considerations that support a preference for these algorithms over the

  13. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy

  14. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Richardson, Douglas [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University (United States); Liu, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Xinjiannanlu 56, Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M. [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Dvorak, Harold F., E-mail: hdvorak@bidmc.harvard.edu [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Jaminet, Shou-Ching S., E-mail: sjaminet@bidmc.harvard.edu [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy.

  15. FRACTIONAL BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Klimikova

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.

  16. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF6 and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Yan, Ping; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ˜130 kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ˜1.6 ns . SAEB parameters in SF6 are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr), nitrogen (N2 ), air, and mixtures of SF6 with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF6 and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N2 and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes). Furthermore, the concentration of SF6 additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N2-SF6 mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr -SF6 mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  17. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF_{6} and krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang (章程

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF_{6} in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ∼130  kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ∼1.6  ns. SAEB parameters in SF_{6} are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr, nitrogen (N_{2}, air, and mixtures of SF_{6} with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF_{6} and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N_{2} and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes. Furthermore, the concentration of SF_{6} additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N_{2}-SF_{6} mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr-SF_{6} mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  18. Development of ProCaRS Clinical Nomograms for Biochemical Failure-free Survival Following Either Low-Dose Rate Brachytherapy or Conventionally Fractionated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Andrew; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Souhami, Luis; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although several clinical nomograms predictive of biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS) for localized prostate cancer exist in the medical literature, making valid comparisons can be challenging due to variable definitions of biochemical failure, the disparate distribution of prognostic factors, and received treatments in patient populations. The aim of this investigation was to develop and validate clinically-based nomograms for 5-year BFFS using the ASTRO II “Phoenix” definition for two patient cohorts receiving low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy or conventionally fractionated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from a large Canadian multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: Patients were selected from the GUROC (Genitourinary Radiation Oncologists of Canada) Prostate Cancer Risk Stratification (ProCaRS) database if they received (1) LDR brachytherapy ≥ 144 Gy (n=4208) or (2) EBRT ≥ 70 Gy  (n=822). Multivariable Cox regression analysis for BFFS was performed separately for each cohort and used to generate clinical nomograms predictive of 5-year BFFS. Nomograms were validated using calibration plots of nomogram predicted probability versus observed probability via Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results: Patients receiving LDR brachytherapy had a mean age of 64 ± 7 years, a mean baseline PSA of 6.3 ± 3.0 ng/mL, 75% had a Gleason 6, and 15% had a Gleason 7, whereas patients receiving EBRT had a mean age of 70 ± 6 years, a mean baseline PSA of 11.6 ± 10.7 ng/mL, 30% had a Gleason 6, 55% had a Gleason 7, and 14% had a Gleason 8-10. Nomograms for 5-year BFFS included age, use and duration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), baseline PSA, T stage, and Gleason score for LDR brachytherapy and an ADT (months), baseline PSA, Gleason score, and biological effective dose (Gy) for EBRT. Conclusions: Clinical nomograms examining 5-year BFFS were developed for patients receiving either LDR brachytherapy or conventionally fractionated EBRT and

  19. Laser Spectroscopy on Ozone Destruction by SF6 Decomposed Products

    OpenAIRE

    北嶋, 巌; 村上, 和幸; 田中, 淳一; 岡井, 善四郎

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the identification of the SF6 decomposed products and the possibility of the ozone destruction by it. SF6 gas absorbs very strongly the 10.6μm P branch of C02 laser beam,so that the trace detection under ppb will be easily performed by the laser photo-acoustic method. We observed a new absorption spectra within the 9.6μm P branch resulted from the decomposed molecules after 2 hours 1 Hz-pulsed discharge of SF6 gas. As a resu1t ofthe gas chromatograph, it will be assumed ...

  20. Fractional thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Povstenko, Yuriy

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to fractional thermoelasticity, i.e. thermoelasticity based on the heat conduction equation with differential operators of fractional order. Readers will discover how time-fractional differential operators describe memory effects and space-fractional differential operators deal with the long-range interaction. Fractional calculus, generalized Fourier law, axisymmetric and central symmetric problems and many relevant equations are featured in the book. The latest developments in the field are included and the reader is brought up to date with current research.  The book contains a large number of figures, to show the characteristic features of temperature and stress distributions and to represent the whole spectrum of order of fractional operators.  This work presents a picture of the state-of-the-art of fractional thermoelasticity and is suitable for specialists in applied mathematics, physics, geophysics, elasticity, thermoelasticity and engineering sciences. Corresponding sections of ...

  1. Survival of V79 cells after low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, M.E.; Fowler, J.F.; Hodgkiss, R.J.; Jones, N.R.

    1984-01-01

    Doses of X-rays of the order 1-3 Gy are used in clinical multifraction regimes. Reduction in oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) and sensitizer enhancement ratios have been reported for CHO cells. The errors in determining low levels of cell kill are largely influenced by sampling and dilution errors. The authors have aimed to reduce these errors by increasing the sample size and reducing dilutions. To further assess the uncertainties involved in these experiments the data were pooled from three independent series of experiments. Asynchronous log phase Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells have been irradiated attached to glass Petri dishes in Eagle's MEM + 10% fcs at a dose rate of 0.61 Gy min/sup -1/ under air + 5% CO/sub 2/ or nitrogen + 5% CO/sub 2/ at 18 0 C. Survival in the range 10/sup -1/ to 5 x 10/sup -3/ surviving fraction (SF) was identical at 0.61 Gy min/sup -1/ and 3.93 Gy min/sup -1/. Many previous experiments have given an OER = 3.1 at 10/sup -2/-10/sup -3/ survival. Least squares fit to the linear quadratic function log S = -(αD + βD/sup 2/) gave an OER≅3.2 at SF = 10/sup -2/. Below 6 Gy air dose (>0.2 SF) OER was reduced, but was still ≅ 2.4 at 2 Gy. The linear quadratic function gave an OER for a ≅ 1.5 (the limiting low-dose OER) and √β≅3.2

  2. Decomposition of Potent Greenhouse Gases SF6, CF4 and SF5CF3 by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renxi; Wang Jingting; Cao Xu; Hou Huiqi

    2016-01-01

    For their distinguished global warming potential (GWP100) and long atmosphere lifespan, CF 4 , SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 were significant in the field of greenhouse gas research. The details of discharging character and the optimal parameter were discussed by using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) reactor to decompose these potent greenhouse gases in this work. The results showed that SF 6 could be decomposed by 92% under the conditions of 5 min resident time and 3000 V applied voltage with the partial pressure of 2.0 kPa, 28.2 kPa, and 1.8 kPa for SF 6 , air and water vapor, respectively. 0.4 kPa CF 4 could be decomposed by 98.2% for 4 min resident time with 30 kPa Ar added. The decomposition of SF 5 CF 3 was much more effective than that of SF 6 and CF 4 and moreover, 1.3 kPa SF 5 CF 3 , discharged with 30 kPa O 2 , Ar and air, could not be detected when the resident time was 80 s, 40 s, and 120 s, respectively. All the results indicated that DBD was a feasible technique for the abatement of potent greenhouse gases. (paper)

  3. Effects of SF$_{6}$ on the avalanche mode operation of a real-sized double-gap resistive plate chamber for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn Sung Hwan; Hong, B; Hong, S J; Ito, M; Kim, B I; Kim, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y U; Koo, D G; Lee, H W; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S J; Lim, J K; Moon, D H; Nam, S K; Park, S; Park, W J; Rhee, J T; Ryu, M S; Shim, H H; Sim, K S; Kang, T I

    2005-01-01

    We present the design and the test, results for a real-sized prototype resistive plate chamber by using cosmic-ray muons for the forward region of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In particular, we investigate the effects of adding SF/sub 6/ to the gas mixture for the avalanche mode operation of a resistive plate chamber. A small fraction of SF/sub 6/ is very effective in suppressing streamer signals in a resistive plate chamber. The shapes of the muon detection efficiency and the muon cluster size remain similar, but are shifted to higher operating voltage by SF/sub 6/. The noise cluster rate and size are not influenced by SF/sub 6/.

  4. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  5. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  6. SfDredd, a Novel Initiator Caspase Possessing Activity on Effector Caspase Substrates in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhouning; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Hao; Wu, Andong; Mei, Long; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Sf9, a cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is an ideal model organism for studying insect apoptosis. The first notable study that attempted to identify the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 was performed in 1997 and included the discovery of Sf-caspase-1, an effector caspase of Sf9. However, it was not until 2013 that the first initiator caspase in Sf9, SfDronc, was discovered, and the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 became clearer. In this study, we report another caspase of Sf9, SfDredd. SfDredd is highly similar to insect initiator caspase Dredd homologs. Experimentally, recombinant SfDredd underwent autocleavage and exhibited different efficiencies in cleavage of synthetic caspase substrates. This was attributed to its caspase activity for the predicted active site mutation blocked the above autocleavage and synthetic caspase substrates cleavage activity. SfDredd was capable of not only cleaving Sf-caspase-1 in vitro but also cleaving Sf-caspase-1 and inducing apoptosis when it was co-expressed with Sf-caspase-1 in Sf9 cells. The protein level of SfDredd was increased when Sf9 cells were treated by Actinomycin D, whereas silencing of SfDredd reduced apoptosis and Sf-caspase-1 cleavage induced by Actinomycin D treatment. These results clearly indicate that SfDredd functioned as an apoptotic initiator caspase. Apoptosis induced in Sf9 cells by overexpression of SfDredd alone was not as obvious as that induced by SfDronc alone, and the cleavage sites of Sf-caspase-1 for SfDredd and SfDronc are different. In addition, despite sharing a sequence homology with initiator caspases and possessing weak activity on initiator caspase substrates, SfDredd showed strong activity on effector caspase substrates, making it the only insect caspase reported so far functioning similar to human caspase-2 in this aspect. We believe that the discovery of SfDredd, and its different properties from SfDronc, will improve the understanding of apoptosis pathway in Sf9 cells.

  7. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of P, BC, IF-P, SF-P, IF-BC and SF-BC, as well as increased the survival of bacterial cultures treated with stannous chloride. Our results suggest that reishi extract could present a redox/chelating action, altering the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  8. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  9. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  10. Unchained Melody: Revisiting the Estimation of SF-6D Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In the original SF-6D valuation study, the analytical design inherited conventions that detrimentally affected its ability to predict values on a quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scale. Our objective is to estimate UK values for SF-6D states using the original data and multi-attribute utility (MAU) regression after addressing its limitations and to compare the revised SF-6D and EQ-5D value predictions. Methods Using the unaltered data (611 respondents, 3503 SG responses), the parameters of the original MAU model were re-estimated under 3 alternative error specifications, known as the instant, episodic, and angular random utility models. Value predictions on a QALY scale were compared to EQ-5D3L predictions using the 1996 Health Survey for England. Results Contrary to the original results, the revised SF-6D value predictions range below 0 QALYs (i.e., worse than death) and agree largely with EQ-5D predictions after adjusting for scale. Although a QALY is defined as a year in optimal health, the SF-6D sets a higher standard for optimal health than the EQ-5D-3L; therefore, it has larger units on a QALY scale by construction (20.9% more). Conclusions Much of the debate in health valuation has focused on differences between preference elicitation tasks, sampling, and instruments. After correcting errant econometric practices and adjusting for differences in QALY scale between the EQ-5D and SF-6D values, the revised predictions demonstrate convergent validity, making them more suitable for UK economic evaluations compared to original estimates. PMID:26359242

  11. Inactivation of Tm6sf2, a Gene Defective in Fatty Liver Disease, Impairs Lipidation but Not Secretion of Very Low Density Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagris, Eriks; Gilyard, Shenise; BasuRay, Soumik; Cohen, Jonathan C; Hobbs, Helen H

    2016-05-13

    A missense mutation (E167K) in TM6SF2 (transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2), a polytopic protein of unknown function, is associated with the full spectrum of fatty liver disease. To investigate the role of TM6SF2 in hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism, we inactivated the gene in mice. Chronic inactivation of Tm6sf2 in mice is associated with hepatic steatosis, hypocholesterolemia, and transaminitis, thus recapitulating the phenotype observed in humans. No dietary challenge was required to elicit the phenotype. Immunocytochemical and cell fractionation studies revealed that TM6SF2 was present in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, whereas the excess neutral lipids in the Tm6sf2(-/-) mice were located in lipid droplets. Plasma VLDL-TG levels were reduced in the KO animals due to a 3-fold decrease in VLDL-TG secretion rate without any associated reduction in hepatic apoB secretion. Both VLDL particle size and plasma cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in KO mice. Despite levels of TM6SF2 protein being 10-fold higher in the small intestine than in the liver, dietary lipid absorption was only modestly reduced in the KO mice. Our data, taken together, reveal that TM6SF2 is required to mobilize neutral lipids for VLDL assembly but is not required for secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Despite TM6SF2 being located in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, the lipids that accumulate in its absence reside in lipid droplets. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Mystery Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  13. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  14. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  15. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  16. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  17. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Micro computer aided beam transport for the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement of the beam transport system for the SF cyclotron is described. The system was designed to handle on-line alignment of the beam extracted from the SF cyclotron onto the optical axis of the transport line. It also enables to measure the beam emittance. The measurement of the emittance parameters is in particular necessary to calculate the beam optics. The calculation has been modified to become easy to handle. With the help of the computer-aided on-line beam profile measurement system, the operation of the beam transport system is very subservient to shorten the beam-tuning time and to improve the beam-transmission efficiency and the quality. (author)

  19. M4SF-17LL010301071: Thermodynamic Database Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Institute, Physical & Life Sciences; Wolery, T. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Akima Infrastructure Services, LLC

    2017-09-05

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010301071) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Argillite Disposal R&D Work Package Number M4SF-17LL01030107. The DR Argillite Disposal R&D control account is focused on the evaluation of important processes in the analysis of disposal design concepts and related materials for nuclear fuel disposal in clay-bearing repository media. The objectives of this work package are to develop model tools for evaluating impacts of THMC process on long-term disposal of spent fuel in argillite rocks, and to establish the scientific basis for high thermal limits. This work is contributing to the GDSA model activities to identify gaps, develop process models, provide parameter feeds and support requirements providing the capability for a robust repository performance assessment model by 2020.

  20. BOREAS TGB-1 NSA SF6 Chamber Flux Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, Patrick; Varner, Ruth K.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-1 team made several chamber and tower measurements of trace gases at sites in the BOREAS NSA. This data set contains sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) dark chamber flux measurements at the NSA-OJP and NSA-YJP sites from 16-May through 13-Sep-1994. Gas samples were extracted approximately every 7 days from dark chambers and analyzed at the NSA lab facility. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files.

  1. The evolution of Sf. Gheorghe (Danube asymmetric deltaic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred VESPREMEANU-STROE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave asymmetric Sf. Gheorghe lobe is the only active in the Danube delta where river mouth bar (and the associated barrier islands and spits continuously deployed a cyclic development for almost two millennia. During first stage, the Sf. Gheorghe distributary had a small discharge (with an order of magnitude lower than present which after that experienced a rapid increase in consequence of the successive avulsions of Împuţita (southern distributary of Sulina arm and Dunavăţ distributaries. Our morphological analyses together with the newly obtained chronology, revealed the multiple ridgesets structure of Sf. Gheorghe deltaic lobe. In fact, all ridgesets (10 follow a common morphodynamic pattern characterized by the cyclic succession of three stages: i subaqueous mouth bar development, ii barrier island emergence, iii barrier spit phase with several secondary spits derived from an updrift trunk ridge. The size of each ridgeset increased exponentially with every new cycle due to the constant lengthening of the coastline as the downdrift side of the lobe advances seaward through a series of progressively larger similar quadrilaterals, yielding to a constant enlargment of the delta front size. 

  2. Advances in high voltage insulation and arc interruption in SF6 and vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Maller, V N

    1982-01-01

    Advances in High Voltage Insulation and Arc Interruption in SF6 and Vacuum deals with high voltage breakdown and arc extinction in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and high vacuum, with special emphasis on the application of these insulating media in high voltage power apparatus and devices. The design and developmental aspects of various high voltage power apparatus using SF6 and high vacuum are highlighted. This book is comprised of eight chapters and opens with a discussion on electrical discharges in SF6 and high vacuum, along with the properties and handling of SF6 gas. The following chapters fo

  3. Multigroup Approximation of Radiation Transfer in SF6 Arc Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Bartlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first order of the method of spherical harmonics (P1-approximation has been used to evaluate the radiation properties of arc plasmas of various mixtures of SF6 and PTFE ((C2F4n, polytetrafluoroethylene in the temperature range (1000 ÷ 35 000 K and pressures from 0.5 to 5 MPa. Calculations have been performed for isothermal cylindrical plasma of various radii (0.01 ÷ 10 cm. The frequency dependence of the absorption coefficients has been handled using the Planck and Rosseland averaging methods for several frequency intervals. Results obtained using various means calculated for different choices of frequency intervals are discussed.

  4. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, M.; Rahmo, A.; Hajjar, J.

    2013-01-01

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  5. Numaerical simulation of a SF6 circuit-breaker arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergne, P.J.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Gleizes, A.

    1995-01-01

    The design and the validation of high-voltage circuit breaker require more and more physical models which take into account complex phenomenae. We present here a numerical simulation of an SF 6 arc established in a simplified geometry of a circuit breaker prototype. Our study deals specially with the turbulent flow, the boundary conditions of the arc roots on the electrodes, the influence of the electromagnetic strengths and the radiative transfer. The results concern a stationary state with fixed geometry and current intensity (I=2000 A)

  6. Simultaneous PLK1 inhibition improves local tumour control after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Mechthild; Kummer, Berit; Deparade, Andre; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Pfitzmann, Dorothee; Yaromina, Ala; Kunz-Schughart, Leoni A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays an important role in mitotic progression, is frequently overexpressed and associated with a poor prognosis of cancer patients, thus providing a promising target in anticancer treatment. Aim of the current project was to evaluate the effect of the novel PLK1 inhibitor BI 6727 in combination with irradiation. Material and methods: In vitro proliferation and radiation cell survival assays as well as in vivo local tumour control assays after single treatment and combined radiation and drug application were carried out using the squamous cell carcinoma models A431 and FaDu. In addition, cell cycle phases were monitored in vitro and in vivo. Results: BI 6727 showed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect and an increase in the mitotic fraction. BI 6727 alone reduced clonogenic cell survival, while radiosensitivity in vitro (SF2) and in vivo (single-dose TCD 50 under clamped hypoxia) was not affected. In contrast, local tumour control was significantly improved after application of BI 6727 simultaneously to fractionated irradiation (A431: TCD 50 = 60.5 Gy [95% C.I. 57; 63] after IR alone and <30 Gy after combined treatment; FaDu: 49.5 Gy [43; 56 Gy] versus 32.9 Gy [26; 40]). Conclusions: Despite the lack of direct cellular radiosensitisation, PLK1 inhibition with BI 6727 during fractionated irradiation significantly improves local tumour control when compared to irradiation alone. This result is likely explained by a considerable effect on cell cycle and an independent cytotoxic potential of BI 6727

  7. SfDronc, an initiator caspase involved in apoptosis in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Civciristov, Srgjan; Hawkins, Christine J; Clem, Rollie J

    2013-05-01

    Initiator caspases are the first caspases that are activated following an apoptotic stimulus, and are responsible for cleaving and activating downstream effector caspases, which directly cause apoptosis. We have cloned a cDNA encoding an ortholog of the initiator caspase Dronc in the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. The SfDronc cDNA encodes a predicted protein of 447 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51 kDa. Overexpression of SfDronc induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells, while partial silencing of SfDronc expression in Sf9 cells reduced apoptosis induced by baculovirus infection or by treatment with UV or actinomycin D. Recombinant SfDronc exhibited several expected biochemical characteristics of an apoptotic initiator caspase: 1) SfDronc efficiently cleaved synthetic initiator caspase substrates, but had very little activity against effector caspase substrates; 2) mutation of a predicted cleavage site at position D340 blocked autoprocessing of recombinant SfDronc and reduced enzyme activity by approximately 10-fold; 3) SfDronc cleaved the effector caspase Sf-caspase-1 at the expected cleavage site, resulting in Sf-caspase-1 activation; and 4) SfDronc was strongly inhibited by the baculovirus caspase inhibitor SpliP49, but not by the related protein AcP35. These results indicate that SfDronc is an initiator caspase involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis in S. frugiperda, and as such is likely to be responsible for the initiator caspase activity in S. frugiperda cells known as Sf-caspase-X. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular bonding in SF6 measured by elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Fink, M.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic differential cross-section measurements of gaseous SF 6 were made with 30 keV electrons in the range of 0.25 bohrs -1 ≤s≤10 bohrs -1 . Structural parameters derived in this study closely matched those found in an earlier total (elastic plus inelastic) scattering investigation. Multiple-scattering effects were incorporated in the structural refinement. The discrepancies between the independent atom model and the measured differential cross section reproduce earlier total scattering results for momentum transfers of greater than 5 bohrs -1 . By extending the measurements to smaller s values, a closer examination of a Hartree--Fock calculation for SF 6 was possible. It was found that the difference curve obtained from the Hartree--Fock calculation matched the experimental data in this region. A more quantitative analysis was performed using the analytic expressions of Bonham and Fink to compute moments of the molecular charge distribution from the differential cross-section data. Comparison of these results with similar fits to the Hartree--Fock calculation confirmed the good agreement between the Hartree--Fock calculation and the current elastic data

  9. SF6 ventilation study at Agnew Lake Mines, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    In September 1978, James F. MacLaren Limited was awarded a contract by the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to undertake a ventilation study at an underground uranium mine using sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer gas. The mine selected for the study was that of Agnew Lake Mines Limited in Northern Ontario. This is a relatively new mine with the combined mine/mill facilities first operational in mid-1977. Uranium is recovered from broken ore by in-situ leaching. The ventilation study was divided into two phases. A laboratory study was undertaken to develop a practical sampling technique, provide an evaluation of the logistics of long range sample transport and develop a laboratory analytical technique. Field programmes demonstrated the SF 6 tracer gas technique for mine ventilation trouble-shooting with the intent of providing information which will lead to more efficient use of existing mine ventilation capacity. This report outlines the findings of the laboratory study and the two field programmes

  10. Leader propagation in uniform background fields in SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, M; Niemeyer, L; Bujotzek, M

    2009-01-01

    The breakdown mechanism of compressed SF 6 in gas insulation is known to be controlled by stepped leader propagation. This process is still not well understood in uniform and weakly non-uniform background fields with small electrode protrusions, such as particles or surface roughness. In a previous publication an investigation of partial discharges and breakdown in uniform background fields that focused on streamer and leader inception mechanisms was presented (Seeger et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 185204). In this paper we present for the first time a physical leader propagation model that consistently describes the observed phenomena in uniform background fields in SF 6 . The model explains two different types of leader breakdown; these can be associated with the precursor and the stem mechanisms. It also yields the parameters of stepped leader propagation, which include step lengths, associated step charges, step times and fields and temperatures in the leader channel. Further, it explains the features of arrested leaders in uniform background fields. The model predicts the range of parameters under which arrested and breakdown leaders occur in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Fractional vector calculus for fractional advection dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Mortensen, Jeff; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.

    2006-07-01

    We develop the basic tools of fractional vector calculus including a fractional derivative version of the gradient, divergence, and curl, and a fractional divergence theorem and Stokes theorem. These basic tools are then applied to provide a physical explanation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation for flow in heterogeneous porous media.

  12. Fractional Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations

  13. Validation of the SF-6D Health State Utilities Measure in Lower Extremity Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Gundle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Health state utilities measures are preference-weighted patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments that facilitate comparative effectiveness research. One such measure, the SF-6D, is generated from the Short Form 36 (SF-36. This report describes a psychometric evaluation of the SF-6D in a cross-sectional population of lower extremity sarcoma patients. Methods. Patients with lower extremity sarcoma from a prospective database who had completed the SF-36 and Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS were eligible for inclusion. Computed SF-6D health states were given preference weights based on a prior valuation. The primary outcome was correlation between the SF-6D and TESS. Results. In 63 pairs of surveys in a lower extremity sarcoma population, the mean preference-weighted SF-6D score was 0.59 (95% CI 0.4–0.81. The distribution of SF-6D scores approximated a normal curve (skewness = 0.11. There was a positive correlation between the SF-6D and TESS (r=0.75, P<0.01. Respondents who reported walking aid use had lower SF-6D scores (0.53 versus 0.61, P=0.03. Five respondents underwent amputation, with lower SF-6D scores that approached significance (0.48 versus 0.6, P=0.06. Conclusions. The SF-6D health state utilities measure demonstrated convergent validity without evidence of ceiling or floor effects. The SF-6D is a health state utilities measure suitable for further research in sarcoma patients.

  14. Meadow based Fraction Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of an involutive meadow a precise definition of fractions is formulated and on that basis formal definitions of various classes of fractions are given. The definitions follow the fractions as terms paradigm. That paradigm is compared with two competing paradigms for storytelling on fractions: fractions as values and fractions as pairs.

  15. Cucumis sativus Aqueous Fraction Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Trejo-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress play major roles in endothelial dysfunction, and are key factors in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of three subfractions (SFs from the Cucumis sativus aqueous fraction to reduce inflammatory factors and oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II (Ang II in human microvascular endothelial cells-1 (HMEC-1 cells. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of Ang II and 0.08 or 10 μg/mL of SF1, SF2, or SF3, or 10 μmol of losartan as a control. IL-6 (Interleukin 6 concentration was quantified. To identify the most effective SF combinations, HMEC-1 cells were cultured as described above in the presence of four combinations of SF1 and SF3. Then, the effects of the most effective combination on the expression of adhesion molecules, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO were evaluated. Finally, a mass spectrometry analysis was performed. Both SF1 and SF3 subfractions decreased the induction of IL-6 by Ang II, and C4 (SF1 and SF3, 10 μg/mL each was the most effective combination to inhibit the production of IL-6. Additionally, C4 prevented the expression of adhesion molecules, reduced the production of ROS, and increased the bioavailability of NO. Glycine, arginine, asparagine, lysine, and aspartic acid were the main components of both subfractions. These results demonstrate that C4 has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

  16. A novel method to decompose two potent greenhouse gases: Photoreduction of SF6 and SF5CF3 in the presence of propene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Li; Shen Yan; Dong Wenbo; Zhang Renxi; Zhang Jianliang; Hou Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    SF 5 CF 3 and SF 6 are the most effective greenhouse gases on a per molecule basis in the atmosphere. Original laboratory trial for photoreduction of them by use of propene as a reactant was performed to develop a novel technique to destroy them. The highly reductive radicals produced during the photolysis of propene at 184.9 nm, such as ·CH 3 , ·C 2 H 3 , and ·C 3 H 5 , could efficiently decompose SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 to CH 4 , elemental sulfur and trace amounts of fluorinated organic compounds. It was further demonstrated that the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of SF 5 X (X represented F or CF 3 ) was highly dependent on the initial propene-to-SF 5 X ratio. The addition of certain amounts of oxygen and water vapor not only enhanced the DRE but avoided the generation of deposits. In both systems, employment nitrogen as dilution gas lessened the DRE slightly. Given the advantage of less toxic products, the technique might contribute to SF 5 X remediation

  17. Arc modelling in SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verite, J.C. [Electricite de France, Clamart (France). Derection des Etudes et Recherches; Boucher, T.; Comte, A. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Robin-Jouan, P.; Serres, E.; Texier, V. [GEC Alsthom, Villeurbanne (France). Direction Technique Haute et Moyenne Tension; Barrault, M.; Chevrier, P.; Fievet, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Merlin Gerin

    1995-06-01

    The paper presents the work done by an operator, EDF and two manufacturers to improve the physical models and numerical methods used to simulate the behavior of the plasma and cold gas around it in a breaking chamber of the HV SF6 circuit breaker, during the high-current phase. This work concerns flow phenomena, in particular incorporating compressibility and the study of turbulence, the coupling between these flow phenomena and electromagnetic phenomena, and finally, radiation - which plays an essential role in energy transfer during the high-current phase. For this latter aspect, emission but also absorption were proven to play a major role, and the two were introduced into the models. The paper presents the models developed and the results obtained with them for simulation of two circuit breaker mock-ups (a double-pressure circuit breaker mock-up and a self-expanding and rotating arc circuit breaker mock-up). (author) 10 refs.

  18. Stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Rifampin is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic drug produced from the bacterium Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampin is commonly manufactured in capsule, tablet, and syrup dosage solutions containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. The studied samples were compounded into 25-mg/mL suspensions and stored in low-actinic bottles at room temperature and refrigerated conditions. Samples were assayed at each time point out to 60 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The sample remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on data collected, the beyond-use date of the preparation is at least 60 days when refrigerated or stored at room temperature and protected from light.

  19. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation

  20. Acceleration of heavy-ion beams at the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, Yuzo; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1984-10-01

    With the development of the new arc-heated cathode PIG type source, heavy-ion acceleration in the SF cyclotron has been drastically augmented, which means that a stable routine operation is being realized as well as the number of ion species is increasing. Excellent performance is also being exhibited with the arc power supply and gas feeding system required for the operation of the heavy-ion source. At present, the gaseous ions which are being accelerated are as follows: He, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, S, Ar and Xe. In the meantime, the metallic ions which are being accelerated likewise are Li, Be, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, Fe and Cu. In this paper, results of mainly the research of heavy-ion acceleration conducted during the period from 1983 to July 1984 are described. (author)

  1. A Comparison of SF-36 and SF-12 Composite Scores and Subsequent Hospitalization and Mortality Risks in Long-Term Dialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianglin; Lin, Shu-Fang; Dean, Sandie Guerra; Lazarus, J. Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The Short Form 12 (SF-12) has not been validated for long-term dialysis patients. The study compared physical and mental component summary (PCS/MCS) scores from the SF-36 with those from the embedded SF-12 in a national cohort of dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: All 44,395 patients who had scorable SF-36 and SF-12 from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2006, and were treated at Fresenius Medical Care, North America facilities were included. Death and first hospitalization were followed for up to 1 year from the date of survey. Correlation and agreement were obtained between PCS-36 and PCS-12 and MCS-36 and MCS-12; then Cox models were constructed to compare associated hazard ratios (HRs) between them. Results: Physical and mental dimensions both exhibited excellent intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94. Each incremental point for both PCS-12 and PCS-36 was associated with a 2.4% lower adjusted HR of death and 0.4% decline in HR for first hospitalization (both P < 0.0001). Corresponding improvement in HR of death for each MCS point was 1.2% for MCS-12 and 1.3% for MCS-36, whereas both had similar 0.6% lower HR for hospitalization per point (all P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The use of the SF-12 alone or as part of a larger survey is valid in dialysis patients. Composite scores from the SF-12 and SF-36 have similar prognostic association with death and hospitalization risk. Prospective longitudinal studies of SF-12 surveys that consider responsiveness to specific clinical, situational, and interventional changes are needed in this population. PMID:20019120

  2. Electron attachment to the SF{sub 6} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com; Kosarim, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Various models for transition between electron and nuclear subsystems are compared in the case of electron attachment to the SF{sub 6} molecule. Experimental data, including the cross section of electron attachment to this molecule as a function of the electron energy and vibrational temperature, the rate constants of this process in swarm experiments, and the rates of the chemionization process involving Rydberg atoms and the SF{sub 6} molecule, are collected and treated. Based on the data and on the resonant character of electron capture into an autodetachment ion state in accordance with the Breit–Wigner formula, we find that intersection of the molecule and negative ion electron terms proceeds above the potential well bottom of the molecule with the barrier height 0.05–0.1 eV, and the transition between these electron terms has both the tunnel and abovebarrier character. The limit of small electron energies e for the electron attachment cross section at room vibrational temperature takes place at ε ≪ 2 meV, while in the range 2 meV ≪ ε ≪ 80 meV, the cross section is inversely proportional to ε. In considering the attachment process as a result of the interaction between the electron and vibrational degrees of freedom, we find the coupling factor f between them to be f = aT at low vibrational temperatures T with a ≈ 3 × 10{sup −4} K{sup −1}. The coupling factor is independent of the temperature at T > 400 K.

  3. Effects of Mars Regolith Analogs, UVC radiation, Temperature, Pressure, and pH on the Growth and Survivability of Methanogenic Archaea and Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation: Implications for Surface and Subsurface Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Navita

    Mars is one of the suitable bodies in our solar system that can accommodate extraterrestrial life. The detection of plumes of methane in the Martian atmosphere, geochemical evidence, indication of flow of intermittent liquid water on the Martian surface, and geomorphologies of Mars have bolstered the plausibility of finding extant or evidence of extinct life on its surface and/or subsurface. However, contemporary Mars has been considered as an inhospitable planet for several reasons, such as low atmospheric surface pressure, low surface temperature, and intense DNA damaging radiation. Despite the hostile conditions of Mars, a few strains of methanogenic archaea have shown survivability in limited surface and subsurface conditions of Mars. Methanogens, which are chemolithoautotrophic non-photosynthetic anaerobic archaea, have been considered ideal models for possible Martian life forms for a long time. The search for biosignatures in the Martian atmosphere and possibility of life on the Martian surface under UVC radiation and deep subsurface under high pressure, temperature, and various pHs are the motivations of this research. Analogous to Earth, Martian atmospheric methane could be biological in origin. Chapter 1 provides relevant information about Mars' habitability, methane on Mars, and different strains of methanogens used in this study. Chapter 2 describes the interpretation of the carbon isotopic data of biogenic methane produced by methanogens grown on various Mars analogs and the results provide clues to determine ambiguous sources of methane on Mars. Chapter 3 illustrates the sensitivity of hydrated and desiccated cultures of halophilic and non-halophilic methanogens to DNA-damaging ultraviolet radiations, and the results imply that UVC radiation may not be an enormous constraint for methanogenic life forms on the surface of Mars. Chapters 4, 5, and 6 discuss the data for the survivability, growth, and morphology of methanogens in presumed deep subsurface

  4. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  5. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Ming; Zhang, Chongxing; Ren, Ming; Albarracín, Ricardo; Ye, Rixin

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes ...

  6. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  7. Emissions from SF6 appliances in Norway. Additional report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjarede, Anne Cathrine

    1999-01-01

    The report presents facts regarding the Norwegian SF 6 emissions and the significance for the Norwegian climatic gas accounts in order to evaluate whether 12-24 kV SF 6 appliances are environmentally acceptable. Estimations show that emissions from such equipment contribute with about 0.2 % of the total Norwegian CO 2 emissions in 1993. The SF 6 which is stored in electric appliances, may either be recycled or decomposed to more environmentally acceptable end products. The report concludes that the contribution to the greenhouse effects from SF 6 appliances is minimal

  8. Fractional Vector Calculus and Fractional Special Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Fractional vector calculus is discussed in the spherical coordinate framework. A variation of the Legendre equation and fractional Bessel equation are solved by series expansion and numerically. Finally, we generalize the hypergeometric functions.

  9. Electron scattering cross sections for SF6 and SF5CF3 at intermediate and high energies (100-10000 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limao-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; Oller, J.C.; Munoz, A.; Perez, J.M.; Vinodkumar, M.; Garcia, G.; Mason, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    A modified experimental apparatus with improved angular resolution and stability has been used to measure the total electron scattering cross sections for SF 6 and SF 5 CF 3 in the energy range of 100-5000 eV. A detailed analysis of the experimental error sources is provided. The experimental results are compared with integral elastic and inelastic cross sections calculated using the independent atom model approximation and a modified single-center additivity rule for electron energies ranging from 1 to 10,000 eV. The accuracy of these approximations method is discussed through a comparison with the experimental results. Previous cross-sectional data for SF 6 are compared with the present theoretical and experimental results. For SF 5 CF 3 , we present the first electron scattering cross-sectional data for the 100-10,000 eV energy range, as well as the first empirical determination of the molecular polarizability

  10. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wright, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  11. A meta-analytic review of measurement equivalence study findings of the SF-36® and SF-12® Health Surveys across electronic modes compared to paper administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle K; Maher, Stephen M; Rizio, Avery A; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2018-04-16

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures originally developed for paper administration are increasingly being administered electronically in clinical trials and other health research studies. Three published meta-analyses of measurement equivalence among paper and electronic modes aggregated findings across hundreds of PROs, but there has not been a similar meta-analysis that addresses a single PRO, partly because there are not enough published measurement equivalence studies using the same PRO. Because the SF-36 (R) Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used PRO, the aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of measurement equivalence studies of this survey. A literature search of several medical databases used search terms for variations of "SF-36" or "SF-12" and "equivalence" in the title or abstract of English language publications. The eight scale scores and two summary measures of the SF-36 and SF-12 were transformed to norm-based scores (NBS) using developer guidelines. A threshold of within ± 2 NBS points was set as the margin of equivalence. Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that mean differences across domains and summary scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 while estimates of agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.91, all well within the equivalence threshold. Moderator analyses showed that time between administration, survey language, and type of electronic device did not influence equivalence. The results of the meta-analysis support equivalence of paper-based and electronic versions of the SF-36 and SF-12 across a variety of disease populations, countries, and electronic modes.

  12. Fractionation of Palliative Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases in Ontario: Do Practice Guidelines Guide Practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, Allison [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Kong, Weidong [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Chow, Edward [Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackillop, William J., E-mail: william.mackillop@krcc.on.ca [Division of Cancer Care and Epidemiology, Queen' s Cancer Research Institute, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a provincial practice guideline on the fractionation of palliative radiation therapy for bone metastases (PRT.B) in Ontario. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study used electronic treatment records linked to Ontario's population-based cancer registry. Hierarchical multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate temporal trends in the use of single fractions (SFs), controlling for patient-related factors associated with the use of SFs. Results: From 1984 to 2012, 43.9% of 161,835 courses of PRT.B were administered as SFs. The percentage of SF courses was greater for older patients (age <50 years, 39.8% vs age >80 years, 52.5%), those with a shorter life expectancy (survival >12 months, 36.9% vs < 1 month, 53.6%), and those who lived farther from a radiation therapy center (<10 km, 42.1% vs > 50 km, 47.3%). The percentage of SFs to spinal fields was lower than that to other skeletal sites (31.5% vs 57.1%). The percentage of SFs varied among the cancer centers (range, 26.0%-67.8%). These differences were all highly significant in the multivariable analysis (P<.0001). In 2004, Cancer Care Ontario released a practice guideline endorsing the use of SFs for uncomplicated bone metastases. The rate of use of SFs increased from 42.3% in the pre-guideline period (1999-2003) to 52.6% in the immediate post-guideline period (2004-2007). However, it subsequently decreased again to 44.0% (2009-2012). These temporal trends were significant after controlling for patient-related factors in the multivariable analysis (P<.0001). Large intercenter variations in the use of SFs persisted after publication of the guideline. Conclusions: The publication of an Ontario practice guideline endorsing the use of SF PRT.B was associated with only a transient increase in the use of SFs in Ontario and did little to reduce intercenter variations in fractionation.

  13. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  14. 78 FR 66972 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day notice and... Retirement System, SF 2808. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C...

  15. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  16. Construct validity of SF-6D health state utility values in an employed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Siyan; Sanderson, Kristy; Venn, Alison; Otahal, Petr; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Health utility values permit cost utility analysis in workplace health promotion; however, utility measures of working populations have not been validated. To investigate construct validity of SF-6D health utility in a public service workforce. SF-12v2 Health Survey was administered to 3,408 randomly selected public service employees in Australia in 2010. SF-12 scores were converted to SF-6D health utility values. Associations and correlates of SF-6D with health, socio-demographic and work characteristics [comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), Kessler-10 psychological distress (K10), education, salary, effort-reward imbalance (ERI), absenteeism] were explored. Ceiling effects were analysed. Nationally representative employee SF-6D values from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (n = 11,234) were compared. All analyses were stratified by sex. Mean (SE) age was 45.7 (0.35) males; 44.5 (0.22) females. Females represented 72 % of the sample. Mean (SE) health utility 0.792 (0.004); 0.771 (0.003) was higher in males. SF-6D demonstrated both a significant inverse association (p negative correlations (female; male) with K10 (r = -0.63; r = -0.66), comorbidity count (r = -0.40; r = -0.33), ERI (r = -0.37; r = -0.34) and absenteeism (p imbalance and absenteeism are negatively associated with employee health. SF-6D is a valid measure of perceived health states in working populations.

  17. SF6 laser remote sensing by CO2 laser DIAL lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Basam, Z.; Zamanipour, Z.; Kariminezhad, H.; Boyook, N.; Borna, F.; Azari, T.; Eshragi, N.; Ataran, A.; Ghods Ahmad Zadeh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A DIAL system using tunable CO 2 laser has been demonstrated practically for remote sensing of SF 6 components in Mashad Shahid Motahhari Research Complex. Non toxic components of SF 6 as a rare isotope is studied to calibrate the lidar function in several conditions. The whole system enables us to detect ppm amounts of chemical gases as well as pollutants and poisonous species

  18. 48 CFR 53.236-2 - Architect-engineer services (SF's 252 and 330).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architect-engineer... ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.236-2 Architect-engineer...-engineer and related services: (a) SF 252 (Rev. 10/83), Architect-Engineer Contract. SF 252 is prescribed...

  19. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busija, Lucy; Osborne, Richard H; Nilsdotter, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36...

  1. The isotope separator on-line at the INS-SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, H.; Kawakami, H.; Tanaka, J.; Omata, K.; Shida, Y.

    1981-02-01

    The Isotope Separator On-Line at the SF Cyclotron has been improved. Some details of improvements are described on the target-ion source, rapid extraction with aluminized tape, tape transport system and data aquisition. The performance of the improved SF-ISOL is discussed. (author)

  2. Efficient removal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through reacting with recycled electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2013-06-18

    This paper reports that recycled electroplating sludge is able to efficiently remove greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The removal process involves various reactions of SF6 with the recycled sludge. Remarkably, the sludge completely removed SF6 at a capacity of 1.10 mmol/g (SF6/sludge) at 600 °C. More importantly, the evolved gases were SO2, SiF4, and a limited amount of HF, with no toxic SOF4, SO2F2, or SF4 being detected. These generated gases can be readily captured and removed by NaOH solution. The reacted solids were further found to be various metal fluorides, thus revealing that SF6 removal takes place by reacting with various metal oxides and silicate in the sludge. Moreover, the kinetic investigation revealed that the SF6 reaction with the sludge is a first-order chemically controlled process. This research thus demonstrates that the waste electroplating sludge can be potentially used as an effective removal agent for one of the notorious greenhouse gases, SF6.

  3. The Inertial Attitude Augmentation for Ambiguity Resolution in SF/SE-GNSS Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-01-01

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation. PMID:24971472

  4. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra; Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p 99 mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  5. A study of the valence shell photoelectron and photoabsorption spectra of CF3SF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D M P; Shaw, D A; Walker, I C; McEwen, I J; Apra, E; Guest, M F

    2005-01-01

    The outer valence shell photoelectron spectrum of CF 3 SF 5 has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Synchrotron radiation has been used to record angle-resolved outer valence shell photoelectron spectra of CF 3 SF 5 in the photon energy range 18-60 eV. These spectra have allowed photoelectron asymmetry parameters and branching ratios to be derived. The Outer Valence Green's Function approach has been employed to calculate the molecular orbital configuration and associated binding energies. A charge distribution analysis has also been obtained. Assignments have been proposed for the peaks observed in the photoelectron spectrum. The absolute photoabsorption cross section of CF 3 SF 5 has been measured from threshold to 40 eV, and strongly resembles that of SF 6 . Assignments, involving intravalence transitions, have been proposed for some of the principal features appearing in the photoabsorption spectrum of CF 3 SF 5

  6. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  7. Photodegradation of SF6 on polyisoprene surface: Implication on elimination of toxic byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xiaoxiao; Liu Xingang; Ye Zhaolian; He Jincong; Zhang Renxi; Hou, Huiqi

    2009-01-01

    Photodegradation of SF 6 was performed on the surface of polyisoprene (PI) based on a brand new mechanism of 'controlled release of radicals'. Effective decomposition of SF 6 (60% of SF 6 was degraded in 4 h) was achieved due to the highly reductive radicals (mainly allylic radicals and excited C=C bond) which were generated from the photolysis of PI. No toxic fluoride was detected by FT-IR. The PI irradiated for 200 h in SF 6 circumstance was examined by XPS to be doped with fluorine and sulfur. Fouling due to photoinitiated polymerization on UV lamp was avoided because the radicals were released slowly. Photolysis of SF 6 in pure argon with the presence of irradiated PI showed kinetics of pseudo-first-order reaction and the degradation rate constant was 5.16 x 10 -5 s -1 . Factors which may affect the photolysis process such as introduction of O 2 and H 2 O were also examined.

  8. Research on technology of online gas chromatograph for SF6 decomposition products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Fan, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Tang, N.; Zou, Z. L.; Liu, M. Z.; Huang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) decomposition products were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by several gas chromatographs in the laboratory. Test conditions and methods were selected and optimized to minimize and eliminate the SF6’ influences on detection of other trace components. The effective separation and detection of selected characteristic gases were achieved. And by comparison among different types of gas chromatograph, it was found that GPTR-S101 can effectively separate and detect SF6 decomposition products and has best the best detection limit and sensitivity. On the basis of GPTR-S101, online gas chromatograph for SF6decomposition products (GPTR-S201) was developed. It lays the foundation for further online monitoring and diagnosis of SF6.

  9. Study on SF6 trace experiment in Lianyungang Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Erbang; Yan Jiangyu; Zhang Yongyi; Wen Lianzhong

    2001-01-01

    10 times SF 6 trace experiments were successfully performed in August 1997 on a very complex terrain of Lianyungang Nuclear Power Plant in order to obtain plume trajectory and diffusion parameters. SF 6 is released from the top of a tower of 100 m. The sample points are arranged not only on the sample lines but also on the areas near residences. About 50 samples are obtained in each SF 6 trace experiment. The samples of SF 6 are analysed by the GC-ECD method. The weather stability is 5 times C and D stabilities respectively if using P-G method or 10 times D stabilities if using ΔT-U method. A least-square method is adopted to obtain the diffusion parameters from diffusion equation. Meanwhile the effect on the diffusion parameters from sampling time is measured based on the above SF 6 trace experiment

  10. Fractional quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Laskin, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Fractional quantum mechanics is a recently emerged and rapidly developing field of quantum physics. This is the first monograph on fundamentals and physical applications of fractional quantum mechanics, written by its founder. The fractional Schrödinger equation and the fractional path integral are new fundamental physical concepts introduced and elaborated in the book. The fractional Schrödinger equation is a manifestation of fractional quantum mechanics. The fractional path integral is a new mathematical tool based on integration over Lévy flights. The fractional path integral method enhances the well-known Feynman path integral framework. Related topics covered in the text include time fractional quantum mechanics, fractional statistical mechanics, fractional classical mechanics and the α-stable Lévy random process. The book is well-suited for theorists, pure and applied mathematicians, solid-state physicists, chemists, and others working with the Schrödinger equation, the path integral technique...

  11. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered

  12. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  13. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  14. Tempered fractional calculus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzikar, Farzad, E-mail: sabzika2@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Meerschaert, Mark M., E-mail: mcubed@stt.msu.edu [Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Jinghua, E-mail: cjhdzdz@163.com [School of Sciences, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361021 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  15. Tempered fractional calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  16. Tempered fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series

  17. Genesis of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype by sequential infection of serotype-converting bacteriophages SfX and SfI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiangzheng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. Results A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS was sequentially infected with 2 serotype-converting bacteriophages, SfX first and then SfI. The new serotype 1 d strain agglutinated with both serotype X-specific anti-7;8 grouping serum and serotype 1a-specific anti- I typing serum, and differed from subserotypes 1a, 1b and 1c. Twenty four S. flexneri clinical isolates of serotype X were all converted to serotype 1 d by infection with phage SfI. PCR and sequencing revealed that SfI and SfX were integrated in tandem into the proA-yaiC region of the host chromosome. Conclusions These findings suggest a new S. flexneri serotype could be created in nature. Such a conversion may be constrained by susceptibility of a strain to infection by a given serotype-converting bacteriophage. This finding has significant implications in the emergence of new S. flexneri serotypes in nature.

  18. Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Wang, Xinqi; Zhang, YanLing; Xu, Yongjian; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a combined process involving pulp fractionation and cellulase treatment of each fraction for improving the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and reactivity of a kraft-based dissolving pulp. Three pulp fractions, namely long-fiber, mid-fiber and short-fiber fractions (LF, MF and SF, respectively), were used as the substrates. The results showed that the SF had the highest accessibility, lowest viscosity, and highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while the opposite was true for the LF. At a given viscosity, the combined process led to a lower polydispersity index (3.71 vs 4.98) and a higher Fock reactivity (85.6% vs 76.3%), in comparison to the conventional single-stage cellulase treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher fractions theory of fractional hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, I.Z.; Popov, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    A theory of fractional quantum Hall effect is generalized to higher fractions. N-particle model interaction is used and the gap is expressed through n-particles wave function. The excitation spectrum in general and the mean field critical behaviour are determined. The Hall conductivity is calculated from first principles. (author)

  20. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  1. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV and extra-high-voltage (EHV power systems. Partial discharge (PD and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF6 decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES and infrared (IR spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF6 decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations.

  2. A comparison between spectra of runaway electron beams in SF6 and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruexue; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgenii

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electron (RAE) with extremely high-energy plays important role on the avalanche propagation, streamer formation, and ionization waves in nanosecond-pulse discharges. In this paper, the generation of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) in SF 6 and air in an inhomogeneous electric field is investigated. A VPG-30-200 generator with a pulse rise time of ∼1.6 ns and a full width at half maximum of 3–5 ns is used to produce RAE beams. The SAEBs in SF 6 and air are measured by using aluminum foils with different thicknesses. Furthermore, the SAEB spectra in SF 6 and air at pressures of 7.5 Torr, 75 Torr, and 750 Torr are compared. The results showed that amplitude of RAE beam current generated at the breakdown in SF 6 was approximately an order of magnitude less than that in air. The energy of SAEB in air was not smaller than that in SF 6 in nanosecond-pulse discharges under otherwise equal conditions. Moreover, the difference between the maximum energy of the electron distributions in air and SF 6 decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased. It was because the difference between the breakdown voltages in air and SF 6 decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased

  3. A comparison between spectra of runaway electron beams in SF6 and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgenii; Wang, Ruexue; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao

    2015-12-01

    Runaway electron (RAE) with extremely high-energy plays important role on the avalanche propagation, streamer formation, and ionization waves in nanosecond-pulse discharges. In this paper, the generation of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) in SF6 and air in an inhomogeneous electric field is investigated. A VPG-30-200 generator with a pulse rise time of ˜1.6 ns and a full width at half maximum of 3-5 ns is used to produce RAE beams. The SAEBs in SF6 and air are measured by using aluminum foils with different thicknesses. Furthermore, the SAEB spectra in SF6 and air at pressures of 7.5 Torr, 75 Torr, and 750 Torr are compared. The results showed that amplitude of RAE beam current generated at the breakdown in SF6 was approximately an order of magnitude less than that in air. The energy of SAEB in air was not smaller than that in SF6 in nanosecond-pulse discharges under otherwise equal conditions. Moreover, the difference between the maximum energy of the electron distributions in air and SF6 decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased. It was because the difference between the breakdown voltages in air and SF6 decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased.

  4. Electrochemical and Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy Detection of SF6 Decomposition Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Ye, Rixin

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas-insulated electrical equipment is widely used in high-voltage (HV) and extra-high-voltage (EHV) power systems. Partial discharge (PD) and local heating can occur in the electrical equipment because of insulation faults, which results in SF6 decomposition and ultimately generates several types of decomposition products. These SF6 decomposition products can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected with relevant detection methods, and such detection contributes to diagnosing the internal faults and evaluating the security risks of the equipment. At present, multiple detection methods exist for analyzing the SF6 decomposition products, and electrochemical sensing (ES) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are well suited for application in online detection. In this study, the combination of ES with IR spectroscopy is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition. First, the characteristics of these two detection methods are studied, and the data analysis matrix is established. Then, a qualitative and quantitative analysis ES-IR model is established by adopting a two-step approach. A SF6 decomposition detector is designed and manufactured by combining an electrochemical sensor and IR spectroscopy technology. The detector is used to detect SF6 gas decomposition and is verified to reliably and accurately detect the gas components and concentrations. PMID:29140268

  5. A comparison between spectra of runaway electron beams in SF{sub 6} and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruexue; Yan, Ping; Shao, Tao, E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Tarasenko, Victor [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Gu, Jianwei [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Baksht, Evgenii [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Runaway electron (RAE) with extremely high-energy plays important role on the avalanche propagation, streamer formation, and ionization waves in nanosecond-pulse discharges. In this paper, the generation of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) in SF{sub 6} and air in an inhomogeneous electric field is investigated. A VPG-30-200 generator with a pulse rise time of ∼1.6 ns and a full width at half maximum of 3–5 ns is used to produce RAE beams. The SAEBs in SF{sub 6} and air are measured by using aluminum foils with different thicknesses. Furthermore, the SAEB spectra in SF{sub 6} and air at pressures of 7.5 Torr, 75 Torr, and 750 Torr are compared. The results showed that amplitude of RAE beam current generated at the breakdown in SF{sub 6} was approximately an order of magnitude less than that in air. The energy of SAEB in air was not smaller than that in SF{sub 6} in nanosecond-pulse discharges under otherwise equal conditions. Moreover, the difference between the maximum energy of the electron distributions in air and SF{sub 6} decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased. It was because the difference between the breakdown voltages in air and SF{sub 6} decreased when the rise time of the voltage pulse increased.

  6. Low energy electron attachment to SF6 in N2, Ar, and Xe buffer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.R.; Carter, J.G.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The electron attachment rate constants k/sub a/ for SF 6 have been measured in dilute mixtures of SF 6 in high pressure (>1 atm) N 2 , Ar, and Xe buffer gases at room temperature (T≅300 K) over a wide E/N range (electric field strength to gas number density ratio), corresponding to mean electron energies from near thermal electron energies (≅0.04 eV) to ≅4.3 eV. Particular attention has been paid to the effects of space charge distortion, molecular impurities, and changes in the electron energy distribution function on the measured electron attachment rate constant values at the lower E/N values in these mixtures. The present measured thermal electron attachment rate constants in SF 6 /N 2 and SF 6 /Xe gas mixtures are in excellent agreement with recent accurate measurements of these parameters in several SF 6 /buffer gas mixtures. At higher values, the present SF 6 /N 2 measurements are in fair agreement with previous measurements, while no previous measurements using Ar and Xe buffer gases have been published. These measurements have been used in numerical two term, spherical harmonic Boltzmann equation analyses of the electron motion in these gas mixtures to obtain the low energy ( 6 . The present derived electron attachment cross sections are compared with recently measured and derived nondissociative and dissociative electron attachment cross sections for SF 6

  7. The sf32 unique gene of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV is a non-essential gene that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization in occlusion-derived virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Beperet

    Full Text Available A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null, unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV, was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac. Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration, speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs.

  8. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of glomus jugulare tumors. Local control, toxicity, symptomatology, and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzel, M.; Gross, M.W.; Failing, T.; Strassmann, G.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Hamm, K.; Surber, G.; Kleinert, G.; Sitter, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For glomus jugulare tumors, the goal of treatment is microsurgical excision. To minimize postoperative neurologic deficits, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed as an alternative treatment option. Stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy (SRT) could be a further alternative. This study aims at the assessment of local control, side effects, and quality of life (QoL). Patients and Methods: Between 1999-2005, 17 patients were treated with SRT. 11/17 underwent previous operations. 6/17 received primary SRT. Treatment was delivered by a linear accelerator with 6-MV photons. Median cumulative dose was 57.0 Gy. Local control, radiologic regression, toxicity, and symptomatology were evaluated half-yearly by clinical examination and MRI scans. QoL was assessed by Short Form-36 (SF-36). Results: Median follow-up was 40 months. Freedom from progression and overall survival for 5 years were 100% and 93.8%. Radiologic regression was seen in 5/16 cases, 11/16 patients were stable. Median tumor shrinkage was 17.9% (p = 0.14). Severe acute toxicity (grade 3-4) or any late toxicity was never seen. Main symptoms improved in 9/16 patients, 7/16 were stable. QoL was not affected in patients receiving primary SRT. Conclusion: SRT offers an additional treatment option of high efficacy with less side effects, especially in cases of large tumors, morbidity, or recurrences after incomplete resections. (orig.)

  9. Structural mechanical and antibacterial properties of HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish, K. V.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Asha, S.; Vipin, C.; Sangappa, Y.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) pure and HPMC/SF-AgNPs biopolymer nanocomposite films were prepared by simple solution casting method. The prepared nanocomposite films were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy(UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The mechanical properties of HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposites were found to be decrease with increase in the AgNP's concentrations. The HPMC/SF-AgNPs nanocomposites showed very good antibacterial activity against human pathogens P. aeruginosa, E.coli, and S.aureus.

  10. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, You-e [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Liu, Lian [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434000 (China); Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  11. Negative corona current pulses in argon and in mixture argon with SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoranova, A.; Zahoran, M.; Bucek, A.; Cernak, M.; Bosko, J.

    2004-01-01

    Waveforms of the first negative current pulses in a short negative point-to plane gap in pure argon and argon with SF 6 admixture have been investigated with a nanosecond time resolution at a gas pressure 50 kPa as a function of applied gap voltage and content of SF 6 in the mixture. We have made an attempt to explain the differences in the discharge development in pure argon and in argon with admixture of SF 6 based on the observed changes of the pulse shape. The experimental results obtained will be discussed in context with existing computer simulation models (Authors)

  12. Prenatal nicotinic exposure suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis via steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) deacetylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, You-e; Liu, Lian; Wang, Jian-fei; Liu, Fang; Li, Xiao-hai; Qin, Hai-quan; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suppressive effect of nicotine on fetal adrenal steroidogenesis and to explore the potential role of epigenetic modification of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) transcriptional activity in this process. Nicotine was intragastrically administered to pregnant rats and NCI-H295A cells were treated with nicotine or trichostatin A (TSA). The pathomorphology of fetal adrenals, steroid hormone levels, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) mRNA were analyzed. Histone modification and DNA methylation of the SF-1 promoter region were assessed using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. The interaction between SF1 and its target genes was observed. Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased fetal body weight, increased the IUGR rate and caused detrimental changes in fetal adrenal. In addition, the levels of corticosterone, the expression of SF-1 and its target genes were decreased while HDAC2 expression was enhanced. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels while there was no effect on the methylation frequency on the SF-1 promoter region. Furthermore, in nicotine-treated NCI-H295A cells, lower levels of steroidogenic synthesis, lower expression of SF-1 and its target genes were observed while the expression of HDACs was enhanced. The interaction between SF1 and StAR decreased with nicotine treatment. Nicotine treatment decreased histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation levels, and addition of TSA reversed the inhibition of nicotine-mediated SF-1 and its partial target genes. Thus, nicotine-mediated reduction of SF-1 expression resulted in an inhibitory effect on the expression of its target genes and steroid production via histone deacetylation. - Highlights: • Prenatal nicotine-exposed suppresses fetal adrenal steroidogenesis. • Nicotine-supressed fetal adrenal steroidogenesis is related to SF-1 deacetylation. • Prenatal nicotinic exposure decreased

  13. Laser excitation of SF6: spectroscopy and coherent pulse propagation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, C.D.; Makarov, A.A.; Louisell, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of coherent propagation effects in SF 6 and other polyatomic molecules are summarized beginning with an account of relevant aspects of the high-resolution spectroscopy of the ν 3 band of SF 6 . A laser pulse propagating in a molecular gas can acquire new frequencies which were not initially present in the pulse, and, in fact, a wave is coherently generated at the frequency of every molecular transition accessible from the initial molecular energy levels. The possible consequences of coherent generation of sidebands for the multiple-photon excitation of SF 6 and other polyatomic molecules are discussed

  14. M4SF-17LL010302072: The Roles of Diffusion and Corrosion in Radionuclide Retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Balboni, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atkins-Duffin, Cindy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4SF-17LL010302072) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030207 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number M4SF-17LL01030208. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physicochemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion.

  15. Short telomere length is associated with NOTCH1/SF3B1/TP53 aberrations and poor outcome in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Larry; Grabowski, Pawel; Degerman, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies on telomere length (TL) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are based on referral cohorts including a high proportion of aggressive cases. Here, the impact of TL was analyzed in a population-based cohort of newly diagnosed CLL (n = 265) and in relation to other prognostic ...... markers. Short telomeres were particularly associated with high-risk genetic markers, such as NOTCH1, SF3B1, or TP53 aberrations, and predicted a short time to treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS) (both P...

  16. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  17. TM4SF1 Promotes Gemcitabine Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available TM4SF1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and affects the development of this cancer. Also, multidrug resistance (MDR is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. However, the correlation between TM4SF1 and MDR remains unknown. This research aims to investigate the effect of TM4SF1 on gemcitabine resistance in PDAC and explore the possible molecular mechanism between TM4SF1 and MDR.The expression of TM4SF1 was evaluated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. TM4SF1 siRNA transfection was carried out using Hiperfect transfection reagent to knock down TM4SF1. The transcripts were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting for further study. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were obtained to investigate the sensitivity to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells after silencing TM4SF1 in vitro. We demonstrated that cell signaling of TM4SF1 mediated chemoresistance in cancer cells by assessing the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR genes using quantitative RT-PCR. In vivo, we used orthotopic pancreatic tumor models to investigate the effect of proliferation after silencing TM4SF1 by a lentivirus-mediated shRNA in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines.The mRNA expression of TM4SF1 was higher in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines than in HPDE cell lines. In three gemcitabine-sensitive cell lines (L3.6pl, BxPC-3, SU86.86, the expression of TM4SF1 was lower than that in four gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, Hs766T, AsPC-1. We evaluated that TM4SF1 was a putative target for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Using AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, we investigated that TM4SF1 silencing affected cell proliferation and increased the percentages of cell apoptosis mediated by treatment with gemcitabine compared with cells which were treated with negative control. This resistance was associated

  18. 75 FR 76481 - Notice of Intent To Prepare Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at Alice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at Alice Griffith Public Housing Development, San... Housing as part of its HOPE SF development program. Funding for the project may include HUD funds from... revitalization program under HOPE SF (Cal 118). The proposed development would be located on approximately 20 net...

  19. 77 FR 26025 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... a Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at Potrero Terrace and Potrero... Statement (EIR/EIS) for the HOPE SF Development at the Potrero Terrace and Potrero Annex Public Housing Development (Potrero HOPE SF Master Plan Project). The EIR/EIS will be a joint National Environmental Policy...

  20. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of the Mini Parasep SF Faecal Parasite Concentrator; A New Technique against the Direct Smear and Formol Ether Concentration Technique for the Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Stool.

  2. Mechanism for negative corona current pulse in CO sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zahoranova, A; Simor, M; Cernak, M

    2003-01-01

    Current waveforms of first negative corona pulses have been measured in CO sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures over a pressure range extending from 6.65 to 50 kPa and various overvoltages. Effects of changing cathode secondary electron emission were studied using a copper cathode coated by CuI and graphite. For a given set of experimental conditions it is concluded that in the mixtures containing up to 30% of SF sub 6 the negative corona pulse is associated with the formation of a cathode-directed streamer-like ionizing wave in the immediate vicinity of the cathode. This is in contrast to the discharge behaviour in air-SF sub 6 and N sub 2 -SF sub 6 mixtures, where in similar conditions the discharge develops according to a multi-avalanche Townsend mechanism. (rapid communication)

  3. Is there regional variation in the SF-36 scores of Canadian adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Wilma M; Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Tenenhouse, Alan; Poliquin, Suzette; Brown, Jacques P; Murray, Timothy M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A

    2002-01-01

    Canadian normative data for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36) have recently been published. However, there is evidence from other countries to suggest that regional variation in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may exist. We therefore examined the SF-36 data from nine Canadian centres for evidence of systematic differences. Bayesian hierarchical modelling was used to compare the differences in the eight SF-36 domains and the two summary component scores within each of the age and gender strata across the nine sites. Five domains and the two summary component scores showed little clinically important variation. Other than a small number of exceptions, there was little overall evidence of HRQOL differences across most domains and across most sites. Our finding of only a few small differences suggests that there is no need to develop region-specific Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey.

  4. Abnormal polarity effect in nanosecond-pulse breakdown of SF6 and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Tao; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Zhang, Cheng; Beloplotov, Dmitry S.; Yang, Wenjin; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Zhou, Zhongsheng; Sorokin, Dmitry A.; Yan, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of gas gaps in an inhomogeneous electric field at subnanosecond and nanosecond voltage pulse rise times are studied, and the famous polarity effect in point-to-plane gaps is investigated. It is shown that at a voltage pulse rise time of ∼0.5 ns, the inversion of polarity effect takes place not only in electronegative gases such as SF 6 , but also occurs in electropositive nitrogen. The inversion of polarity effect is related to a delay of electron emission from the plane cathode on arrival of the ionization wave front anode to the cathode. It is found that with a voltage pulse rise time of ∼0.5 ns, the inversion of polarity effect occurs at SF 6 and SF 6 –N 2 pressures of 0.25 MPa and lower, and with a voltage pulse rise time of 15 ns, at a SF 6 pressure lower than 0.12 MPa.

  5. 75 FR 13287 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for an Unmodified SF 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report. Form Number: SF... Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report AGENCY: Office of Government Ethics (OGE... 278 Executive Branch Personnel Public Financial Disclosure Report to the Office of Management and...

  6. Crystal structure and functional characterization of SF216 from Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Neul; Seok, Seung-Hyeon; Lee, Yoo-Sup; Won, Hyung-Sik; Seo, Min-Duk

    2017-11-01

    Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that causes highly infectious bacterial dysentery in humans. Here, we solved the crystal structure of SF216, a hypothetical protein from the S. flexneri 5a strain M90T, at 1.7 Å resolution. The crystal structure of SF216 represents a homotrimer stabilized by intersubunit interactions and ion-mediated electrostatic interactions. Each subunit consists of three β-strands and five α-helices with the β-β-β-α-α-α-α-α topology. Based on the structural information, we also demonstrate that SF216 shows weak ribonuclease activity by a fluorescence quenching assay. Furthermore, we identify potential druggable pockets (putative hot spots) on the surface of the SF216 structure by computational mapping. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Asphalt chemical fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando P, Klever N.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt fractionation were carried out in the Esmeraldas Oil Refinery using n-pentane, SiO 2 and different mixture of benzene- methane. The fractions obtained were analyzed by Fourier's Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR)

  8. Mine detection using SF-GPR: A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Larsen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Proper clutter reduction is essential for Ground Penetrating Radar data since low signal-to-clutter ratio prevent correct detection of mine objects. A signal processing approach for resolution enhancement and clutter reduction used on Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) data is pr....... The clutter reduction method is based on basis function decomposition of the SF-GPR time-series from which the clutter and the signal are separated....

  9. Snit: SF frem, NA og EL under spærregrænsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2008-01-01

    NYHED: SF fortsætter fremgangen, mens såvel NA som EL er røget under spærregrænsen i det nye vejede snit af meningsmålinger. Udgivelsesdato: 6. januar......NYHED: SF fortsætter fremgangen, mens såvel NA som EL er røget under spærregrænsen i det nye vejede snit af meningsmålinger. Udgivelsesdato: 6. januar...

  10. PROMIS PF CAT Outperforms the ODI and SF-36 Physical Function Domain in Spine Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodke, Darrel S; Goz, Vadim; Voss, Maren W; Lawrence, Brandon D; Spiker, William Ryan; Hung, Man

    2017-06-15

    The Oswestry Disability Index v2.0 (ODI), SF36 Physical Function Domain (SF-36 PFD), and PROMIS Physical Function CAT v1.2 (PF CAT) questionnaires were prospectively collected from 1607 patients complaining of back or leg pain, visiting a university-based spine clinic. All questionnaires were collected electronically, using a tablet computer. The aim of this study was to compare the psychometric properties of the PROMIS PF CAT with the ODI and SF36 Physical Function Domain in the same patient population. Evidence-based decision-making is improved by using high-quality patient-reported outcomes measures. Prior studies have revealed the shortcomings of the ODI and SF36, commonly used in spine patients. The PROMIS Network has developed measures with excellent psychometric properties. The Physical Function domain, delivered by Computerized Adaptive Testing (PF CAT), performs well in the spine patient population, though to-date direct comparisons with common measures have not been performed. Standard Rasch analysis was performed to directly compare the psychometrics of the PF CAT, ODI, and SF36 PFD. Spearman correlations were computed to examine the correlations of the three instruments. Time required for administration was also recorded. One thousand six hundred seven patients were administered all assessments. The time required to answer all items in the PF CAT, ODI, and SF-36 PFD was 44, 169, and 99 seconds. The ceiling and floor effects were excellent for the PF CAT (0.81%, 3.86%), while the ceiling effects were marginal and floor effects quite poor for the ODI (6.91% and 44.24%) and SF-36 PFD (5.97% and 23.65%). All instruments significantly correlated with each other. The PROMIS PF CAT outperforms the ODI and SF-36 PFD in the spine patient population and is highly correlated. It has better coverage, while taking less time to administer with fewer questions to answer. 2.

  11. An optical sensors for monitoring SF6 dissociation in a corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan, R.; Scelsi, G.B.; Woolsey, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) is a chemically inert gas (Schumb, 1947) and has high dielectric strength, 3 times greater than air (Morrison and Robins, 1994). In high voltage systems, it is used both as a dielectric and an arc-quenching medium. An electrical breakdown event such as a partial discharge (corona) or arc will dissociate SF 6 into sulphur fluorides, sulphur and fluorine. In a contaminant-free environment, the dissociation products recombine back to SF 6 after extinction of the electrical discharge. Otherwise, some of the products will react with contaminants such as water vapour and oxygen, and with the metal surfaces and electrodes of the discharge chamber, to produce by-products including gaseous sulphur oxyfluorides and solid by-products (Van Brunt, 1985; Griffin et al, 1990 and Vukovic, 1997). As a consequence, a reduction in SF 6 concentration takes place, and the insulating efficiency of the system is degraded. If the SF 6 is not renewed, failure of the high voltage system is likely to eventually occur. One method of monitoring a system is to look for the presence of partial discharges, using techniques such as ultrasonic wave detection (Auckland et al, 1996) or fluorescent plastic fibre (Kurosawa et al., 1997). More directly, the integrity of the SF 6 may be examined using techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy. Such techniques, however, are bulky and require gas samples to be extracted, and so they are unsuited to field use. Since SF 6 insulating systems involve high voltages and a high level of electromagnetic interference, direct in-situ optical monitoring appears to provide the best approach. This paper describes the development of such an optical sensing technique, specifically for continuous monitoring of SF 6 degradation in partial or corona discharges

  12. Leptin and insulin engage specific PI3K subunits in hypothalamic SF1 neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woo Sohn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH regulates energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Leptin and insulin exert metabolic effects via their cognate receptors expressed by the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 neurons within the VMH. However, detailed cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of these neurons by leptin and insulin remain to be identified. Methods: We utilized genetically-modified mouse models and performed patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments to resolve this issue. Results: We identified distinct populations of leptin-activated and leptin-inhibited SF1 neurons. In contrast, insulin uniformly inhibited SF1 neurons. Notably, we found that leptin-activated, leptin-inhibited, and insulin-inhibited SF1 neurons are distinct subpopulations within the VMH. Leptin depolarization of SF1 neuron also required the PI3K p110β catalytic subunit. This effect was mediated by the putative transient receptor potential C (TRPC channel. On the other hand, hyperpolarizing responses of SF1 neurons by leptin and insulin required either of the p110α or p110β catalytic subunits, and were mediated by the putative ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP channel. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that specific PI3K catalytic subunits are responsible for the acute effects of leptin and insulin on VMH SF1 neurons, and provide insights into the cellular mechanisms of leptin and insulin action on VMH SF1 neurons that regulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Cellular mechanism, Conditional knockout mouse, Patch clamp technique, Functional heterogeneity, Homeostasis

  13. Smarandache Continued Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibstedt, H.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of general continued fractions is developed to the extent required in order to calculate Smarandache continued fractions to a given number of decimal places. Proof is given for the fact that Smarandache general continued fractions built with positive integer Smarandache sequences baving only a finite number of terms equal to 1 is convergent. A few numerical results are given.

  14. The DAPP-SF as a screener for personality disorder in a forensic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, Marleen; Rinne, Thomas; de Beurs, Edwin; Spinhoven, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF) have shown its ability to identify treatment-seeking patients with personality disorders. This study focuses on its screening potential for personality disorder in 89 criminal suspects (77 men, 12 women; M age = 37.0 years) undergoing residential pretrial psychological assessments in a high-security setting. It was expected that Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality (SIDP-IV) criteria met for personality disorder(s) would be associated with higher DAPP-SF scores. A floor effect was found in DAPP-SF scores: The forensic population reported less personality pathology than the general population. Only moderate associations between DAPP-SF and SIDP-IV outcome were found. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that some DAPP-SF subscales did not exceed chance level in their ability to screen for personality disorders. It is concluded that the DAPP-SF has limited usefulness as a screener for personality disorders in a forensic pretrial setting. Alternative forensic screening instruments are presented.

  15. Prediction on dielectric strength and boiling point of gaseous molecules for replacement of SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojuan; Hou, Hua; Wang, Baoshan

    2017-04-15

    Developing the environment-friendly insulation gases to replace sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) has attracted considerable experimental and theoretical attentions but without success. A computational methodology was presented herein for prediction on dielectric strength and boiling point of arbitrary gaseous molecules in the purpose of molecular design and screening. New structure-activity relationship (SAR) models have been established by combining the density-dependent properties of the electrostatic potential surface, including surface area and the statistical variance of the surface potentials, with the molecular properties including polarizability, electronegativity, and hardness. All the descriptors in the SAR models were calculated using density functional theory. The substitution effect of SF 6 by various functional groups was studied systematically. It was found that CF 3 is the most effective functional group to improve the dielectric strength due to the large surface area and polarizability. However, all the substitutes exhibit higher boiling points than SF 6 because the molecular hardness decreases. The balance between E r and T b could be achieved by minimizing the local polarity of the molecules. SF 5 CN and SF 5 CFO were found to be the potent candidates to replace SF 6 in view of their large dielectric strengths and low boiling points. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Transport mechanisms for synoptic, seasonal and interannual SF6 variations and "age" of air in troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miyazaki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We use an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM driven chemistry-transport model (ACTM to simulate the evolution of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 in the troposphere. The model results are compared with continuous measurements at 6 sites over 71° N–90° S. These comparisons demonstrate that the ACTM simulations lie within the measurement uncertainty over the analysis period (1999–2006 and capture salient features of synoptic, seasonal and interannual SF6 variability. To understand transport timescales of SF6 within the troposphere, transport times of air parcels from the surface to different regions of the troposphere ("age" are estimated from a simulation of an idealized tracer. The age estimation error and its sensitivity to the selection of reanalysis meteorology for ACTM nudging or the tracer transport by deep cumulus convection as represented in the model are discussed. Monthly-mean, 2-box model exchange times (τex are calculated from both the observed and simulated SF6 time series at the 6 observing sites and show favorable agreement, suggesting that the ACTM adequately represents large-scale interhemispheric transport. The simulated SF6 variability is further investigated through decomposition of the mixing ratio time-tendency into advective, convective, and vertical diffusive components. The transport component analysis illustrates the role of each process in SF6 synoptic variability at the site level and provides insight into the seasonality of τex.

  17. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... 2007; Lopes et al., 2007), neural stem cells and neurons ... In this culture system, stem cells can divide .... disadvantage that albumin can absorb drugs. .... detection of mRNA for NSE in both young (lane 2-6) and adult (lane.

  18. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, a generalized Smith chart is introduced here to represent fractional order circuit elements. It is shown that the standard Smith chart is a special case of the generalized fractional order Smith chart. With illustrations drawn for both the conventional integer based lumped elements and the fractional elements, a graphical technique supported by the analytical method is presented to plot impedances on the fractional Smith chart. The concept is then applied towards impedance matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  19. Fractional factorial plans

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop reference to fractional factorials and related orthogonal arrays.Presenting one of the most dynamic areas of statistical research, this book offers a systematic, rigorous, and up-to-date treatment of fractional factorial designs and related combinatorial mathematics. Leading statisticians Aloke Dey and Rahul Mukerjee consolidate vast amounts of material from the professional literature--expertly weaving fractional replication, orthogonal arrays, and optimality aspects. They develop the basic theory of fractional factorials using the calculus of factorial arrangements, thereby providing a unified approach to the study of fractional factorial plans. An indispensable guide for statisticians in research and industry as well as for graduate students, Fractional Factorial Plans features: * Construction procedures of symmetric and asymmetric orthogonal arrays. * Many up-to-date research results on nonexistence. * A chapter on optimal fractional factorials not based on orthogonal arrays. * Trend-free plans...

  20. Fractional Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Fractional Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive overview of recent advances in the areas of nonlinear dynamics, vibration and control with analytical, numerical, and experimental results. This book provides an overview of recent discoveries in fractional control, delves into fractional variational principles and differential equations, and applies advanced techniques in fractional calculus to solving complicated mathematical and physical problems.Finally, this book also discusses the role that fractional order modeling can play in complex systems for engineering and science. Discusses how fractional dynamics and control can be used to solve nonlinear science and complexity issues Shows how fractional differential equations and models can be used to solve turbulence and wave equations in mechanics and gravity theories and Schrodinger’s equation  Presents factional relaxation modeling of dielectric materials and wave equations for dielectrics  Develops new methods for control and synchronization of...

  1. Evaluation of source term parameters for spent fuel disposal in foreign countries. (1) Instant release fraction from spent fuel matrices and composition materials for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Masanobu; Chikazawa, Takahiro; Kitamura, Akira; Tachi, Yukio; Akahori, Kuniaki

    2016-01-01

    Although spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed after reprocessing and vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), feasibility study on direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SF) has been started as one of the alternative disposal options to flexibly apply change of future energy situation in Japan. Radionuclide inventories and their release behavior after breaching spent fuel container should be assessed to confirm safety of the SF disposal. Especially, instant release fractions (IRFs), which are fractions of radionuclide released relatively faster than those released with congruent dissolution with SF and construction materials after breaching spent fuel container, may have an impact on safety assessment of the direct disposal of SF. However, detailed studies on evaluation / estimation of IRF have not been performed in Japan. Therefore, we investigated some foreign safety assessment reports on direct disposal of SF by focusing on IRF for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. As a result of comparison between the safety assessment reports in foreign countries, although some fundamental data have been referred to the reports in common, the final source term dataset was seen differences between countries in the result of taking into account the national circumstances (reactor types and burnups, etc.). We also found the difference of assignment of uncertainties among the investigated reports; a report selected pessimistic values and another report selected mean values and their deviations. It is expected that these findings are useful as fundamental information for the safety assessment of Japanese SF disposal system. (author)

  2. Defining an EPOR- regulated transcriptome for primary progenitors, including Tnfr-sf13c as a novel mediator of EPO- dependent erythroblast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    Full Text Available Certain concepts concerning EPO/EPOR action modes have been challenged by in vivo studies: Bcl-x levels are elevated in maturing erythroblasts, but not in their progenitors; truncated EPOR alleles that lack a major p85/PI3K recruitment site nonetheless promote polycythemia; and Erk1 disruption unexpectedly bolsters erythropoiesis. To discover novel EPO/EPOR action routes, global transcriptome analyses presently are applied to interrogate EPO/EPOR effects on primary bone marrow-derived CFUe-like progenitors. Overall, 160 EPO/EPOR target transcripts were significantly modulated 2-to 21.8-fold. A unique set of EPO-regulated survival factors included Lyl1, Gas5, Pim3, Pim1, Bim, Trib3 and Serpina 3g. EPO/EPOR-modulated cell cycle mediators included Cdc25a, Btg3, Cyclin-d2, p27-kip1, Cyclin-g2 and CyclinB1-IP-1. EPO regulation of signal transduction factors was also interestingly complex. For example, not only Socs3 plus Socs2 but also Spred2, Spred1 and Eaf1 were EPO-induced as negative-feedback components. Socs2, plus five additional targets, further proved to comprise new EPOR/Jak2/Stat5 response genes (which are important for erythropoiesis during anemia. Among receptors, an atypical TNF-receptor Tnfr-sf13c was up-modulated >5-fold by EPO. Functionally, Tnfr-sf13c ligation proved to both promote proerythroblast survival, and substantially enhance erythroblast formation. The EPOR therefore engages a sophisticated set of transcriptome response circuits, with Tnfr-sf13c deployed as one novel positive regulator of proerythroblast formation.

  3. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  4. [Survey on the applicability of SF-36 version-2 (SF-36v2) in assessment quality of life among urban residents in Chengdu city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longchao; Liu, Zhijun; He, Yan; Li, Ningxiu; Liu, Danping

    2014-05-01

    To explore the psychometric performances and applicability of SF-36v2 in assessment quality of life among urban residents in Chengdu. During Oct. to Dec., 2012, 2 186 adult urban residents with clear mind and well self-express were recruited in the study by multistage stratified cluster sampling method in Chengdu urban area. The survey questionnaires included general health condition and quality of life, which was adopted the SF-36v2. Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability and construct validity were all analyzed as indicators of the psychometric performance. The survey released 2 186 questionnaires, with 2 182 ones returned and 2 178(99.8%) met the data standard. The scores of 8 scales in SF-36v2, including physical function (PF), role-physical (RP), bodily pain (BP), general health (GH), vitality (VT), social function (SF), role-emotion (RE) and mental health (MH), were 89.15 ± 17.56, 85.18 ± 22.52, 76.64 ± 17.80, 64.13 ± 19.56, 70.39 ± 17.31, 86.43 ± 17.35, 87.79 ± 19.24 and 80.61 ± 13.49, respectively; the floor effects were 0.28%, 0.41%, 0.23%, 0.28%, 0.09%, 0.05%, 0.14% and 0.23%, respectively; and the ceiling effects were 51.38%, 60.60%, 58.08%, 0.83%, 2.94%, 50.32%, 64.00% and 3.95%, respectively. The item-convergent validities were all achieved the standard (r = 0.40) except the item MH5 (Have you been happy?), and the total scaling success rate of item-convergent validity was 97.14%. The scales' success rates of item-discriminant validities for the SF, VT and MH scales were 93.75%, 56.25% and 97.50% respectively, while the rates of others were 100.00% and the total success rate was 96.43%. The internal reliability ranged from 0.724 to 0.974 across all the scales, except for SF (r = 0.603) and VT (r = 0.697). The two-week test-retest reliability ranged from 0.610 to 0.845. Within factor analysis, two common factors were confirmed, separately representing physical health and mental health, altogether contributing 64.4% of the

  5. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retel-Rude Nathalie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36 was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items. Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70, factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL.

  6. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  7. Normative data and discriminative properties of short form 36 (SF-36 in Turkish urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvardar Yildiz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SF-36 has been both translated into different languages and adapted to different cultures to obtain comparable data on health status internationally. However there have been only a limited number of studies focused on the discriminative ability of SF-36 regarding social and disease status in developing countries. The aim of this study was to obtain population norms of the short form 36 (SF-36 health survey and the association of SF-36 domains with demographic and socioeconomic variables in an urban population in Turkey. Methods A cross-sectional study. Face to face interviews were carried out with a sample of households. The sample was systematically selected from two urban Health Districts in Izmir, Turkey. The study group consisted of 1,279 people selected from a study population of 46,290 people aged 18 and over. Results Internal consistencies of the scales were high, with the exception of mental health and vitality. Physical health scales were associated with both age and gender. On the other hand, mental health scales were less strongly associated with age and gender. Women reported poorer health compared to men in general. Social risk factors (employment status, lower education and economic strain were associated with worse health profiles. The SF-36 was found to be capable of discriminating disease status. Conclusion Our findings, cautiously generalisable to urban population, suggest that the SF-36 can be a valuable tool for studies on health outcomes in Turkish population. SF-36 may also be a promising measure for research on health inequalities in Turkey and other developing countries.

  8. Parametric investigation on the effect of nitrogen to reduce SF6 content in spark gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Avinash; Khaidir, Nur; Ishak, Sanuri; Ghani, Basri Abdul; Chakrabarty, Chandan; Permal, Navitharshaani; Ahmad, Harizan

    2017-03-01

    Almost all the MV and HV switchgears used by power utilities for interrupting faults are Sulphur Hexaflouride SF6 gas circuit breakers as this gas has the best dielectric properties to quench the onset of an arc in the event of fault. However due to strong dissociating properties of this gas when in contact with air that can release fluorine into the atmosphere, the Kyoto protocol has mandated to reduce the usage of SF6 in the future. SF6 is a greenhouse gas and it's about 3000 more severe than CO2. And that's the reason for replacing this gas. A close match in the quenching properties to SF6 that is now being intensively researched is nitrogen N2. This gas is considered to be an inert gas, and its release into the atmosphere has no harmful effects (except for asphyxiation - which can be easily handled with awareness). As the need for a replacement of SF6 becomes critical in the near future, the urgency to find the right gas is immediate. Hence the proposed work in this paper is to make a comprehensive parametric investigation of N2 gas in vacuum spark-gap. The spark-gap is chosen due to flexibility in changing the gap distance and easily be housed in vacuum. The parameters to be investigated are pure N2 and N2/ SF6 mix. The settling-time of the electrical break-down voltage and current are measured using voltage probe and Pearson probe. This time is paramount as it determines the speed of breaking the circuit. A faster breaking time ensures the safety of other HV equipment in the circuit. A comparative study between the various parameters will be conducted to obtain the best recipe (gas mix and gap distance) that gives the shortest settling time the breakdown using N2/ SF6/Mixture gas was successfully conducted and a Paschen curve has been established.

  9. Effects of Yoga on Measures of Health-related Quality of Life from SF-36 and SF-12 Assessments: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Benavidez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Yoga is commonly being adopted and prescribed with the intent to increase a participant’s health-related quality of life. In practice, the current gold-standard health-related quality of life measurement tool is the SF-36 and SF-12 assessments. Therefore, it is important for yoga scientists and practitioners to understand yoga’s effects on health-related quality of life when in fact a gold-standard assessment is implemented. The purpose of this study was to employ systematic review and meta-analytic techniques to examine the effect of yoga on measures of health-related quality of life measured using only the SF-36/12 assessments. Methods A current (January 2007 to December 2016 systematic review of the Pubmed database was conducted and included studies that used yoga as an intervention with outcomes measures of health-related quality of life measured by the SF-36/12. Ten different measures were extracted from studies including eight dimension scores (physical functioning, bodily pain, physical role function, general health, mental health, emotional role function, social function, and vitality and two summary scores (physical component and mental component. Ten different meta-analyses were performed using calculated standardized mean effect sizes and random effects models. Both moderator and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results A total of 34 studies were included is the analyses with 185 independent effect sizes. Yoga intervention showed a significant positive effect on all ten measures of the SF-36/12. Effects ranged from 0.56 (0.39-0.73 to 0.28 (0.17-0.40. Yoga type (Hatha, Iyengar, Other moderated the effects of yoga intervention on the mental component (p=.021, with Hatha yielding the greatest effects (ES=1.63, 0.61-2.65. The sensitivity analysis showed little to no bias in mean effect size estimates. Conclusions The meta-analytic evidence clearly supports the small-to-medium positive effects of yoga on health

  10. Hypericin photocytotoxicyty followed after fractionated light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackova, V.; Kulikova, L.; Mikes, J.; Kleban, J.; Fedorocko, P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the in vitro effect of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy with fractionated light delivery. Cells were photosensitized with unequal light fractions separated by dark intervals (1 h, 6 h). The changes in survival, apoptosis and cell cycle were compared on HT-29 cells irradiated with a single light dose (12 J/cm 2 ) to the fractionated light delivery (1+11 J/cm 2 ) 24 h and 48 h after photodynamic treatment. It was found that a fractionated light regime with a longer dark period resulted in a decrease of hypericin photo-cytotoxicity. Cell survival was higher after light sensitization with a 6 h dark interval. DNA fragmentation occurred after a single light dose application, but in contrast no apoptotic DNA formation was detected with a 6 h dark pause. After fractionation the percentage of cells in G 1 phase of the cell cycle was increased, while the proportion of cells in the G 2 phase decreased as compared to a single light dose application i. e. both percentage of cells in G 1 and G 2 phase of cell cycle were near control levels. We presume that the longer dark interval after the irradiation of cells by first light dose makes them to resistant to the effect of the second illumination. These findings confirm that the light application scheme together with other photodynamic protocol components is crucial for the photo-cytotoxicity of hypericin. (authors)

  11. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  12. Fractional distillation of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L D

    1931-10-31

    A method of dividing oil into lubricating oil fractions without substantial cracking by introducing the oil in a heated state into a fractionating column from which oil fractions having different boiling points are withdrawn at different levels, while reflux liquid is supplied to the top of the column, and additional heat is introduced into the column by contacting with the oil therein a heated fluid of higher monlecular weight than water and less susceptible to thermal decomposition than is the highest boiling oil fraction resulting from the distillation, or of which any products produced by thermal decomposition will not occur in the highest boiling distillate withdrawn from the column.

  13. Present and future environmental ''problems'' with SF6 and other fluorinated gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunt, R.J. Van

    1996-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) is widely used as an insulating and arc interrupting gas in high-voltage systems and has found application in plasma processing of materials. However, SF 6 is known to decompose in electrical discharges to form toxic and corrosive gaseous compounds such as SOF 4 , SOF 2 , SO 2 F 2 , and HF. Of particular concern are the species S 2 F 10 and S 2 O 2 F 10 that are known to be highly toxic and to be formed in corona, spark, and arc discharges in high-pressure SF 6 . The conditions under which these byproducts are formed, the methods for removal, and the possible hazards that they present are reviewed. Sulfur hexafluoride is also an efficient absorber of infrared radiation and is estimated to have a global warning potential that is 2.5 x 10 4 times greater than that of CO 2 . Methods that have been proposed to control the use of SF 6 and reduce the rate of its release into the atmosphere will be examined. The advantages, disadvantages, and likely problems with finding technically feasible and environmentally acceptable replacements for SF 6 will be discussed

  14. Wnt signaling in ovarian development inhibits Sf1 activation of Sox9 via the Tesco enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Pascal; Ryan, Janelle; Sim, Helena; Czech, Daniel P; Sinclair, Andrew H; Koopman, Peter; Harley, Vincent R

    2012-02-01

    Genome analysis of patients with disorders of sex development, and gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice indicate that gonadal development is regulated by opposing signals. In females, the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway blocks testicular differentiation by repressing the expression of the Sertoli cell-specific gene Sox9 by an unknown mechanism. Using cell and embryonic gonad culture models, we show that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibits the expression of Sox9 and Amh, whereas mRNA and protein levels of Sry and steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), two key transcriptional regulators of Sox9, are not altered. Ectopic activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in male gonads led to a loss of Sf1 binding to the Tesco enhancer and absent Sox9 expression that we also observed in wild-type ovaries. Moreover, ectopic Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced the expression of the female somatic cell markers, Bmp2 and Rspo1, as a likely consequence of Sox9 loss. Wnt/β-catenin signaling in XY gonads did not, however, affect gene expression of the steroidogenic Leydig cell Sf1 target gene, Cyp11a1, or Sf1 binding to the Cyp11a1 promoter. Our data support a model in ovary development whereby activation of β-catenin prevents Sf1 binding to the Sox9 enhancer, thereby inhibiting Sox9 expression and Sertoli cell differentiation.

  15. Repopulation capacity during fractionated irradiation of squamous cell carcinomas and glioblastomas in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, Wilfried; Gioioso, Danielle; Taghian, Alphonse; Stuschke, Martin; Suit, Herman D

    1997-10-01

    Purpose: Determination of clonogenic cell proliferation of three highly malignant squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and two glioblastoma cell lines during a 20-day course of fractionated irradiation under in vitro conditions. Methods and Materials: Tumor cells in exponential growth phase were plated in 24-well plastic flasks and irradiated 24 h after plating with 250 kV x-rays at room temperature. Six fractions with single doses between 0.6 and 9 Gy were administered in 1.67, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Colony growth was monitored for at least 60 days after completion of irradiation. Wells with confluent colonies were considered as 'recurrences' and wells without colonies as 'controlled'. The dose required to control 50% of irradiated wells (WCD{sub 50}) was estimated by a logistic regression for the different overall treatment times. The effective doubling time of clonogenic cells (T{sub eff}) was determined by a direct fit using the maximum likelihood method. Results: The increase of WCD{sub 50} within 18.3 days was highly significant for all tumor cell lines accounting for 7.9 and 12.0 Gy in the two glioblastoma cell lines and for 12.7, 14.0, and 21.7 Gy in the three SCC cell lines. The corresponding T{sub eff}s were 4.4 and 2.0 days for glioblastoma cell lines and 2.4, 4.2, and 1.8 days for SCC cell lines. Population doubling times (PDT) of untreated tumor cells ranged from 1.0 to 1.9 days, showing no correlation with T{sub eff}s. T{sub eff} was significantly longer than PDT in three of five tumor cell lines. No significant differences were observed comparing glioblastomas and SCC. Increase of WCD{sub 50} with time did not correlate with T{sub eff} but with T{sub eff}* InSF2 (surviving fraction at 2 Gy). Conclusion: The intrinsic ability of SCC and glioblastoma cells to repopulate during fractionated irradiation could be demonstrated. Repopulation induced dose loss per day depends on T{sub eff} and intrinsic radiation sensitivity. Proliferation during treatment was

  16. Dynamics of infrared multiphonon dissociation of SF6 by molecular beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, E.R.; Coggiola, M.J.; Lee, Y.T.; Schulz, P.A.; Shen, Y.R.

    1977-01-01

    A crossed molecular beam apparatus has been adapted to study the dynamics of excitation and dissociation of polyatomic molecules in intense IR laser fields. Initial experiments have involved the study of the dissociation of SF 6 by CO 2 laser radiation at 10.6 μm. A molecular beam of SF 6 was formed by supersonic expansion using three stages of differential pumping. A grating tuned pulsed CO 2 TEA laser was used as the excitation source. The laser beam was focused by a 25 cm focal length ZnSe lens, and crossed the molecular beam near its focal point. The fragments produced by multiphonon dissociation of SF 6 within the small interaction region were detected as a function of recoil angle and velocity. (Auth.)

  17. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  18. SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Zhao, Hu; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental problems caused by greenhouse gases have received unprecedented attention. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which is the preferred gas for use in gas-insulated switchgear (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, etc. for high-voltage electrical circuits), has a very high global warming potential, and there is a large international effort to find alternative gases. Recently, this effort has made important progress, with promising alternative gases being identified and tested. An overview, in particular the current state of the art, of the study of SF6-alternative gases is presented in the paper. The review focuses on the application of the SF6-alternative gases in gas-insulated switchgear, with detailed analysis of calculations and measurements of their basic physical properties, dielectric strengths, and arc-quenching capabilities. Finally, a discussion of and perspectives on current research and future research directions are presented.

  19. Fractional Poisson process (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Wen Zhixiong; Zhang Shiying

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a stochastic process W H (t)(H-bar (12,1)) which we call fractional Poisson process. The process W H (t) is self-similar in wide sense, displays long range dependence, and has more fatter tail than Gaussian process. In addition, it converges to fractional Brownian motion in distribution

  20. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  1. Can Kindergartners Do Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics professor Julie Cwikla decided that she needed to investigate young children's understandings and see what precurricular partitioning notions young minds bring to the fraction table. Cwikla realized that only a handful of studies have examined how preschool-age and early elementary school-age students solve fraction problems (Empson…

  2. Impact of 10% SF6 Gas Compared to 100% Air Tamponade in Descemet's Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Szurman, Peter; Jung, Sacha; Boden, Karl Thomas; Wahl, Silke; Haus, Arno; Boden, Katrin; Januschowski, Kai

    2018-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes following Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) with 100% air tamponade versus 10% sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) tamponade. Retrospective analysis of 108 consecutive DMEK cases subdivided by anterior chamber tamponade with 54 eyes receiving 10% SF 6 and 54 eyes receiving 100% air injection. A post-hoc matched analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups. The main outcome measurements were the complication rate, including intra- and postoperative complications and graft detachment rate requiring re-bubbling. Clinical outcome included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), endothelial cell count (ECC), and central corneal thickness (CCT) measured 1, 3, and 6 months after DMEK surgery. The graft detachment rate with consecutive re-bubbling was 18.5% in the air group and 22.2% in the SF 6 group (p = 0.2). Remaining small peripheral graft detachments with a clear cornea occurred more often in the 100% air group (air: 22.2%; 12/54, 6/12 inferior compared to SF 6 : 7.4%; 4/54, 2/4 inferior; p = 0.06). The primary graft failure rate was comparable between the two groups. No complete graft detachment occurred. Outcome results for BCVA, ECC, and CCT at all follow-up time points were comparable between the two groups. The clinical outcomes (including re-bubbling rate, primary graft failure rate, and endothelial cell loss) were comparable with 100% air versus 10% SF 6 tamponade, whereas other studies suggest that a higher SF 6 concentration (20%) may result in a lower re-bubbling rate.

  3. Catquest-9SF questionnaire: validation of Malay and Chinese-language versions using Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Mohamed Apandi, Mokhlisoh; Kamaruddin, Haireen; Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Law, Kian Boon; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Goh, Pik Pin

    2018-01-05

    Catquest questionnaire was originally developed in Swedish to measure patients' self-assessed visual function to evaluate the benefit of cataract surgery. The result of the Rasch analysis leading to the creation of the nine-item short form of Catquest, (Catquest-9SF), and it had been translated and validated in English. The aim is therefore to evaluate the translated Catquest-9SF questionnaire in Malay and Chinese (Mandarin) language version for measuring patient-reported visual function among cataract population in Malaysia. The English version of Catquest-9SF questionnaire was translated and back translated into Malay and Chinese languages. The Malay and Chinese translated versions were self-administered by 236 and 202 pre-operative patients drawn from a cataract surgery waiting list, respectively. The translated Catquest-9SF data and its four response options were assessed for fit to the Rasch model. The Catquest-9SF performed well in the Malay and Chinese translated versions fulfilling all criteria for valid measurement, as demonstrated by Rasch analysis. Both versions of questionnaire had ordered response thresholds, with a good person separation (Malay 2.84; and Chinese 2.59) and patient separation reliability (Malay 0.89; Chinese 0.87). Targeting was 0.30 and -0.11 logits in Malay and Chinese versions respectively, indicating that the item difficulty was well suited to the visual abilities of the patients. All items fit a single overall construct (Malay infit range 0.85-1.26, outfit range 0.73-1.13; Chinese infit range 0.80-1.51, outfit range 0.71-1.36), unidimensional by principal components analysis, and was free of Differential Item Functioning (DIF). These results support the good overall functioning of the Catquest-9SF in patients with cataract. The translated questionnaire to Malay and Chinese-language versions are reliable and valid in measuring visual disability outcomes in the Malaysian cataract population.

  4. Fractional bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Victor Alfonzo; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a simple generalization of bosonic string theory in the framework of the theory of fractional variational problems. Specifically, we present a fractional extension of the Polyakov action, for which we compute the general form of the equations of motion and discuss the connection between the new fractional action and a generalization the Nambu-Goto action. Consequently, we analyze the symmetries of the modified Polyakov action and try to fix the gauge, following the classical procedures. Then we solve the equations of motion in a simplified setting. Finally, we present a Hamiltonian description of the classical fractional bosonic string and introduce the fractional light-cone gauge. It is important to remark that, throughout the whole paper, we thoroughly discuss how to recover the known results as an "integer" limit of the presented model.

  5. Camera system considerations for geomorphic applications of SfM photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Major, Jon J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Pitlick, John

    2017-01-01

    The availability of high-resolution, multi-temporal, remotely sensed topographic data is revolutionizing geomorphic analysis. Three-dimensional topographic point measurements acquired from structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry have been shown to be highly accurate and cost-effective compared to laser-based alternatives in some environments. Use of consumer-grade digital cameras to generate terrain models and derivatives is becoming prevalent within the geomorphic community despite the details of these instruments being largely overlooked in current SfM literature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.A practical discussion of camera system selection, configuration, and image acquisition is presented. The hypothesis that optimizing source imagery can increase digital terrain model (DTM) accuracy is tested by evaluating accuracies of four SfM datasets conducted over multiple years of a gravel bed river floodplain using independent ground check points with the purpose of comparing morphological sediment budgets computed from SfM- and lidar-derived DTMs. Case study results are compared to existing SfM validation studies in an attempt to deconstruct the principle components of an SfM error budget. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Greater information capacity of source imagery was found to increase pixel matching quality, which produced 8 times greater point density and 6 times greater accuracy. When propagated through volumetric change analysis, individual DTM accuracy (6–37 cm) was sufficient to detect moderate geomorphic change (order 100,000 m3) on an unvegetated fluvial surface; change detection determined from repeat lidar and SfM surveys differed by about 10%. Simple camera selection criteria increased accuracy by 64%; configuration settings or image post-processing techniques increased point density by 5–25% and decreased processing time by 10–30%. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  6. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchbinder Rachelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36 is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36 subscales following orthopedic surgery. Methods Longitudinal data on outcomes of total hip replacement (THR, n = 255, total knee replacement (TKR, n = 103, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM, n = 74 and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL, n = 62 were used to estimate the effect sizes (ES, magnitude of change and minimal detectable change (sensitivity at the group and individual level. To provide context for interpreting the magnitude of changes in SF-36 scores, we also compared patients' scores with age and sex-matched population norms. The studies were conducted in Sweden. Follow-up was five years in THR and TKR studies, two years in ACL, and three months in APM. Results On average, large effect sizes (ES≥0.80 were found after orthopedic surgery in SF-36 subscales measuring physical aspects (physical functioning, role physical, and bodily pain. Small (0.20–0.49 to moderate (0.50–0.79 effect sizes were found in subscales measuring mental and social aspects (role emotional, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. General health scores remained relatively unchanged during the follow-up. Despite improvements, post-surgery mean scores of patients were still below the age and sex matched population norms on physical subscales. Patients' scores on mental and social subscales approached population norms following the surgery. At the individual level, scores of a large proportion of patients were affected by floor or ceiling effects on several subscales and the sensitivity to individual change was very low. Conclusion Large to moderate meaningful changes in group scores were observed in all SF-36 subscales except General Health

  7. S-F graphic representation analysis of photoelectric facula focometer poroo-plate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yilin; Han, Xuecai

    2016-10-01

    Optical system focal length is usually based on the magnification method with focal length measurement poroo-plate glass is used as base element measuring focal length of focometer. On the basis of using analysis of magnification method to measure the accuracy of optical lens focal length, an expression between the ruling span of poroo-plate glass and the focal length of measured optical system was deduced, an efficient method to work out S-F graph with AUTOCAD was developed, the selecting principle of focometer parameter was analyzed, and Applied examples for designing poroo-plate glass in S-F figure was obtained.

  8. Measurement of the figure of merit M for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Erik Berril; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1997-01-01

    High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used to charac......High precision measurements of the linear part of the Paschen curve are reported for 1-C3F6/SF6 mixtures. From these measurements, values for the pressure-reduced limiting electric field strength (E/p)lim and the associated figure of merit M are derived. These two parameters can be used...

  9. Characterization of nuclear materials by laser ablation ICP(SF)MS for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanka, Z.; Katona, R.; Varga, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The task of the categorization and characterization of nuclear materials of unknown origin has been delegated to the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1996 by a governmental decree. Since the investigated materials are forensic evidences special attention was paid for minimizing the required sample amount. Therefore LA-ICP(SF)MS has been developed and also applied for the determination of isotopic composition, production date and the concentration of trace impurities. The LA-ICP(SF)MS methods were validated by inter-laboratory comparisons and were applied for analysis of uranium oxide pellets seized in Hungary. (author)

  10. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in methane plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, François; Derenne, Sylvie; Lombardi, Guillaume; Hassouni, Khaled; Michau, Armelle; Reinhardt, Peter; Duhamel, Rémi; Gonzalez, Adriana; Biron, Kasia

    2017-01-01

    Large variations in light element isotope ratios (H, N, C) are routinely observed in meteorite organic matter. The origin of these so-called anomalies is not accounted for by the classical theory of isotope fractionation. In the case of H, micrometer-size areas within the insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from meteorites by acid treatment, exhibit extreme deuterium enrichment. They are generally interpreted as components exogenous to the solar system and attributed to surviving interste...

  11. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Rhein, Bernhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcome and toxicity after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with FSRT between May 1989 and February 2001. Median age was 33.5 years (range: 5-57 years). Nine patients received FSRT after surgery as primary treatment, and 17 patients were irradiated for recurrent tumor or progressive growth after initial surgery. Median target dose was 52.2 Gy (range: 50.0-57.6 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Follow-up included MRI and neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic examinations. Results: The median follow-up was 43 months (range: 7-143 months). The actuarial local control rate and actuarial overall survival rates were 100% and 100%, respectively, at 5 years and 100% and 83%, respectively, at 10 years. Four patients showed complete response, 14 patients showed partial response, and 8 patients remained stable. In 5 patients, vision improved after radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was mild. One patient required cyst drainage 3 months after radiotherapy. Late toxicity after radiotherapy included impairment of hormone function in 3 out of 18 patients at risk. We did not observe any vision impairment, radionecrosis, or secondary malignancies. Conclusions: FSRT is effective and safe in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas. Toxicity is extremely low using this conformal technique

  12. Fractional Order Generalized Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tenreiro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a novel expression for entropy inspired in the properties of Fractional Calculus. The characteristics of the generalized fractional entropy are tested both in standard probability distributions and real world data series. The results reveal that tuning the fractional order allow an high sensitivity to the signal evolution, which is useful in describing the dynamics of complex systems. The concepts are also extended to relative distances and tested with several sets of data, confirming the goodness of the generalization.

  13. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  14. Social Trust and Fractionalization:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a closer look at the importance of fractionalization for the creation of social trust. It first argues that the determinants of trust can be divided into two categories: those affecting individuals' trust radii and those affecting social polarization. A series of estimates using...... a much larger country sample than in previous literature confirms that fractionalization in the form of income inequality and political diversity adversely affects social trust while ethnic diversity does not. However, these effects differ systematically across countries, questioning standard...... interpretations of the influence of fractionalization on trust....

  15. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Rešić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers. Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered, which are essentially related to visualizing operations with fractions.

  16. 78 FR 42982 - Submission for Review: Information Collection; Questionnaire for Non-Sensitive Positions (SF 85)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Government civilian or military positions, or positions in private entities performing work for the Federal... adjudication. The SF 85 is completed by civilian employees of the Federal Government, military personnel, and... Security Number and provide the results to OPM. Clarifying language was added to the Authorization for...

  17. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special..., 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section 3.19 for airplanes of 6,000 pounds maximum...

  18. An Efficient SF-ISF Approach for the Slepian-Wolf Source Coding Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhenyu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple but powerful scheme exploiting the binning concept for asymmetric lossless distributed source coding is proposed. The novelty in the proposed scheme is the introduction of a syndrome former (SF in the source encoder and an inverse syndrome former (ISF in the source decoder to efficiently exploit an existing linear channel code without the need to modify the code structure or the decoding strategy. For most channel codes, the construction of SF-ISF pairs is a light task. For parallelly and serially concatenated codes and particularly parallel and serial turbo codes where this appear less obvious, an efficient way for constructing linear complexity SF-ISF pairs is demonstrated. It is shown that the proposed SF-ISF approach is simple, provenly optimal, and generally applicable to any linear channel code. Simulation using conventional and asymmetric turbo codes demonstrates a compression rate that is only 0.06 bit/symbol from the theoretical limit, which is among the best results reported so far.

  19. 41 CFR 109-38.801 - Obtaining SF 149, U.S. Government National Credit Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Government National Credit Card. 109-38.801 Section 109-38.801 Public Contracts and Property Management..., U.S. Government National Credit Card § 109-38.801 Obtaining SF 149, U.S. Government National Credit Card. DOE offices electing to use national credit cards shall request the assignment of billing address...

  20. Validity of the mental health subscale of the SF-36 in persons with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C. M. C.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Post, M. W. M.

    Study design: Cross-sectional study 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Mental Health subscale (MHI-5) of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Eight Dutch

  1. Ricostruzione di una scena urbana 3D utilizzando VisualSfM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inzerillo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Le tecniche di computer vision oggi danno la possibilità di costruire in maniera rapida e automatica modelli 3D dettagliati a partire da dataset fotografici. La comunità accademica ha visto una crescente attenzione alla ricostruzione 3D a scala urbana. Tra i vari strumenti oggi a disposizione spicca VisualSfM sviluppato dall’università di Washingthon e Google. Si tratta di una Interfaccia grafica open source strutturata in algoritmi dedicati alla tecnica di Structure from Motion (SfM. VisualSfM utilizza un estrattore di features chiamato SIFTGPU e un algoritmo di Bundle Adjustment Multicore. Inoltre è possibile ottenere una nuvola di punti densa utilizzando gli algoritmi CMVS/PMVS2. La finalità di questo studio è di verificare l’accuratezza metrica delle ricostruzioni attraverso l’utilizzo integrato di VisualSfM e CMVS/PMVS2. L’approccio quindi è stato testato su diversi dataset di una certa entità strutturati da collezioni fotografiche ragionate. 

  2. 48 CFR 53.301-1094A - SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. 53.301-1094A Section 53.301-1094A Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 1094A, Tax Exemption Certificates Accountability Record. ER02JA97.013 ER02JA97.014 [62 FR 247, Jan. 2...

  3. 76 FR 20351 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Architect-Engineer Qualifications (SF 330)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; Information Collection; Architect-Engineer Qualifications (SF 330) AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approve an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement for the Architect-Engineer... Standard Form 330, Part I is used by all Executive agencies to obtain information from architect-engineer...

  4. 76 FR 55389 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Architect-Engineer Qualifications (SF...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Architect-Engineer Qualifications (SF 330) AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... extension of a previously approved information collection requirement for the Architect-Engineer... 330, Part I is used by all Executive agencies to obtain information from architect-engineer firms...

  5. 48 CFR 53.301-1445 - SF 1445, Labor Standards Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 1445, Labor Standards Interview. 53.301-1445 Section 53.301-1445 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Interview. ER02JA97.021 [62 FR 255, Jan. 2, 1997] ...

  6. Screening test of relays used under pressurized sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsukake, Kenichi; Matsuda, Makoto; Hanashima, Susumu; Obara, Kenjiro

    2008-01-01

    Many measurement and control devices inside of a high voltage terminal of the JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator are operated under pressurized sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF 6 ) of 0.5 MPa. This screening test has been carried out to select a relay, which is usable under the pressurized SF 6 for turn on and off a large current of the devices, from commercial relays used in the atmospheric condition. Four kinds of relays were tested: electromechanical relay (EMR), magnet contactor (MAG), solid-state relay (SSR) and hybrid relay (HYB). Temperature and appearance changes of the relay were collected as measurement items. In addition, a reason of contact trouble of the relays was considered from the results of qualitative elementary analysis and observation of the contact surface using the EDS (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and the SEM (scanning electron microscope). As a result, the EMR and the MAG showed irregular contact in spite of input voltage and electric current had fed to an operational coil of the relay normally. It is caused by the sulfide or fluoride compounds, which were formed by chemical reaction between metals and sulfur or hydrogen fluoride due to dissociation of SF 6 in electric arcs. On the other hand, the performance of the SSR and the HYB is better than the EMR and the MAG, and it was found that these relays are available in the pressurized SF 6 of 0.5MPa in spite of the standard specification. (author)

  7. Development and validation of the alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire Short Form (EQ-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquita, Laura; Camacho, Laura; Suso-Ribera, Carlos; Ortet, Generós; Ibáñez, Manuel I

    2018-01-15

    Alcohol expectancies are proximal variables to alcohol use and misuse. In recent decades, different measures have been developed to assess this construct. One of the most frequently used and recommended instruments is the Expectancy Questionnaire (EQ; Leigh y Stacy, 1993). Our aim is to develop a short version of the EQ (EQ-SF) for suitable use in time-limited administrations. Two samples, adolescents (N = 514, 57.20% females) and adults (N = 548, 61.50% females), completed the EQ together with alcohol-use measures. Different item selection strategies were applied to select the 24 items. The EQ-SF structure was explored using confirmatory factor analysis, and measurement invariance was tested running a multi-group analysis comparing groups by sex and age. Reliability was tested using Cronbach's alpha and omega coefficients. Concurrent validity was investigated with regression analyses. The EQ-SF showed acceptable between-groups measurement invariance. Alphas and omegas ranged from .77 to .93. Positive expectancies predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Negative expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems. Sex and age moderated these associations. Males with high positive alcohol expectancies showed higher alcohol consumption than females, while adults with high negative alcohol expectancies showed greater alcohol-related problems than adolescents. Different evidence on the validity and reliability of the EQ-SF suggest that it is a suitable instrument to assess alcohol expectancies in the Spanish population.

  8. The RNA splicing factor ASF/SF2 inhibits human topoisomerase I mediated DNA relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Tange, Thomas Ø.; Sinnathamby, Thayaline

    2002-01-01

    Human topoisomerase I interacts with and phosphorylates the SR-family of RNA splicing factors, including ASF/SF2, and has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of RNA splicing. Here we present evidence to support the theory that the regulation can go the other way around...

  9. 48 CFR 53.235 - Research and Development Contracting (SF 298).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research and Development Contracting (SF 298). 53.235 Section 53.235 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 53.235 Research and Development...

  10. Development and Validation of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…

  11. Unidimensionality and reliability under Mokken scaling of the Dutch language version of the SF-36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Buuren, S. van; Fekkes, M.; Radder, J.; Verrips, E.

    2003-01-01

    The sub-scales of the SF-36 in the Dutch National Study are investigated with respect to unidimensionality and reliability. It is argued that these properties deserve separate treatment. For unidimensionality we use a non-parametric model from item response theory, called the Mokken scaling model,

  12. Attentional selection of relative SF mediates global versus local processing: evidence from EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevaris, Anastasia V; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C

    2011-06-13

    Previous research on functional hemispheric differences in visual processing has associated global perception with low spatial frequency (LSF) processing biases of the right hemisphere (RH) and local perception with high spatial frequency (HSF) processing biases of the left hemisphere (LH). The Double Filtering by Frequency (DFF) theory expanded this hypothesis by proposing that visual attention selects and is directed to relatively LSFs by the RH and relatively HSFs by the LH, suggesting a direct causal relationship between SF selection and global versus local perception. We tested this idea in the current experiment by comparing activity in the EEG recorded at posterior right and posterior left hemisphere sites while participants' attention was directed to global or local levels of processing after selection of relatively LSFs versus HSFs in a previous stimulus. Hemispheric asymmetry in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) during preparation for global versus local processing was modulated by the selected SF. In contrast, preparatory activity associated with selection of SF was not modulated by the previously attended level (global/local). These results support the DFF theory that top-down attentional selection of SF mediates global and local processing.

  13. 48 CFR 53.301-18 - SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false SF 18 (Rev. 6/95), Request for Quotations. 53.301-18 Section 53.301-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... for Quotations. EC01MY91.002 [60 FR 34763, July 3, 1995] ...

  14. Fractional Stochastic Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    Models describing evolution of physical, chemical, biological, social and financial processes are often formulated as differential equations with the understanding that they are large-scale equations for averages of quantities describing intrinsically random processes. Explicit account of randomness may lead to significant changes in the asymptotic behaviour (anomalous scaling) in such models especially in low spatial dimensions, which in many cases may be captured with the use of the renormalization group. Anomalous scaling and memory effects may also be introduced with the use of fractional derivatives and fractional noise. Construction of renormalized stochastic field theory with fractional derivatives and fractional noise in the underlying stochastic differential equations and master equations and the interplay between fluctuation-induced and built-in anomalous scaling behaviour is reviewed and discussed.

  15. Discrete fractional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  16. Fractional smith chart theory

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif; Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    matching networks, where the fractional approach proves to be much more versatile and results in a single element matching network for a complex load as compared to the two elements in the conventional approach. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Psychometric validation of the SF-36® Health Survey in ulcerative colitis: results from a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlas, Aaron; Bayliss, Martha; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Maher, Stephen; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Chen, Lea Ann; Manuchehri, Alireza; Healey, Paul

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review of the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the SF-36 ® Health Survey (SF-36) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). We performed a systematic search of electronic medical databases to identify published peer-reviewed studies which reported scores from the eight scales and/or two summary measures of the SF-36 collected from adult patients with UC. Study findings relevant to reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness were reviewed. Data were extracted and summarized from 43 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Convergent validity was supported by findings that 83% (197/236) of correlations between SF-36 scales and measures of disease symptoms, disease activity, and functioning exceeded the prespecified threshold (r ≥ |0.40|). Known-groups validity was supported by findings of clinically meaningful differences in SF-36 scores between subgroups of patients when classified by disease activity (i.e., active versus inactive), symptom status, and comorbidity status. Responsiveness was supported by findings of clinically meaningful changes in SF-36 scores following treatment in non-comparative trials, and by meaningfully larger improvements in SF-36 scores in treatment arms relative to controls in randomized controlled trials. The sole study of SF-36 reliability found evidence supporting internal consistency (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70) for all SF-36 scales and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.70) for six of eight scales. Evidence from this systematic literature review indicates that the SF-36 is reliable, valid, and responsive when used with UC patients, supporting the inclusion of the SF-36 as an endpoint in clinical trials for this patient population.

  18. POD-1/Tcf21 overexpression reduces endogenous SF-1 and StAR expression in rat adrenal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During gonad and adrenal development, the POD-1/capsulin/TCF21transcription factor negatively regulates SF-1/NR5A1expression, with higher SF-1 levels being associated with increased adrenal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In adrenocortical tumor cells, POD-1 binds to the SF-1 E-box promoter region, decreasing SF-1 expression. However, the modulation of SF-1 expression by POD-1 has not previously been described in normal adrenal cells. Here, we analyzed the basal expression of Pod-1 and Sf-1 in primary cultures of glomerulosa (G and fasciculata/reticularis (F/R cells isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and investigated whether POD-1 overexpression modulates the expression of endogenous Sf-1 and its target genes in these cells. POD-1 overexpression, following the transfection of pCMVMycPod-1, significantly decreased the endogenous levels of Sf-1 mRNA and protein in F/R cells, but not in G cells, and also decreased the expression of the SF-1 target StAR in F/R cells. In G cells overexpressing POD-1, no modulation of the expression of SF-1 targets, StAR and CYP11B2, was observed. Our data showing that G and F/R cells respond differently to ectopic POD-1 expression emphasize the functional differences between the outer and inner zones of the adrenal cortex, and support the hypothesis that SF-1 is regulated by POD-1/Tcf21 in normal adrenocortical cells lacking the alterations in cellular physiology found in tumor cells.

  19. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  20. Avulsion research using flume experiments and highly accurate and temporal-rich SfM datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javernick, L.; Bertoldi, W.; Vitti, A.

    2017-12-01

    SfM's ability to produce high-quality, large-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) of complicated and rapidly evolving systems has made it a valuable technique for low-budget researchers and practitioners. While SfM has provided valuable datasets that capture single-flood event DEMs, there is an increasing scientific need to capture higher temporal resolution datasets that can quantify the evolutionary processes instead of pre- and post-flood snapshots. However, flood events' dangerous field conditions and image matching challenges (e.g. wind, rain) prevent quality SfM-image acquisition. Conversely, flume experiments offer opportunities to document flood events, but achieving consistent and accurate DEMs to detect subtle changes in dry and inundated areas remains a challenge for SfM (e.g. parabolic error signatures).This research aimed at investigating the impact of naturally occurring and manipulated avulsions on braided river morphology and on the encroachment of floodplain vegetation, using laboratory experiments. This required DEMs with millimeter accuracy and precision and at a temporal resolution to capture the processes. SfM was chosen as it offered the most practical method. Through redundant local network design and a meticulous ground control point (GCP) survey with a Leica Total Station in red laser configuration (reported 2 mm accuracy), the SfM residual errors compared to separate ground truthing data produced mean errors of 1.5 mm (accuracy) and standard deviations of 1.4 mm (precision) without parabolic error signatures. Lighting conditions in the flume were limited to uniform, oblique, and filtered LED strips, which removed glint and thus improved bed elevation mean errors to 4 mm, but errors were further reduced by means of an open source software for refraction correction. The obtained datasets have provided the ability to quantify how small flood events with avulsion can have similar morphologic and vegetation impacts as large flood events

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire Short Form (HIS-Q-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Roberts, Laurie J; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Revicki, Dennis A; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Dobs, Adrian; Hepp, Zsolt; Miller, Michael G

    2017-08-01

    The Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire Short Form (HIS-Q-SF) is a patient-reported outcome measurement designed to evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism. The HIS-Q-SF is an abbreviated version including17 items from the original 28-item HIS-Q. To conduct item analyses and reduction, evaluate the psychometric properties of the HIS-Q-SF, and provide guidance on score interpretation. A 12-week observational longitudinal study of hypogonadal men was conducted as part of the original HIS-Q psychometric evaluation. Participants completed the original HIS-Q every 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected to evaluate testosterone levels. Participants completed the Aging Male's Symptoms Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Short Form-12, and the PROMIS Sexual Activity, Satisfaction with Sex Life, Sleep Disturbance, and Applied Cognition Scales (baseline and weeks 6 and 12). Clinicians completed the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Change scales and a clinical form. Item performance was evaluated using descriptive statistics and Rasch analyses. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), validity (concurrent and know groups), and responsiveness were assessed. One hundred seventy-seven men participated (mean age = 54.1 years, range = 23-83). Similar to the full HIS-Q, the final abbreviated HIS-Q-SF instrument includes five domains (sexual, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood) with two sexual subdomains (libido and sexual function). For key domains, test-retest reliability was very good, and construct validity was good for all domains. Known-groups validity was demonstrated for all domain scores, subdomain scores, and total score based on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity. All domains and subdomains were responsive to change based on patient-rated anchor questions. The HIS-Q-SF could be a useful tool in clinical practice, epidemiologic studies, and other academic research settings. Careful consideration was given to the

  2. Fractional laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades-Armenakas, Macrene R; Dover, Jeffrey S; Arndt, Kenneth A

    2012-11-01

    Laser skin resurfacing (LSR) has evolved over the past 2 decades from traditional ablative to fractional nonablative and fractional ablative resurfacing. Traditional ablative LSR was highly effective in reducing rhytides, photoaging, and acne scarring but was associated with significant side effects and complications. In contrast, nonablative LSR was very safe but failed to deliver consistent clinical improvement. Fractional LSR has achieved the middle ground; it combined the efficacy of traditional LSR with the safety of nonablative modalities. The first fractional laser was a nonablative erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser that produced microscopic columns of thermal injury in the epidermis and upper dermis. Heralding an entirely new concept of laser energy delivery, it delivered the laser beam in microarrays. It resulted in microscopic columns of treated tissue and intervening areas of untreated skin, which yielded rapid reepithelialization. Fractional delivery was quickly applied to ablative wavelengths such as carbon dioxide, Er:YAG, and yttrium scandium gallium garnet (2,790 nm), providing more significant clinical outcomes. Adjustable laser parameters, including power, pitch, dwell time, and spot density, allowed for precise determination of percent surface area, affected penetration depth, and clinical recovery time and efficacy. Fractional LSR has been a significant advance to the laser field, striking the balance between safety and efficacy.

  3. Estimating health state utility values for comorbid health conditions using SF-6D data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roberta; Brazier, John

    2011-01-01

    When health state utility values for comorbid health conditions are not available, data from cohorts with single conditions are used to estimate scores. The methods used can produce very different results and there is currently no consensus on which is the most appropriate approach. The objective of the current study was to compare the accuracy of five different methods within the same dataset. Data collected during five Welsh Health Surveys were subgrouped by health status. Mean short-form 6 dimension (SF-6D) scores for cohorts with a specific health condition were used to estimate mean SF-6D scores for cohorts with comorbid conditions using the additive, multiplicative, and minimum methods, the adjusted decrement estimator (ADE), and a linear regression model. The mean SF-6D for subgroups with comorbid health conditions ranged from 0.4648 to 0.6068. The linear model produced the most accurate scores for the comorbid health conditions with 88% of values accurate to within the minimum important difference for the SF-6D. The additive and minimum methods underestimated or overestimated the actual SF-6D scores respectively. The multiplicative and ADE methods both underestimated the majority of scores. However, both methods performed better when estimating scores smaller than 0.50. Although the range in actual health state utility values (HSUVs) was relatively small, our data covered the lower end of the index and the majority of previous research has involved actual HSUVs at the upper end of possible ranges. Although the linear model gave the most accurate results in our data, additional research is required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SF Treg cells transcribing high levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 demonstrate limited apoptosis in RA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Smigielska, Katarzyna; Park, Ji-Ah; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Kim, Hye-Won; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Lee, Eun-Bong; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the turnover of Treg cells in the SF of RA patients. Methods. Treg cells were enumerated in peripheral blood and SF of RA patients and analysed by flow cytometry for expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 and binding of the apoptosis marker

  5. Analysis of factors affecting baseline SF-36 Mental Component Summary in Adult Spinal Deformity and its impact on surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmopelwa, Tiro; Ayhan, Selim; Yuksel, Selcen; Nabiyev, Vugar; Niyazi, Asli; Pellise, Ferran; Alanay, Ahmet; Sanchez Perez Grueso, Francisco Javier; Kleinstuck, Frank; Obeid, Ibrahim; Acaroglu, Emre

    2018-03-01

    To identify the factors that affect SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) at the time of presentation, and to analyse the effect of SF-36 MCS on clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients. Prospectively collected data from a multicentric ASD database was analysed for baseline parameters. Then, the same database for surgically treated patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up was analysed to see the effect of baseline SF-36 MCS on treatment results. A clinically useful SF-36 MCS was determined by ROC Curve analysis. A total of 229 patients with the baseline parameters were analysed. A strong correlation between SF-36 MCS and SRS-22, ODI, gender, and diagnosis were found (p baseline SF-36 MCS (p baseline SF-36 MCS in an ASD population are other HRQOL parameters such as SRS-22 and ODI as well as the baseline thoracic kyphosis and gender. This study has also demonstrated that baseline SF-36 MCS does not necessarily have any effect on the treatment results by surgery as assessed by SRS-22 or ODI. Level III, prognostic study. Copyright © 2018 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 48 CFR 53.222 - Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions (SF's 308, 1093, 1413, 1444, 1445, 1446, WH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... Prescription of Forms 53.222 Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions (SF's 308, 1093, 1413, 1444... application of labor laws: (a) [Reserved] (b) [Reserved] (c) SF 308 (DOL) (Rev. 5/85), Request for Wage...

  7. Identification and Molecular Characterisation of a Novel Mu-Like Bacteriophage, SfMu, of Shigella flexneri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Jakhetia

    Full Text Available S. flexneri is the leading cause of bacillary dysentery in the developing countries. Several temperate phages originating from this host have been characterised. However, all S. flexneri phages known to date are lambdoid phages, which have the ability to confer the O-antigen modification of their host. In this study, we report the isolation and characterisation of a novel Mu-like phage from a serotype 4a strain of S. flexneri. The genome of phage SfMu is composed of 37,146 bp and is predicted to contain 55 open reading frames (orfs. Comparative genome analysis of phage SfMu with Mu and other Mu-like phages revealed that SfMu is closely related to phage Mu, sharing >90% identity with majority of its proteins. Moreover, investigation of phage SfMu receptor on the surface of the host cell revealed that the O-antigen of the host serves as the receptor for the adsorption of phage SfMu. This study also demonstrates pervasiveness of SfMu phage in S. flexneri, by identifying complete SfMu prophage strains of serotype X and Y, and remnants of SfMu in strains belonging to 4 other serotypes, thereby indicating that transposable phages in S. flexneri are not uncommon. The findings of this study contribute an advance in our current knowledge of S. flexneri phages and will also play a key role in understanding the evolution of S. flexneri.

  8. A computerized adaptive version of the SF-36 is feasible for clinic and Internet administration in adults with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M; Saris-Baglama, Renee N; DeRosa, Michael A; Giovannetti, Erin R; Jensen, Roxanne E; Wu, Albert W

    2012-01-01

    DYNHA SF-36 is a computerized adaptive test version of the SF-36 Health Survey. The feasibility of administering a modified DYNHA SF-36 to adults with HIV was evaluated with Johns Hopkins University Moore (HIV) Clinic patients (N=100) and Internet consumer health panel members (N=101). Participants completed the DYNHA SF-36, modified to capture seven health domains [(physical function (PF), role function (RF, without physical or emotional attribution), bodily pain (BP), general health, vitality (VT), social function (SF), mental health (MH)], and scored to produce two summary components [Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS)]. Item-response theory-based response consistency, precision, mean scores, and discriminant validity were examined. A higher percentage of Internet participants responded consistently to the DYNHA SF-36. For each domain, three standard deviations were covered with five items (90% reliability); however, RF and SF scores were less precise at the upper end of measurement (better functioning). Mean scores were slightly higher for the Internet sample, with the exception of VT and MCS. Clinic and Internet participants reporting an AIDS diagnosis had significantly lower mean PCS and PF scores than those without a diagnosis. Additionally, significantly lower RF and BP scores were found for Internet participants reporting an AIDS diagnosis. The measure was well accepted by the majority of participants, although Internet respondents provided lower ratings for the tool's usefulness. The DYNHA SF-36 has promise for measuring the impact of HIV and its treatment in both the clinic setting and through telemonitoring.

  9. Series expansion in fractional calculus and fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming-Fan; Ren, Ji-Rong; Zhu, Tao

    2009-01-01

    Fractional calculus is the calculus of differentiation and integration of non-integer orders. In a recently paper (Annals of Physics 323 (2008) 2756-2778), the Fundamental Theorem of Fractional Calculus is highlighted. Based on this theorem, in this paper we introduce fractional series expansion method to fractional calculus. We define a kind of fractional Taylor series of an infinitely fractionally-differentiable function. Further, based on our definition we generalize hypergeometric functio...

  10. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Oswestry disability index and numeric rating scales for back and leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Glassman, Steven D; McDonough, Christine M; Rampersaud, Raja; Berven, Sigurd; Shainline, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional cohort. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the Short Form (SF)-6D using data from the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Back Pain Numeric Rating Scale (BPNRS), and the Leg Pain Numeric Rating Scale (LPNRS). Cost-utility analysis provides important information about the relative value of interventions and requires a measure of utility not often available from clinical trial data. The ODI and numeric rating scales for back (BPNRS) and leg pain (LPNRS), are widely used disease-specific measures for health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide a model to allow estimation of utility from the SF-6D using data from the ODI, BPNRS, and the LPNRS. SF-36, ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were prospectively collected before surgery, at 12 and 24 months after surgery in 2640 patients undergoing lumbar fusion for degenerative disorders. Spearman correlation coefficients for paired observations from multiple time points between ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS, and SF-6D utility scores were determined. Regression modeling was done to compute the SF-6D score from the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS. Using a separate, independent dataset of 2174 patients in which actual SF-6D and ODI scores were available, the SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. In the development sample, the mean age was 52.5 +/- 15 years and 34% were male. In the validation sample, the mean age was 52.9 +/- 14.2 years and 44% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the ODI, BPNRS, and LPNRS were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively. The regression equation using ODI, BPNRS,and LPNRS to predict SF-6D had an R of 0.69 and a root mean square error of 0.076. The model using ODI alone had an R of 0.67 and a root mean square error of 0.078. The correlation coefficient between the observed and estimated

  11. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (Pcomposting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  14. Apoptotic potential and cell sensitivity to fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupnow, Brent A.; Murtha, Albert D.; Alarcon, Rodolfo M.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Knox, Susan J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At present, the relationship between sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis and overall cellular radiosensitivity remains unclear. In particular, the relationship of apoptotic sensitivity to the survival of cells following fractionated irradiation has not been well studied. The purpose of the present study was to determine if increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis would result in decreased clonogenic survival following single dose and fractionated irradiation in vitro. Materials and Methods: To address this, we chose a cell line (Rat-1MycER) in which the sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis could be altered by switching on or off the activity of a conditional c-Myc allele (c-MycER). The c-MycER construct expresses a full length c-Myc protein fused to a modified hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor. Only in the presence of the estrogen analog 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT), does the conditional c-MycER become active. Apoptosis following irradiation in these cells (with and without c-MycER activation) was analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis following various radiation doses and at different times after irradiation. Additionally, clonogenic survival analysis was performed following single radiation doses from 0 to 10 Gy and following five fractions of 2 or 4 Gy each. Survival of cells with and without c-MycER activation was compared. Furthermore, the effect of overexpressing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene on apoptosis induction and clonogenic survival of these cells was examined. Results: Rat-1MycER cells were strongly sensitized to radiation-induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner when MycER was activated relative to cells treated without c-MycER activation. This c-Myc-mediated sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition to increasing apoptosis, activating c-MycER prior to

  15. FRACTIONS: CONCEPTUAL AND DIDACTIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sead Rešić; Ismet Botonjić; Maid Omerović

    2016-01-01

    Fractions represent the manner of writing parts of whole numbers (integers). Rules for operations with fractions differ from rules for operations with integers. Students face difficulties in understanding fractions, especially operations with fractions. These difficulties are well known in didactics of Mathematics throughout the world and there is a lot of research regarding problems in learning about fractions. Methods for facilitating understanding fractions have been discovered...

  16. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  17. Electrospun nanofibrous SF/P(LLA-CL) membrane: a potential substratum for endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junzhao; Yan, Chenxi; Zhu, Mengyu; Yao, Qinke; Shao, Chunyi; Lu, Wenjuan; Wang, Jing; Mo, Xiumei; Gu, Ping; Fu, Yao; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Cornea transplant technology has progressed markedly in recent decades, allowing surgeons to replace diseased corneal endothelium by a thin lamellar structure. A thin, transparent, biocompatible, tissue-engineered substratum with corneal endothelial cells for endothelial keratoplasty is currently of interest. Electrospinning a nanofibrous structure can simulate the extracellular matrix and have beneficial effects for cell culture. Silk fibroin (SF) has good biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties, while poly(L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(LLA-CL)) has good mechanical properties but poor biocompatibility. Blending SF with P(LLA-CL) can maintain the advantages of both these materials and overcome their disadvantages. Blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes may be suitable for regeneration of the corneal endothelium. The aim of this study was to produce a tissue-engineered construct suitable for endothelial keratoplasty. Five scaffolds containing different SF:P(LLA-CL) blended ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100) were manufactured. A human corneal endothelial (B4G12) cell line was cultured on the membranes. Light transmission, speed of cell adherence, cell viability (live-dead test), cell proliferation (Ki-67, BrdU staining), and cell monolayer formation were detected on membranes with the different blended ratios, and expression of some functional genes was also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Different blended ratios of scaffolds had different light transmittance properties. The 25:75 blended ratio membrane had the best transmittance among these scaffolds. All electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed improved speed of cell adherence when compared with the control group, especially when the P(LLA-CL) ratio increased. The 25:75 blended ratio membranes also had the highest cell proliferation. B4G12 cells could form a monolayer on all scaffolds, and most functional genes were also stably expressed on all scaffolds. Only two genes

  18. Skin and lung reaction to fractionated x iradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.; Hammersmith Hospital, London

    1980-01-01

    The dependence between the summary dose and the number of fractions for lung and skin injuries of mice, are studied. Single irradiation and irradiation consisting of a different number of fractions are applied. Results are estimated in two directions. Fractionated irradiation is compared with single irradiation. In the case of such an approach the assumption that the observed lung and skin injury results from cell death, the correlation between the initial slope of the survival curve and the final slope is about 7:1. The additional dose necessary when doubling the number of fractions is measured. In the first approximation, these results agree with the model of a single-shock multi-target curve and the 3:1 slope ratio. The conclusion is made that the double-component model gives an inadequate description of cell survival curves of both skin and lungs [ru

  19. A macroporous heparin-releasing silk fibroin scaffold improves islet transplantation outcome by promoting islet revascularisation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Duo; Zhu, Meifeng; Zhang, Xiuyuan; Ma, Rong; Yang, Xiaoqing; Ke, Tingyu; Wang, Lianyong; Li, Zongjin; Kong, Deling; Li, Chen

    2017-09-01

    Islet transplantation is considered the most promising therapeutic option with the potential to cure diabetes. However, efficacy of current clinical islet transplantation is limited by long-term graft dysfunction and attrition. We have investigated the therapeutic potential of a silk fibroin macroporous (SF) scaffold for syngeneic islet transplantation in diabetic mice. The SF scaffold was prepared via lyophilisation, which enables incorporation of active compounds including cytokines, peptide and growth factors without compromising their biological activity. For the present study, a heparin-releasing SF scaffold (H-SF) in order to evaluate the versatility of the SF scaffold for biological functionalisation. Islets were then co-transplanted with H-SF or SF scaffolds in the epididymal fat pad of diabetic mice. Mice from both H-SF and SF groups achieved 100% euglycaemia, which was maintained for 1year. More importantly, the H-SF-islets co-transplantation led to more rapid reversal of hyperglycaemia, complete normalisation of glucose responsiveness and lower long-term blood glucose levels. This superior transplantation outcome is attributable to H-SF-facilitated islet revascularisation and cell proliferation since significant increase of islet endocrine and endothelial cells proliferation was shown in grafts retrieved from H-SF-islets co-transplanted mice. Better intra-islet vascular reformation was also evident, accompanied by VEGF upregulation. In addition, when H-SF was co-transplanted with islets extracted from vegfr2-luc transgenic mice in vivo, sustained elevation of bioluminescent signal that corresponds to vegfr2 expression was collected, implicating a role of heparin-dependent activation of endogenous VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway in promoting islet revascularisation and proliferation. In summary, the SF scaffolds provide an open platform as scaffold development for islet transplantation. Furthermore, given the pro-angiogenic, pro-survival and minimal post

  20. Is cell survival a determinant of the in situ response of 9L tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, K.T.; Wallen, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of growth rate, location, size and potential lethal damage (PLD) recovery on the cellular radiosensitivity and the tumour response was studied in 9L/Ro and 9L/SF rat tumours. The median day of death of rats bearing the intracerebral (i.c.) 9L/Ro tumours was 16-18 days; for i.c. 9L/SF tumours it was 23-25 days. The doubling time of 9L/Ro cells was slightly faster than for 9L/SF cells both in culture and in the brain. The cellular radiosensitivity of both i.c. tumour cell sublines was identical. However, subcutaneous (s.c.) 9L/Ro tumour cells were more resistant. There was no evidence of a substantial hypoxic fraction in either site. When i.c. 9L/Ro and 9L/SF tumours of similar size were treated with fractionated doses of BCNU, X-rays or combinations of the two, the responses of the two tumours were essentially identical. The rate of recovery from radiation-induced PLD was identical in the two sublines and the two sites. Increase in life-span of rats bearing i.c. 9L/Ro tumours appeared to be correlated with the tumour cell kill measured after completion of PLD recovery rather than with the tumour cell kill determined immediately after irradiation. (author)

  1. Assessment of health-related quality of life in spine treatment: conversion from SF-36 to VR-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornet, Matthew F; Copay, Anne G; Sorensen, Katrine M; Schranck, Francine W

    2018-02-28

    Health-related quality-of-life outcomes have been collected with the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey. Boston University School of Public Health has developed algorithms for the conversion of SF-36 to Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the conversion of the SF-36 to VR-12 PCS and MCS scores. Preoperative and postoperative SF-36 were collected from patients who underwent lumbar or cervical surgery from a single surgeon between August 1998 and January 2013. Short Form 36 PCS and MCS scores were calculated following their original instructions. The SF-36 answers were then converted to VR-12 PCS and MCS scores following the algorithm provided by the Boston University School of Public Health. The mean score, preoperative to postoperative change, and proportions of patients who reach the minimum detectable change were compared between SF-36 and VR-12. A total of 1,968 patients (1,559 lumbar and 409 cervical) had completed preoperative and postoperative SF-36. The values of the SF-36 and VR-12 mean scores were extremely similar, with score differences ranging from 0.77 to 1.82. The preoperative to postoperative improvement was highly significant (p36 and VR-12 scores. The mean change scores were similar, with a difference of up to 0.93 for PCS and up to 0.37 for MCS. Minimum detectable change (MDC) values were almost identical for SF-36 and VR-12, with a difference of 0.12 for PCS and up to 0.41 for MCS. The proportions of patients whose change in score reached MDC were also nearly identical for SF-36 and VR-12. About 90% of the patients above SF-36 MDC were also above VR-12 MDC. The converted VR-12 scores, similar to the SF-36 scores, detect a significant postoperative improvement in PCS and MCS scores. The calculated MDC values and the proportions of patients whose score improvement reach MDC are similar for

  2. Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manish Kumar; Khanna, Pardeep; Kishore, Jugal

    2010-10-01

    Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.

  3. Fractional gradient and its application to the fractional advection equation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ovidio, M.; Garra, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a definition of fractional gradient operators, related to directional derivatives. We develop a fractional vector calculus, providing a probabilistic interpretation and mathematical tools to treat multidimensional fractional differential equations. A first application is discussed in relation to the d-dimensional fractional advection-dispersion equation. We also study the connection with multidimensional L\\'evy processes.

  4. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  5. Optimizing the switching time for 400 kV SF6 circuit breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulica, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents real-time voltage and current analysis for optimizing the wave switching point of the circuit breaker SF6. Circuit Breaker plays an important role in power systems. It provides protection for equipment in embedded stations in transport networks. SF6 Circuit Breaker is very important equipment in Power Systems, which is used for up to 400 kV due to its excellent performance. The controlled switching is used to eliminate transient modes and electrodynamic and dielectric charges in the network at manual switching of capacitor, shunt reactors and power transformers. These effects reduce the reliability and lifetime of the equipment installed on the network, or may lead to erroneous protection.

  6. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  7. Astronomers Who Write Science Fiction: Using SF as a Form of Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In a recent survey, I have identified 21 living professional astronomers who write science fiction, plus a yet uncounted number of physicists. Many of the science fiction stories by this group involve, as you might imagine, reasonable extrapolation from current scientific ideas and discoveries. These stories, some of which are available free on the Web or are collected in inexpensive anthologies, represented a method of astronomy outreach to which relatively little attention has been paid. I will list the authors identified in the survey and provide a representative list of their stories or novels, organized by astronomical topic. I will also discuss how written SF (and SF films based on ideas by scientists, such as Kip Thorne's "Interstellar") can be used in general education classes and public programs. Scientists do not need to cede the field to wizards, dragons, and zombies! (Note: The author is included in the list of 21, having published two short stories in two different anthologies recently.)

  8. Leak detection of SF6 gas pressure vessel safety devices at BARC-TIFR Pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninawe, N.G.; Sharma, S.C.; Nair, J.P.; Sparrow, H.; Bolar, P.C.; Gudekar, P.V.; Mahapatra, S.; Vishwakarma, R.S.; Ramjilal; Matkar, U.V.; Gore, J.A.; Gupta, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Pelletron accelerator is in operation since last more than 26 years. To achieve desired voltage gradient SF6 gas of about 20 tons is used to have 75-80 psig pressure in main accelerator tank. During accelerator tank maintenance gas is transferred to four storage tanks, kept in open space in the vicinity of sea. Recently refurbishment and retrofitting of four storage tanks was carried out which includes the installation of new drift space, rupture disc assembly, relief valves and manual valves along with civil and painting work. All components to be installed were tested for high pressure. Helium gas sniffer technique was used to check micro leaks for new joints for all components before installing for storage tanks. Subsequently, the tanks were tested up to 90 psig SF6 gradually in succession. No pressure drop was observed in storage tanks. This work was carried out as per recommendation of the then particle accelerator committee (PASC). (author)

  9. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.; Bode, I.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the Danish consumption and actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6} for 2007. Further, if methodology changes are made in connection to the work on 2007 data, the data for previous years are considered and updated accordingly. The emission calculation is made in accordance with the IPCC guidelines and following the method employed in previous year calculation. The methodology includes calculation of the actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF{sub 6}. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. Specific emission factors are presented. (ln)

  10. Proteotoxic stress induced by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyupina, Yulia V.; Abaturova, Svetlana B.; Erokhov, Pavel A. [N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Orlova, Olga V.; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N. [V.A. Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 32 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, Victor S., E-mail: mikhailov48@mail.ru [N.K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Vavilova Str., Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-05

    Baculovirus AcMNPV causes proteotoxicity in Sf9 cells as revealed by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and aggresomes in the course of infection. Inhibition of proteasomes by lactacystin increased markedly the stock of ubiquitinated proteins indicating a primary role of proteasomes in detoxication. The proteasomes were present in Sf9 cells as 26S and 20S complexes whose protease activity did not change during infection. Proteasome inhibition caused a delay in the initiation of viral DNA replication suggesting an important role of proteasomes at early stages in infection. However, lactacystin did not affect ongoing replication indicating that active proteasomes are not required for genome amplification. At late stages in infection (24-48 hpi), aggresomes containing the ubiquitinated proteins and HSP/HSC70s showed gradual fusion with the vacuole-like structures identified as lysosomes by antibody to cathepsin D. This result suggests that lysosomes may assist in protection against proteotoxicity caused by baculoviruses absorbing the ubiquitinated proteins.

  11. Proteotoxic stress induced by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyupina, Yulia V.; Abaturova, Svetlana B.; Erokhov, Pavel A.; Orlova, Olga V.; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N.; Mikhailov, Victor S.

    2013-01-01

    Baculovirus AcMNPV causes proteotoxicity in Sf9 cells as revealed by accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and aggresomes in the course of infection. Inhibition of proteasomes by lactacystin increased markedly the stock of ubiquitinated proteins indicating a primary role of proteasomes in detoxication. The proteasomes were present in Sf9 cells as 26S and 20S complexes whose protease activity did not change during infection. Proteasome inhibition caused a delay in the initiation of viral DNA replication suggesting an important role of proteasomes at early stages in infection. However, lactacystin did not affect ongoing replication indicating that active proteasomes are not required for genome amplification. At late stages in infection (24–48 hpi), aggresomes containing the ubiquitinated proteins and HSP/HSC70s showed gradual fusion with the vacuole-like structures identified as lysosomes by antibody to cathepsin D. This result suggests that lysosomes may assist in protection against proteotoxicity caused by baculoviruses absorbing the ubiquitinated proteins.

  12. Theoretical study of OCCHCN as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanoketene (OCCHCN has been reported as a potential alternative insulation gas for SF6 in Patent US0135817. Stationary point equilibrium geometries on the ground state have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p level, and the harmonic vibration frequencies are calculated at the same level. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps (Eg, ionization potentials (IP, and electron affinities (EA of the studied molecules are obtained. The minimum energy path (MEP is obtained by the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC theory, and the energetic information is further refined by QCISD(T (single-point method. The results show that OCCHCN can be used as SF6 alternative insulation gas in high voltage equipment according to potential energy surface analysis. As the isomerization and the cleavage reactions potential barriers are lower than the Eg and IP values, resulting in OCCHCN is not easy to be ionized and excited.

  13. Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films treated by SF{sub 6} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, N M S; Mota, R P; Santos, D C R; Honda, R Y; Kayama, M E; Kostov, K G; Algatti, M A [Laboratorio de Plasma, Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha-333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Cruz, N C; Rangel, E C, E-mail: nazir@feg.unesp.b [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Unidade Diferenciada Sorocaba/Ipero, UNESP, Av. Tres de Marco-511, 18085-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-05-01

    This work was performed to verify the chemical structure, mechanical and hydrophilic properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using acetylene/argon mixture as monomer. Films were prepared in a cylindrical quartz reactor, fed by 13.56 MHz radiofrequency. The films were grown during 5 min, for power varying from 25 to 125 W at a fixed pressure of 9.5 Pa. After deposition, all samples were treated by SF{sub 6} plasma with the aim of changing their hydrophilic character. Film chemical structure investigated by Raman spectroscopy, revealed the increase of sp{sup 3} hybridized carbon bonds as the plasma power increases. Hardness measurements performed by the nanoindentation technique showed an improvement from 5 GPa to 14 GPa following the increase discharge power. The untreated films presented a hydrophilic character, which slightly diminished after SF{sub 6} plasma treatment.

  14. Sweet Work with Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya; Blaine, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Almost everyone loves chocolate. However, the same cannot be said about fractions, which are loved by markedly fewer. Middle school students tend to view them with wary respect, but little affection. The authors attempt to sweeten the subject by describing a type of game involving division of chocolate bars. The activity they describe provides a…

  15. Fermion Number Fractionization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    1 . In tro d u ctio n. T he N obel P rize in C hem istry for the year 2000 w as aw arded to A lan J H ... soliton, the ground state of the ferm ion-soliton system can have ..... probability density,in a heuristic w ay that a fractional ferm ion num ber m ay ...

  16. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  17. Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shahed

    2007-01-01

    where 2<α<3 is a real number and D0+α is the standard Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Our analysis relies on Krasnoselskiis fixed point theorem of cone preserving operators. An example is also given to illustrate the main results.

  18. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  19. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  20. Fractionation and rectification apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwald, A

    1932-05-25

    Fractionation and rectifying apparatus with a distillation vessel and a stirring tube, drainage tubes leading from its coils to a central collecting tube, the drainage tubes being somewhat parallel and attached to the outer half of the stirring tube and partly on the inner half of the central collecting tube, whereby distillation and rectification can be effected in a single apparatus.

  1. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  2. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  3. Streamer propagation velocity to anode and to cathode in He, Xe, N2 and SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlenko, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    One studied mechanism of ionization propagation in a solid gas associated with propagation of background electrons in heterogenous electric field. The mentioned mechanism does not depend on the sign of field projection on ionization propagation direction. One derived analytical expression for ionization front rate. The mentioned expression conforms well with numerical calculations. Dependence of wave ionization front rate as a function of a field intensity on boundary of streamer for He, Xe, N 2 and SF 6 is tabulated [ru

  4. Stability of regularly prescribed oral liquids formulated with SyrSpend® SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriel, M; Gómez-Rincón, C; Marro, D

    2018-04-02

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the stability of 12 oral liquid formulations frequently compounded in hospital and community settings formulated in a specific vehicle: SyrSpend® SF. The stability of melatonin, glycopyrrolate, ciclosporin, chloral hydrate, flecainide acetate, tiagabine HCl, labetalol HCl, ciprofloxacin HCl, spironolactone/hydrochlorothiazide, hydrocortisone, itraconazole and celecoxib in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) was investigated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days and stored at both controlled room temperature and refrigerated. Itraconazole samples were also investigated at 15 and 45 days. No change in odor, color or appearance was observed in the formulations during the test period. Based on the results, a beyond-use date of 30 days can be assigned to tiagabine HCl 1.0 mg/ml in SyrSpend SF when stored at controlled room temperature, and 90 days under refrigeration, improving stability data previously published using other vehicles. A beyond-use date of 60 days can be assigned to chloral hydrate 100.0 mg/ml. In this case, stability is not enhanced by refrigeration. With the rest of the formulations, less than 10% API loss occurred over 90 days at either controlled room temperature or under refrigeration. Including for example itraconazole 20.0 mg/ml, thus providing extended stability compared to simple syrup and other oral liquid vehicles. The findings of this study show that SyrSpend SF is an appropriate suspending vehicle to be used for personalized formulations of the APIs studied here.

  5. Lens subluxation after plasmin and SF6 injections in rabbit eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chi Wu

    Full Text Available To investigate the rate of lens subluxation following plasmin and/or SF6 injections in eyes, and whether a subsequent elevated level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and vitreous tap would aggravate subluxation.Four groups of rabbits were used. Group 1 received an intravitreal injection (IVI of plasmin and SF6 in the right eye; group 2 received an IVI of plasmin in the right eye; group 3 received an IVI of SF6 in the right eye; and group 4 received an IVI of balanced salt solution in the right eye. After treatment, IVIs of VEGF were given and vitreous tap was performed three times, followed by clinical observation of lens subluxation and scanning electronic microscope evaluation of the zonular fibers.After IVIs of plasmin and SF6, and VEGF and vitreous tap had been performed one to three times, lens subluxation was noted in 0%, 43%, 71%, 71%, and 86% of the eyes in group 1. After IVIs of plasmin, VEGF, and vitreous tap had been performed one to three times, lens subluxation was noted in 11%, 22%, 44%, 44%, and 67% of the eyes in group 2. The eyes in group 3 and 4 did not show signs of lens subluxation after VEGF IVIs and vitreous tap. Histology confirmed zonular fiber damage in the eyes treated with plasmin.The incidence of lens subluxation increased following plasmin injections in the eyes, and this was aggravated by the subsequent high VEGF level in the eyes and vitreous tapping. Zonular fibers were disrupted following plasmin treatment. These effects should be kept in mind when using plasmin enzymes in patients with vitreoretinal abnormalities.

  6. Two-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties of SF6–Cu plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Rong, Mingzhe; Sun, Hao; Cressault, Yann; Murphy, Anthony B; Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    SF 6 and Cu are widely adopted in electrical equipment as a dielectric medium and for conductive components, respectively. SF 6 –Cu plasmas are frequently formed, particularly in high-voltage circuit breaker arcs and fault current arcs, due to erosion of the Cu components. In this paper, calculated values of the thermodynamic and transport properties of plasmas in SF 6 –Cu mixtures are presented for both thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The composition is determined by the two-temperature Saha equation and Guldberg–Waage equation in the form derived by van de Sanden. The composition and the thermodynamic properties are evaluated through a classical statistical mechanics approach. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman–Enskog method developed by Devoto, which decouples the electrons and heavy species, has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. The thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated for different electron temperatures (300–40 000 K), ratios of electron to heavy-species temperature (1–10), pressures (0.1–10 atm) and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that deviations from thermal equilibrium strongly affect the thermodynamic and transport properties of the SF 6 –Cu plasmas. Further, the presence of copper has different effects on some of the properties for plasmas in and out of thermal equilibrium. The main reason for these changes is that dissociation reactions are delayed for non-thermal equilibrium plasmas, which in turn influences the ionization reactions that occur. (paper)

  7. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, J B; Damsgaard, M T; Watt, T

    1998-01-01

    We used general population data (n = 4084) to examine data completeness, response consistency, tests of scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36 Health Survey. We compared traditional multitrait scaling analyses to analyses using polychoric correlations and Spearman correlations...... with chronic diseases excepted). Concerning correlation methods, we found interesting differences indicating advantages of using methods that do not assume a normal distribution of answers as an addition to traditional methods....

  8. Quality of life among Iranian patients with beta-thalassemia major using the SF-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezaneh Haghpanah

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Patients with beta-thalassemia major (β-TM experience physical, psychological and social problems that lead to decreased quality of life (QoL. The aim here was to measure health-related QoL and its determinants among patients with β-TM, using the Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional study at the Hematology Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, in southern Iran. METHODS One hundred and one patients with β-TM were randomly selected. After the participants' demographics and disease characteristics had been recorded, they were asked to fill out the SF-36 questionnaire. The correlations of clinical and demographic factors with the QoL score were evaluated. RESULTS There were 44 men and 57 women of mean age 19.52 ± 4.3 years (range 12-38. On two scales, pain (P = 0.041 and emotional role (P = 0.009, the women showed significantly lower scores than the men. Lower income, poor compliance with iron-chelating therapy and presence of comorbidities were significantly correlated with lower SF-36 scores. These factors were also found to be determinants of worse SF-36 scores in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS We showed that the presence of disease complications, poor compliance with iron-chelating therapy and poor economic status were predictors of worse QoL among patients with β-TM. Prevention and proper management of disease-related complications, increased knowledge among patients regarding the importance of managing comorbidities and greater compliance with iron-chelating therapy, along with psychosocial and financial support, could help these patients to cope better with this chronic disease state.

  9. Measuring Disparities: Bias in the SF-36v2 among Spanish-speaking Medical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Joseph J.; Perzynski, Adam; Love, Thomas E.; Lewis, Steven A.; Murray, Patrick M.; Huber, Gail; Ruo, Bernice; Baker, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many national surveys have found substantial differences in self-reported overall health (SROH) between Spanish-speaking Hispanics and other racial/ethnic groups. However, because cultural and language differences may create measurement bias, it is unclear whether observed differences in SROH reflect true differences in health. Objectives This study uses a cross-sectional survey to investigate psychometric properties of the SF-36v2 for subjects across four racial/ethnic and language groups. Multi-group latent variable modeling was used to test increasingly stringent criteria for measurement equivalence. Subjects Our sample (N = 1281) included 383 non-Hispanic whites, 368 non-Hispanic blacks, 206 Hispanics interviewed in English and 324 Hispanics interviewed in Spanish recruited from outpatient medical clinics in two large urban areas. Results We found weak factorial invariance across the four groups. However, there was no strong factorial invariance. The overall fit of the model was substantially worse (change in CFI > .02, RMSEA change > .003) after requiring equal intercepts across all groups. Further comparisons established that the equality constraints on the intercepts for Spanish-speaking Hispanics were responsible for the decrement to model fit. Conclusions Observed differences between SF-36v2 scores for Spanish speaking Hispanics are systematically biased relative to the other three groups. The lack of strong invariance suggests the need for caution when comparing SF-36v2 mean scores of Spanish-speaking Hispanics with those of other groups. However, measurement equivalence testing for this study supports correlational or multivariate latent variable analyses of SF-36v2 responses across all four subgroups, since these analyses require only weak factorial invariance. PMID:21430580

  10. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12: factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Sayed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results: In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female. The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4 and 10.2 (SD = 4.4 years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS and the Mental Component Summary (MCS; Cronbach's α for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for this alternative form of the SF-36 Health Survey in Iran.

  11. German Translation and Validation of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire Short Form (CSQ-SF-D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Style Questionnaire is a valuable tool for the assessment of hopeless cognitive styles in depression research, with predictive power in longitudinal studies. However, it is very burdensome to administer. Even the short form is still long, and neither this nor the original version exist in validated German translations.The questionnaire was translated from English to German, back-translated and commented on by clinicians. The reliability, factor structure and external validity of an online form of the questionnaire were examined on 214 participants. External validity was measured on a subset of 90 subjects.The resulting CSQ-SF-D had good to excellent reliability, both across items and subscales, and similar external validity to the original English version. The internality subscale appeared less robust than other subscales. A detailed analysis of individual item performance suggests that stable results could be achieved with a very short form (CSQ-VSF-D including only 27 of the 72 items.The CSQ-SF-D is a validated and freely distributed translation of the CSQ-SF into German. This should make efficient assessment of cognitive style in German samples more accessible to researchers.

  12. Substitutes for potent green house gases. HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H. [Dansk Teknologisk Institut (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    CFCs (halogenated chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons), PFCs (fluorocarbons) and SF{sub 6} (sulphur hexafluoride) are all artificial substances which were not to be found in nature until recently. In 1995 the Danish consumption of HFC substances was approximately 740 tonnes, where the corresponding amount of SF{sub 6} was about 17 tonnes. If the entire amount of these substances was released to to the atmosphere, the resulting impact would correspond to an increased emission of greenhouse gases, corresponding to approximately 1.5 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. HFC substances would account for 73%, SF{sub 6} with 25% and PFC for 1%. This corresponds to approximately 2.6% of the Danish CO{sub 2} emission (nearly 60 million tonnes per year). This corresponds to about half of the aimed 6% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission attained by introduction of mandatory green taxes on CO{sub 2}. According to experience from the CFC programme it is possible to recover some CFC and send it to controlled destruction. From 1993 to 1996 the refrigeration industry, for instance, has returned a total amount of 163 tonnes of CFC refrigerant through the KMO organization (Koelebranchens Miljoe Ordning). Most of this has been destroyed and a small amount has been purified and recycled afterwards. Similarly, it is likely to believe that some HFC refrigerant will be returned through the KMO organization. (au) 11 refs., also published in Danish

  13. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  14. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Parents' global rating of mental health correlates with SF-36 scores and health services satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jean K; Tough, Suzanne; Fung, Thomas; Douglas-England, Kathleen; Verhoef, Marja

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are often used to measure quality of care. However, patient satisfaction may not be a reliable indicator of service quality because satisfaction can be influenced by clients' characteristics such as their health status. Parents of children attending a pediatric neurology clinic completed the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and global ratings of their physical and mental health. They also completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC), and the Family-Centered Care Survey (FCCS). 104 parents completed the survey. The correlation between the global rating of physical or mental health and their corresponding SF-36 scores was high. The majority (88%) of parents were satisfied, with a median CSQ score of 28 (IQR, 24 to 31) and a FCCS score of 4.7 (IQR, 4.2 to 4.9). Logistic regression identified parents' mental health as a significant predictor of client satisfaction (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.14). Given the positive association between parents' mental health and satisfaction with care, it is important to consider mental status as a covariate in interpreting satisfaction surveys. Parents' global rating of mental health appears to be a reasonable indicator of their SF-36 mental scores.

  16. Interlaboratory comparison of SF6-determinations used within the framework of tracer releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborght, B.

    1985-01-01

    An international intercomparison exercise, for determination of trace amounts of SF 6 in air was set up, to make interchange of experimental results or common tracer experiments possible between European laboratories. SCK, Belgium made 6 SF 6 samples in the 10 ppt to 10 ppb range. Samples were analyzed by CEN (F), CERL (UK), JRC (I), KEMA (NL), LHW (NL), NILU (N), APL (DK), WDB (FRG) and SCK (B). Very good agreement was obtained between SCK, CERL, APL and NILU. LHW and KEMA obtained systematically lower results than those four laboratories; the problem might originate in manufacturing of mother samples under high pressure. CEN and WDB work in a higher concentration range and their analysis of trace amounts is less accurate. JRC samples were contaminated and accuracy of their analysis cannot be evaluated. SF 6 samples in PVC plastic bags are not stable enough over long periods, especially with ambient temperature higher than 30 0 C. Transport of samples in plastic bags over long distances is not advisable when transport conditions cannot be well controlled

  17. Toxicity of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 on the insect Sf9 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Liyang; Diao, Xue; Li, Na; Liu, Chenglan

    2017-04-01

    Fumonisins are a type of mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp., mainly F. proliferatum and F. vertieilliodes, and represent a potential hazard to the health of animals and human beings. The toxicity and mechanism of action of fumonisins is ambiguous, and it is unclear whether fumonisins are toxic to insect cells. This study examines the toxicity of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) and its mechanism of action in the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cell line. We found that FB 1 inhibited Sf9 cellular proliferation and arrested cell growth at the G 2 /M phase. Morphological observation showed that FB 1 induced swelling, vacuole formation, and loss of adhesion in Sf9 cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that FB 1 caused depolarization of the cell membrane potential and hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. To uncover potential genes associated with the molecular mechanisms of FB 1 , 41 differentially expressed genes were identified by transcriptome analyses after FB 1 treatment. These genes are putatively involved in detoxification metabolism, insect hormone regulation, cell apoptosis, and other related processes. Finally, six differentially expressed genes were chosen and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR). Our test could provide a reference for other kinds of insect cells studies on FB 1 stress. At the same time, our studies try to provide a possible for FB 1 as a precursor compounds of biological insecticide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectrometry: quantitative analysis of the CS2 produced by SF6 decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Zhou, Hong; Cui, Zhaolun; Xiao, Song; Tang, Ju; Chen, Chuan; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of partial discharge or partial overthermal fault in sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 )-insulated electrical equipment frequently causes SF 6 and solid insulation materials to decompose into various products. One of the most characteristic products of this process is carbon disulfide (CS 2 ). The internal fault type and severity of the fault in the insulation equipment can be detected through the accurate quantitative detection of CS 2 . A device for simultaneously determining and quantifying gaseous CS 2 via ultraviolet differential optical absorption spectrometry is developed in this study. A Sym14 wavelet transform and fast Fourier transform (FFT) are applied to process the spectral data of the feature regions, namely 190 nm to 210 nm. The concentration of CS 2 is determined, and the detection limit of the developed device is identified. A good linear relationship is observed between the characteristic peaks of FFT and the concentration of CS 2 after the operational parameters are optimized. Along the light path at 600 mm, the average detection limit for CS 2 is 8.65 ppb based on three times the standard deviation of the system noises. The proposed device, which exhibits high sensitivity and effective cost, addresses the urgent demand for the monitoring and diagnosis of SF 6 -insulated electrical equipment via online detection of trace CS 2 . (paper)

  19. Quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis: correlation between QUALEFFO 41 and SF-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Néville; Arthuso, Michael; da Silva, Raimunda; Pedro, Adriana Orcesi; Pinto Neto, Aarão Mendes; Costa-Paiva, Lucia

    2009-01-20

    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, correlating the QUALEFFO 41 with the short-form health survey 36 (SF-36) and evaluated some factors that can influenced the QoL of women with osteoporosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 220 postmenopausal women (ages ranging from 55 to 80 years). Of the total number, 110 women had osteoporosis and 110 women did not have osteoporosis and these women were age-matched (+/-3 years). Two questionnaires were administered to all subjects for evaluation of QoL: the quality of life questionnaire of the European foundation for Osteoporosis 41 (QUALEFFO 41) and the short-form health survey 36 (SF-36). For data analysis, a significance level of 5% was set (posteoporosis had a worse QoL both in the QUALEFFO 41 and in the SF-36, in all domains studied. Data was adjusted for BMI, race, school education and use of HT (p25 and sedentary lifestyle. In contrast, paid work was associated with a better QoL (CI=95%). Women with osteoporosis had an impaired QoL, especially relating to the physical, psychological and social aspects. The factors associated with QoL were obesity, sedentary lifestyle and paid work.

  20. Complications among colorectal cancer survivors: SF-6D preference-weighted quality of life scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, Mark C; Wendel, Christopher S; Coons, Stephen Joel; Grant, Marcia; Herrinton, Lisa J; Mohler, M Jane; Baldwin, Carol M; McMullen, Carmit K; Green, Sylvan B; Altschuler, Andrea; Rawl, Susan M; Krouse, Robert S

    2011-03-01

    Societal preference-weighted health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores enable comparing multidimensional health states across diseases and treatments for research and policy. To assess the effects of living with a permanent intestinal stoma, compared with a major bowel resection, among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Cross-sectional multivariate linear regression analysis to explain preference-weighted HRQOL scores. In all, 640 CRC survivors (≥ 5 years) from 3 group model health maintenance organizations; ostomates and nonostomates with colorectal resections for CRC were matched on gender, age (± 5 years), time since diagnosis, and tumor site (rectum vs. colon). SF-6D scoring system was applied to Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 version 2 (SF-36v2); City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy; and Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index. Survey of CRC survivors linked to respondents' clinical data extracted from health maintenance organization files. Response rate was 52%. Ostomates and nonostomates had similar sociodemographic characteristics. Mean SF-6D score was 0.69 for ostomates, compared with 0.73 for nonostomates (P ostomy after other factors were taken into account. Surgical complications, comorbidities, and metastatic disease lowered the preference-weighted HRQOL of CRC survivors with and without ostomies. Further research to understand and reduce late complications from CRC surgeries as well as associated depression is warranted.

  1. Comprehensive Study of SF_6/O_2 Plasma Etching for Mc-Silicon Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tao; Zhou Chun-Lan; Wang Wen-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The mask-free SF_6/O_2 plasma etching technique is used to produce surface texturization of mc-silicon solar cells for efficient light trapping in this work. The SEM images and mc-silicon etching rate show the influence of plasma power, SF_6/O_2 flow ratios and etching time on textured surface. With the acidic-texturing samples as a reference, the reflection and IQE spectra are obtained under different experimental conditions. The IQE spectrum measurement shows an evident increase in the visible and infrared responses. By using the optimized plasma power, SF_6/O_2 flow ratios and etching time, the optimal efficiency of 15.7% on 50 × 50 mm"2 reactive ion etching textured mc-silicon silicon solar cells is achieved, mostly due to the improvement in the short-circuit current density. The corresponding open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and fill factor are 611 mV, 33.6 mA/cm"2, 76.5%, respectively. It is believed that such a low-cost and high-performance texturization process is promising for large-scale industrial silicon solar cell manufacturing. (paper)

  2. A Novel Approach to Power Circuit Breaker Design for Replacement of SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Telfer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the role of PTFE ablation in enhancing current interruption for various background gases in high voltage circuit breakers. An assessment of the current interruption capability has been made in terms of the arcing duration and the contact gap length at which critical arc extinction is achieved. These observations are supported by measurements of the magnitude of extinction and re-ignition voltage peaks. Most previous and other current experimental work on gas filled circuit breaker design follows conventional wisdom in investigating arcing behaviours at elevated gas pressures (usually up to 6 bar. But in this work we concentrate on the effects of using low gas pressures (less than 1 bar in the presence of a close-fitting shield of ablatant polymer material (PTFE that surrounds the electrode assembly of an experimental high power circuit breaker. We demonstrate that for several different gases, arc extinction capability compares well under these conditions with SF6, suggesting that SF6 could be replaced entirely in this novel system by more environmentally friendly gases. Moreover, the critical contact gap lengths at extinction are only slightly greater than when using SF6 at 6 bar. Weight loss measurements from the ablatant shield suggest that a chemical puffer action is the most likely mechanism for achieving the observed arc extinctions in this system.

  3. Measurement Development and Validation of the Family Supportive Supervisor Behavior Short-Form (FSSB-SF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori

    2013-01-01

    Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803

  4. Convergent validity between SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Costa Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To compare the reliability and convergent validity of instruments assessing quality of life in Brazilian older adults. METHODS : Cross-sectional study of 278 literate, community-dwelling older adults attending a municipal university for the elderly in Sao Carlos, SP, Southeastern Brazil between 2006 and 2008. The Brazilian versions of the SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF instruments to assess quality of life were compared. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to estimate reliability and Pearson’s correlation for comparison between the two scales. RESULTS : Most of participants were women (87.8% with a mean age of 63.83±7.22 years. Both scales showed an acceptable internal consistency – WHOQOL-BREF Cronbach’s alpha was 0.832 and SF-36 was 0.868. There was a weak (r ≤ 0.6 correlation between the related fields in the two questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS : The SF-36 and WHOQOL-BREF are reliable instruments for clinical and research uses in Brazilian older women. To select one, researchers should consider which aspects of quality of life they aim to capture because of weak convergent validity signs. This study’s results indicate that WHOQOL-BREF may be more relevant to evaluate changes in the quality of life of older women because it prioritizes responses to the aging process and avoids focusing on impairment.

  5. Elimination of particle effects in SF/sub 6/ insulated transmission systems. First quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop methods and equipment to eliminate the adverse effect of particle contamination in SF/sub 6/-insulated transmission (CGIT) systems, so that the excellent dielectric properties of SF/sub 6/ can be fully exploited. Presently, CGIT systems are operated at about 10% of the dielectric strength capability of the SF/sub 6/ gas. The program includes theoretical and experimental evaluation of concepts, optimization and verification studies in CGIT systems, and reliability analysis, documentation of designs and economic analysis. Progress is now being made on evaluating alternative conductor and sheath designs to minimize the effect of particles. Materials for solid insulation is being investigated for the same purpose; the effort is presently concentrated on obtaining reliable quantitative measurement techniques of electrostatic properties. Computer calculation of particle trap configurations are being made to determine the optimum trap configurations. A novel particle trapping technique is being using adhesive materials. Manufacture and field control technique studies has commenced with a study of mechanical vibration techniques. An experimental test chamber consisting of a 9 m (30 foot) long 145 kV bus has been designed. This system will be used in testing of particle control concepts and in migration and optimization studies.

  6. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF6 plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlangkla, K.; Paosawatyanyong, B.; Pavarajarn, V.; Hodak, Jose H.; Hodak, Satreerat K.

    2010-08-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle ( 149°) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  7. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF{sub 6} plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamlangkla, K. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program, Center of Innovative Nanotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Paosawatyanyong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, and ThEP Center, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavarajarn, V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hodak, Jose H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Hodak, Satreerat K., E-mail: Satreerat.H@Chula.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, and ThEP Center, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-08-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF{sub 6} plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF{sub 6} pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF{sub 6} pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle (149 deg.) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  8. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF6 plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamlangkla, K.; Paosawatyanyong, B.; Pavarajarn, V.; Hodak, Jose H.; Hodak, Satreerat K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF 6 plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF 6 pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF 6 pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle (149 deg.) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  9. HGF/SF increases number of skin melanocytes but does not alter quality or quantity of follicular melanogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wolnicka-Glubisz

    Full Text Available Melanins are an important factor determining the vulnerability of mammalian skin to UV radiation and thus to UV-induced skin cancers. Transgenic mice overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF have extra-follicular dermal melanocytes, notably in the papillary upper dermis, and are susceptible to UV-induced melanoma. Pigmented HGF/SF neonatal mice are more susceptible than albino HGF/SF animals to UVA -induced melanoma, indicating an involvement of melanin in melanoma formation. This raises the question of the effect of transgenic HGF/SF on melanization. We developed a methodology to accurately quantitate both the production of melanin and the efficiency of melanogenesis in normal, and HGF/SF transgenic mice in vivo. Skin and hair shafts of 5 day old and adult (3 week old C57BL/6-HGF/SF and corresponding C57BL/6 wild type mice were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR to quantitate melanin, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM for the presence of melanosomes, and by standard histology and by Western blotting and zymography to determine the expression and activity of melanogenesis-related proteins. Eumelanin but no phaeomelanin was detected in transgenic C57BL/6-HGF and C57BL/6 wild type mice. Transgenic HGF/SF overexpression did not change the type of melanin produced in the skin or hair, did not affect the terminal content of melanin production in standard samples of hair and did not influence hair cycle/morphogenesis-related changes in skin thickness. No melanocytes were found in the epidermis and no melanosomes were found in epidermal keratinocytes. HGF/SF transgenic mice thus lack the epidermal melanin UV-protection found in constitutively dark human skin. We conclude that melanocytes in the HGF/SF transgenic mouse, particularly in the papillary dermis, are vulnerable to UVA which interacts with eumelanin but not phaeomelanin to induce melanoma.

  10. Adverse Outcomes After Palliative Radiation Therapy for Uncomplicated Spine Metastases: Role of Spinal Instability and Single-Fraction Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Tai-Chung, E-mail: lamtaichung@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Uno, Hajime [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Krishnan, Monica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lutz, Steven [Department of Radiation Oncology, Blanchard Valley Regional Medical Center, Findlay, Ohio (United States); Groff, Michael [Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cheney, Matthew [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Balboni, Tracy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Level I evidence demonstrates equivalent pain response after single-fraction (SF) or multifraction (MF) radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastases. The purpose of this study is to provide additional data to inform the incidence and predictors of adverse outcomes after RT for spine metastases. Methods and Materials: At a single institution, 299 uncomplicated spine metastases (without cord compression, prior RT, or surgery) treated with RT from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS) was used to assess spinal instability. The primary outcome was time to first spinal adverse event (SAE) at the site, including symptomatic vertebral fracture, hospitalization for site-related pain, salvage surgery, interventional procedure, new neurologic symptoms, or cord compression. Fine and Gray's multivariable model assessed associations of the primary outcome with SINS, SF RT, and other significant baseline factors. Propensity score matched analysis further assessed the relationship of SF RT to first SAEs. Results: The cumulative incidence of first SAE after SF RT (n=66) was 6.8% at 30 days, 16.9% at 90 days, and 23.6% at 180 days. For MF RT (n=233), the incidence was 3.5%, 6.4%, and 9.2%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, SF RT (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-5.2, P=.001) and SINS ≥11 (HR=2.5 , 95% CI 1.3-4.9, P=.007) were predictors of the incidence of first SAE. In propensity score matched analysis, first SAEs had developed in 22% of patients with SF RT versus 6% of those with MF RT cases (HR=3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.6, P=.003) at 90 days after RT. Conclusion: In uncomplicated spinal metastases treated with RT alone, spinal instability with SINS ≥11 and SF RT were associated with a higher rate of SAEs.

  11. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  12. Modification in existing SF6 gas handling system at 14UD BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator, Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninawe, N.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Ramjilal; Sparrow, Hillary; Sharma, S.C.; Bhagwat, P.V.; Salvi, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    BARC-TIFR 14 UD Pelletron Accelerator facility at TIFR, Mumbai is operational since inception 1989. The accelerator is housed inside a pressure vessel of 6 metre diameter, 25 metre long and 525m 3 volume. The accelerator tank is pressurized with SF 6 at 80 to 100 psig in order to achieve 14MV. The inventory of SF 6 gas is about 18,000 Kg (approximately) at 80 psig. SF 6 gas can be transported from Accelerator tank to storage tank using gas handling system, which consists of oil free compressor, vacuum pump, dust filters, oil filters, dryers etc

  13. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  14. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske, E-mail: matheuslazo@furg.br [Instituto de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica - FURG, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-09-26

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators. -- Highlights: → We propose a fractional Lagrangian formulation for fractional Maxwell's fields. → We obtain gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields. → Our generalized fractional Maxwell's field is spatially symmetrical. → We discuss the non-causality of the theory.

  15. On matrix fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objective of this article is to discuss the Laplace transform method based on operational matrices of fractional derivatives for solving several kinds of linear fractional differential equations. Moreover, we present the operational matrices of fractional derivatives with Laplace transform in many applications of various engineering systems as control system. We present the analytical technique for solving fractional-order, multi-term fractional differential equation. In other words, we propose an efficient algorithm for solving fractional matrix equation.

  16. Global distribution of mean age of stratospheric air from MIPAS SF6 measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fischer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global distributions of profiles of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 have been retrieved from limb emission spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat covering the period September 2002 to March 2004. Individual SF6 profiles have a precision of 0.5 pptv below 25 km altitude and a vertical resolution of 4–6 km up to 35 km altitude. These data have been validated versus in situ observations obtained during balloon flights of a cryogenic whole-air sampler. For the tropical troposphere a trend of 0.230±0.008 pptv/yr has been derived from the MIPAS data, which is in excellent agreement with the trend from ground-based flask and in situ measurements from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division. For the data set currently available, based on at least three days of data per month, monthly 5° latitude mean values have a 1σ standard error of 1%. From the global SF6 distributions, global daily and monthly distributions of the apparent mean age of air are inferred by application of the tropical tropospheric trend derived from MIPAS data. The inferred mean ages are provided for the full globe up to 90° N/S, and have a 1σ standard error of 0.25 yr. They range between 0 (near the tropical tropopause and 7 years (except for situations of mesospheric intrusions and agree well with earlier observations. The seasonal variation of the mean age of stratospheric air indicates episodes of severe intrusion of mesospheric air during each Northern and Southern polar winter observed, long-lasting remnants of old, subsided polar winter air over the spring and summer poles, and a rather short period of mixing with midlatitude air and/or upward transport during fall in October/November (NH and April/May (SH, respectively, with small latitudinal gradients, immediately before the new polar vortex starts to form. The mean age distributions further

  17. Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry applied to historical imagery: plug & play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.

    2017-04-01

    The development of Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry has led to a vast increase and expansion of geomorphological applications. Highly detailed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can be efficiently generated from a variety of platforms that cover a large range of spatial scales. For the application of DEMs in geomorphic change analysis, precision and spatial resolution are not of sole importance, but also their accuracy, temporal resolution and temporal coverage. The use of archival imagery may substantially lengthen temporal coverage, allowing quantification of annual to decadal scale landform change. Whilst archival photogrammetry is not new, a question arises as to how applicable SfM methods are as a more cost-effective and straightforward alternative to the conventional approach. Here, we studied a relatively extreme case where we applied SfM techniques to archival aerial imagery, to investigate the decadal evolution of a low relief braided river. The Borgne is an Alpine river in south-west Switzerland which is strongly affected by flow abstraction for hydropower, allowing the fairly straightforward application of photogrammetry on the near-dry river bed. For 8 sets of scanned historical aerial images in the period 1959-2005 we performed Ground Control Point (GCP) assisted bundle adjustment using both classical archival digital photogrammetry (used as a reference dataset) and SfM based photogrammetry. For the SfM method, no further data were used to constrain camera or exterior orientation parameters a priori, but instead we used these for a posteriori verification. The resulting densified point clouds were registered onto a reference surface based on stable areas, allowing the correction for any systematic error in DEMs that may arise from (random) error in the bundle adjustment. The obtained results show that the quality of the SfM based bundle adjustment is similar to that of the classical photogrammetric approach. Next to image scale, the quality is

  18. A linear-quadratic model of cell survival considering both sublethal and potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutz, H.P.; Coucke, P.A.; Mirimanoff, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    The authors assessed the dose-dependence of repair of potentially lethal damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells x-irradiated in vitro. The recovery ratio (RR) by which survival (SF) of the irradiated cells was enhanced increased exponentially with a linear and a quadratic component namely ζ and ψ: RR=exp(ζD+ψD 2 ). Survival of irradiated cells can thus be expressed by a combined linear-quadratic model considering 4 variables, namely α and β for the capacity of the cells to accumulate sublethal damage, and ζ and ψ for their capacity to repair potentially lethal damage: SF=exp((ζ-α)D+ (ψ-β)D 2 ). author. 26 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...

  20. The Fractional Virial Potential Energy in Two-Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi, R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems are conceived as macrogases, and the related equation of state is expressed using the virial theorem for subsystems, under the restriction of homeoidally striated density profiles. Explicit calculations are performed for a useful reference case and a few cases of astrophysical interest, both with and without truncation radius. Shallower density profiles are found to yield an equation of state, $phi=phi(y,m$, characterized (for assigned values of the fractional mass, $m=M_j/ M_i$ by the occurrence of two extremum points, a minimum and a maximum, as found in an earlier attempt. Steeper density profiles produce a similar equation of state, which implies that a special value of $m$ is related to a critical curve where the above mentioned extremum points reduce to a single horizontal inflexion point, and curves below the critical one show no extremum points. The similarity of the isofractional mass curves to van der Waals' isothermal curves, suggests the possibility of a phase transition in a bell-shaped region of the $({sf O}yphi$ plane, where the fractional truncation radius along a selected direction is $y=R_j/R_i$, and the fractional virial potential energy is $phi=(E_{ji}_mathrm{vir}/(E_{ij}_mathrm{vir}$. Further investigation is devoted to mass distributions described by Hernquist (1990 density profiles, for which an additional relation can be used to represent a sample of $N=16$ elliptical galaxies (EGs on the $({sf O}yphi$ plane. Even if the evolution of elliptical galaxies and their hosting dark matter (DM haloes, in the light of the model, has been characterized by equal fractional mass, $m$, and equal scaled truncation radius, or concentration, $Xi_u=R_u/r_u^dagger$, $u=i,j$, still it cannot be considered as strictly homologous, due to different values of fractional truncation radii, $y$, or fractional scaling radii, $y^dagger=r_j^dagger/r_i^dagger$, deduced from sample objects.

  1. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  2. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  3. Acute skin reaction after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubek, S.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data on acute mouse and pig skin reaction after fractionated γ or X irradiation have been analysed in terms of a new cell tissue kinetic model. The exponential-quadratic and generalized Huggett formulae have been used for cell lethality description. Fairly better results could be demonstrated with generalized Huggett formula. The speed of repopulation has been determined for fractionated regimes as well as for some irregular schedules. The repopulation is slower in the case of fractionated treatment. On considering the normal cell loss factor in the tissue, minimum cell cycle time has been calculated. Its value differs for various strains (Tsub(d)=28.8 hours for SAS/TO mice and Tsub(d) < or approximately 17 hours for WHT/Ht mice) and does not differ for plucked skin. The repopulation has been shown to follow exponential dependence after some latent period. Other factors influencing the effectiveness of radiation treatment (the length of the latent period or the changes of the survival curve during fractionated irradiation) have been considered, too

  4. Optimization of fractionated radiotherapy of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying modern conceptions of clinical radiobiology and mathematic methods in system theory a model of radiation therapy for tumors is developed. To obtain optimal fractionating conditions the principle of gradual optimization is used. A optimal therapeutic method permits to minimize the survival of a tumor cell population with localized lesions of the intact tissue. An analytic research is carried out for the simplest variant of the model. By help of a SORT-program unit the conditions are ascertained for gradual optimization of radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Radioprotective effect of exogenic hypoxia in fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazymbetov, P.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Vajnson, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the experiments with mice it is established, that exogenic hypoxia protective effect (8%O 2 ), evaluated according to survival rate, decreases at the change from single to fractionated irradiation. Dose change factor (DCF) is equal to 1.55 and 1.22-1.31, respectively. Skin protection using exogenic hypoxia at the local fractionated irradiation is expressed more, than at the fractionated one. DCF is equal to 1.56 and 1.28, respectively. Exogenic hypoxia protection effect in the tumor is expressed rather weakly. DCF at single and fractionated irradiation constitutes 1.03 and 1.07-1.13, respectively. Due to skin preferential protection the therapeutic gain factor at irradiation under the exogenic hypoxia conditions constitutes 1.24 and 1.38-1.46, respectively, at single and fractionated irradiation

  6. Role of radiotherapy fractionation in head and neck cancers (MARCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacas, Benjamin; Bourhis, Jean; Overgaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Meta-Analysis of Radiotherapy in squamous cell Carcinomas of Head and neck (MARCH) showed that altered fractionation radiotherapy is associated with improved overall and progression-free survival compared with conventional radiotherapy, with hyperfractionated radiotherapy showing...... the greatest benefit. This update aims to confirm and explain the superiority of hyperfractionated radiotherapy over other altered fractionation radiotherapy regimens and to assess the benefit of altered fractionation within the context of concomitant chemotherapy with the inclusion of new trials. METHODS......: For this updated meta-analysis, we searched bibliography databases, trials registries, and meeting proceedings for published or unpublished randomised trials done between Jan 1, 2009, and July 15, 2015, comparing primary or postoperative conventional fractionation radiotherapy versus altered fractionation...

  7. Fractional Number Operator and Associated Fractional Diffusion Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rguigui, Hafedh

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the fractional number operator as an analog of the finite-dimensional fractional Laplacian. An important relation with the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is given. Using a semigroup approach, the solution of the Cauchy problem associated to the fractional number operator is presented. By means of the Mittag-Leffler function and the Laplace transform, we give the solution of the Caputo time fractional diffusion equation and Riemann-Liouville time fractional diffusion equation in infinite dimensions associated to the fractional number operator.

  8. Effect of the percentage of SF sub 6 (100%-10%-5%) on the decomposition of SF sub 6 -N sub 2 mixtures under negative dc coronas in the presence of water vapour or oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, J; Casanovas, J

    2003-01-01

    Low SF sub 6 content SF sub 6 -N sub 2 mixtures have recently been proposed as a replacement for pure SF sub 6 in the insulation of gas insulated lines (GIL). Among the areas of investigation of such gas mixtures, their electrical decomposition under corona discharges must be studied considering the possible occurrence of such stress in GIL. This paper presents data concerning the decomposition of high-pressure SF sub 6 -N sub 2 (5 : 95) mixtures (400 kPa) submitted to negative dc coronas in the absence or presence of 0.3% H sub 2 O or 0.3% O sub 2. The chemical stability of these mixtures is compared with that of SF sub 6 -N sub 2 (10 : 90) mixtures or undiluted SF sub 6 investigated in the same conditions in a previous paper. The corona discharges were generated with a point-to-plane set-up and the gaseous by-products were assayed by gas chromatography at the end of each run carried out over a range of transported charge covering 0-13 C. The following by-products were detected and assayed: SOF sub 4 , SO su...

  9. The Human Splicing Factor ASF/SF2 can Specifically Recognize Pre-mRNA 5' Splice Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ping; Manley, James L.

    1994-04-01

    ASF/SF2 is a human protein previously shown to function in in vitro pre-mRNA splicing as an essential factor necessary for all splices and also as an alternative splicing factor, capable of switching selection of 5' splice sites. To begin to study the protein's mechanism of action, we have investigated the RNA binding properties of purified recombinant ASF/SF2. Using UV crosslinking and gel shift assays, we demonstrate that the RNA binding region of ASF/SF2 can interact with RNA in a sequence-specific manner, recognizing the 5' splice site in each of two different pre-mRNAs. Point mutations in the 5' splice site consensus can reduce binding by as much as a factor of 100, with the largest effects observed in competition assays. These findings support a model in which ASF/SF2 aids in the recognition of pre-mRNA 5' splice sites.

  10. 77 FR 68803 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the HOPE SF Development at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... posted online at http://sf-moh.org/index.aspx?page=155 . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background The MOH... project. Translators will be available. Written comments and testimony concerning the scope of the joint...

  11. Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer: comparison of three radiation dose and fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul

    2016-01-01

    The standard radiation dose for patients with locally rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is 45–50 Gy in 25–28 fractions. We aimed to assess whether a difference exists within this dose fractionation range. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare three dose fractionation schedules. Patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions (group A), 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (group B), or 45 Gy in 25 fractions (group C) to the whole pelvis, as well as concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Radical resection was scheduled for 8 weeks after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 175 patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy at our institution. Among those patients, 154 were eligible for analysis (55, 50, and 49 patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively). After the median follow-up period of 29 months (range, 5 to 48 months), no differences were found between the 3 groups regarding pathologic complete remission rate, tumor regression grade, treatment-related toxicity, 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The circumferential resection margin width was a prognostic factor for 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, whereas ypN category was associated with distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. High tumor regression grading score was correlated with 2-year distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival in univariate analysis. Three different radiation dose fractionation schedules, within the dose range recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, had no impact on pathologic tumor regression and early clinical outcome for locally advanced rectal cancer

  12. Preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer: comparison of three radiation dose and fractionation schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Shin Hyung; Kim, Jae Chul [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The standard radiation dose for patients with locally rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy is 45–50 Gy in 25–28 fractions. We aimed to assess whether a difference exists within this dose fractionation range. A retrospective analysis was performed to compare three dose fractionation schedules. Patients received 50 Gy in 25 fractions (group A), 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (group B), or 45 Gy in 25 fractions (group C) to the whole pelvis, as well as concurrent 5-fluorouracil. Radical resection was scheduled for 8 weeks after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Between September 2010 and August 2013, 175 patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy at our institution. Among those patients, 154 were eligible for analysis (55, 50, and 49 patients in groups A, B, and C, respectively). After the median follow-up period of 29 months (range, 5 to 48 months), no differences were found between the 3 groups regarding pathologic complete remission rate, tumor regression grade, treatment-related toxicity, 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The circumferential resection margin width was a prognostic factor for 2-year locoregional recurrence-free survival, whereas ypN category was associated with distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. High tumor regression grading score was correlated with 2-year distant metastasis-free survival and disease-free survival in univariate analysis. Three different radiation dose fractionation schedules, within the dose range recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, had no impact on pathologic tumor regression and early clinical outcome for locally advanced rectal cancer.

  13. Time-resolved output spectrum from a hydrogen fluoride laser using mixtures of SF6 and HI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The time-resolved spectrum from a transverse-discharge hydrogen fluoride (HF) laser using a mixture of SF 6 and HI is reported. Because this spectrum matches that from a high-pressure H 2 -F 2 laser, and because the SF 6 -HI mixture is chemically stable, this laser should be a suitable and convenient source for probing H 2 -F 2 amplifiers

  14. Analysis of SF and plasma cytokines provides insights into the mechanisms of inflammatory arthritis and may predict response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helen L; Bucknall, Roger C; Moots, Robert J; Edwards, Steven W

    2012-03-01

    Biologic drugs have revolutionized the care of RA, but are expensive and not universally effective. To further understand the inflammatory mechanisms underlying RA and identify potential biomarkers predicting response to therapy, we measured multiple cytokine concentrations in SF of patients with inflammatory arthritides (IAs) and, in a subset of patients with RA, correlated this with response to TNF-α inhibition. SF from 42 RA patients and 19 non-RA IA patients were analysed for 12 cytokines using a multiplex cytokine assay. Cytokines were also measured in the plasma of 16 RA patients before and following treatment with anti-TNF-α. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test, Spearman's rank correlation and cluster analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-test analysis. RA SF contained significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, G-CSF, GM-CSF and TNF-α compared with other IA SF. RA patients who did not respond to anti-TNF therapy had elevated IL-6 in their SF pre-therapy (P < 0.05), whereas responders had elevated IL-2 and G-CSF (P < 0.05). Plasma cytokine concentrations were not significantly modulated by TNF inhibitors, with the exception of IL-6, which decreased after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). Cytokine profiles in RA SF vary with treatment and response to therapy. Cytokine concentrations are significantly lower in plasma than in SF and relatively unchanged by TNF inhibitor therapy. Concentrations of IL-6, IL-2 and G-CSF in SF may predict response to TNF inhibitors.

  15. Psychometric properties and structural validity of the short version of the personality beliefs questionnaire (PBQ-SF)

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Hernández, Rubén Darío; Universidad San Buenaventura; Moratto Vasquez, Nadia Semenova; Universidad CES

    2015-01-01

    The Personality Belief Questionnaire- Short Form (PBQ-SF) is an assessment instrument of personality beliefs based on the cognitive theory that states that these are characterized by a specific pattern of dysfunctional thoughts. The objective of this study was to establish the psychometric properties and structural validity of the PBQ-SF questionnaire in Colombian adults from 18 to 35 years old. To carry out the above and with permission of the author the validation process was initiated foll...

  16. Gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Matheus Jatkoske

    2011-09-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrations of non-integers orders was introduced more than three centuries ago but only recently gained more attention due to its application on nonlocal phenomenas. In this context, several formulations of fractional electromagnetic fields was proposed, but all these theories suffer from the absence of an effective fractional vector calculus, and in general are non-causal or spatially asymmetric. In order to deal with these difficulties, we propose a spatially symmetric and causal gauge invariant fractional electromagnetic field from a Lagrangian formulation. From our fractional Maxwell's fields arose a definition for the fractional gradient, divergent and curl operators.

  17. Ion and electron swarm studies of relevance to plasma processing: positive ion-molecule and electron-molecule studies of SF6 and derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atterbury, C.; Kennedy, R.A.; Critchley, A.D.J.; Mayhew, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Many sequential and parallel chemical reactions involving charged species occur in a plasma. Data needed to model plasma's chemical and physical environment includes cross-section, rate coefficients, and product ion distribution of electron-molecule and ion-molecule processes. Such reactions are studied by our group away from the complexity of the plasma environment, with experimental techniques that allow us to concentrate on a single process, where usually only one or two species are involved. A molecule commonly used in plasma etching applications is SF 6 1,2 . We have performed a series of positive ion-molecule and electron attachment studies on SF 6 and related molecules, including SeF 6 , TeF 6 (i.e. XF 6 molecules), SF 5 CF 3 and SF 5 Cl (i.e. SF 5 X molecules) 3- (. The studies of ion reactions with and electron attachment to SF 6 and physically similar molecules are of value when seeking to understand the ion and electron chemistry occurring in SF 6 containing plasma. The result of these studies are presented in this poster. Ion-molecule reactions. Rate coefficients and ion product branching ratios have been determined with the Selected Ion Flow Tube (SIFT) at room temperature (300 K) for reactions of SF 5 X with the following twenty-two cations; Ne + , F + , Ar + , N 2 + , N + , CO + , CO 2 + , O + , N 2 O + , O 2 + , SF 4 + , CF 2 + , SF + , SF 2 + , NO 2 + , SF 5 + , NO + , CF + , CF 3 + , SF 3 + , and H 3 O + (listed in order of decreasing recombination energy). SF 2 + , NO 2 + , NO + , SF 3 + , and H 3 O + are found to be unreacted with both SF 5 CF 3 and SF 5 Cl. The majority of the other reactions proceed with rate coefficients that are close to the capture value. Those found to occur at rates significantly less than the capture mechanism value re the reactions of O 2 + , SF + , SF 5 + , and CF 3 + with SF 5 CF 3 , and SF 4 + and SF 5 + with SF 5 Cl. Several distinction processes are observed among the large number of reactions studied, including

  18. TM6SF2 and MAC30, new enzyme homologues in sterol metabolism and common metabolic disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eSanchez-Pulido

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the Glu167Lys coding variant in the TM6SF2 gene have recently been identified as being more susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, yet exhibit lower levels of circulating lipids and hence are protected against cardiovascular disease. Despite the physiological importance of these observations, the molecular function of TM6SF2 remains unknown, and no sequence similarity with functionally characterised proteins has been identified. In order to trace its evolutionary history and to identify functional domains, we embarked on a computational protein sequence analysis of TM6SF2. We identified a new domain, the EXPERA domain, which is conserved among TM6SF, MAC30/TMEM97 and EBP (D8,D7 sterol isomerase protein families. EBP mutations are the cause of chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant (CDPX2, also known as Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, a defective cholesterol biosynthesis disorder. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation among EXPERA domain-containing families and the previously suggested catalytic mechanism for the EBP enzyme, indicate that TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 families are both highly likely to possess, as for the EBP family, catalytic activity as sterol isomerases. This unexpected prediction of enzymatic functions for TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 is important because it now permits detailed experiments to investigate the function of these key proteins in various human pathologies, from cardiovascular disease to cancer.

  19. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette L-Y; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2008-07-18

    Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1). Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5%) and missing data rates were low (Vitality scale correlated better with the Mental Health scale than with itself, possibly because a healthy mental state is central to the concept of vitality in Thailand. The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  20. Passive Q-switching in CW-CO2 laser with SF6 as an intracavity saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.

    2007-10-01

    A passive Q-switching was applied to a tunable CW CO 2 laser with output power about 3.5 W using SF 6 as a saturable absorber inside the cavity. The Q-Switching phenomenon was studied ( pulse shape, pulse duration, repetition rate and conditions of its generation ) at the spectral lines of 10P(10), 10P(26), 10P(28) and 10P(30) from the branch of 10P of CO 2 laser. These lines had a weak absorption in relation to other lines of this branch, under SF 6 pressure till 0.5 mbar. To control the behaviour of such phenomenon, the gases He and Xe were added separately to SF 6 . It was observed that the Q-switching phenomenon was depended on the added gas pressure of Xe and He, through the repetitive rate of pulses , duration and energy of generated laser pulse. A computational program was written to calculate the Q-switching pulses parameters under similar conditions as those applied in the case of SF 6 +He mixture. A comparison was made with the experimental data , not so big discrepancies were observed between them. In addition to that, absorption coefficients of SF 6 were determined in two cases: the first one when the absorption cell was located outside the laser cavity, and the second one when the cell was located inside the cavity. On the basis of obtained coefficients the absorption cross sections of SF 6 were found and compared with NIST database.(author)

  1. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleigh Adrian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. Methods 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1. Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Results Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5% and missing data rates were low ( Conclusion The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Sf9 Cell Lamin and the Lamin Conformational Changes during Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, the details of lamina alterations after baculovirus infection remain elusive. In this study, a lamin gene in the Sf9 cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda was cloned. The open reading frame (orf of the Sf9 lamin was 1860 bp and encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 70 kDa. A transfection assay with a red fluorescence protein (rfp-lamin fusion protein indicated that Sf9 lamin was localized in the nuclear rim. Transmission electron microscopy observations indicated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV nucleocapsids may pass through the nuclear envelope. Immunofluorescence assay indicated that the lamina showed a ruffled staining pattern with the formation of invaginations in the Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV, while it was evenly distributed at the nuclear periphery of mock-infected cells. Western blotting results indicated that the total amount of lamin in the baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells was significantly decreased compared with the mock-infected cells. These results imply that AcMNPV infection induces structural and biochemical rearrangements of lamina of Sf9 cells.

  3. SF-36 total score as a single measure of health-related quality of life: Scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the "SF-36 Total Score"; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers' studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health.

  4. Structural evolution of the P22-like phages: Comparison of Sf6 and P22 procapsid and virion architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parent, Kristin N. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Gilcrease, Eddie B. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R., E-mail: sherwood.casjens@path.utah.edu [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Baker, Timothy S., E-mail: tsb@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2012-06-05

    Coat proteins of tailed, dsDNA phages and in herpesviruses include a conserved core similar to the bacteriophage HK97 subunit. This core is often embellished with other domains such as the telokin Ig-like domain of phage P22. Eighty-six P22-like phages and prophages with sequenced genomes share a similar set of virion assembly genes and, based on comparisons of twelve viral assembly proteins (structural and assembly/packaging chaperones), these phages are classified into three groups (P22-like, Sf6-like, and CUS-3-like). We used cryo-electron microscopy and 3D image reconstruction to determine the structures of Sf6 procapsids and virions ({approx} 7 A resolution), and the structure of the entire, asymmetric Sf6 virion (16-A resolution). The Sf6 coat protein is similar to that of P22 yet it has differences in the telokin domain and in its overall quaternary organization. Thermal stability and agarose gel experiments show that Sf6 virions are slightly less stable than those of P22. Finally, bacterial host outer membrane proteins A and C were identified in lipid vesicles that co-purify with Sf6 particles, but are not components of the capsid.

  5. Activation of SF1 Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus by DREADD Technology Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eulalia A; Okamoto, Shiki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Yokota, Shigefumi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Saito, Kumiko; Sato, Tatsuya; Takagi, Kazuyo; Wang, Chen-Chi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, and this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology. Activation of SF1 neurons by an intraperitoneal injection of clozapine- N -oxide (CNO), a specific hM3Dq ligand, reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in mice expressing hM3Dq in SF1 neurons. It also increased whole-body glucose utilization and glucose uptake in red-type skeletal muscle, heart, and interscapular brown adipose tissue, as well as glucose production and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, such activation of SF1 neurons increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in the same peripheral tissues and tended to enhance insulin-induced suppression of glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenic gene expression and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver. DREADD technology is thus an important tool for studies of the role of the brain in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  6. Breakdown characteristics of SF6/N2 in severely non-uniform electric fields at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Gao, Z. W.; Li, G. X.; Zhu, X. C.; Yu, C. L.; Liang, J. Q.; Li, L.

    2018-01-01

    SF6 has good electrical insulating properties, which is widely used as an insulating medium of GIS, GIL and other electrical equipment. However, the reliability of electrical equipments´ insulated gas is greatly challenged in cold areas, since SF6 more readily liquefies. To solve the problem, SF6 can be mixed with N2 to maintain the insulating properties, and reduce its liquefaction temperature. Such practice has certain application prospect. In this paper, a breakdown experimental platform was built to study the insulating property of SF6/N2 at low temperature, wherein the temperature of the platform can be adjusted. A severely non-uniform electric field was generated by a rod-plate electrode. The breakdown characteristics of SF6/N2 with different mixing proportions at low pressures and low temperatures were measured. The result showed that the mixed gas was not liquefied within the temperature range. Temperature had insignificant influence on the insulating property thereof. The result in the paper has certain guiding significance for applying SF6/N2 mixed gas in high latitude areas.

  7. The Extended Fractional Subequation Method for Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jianping; Tang, Bo; Kumar, Sunil; Hou, Yanren

    2012-01-01

    An extended fractional subequation method is proposed for solving fractional differential equations by introducing a new general ansätz and Bäcklund transformation of the fractional Riccati equation with known solutions. Being concise and straightforward, this method is applied to the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations and coupled MKdV equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained. It is shown that the considered method provides a very effective, convenient, and powe...

  8. Electrospun nanofibrous SF/P(LLA-CL membrane: a potential substratum for endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Junzhao Chen,1,* Chenxi Yan,1,* Mengyu Zhu,1,* Qinke Yao,1 Chunyi Shao,1 Wenjuan Lu,1 Jing Wang,2 Xiumei Mo,2 Ping Gu,1 Yao Fu,1 Xianqun Fan1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cornea transplant technology has progressed markedly in recent decades, allowing surgeons to replace diseased corneal endothelium by a thin lamellar structure. A thin, transparent, biocompatible, tissue-engineered substratum with corneal endothelial cells for endothelial keratoplasty is currently of interest. Electrospinning a nanofibrous structure can simulate the extracellular matrix and have beneficial effects for cell culture. Silk fibroin (SF has good biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties, while poly(L-lactic acid-co-Ɛ-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL has good mechanical properties but poor biocompatibility. Blending SF with P(LLA-CL can maintain the advantages of both these materials and overcome their disadvantages. Blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes may be suitable for regeneration of the corneal endothelium. The aim of this study was to produce a tissue-engineered construct suitable for endothelial keratoplasty.Methods: Five scaffolds containing different SF:P(LLA-CL blended ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 were manufactured. A human corneal endothelial (B4G12 cell line was cultured on the membranes. Light transmission, speed of cell adherence, cell viability (live-dead test, cell proliferation (Ki-67, BrdU staining, and cell monolayer formation were detected on membranes with the different blended ratios, and expression of some functional genes was also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Different blended ratios of scaffolds

  9. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  10. Dating of young groundwater using tritium and gaseous tracers (SF6, SF5CF3, CFC-12, H-1301): case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Dulinski, Marek; Kuc, Tadeusz; Sliwka, Ireneusz; Mochalski, Pawel; Kania, Jaroslaw; Witczak, Stanislaw

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater is an important source of potable water in many countries. While it covers ca. 50% of the global drinking water needs, in Europe this share is even higher, reaching approximately 70%. Nowadays, this strategic resource is at risk due to anthropogenic pollutants of various nature entering shallow aquifers. Proper management of groundwater resources requires thorough understanding of groundwater dynamics on time scales characteristic for the history of pollutant input to groundwater. The bomb-tritium has been used for several decades now as a tracer of choice to detect recent recharge and to quantify groundwater residence times on time scales extending from several years to several decades. The lumped-parameter modeling was the most often employed approach in this context. Since nowadays atmospheric concentrations of tritium are approaching natural levels in most parts of the world, the usage of this tracer has become more problematic. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alternative indicators of groundwater age in shallow aquifers. Anthropogenic trace gases present in the atmosphere, such as freons (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), have been applied in numerous case studies as substitutes of tritium. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study aimed at quantifying mean residence time of groundwater in the recharge area of porous sandy aquifer system located in the southern Poland. The principal economic role of the aquifer, consisting of two water-bearing strata, is to provide potable water for public and private users. The yield of the aquifer is insufficient to meet all the needs and, as a consequence, licensing conflicts arise between water supply companies and industry on the amount of water available for safe exploitation. To quantify residence time distribution (RTD) functions of water parcels arriving at the production wells located in the recharge area of the aquifer, tritium along with several gaseous tracers

  11. Functional Fractional Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Shantanu

    2011-01-01

    When a new extraordinary and outstanding theory is stated, it has to face criticism and skeptism, because it is beyond the usual concept. The fractional calculus though not new, was not discussed or developed for a long time, particularly for lack of its application to real life problems. It is extraordinary because it does not deal with 'ordinary' differential calculus. It is outstanding because it can now be applied to situations where existing theories fail to give satisfactory results. In this book not only mathematical abstractions are discussed in a lucid manner, with physical mathematic

  12. Fractional Reserve Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Niels; Bjerregaard, Mads; Lund, Jonas; Olsen, Ove Bitsch; Rasmussen, Andreas Dalgas

    2012-01-01

    Projektet er bygget op omkring kritisk realisme, som er det gennemgående videnskabelige fundament til undersøgelsen af hvilke strukturelle grunde der er til finansiel ustabilitet i Danmark. Projektet går i dybden med Fractional Reserve Banking og incitamentsstrukturen i banksystemet. Vi bevæger os både på det makro- og mikroøkonomiske niveau i analysen. På makro niveau bruger vi den østrigske skole om konjunktur teori (The Positive Theory of the Cycle). På mikro niveau arbejder vi med princip...

  13. Plasma fractionation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Albert; Evers, Theo; Falcou, Pierre-Francois; Burnouf, Thierry; Amorim, Luiz; Thomas, Sylvia

    2009-04-01

    Procurement and processing of human plasma for fractionation of therapeutic proteins or biological medicines used in clinical practice is a multi-billion dollar international trade. Together the private sector and public sector (non-profit) provide large amounts of safe and effective therapeutic plasma proteins needed worldwide. The principal therapeutic proteins produced by the dichotomous industry include gamma globulins or immunoglobulins (including pathogen-specific hyperimmune globulins, such as hepatitis B immune globulins) albumin, factor VIII and Factor IX concentrates. Viral inactivation, principally by solvent detergent and other processes, has proven highly effective in preventing transmission of enveloped viruses, viz. HBV, HIV, and HCV.

  14. Revision 2 of the Program of NPP Krsko Decommissioning and SF and LILW Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.; Rapic, A.

    2010-01-01

    First joint Slovenian-Croatian Program of NPP Krsko Decommissioning and SF and LILW Disposal (DP) was completed in 2004 and formally adopted in 2005. As bilateral agreement on the NPP requires periodic revisions at least each 5 years, revision 2 of DP was started in September 2008, with the purpose to incorporate relevant developments since the 1st revision, to improve the level of details and reliability of DP, and to propose updated and more accurate cost estimates and appropriate financing models. In the first phase of the revision, new supporting studies for DP modules were prepared. Among these studies, the most demanding was the NPP Krsko specific Preliminary Decommissioning Plan (PDP), complying with the IAEA-recommended format, which included development of the NPP decommissioning inventory database. For upgrade of SF management, new and more detailed descriptions with improved cost estimates were prepared. Update of LILW disposal concept was based on new developments and projects prepared for the Slovenian repository. In the second phase of the revision, integrated DP scenarios were formulated and analyzed. They integrate NPP decommissioning together with RW and SF management/disposal into rationally inter-related sequences. Boundary conditions for this revision required: (a) that the reference scenario from the previous revision should be re-examined, with appropriate variations or new alternatives; (b) that the option of the NPP Krsko life extension should also be included; and (c) that the possibility of diverging interests of the contracting parties should also be analyzed (i.e. waste division and separate management). Finally, scenario evaluation is intended to compare the analyzed scenarios taking into account both their feasibility and estimated costs. It should provide the basis for determining future financing of DP, namely the annuities to be paid by the NPP Krsko owners into the national decommissioning funds.(author).

  15. Comparison of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and Air Tamponade in Noniridectomized Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Sorkin, Nir; Boutin, Tanguy; Showail, Mahmood; Borovik, Armand; Jamshidi, Farzad; Chan, Clara C; Rootman, David S

    2018-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 20% sulfur hexafluoride gas (SF6) and air tamponade in patients who underwent noniridectomized Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent DMEK with either air or SF6 tamponade: 41 eyes received air tamponade (group 1) and 41 received SF6 tamponade (group 2). Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, and complications including graft detachment and elevated intraocular pressure were compared. The mean follow-up time was 8 ± 4 months in group 1 and 3 ± 2 months in group 2. Mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved from 1.12 ± 0.88 to 0.64 ± 0.78 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) in group 1 (P = 0.009) and from 1.00 ± 0.78 to 0.62 ± 0.53 logMAR in group 2 (P = 0.006). The graft detachment rate was 39% (16 eyes) in group 1 and 42% (17 eyes) in group 2 (P = 0.822). The rate of graft detachment larger than one third of the graft area was 17% in group 1 and 20% in group 2 (P = 0.775). Rebubbling was performed in 26.8% and 20% of eyes in group 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.43). Average endothelial cell loss was 32% in group 1 and 33% in group 2 (P = 0.83). In the immediate postoperative period, elevated intraocular pressure was observed in 2 eyes (5%) in group 1 and in 4 eyes (10%) in group 2 (P = 0.4). There was 1 primary graft failure in each group. Use of air with it being readily available and short acting is a good method of Descemet membrane tamponade in noniridectomized DMEK.

  16. [Analysis of quality of life using the generic SF-36 questionnaire in patients with heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Castro, J; Cid Conde, L; Fernández Rodríguez, V; Failde Garrido, J M; Almazán Ortega, R

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the major chronic diseases that affect health related quality of life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with New York Heart Association functional class I-III using the SF-36 on a cohort of survivors of the EPICOUR Study Group and compare the quality of life with the general Spanish population of the same sex and age group. A cohort study, observational, and prospective study was conducted on survivors of the EPICOUR Study Group, on whom a clinical-progression-outcome review was performed along with the SF-36. The quality of life was studied in 50 patients (60% male). The average age of men was 64.8 years and women 68.3. When analyzing the SF-36, it was observed that the results were lower in the physical dimensions than in the mental dimensions. The quality of life worsened with increasing functional class (statistically significant differences for scales of physical functioning, social functioning and borderline significance in mental health scale). When comparing patients with the general population of the same age and sex, patients with heart failure showed lower scores on all scales (significant differences in physical functioning, body pain, vitality, and social role for men, and physical function and emotional role for women). Heart failure causes a negative impact on quality of life, physical functioning, as well as psychosocial function, with the impairment becoming worse with increased functional class. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Refurbishment and retrofitting of SF6 gas storage tanks of the pelletron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Datar, V.M.; Parulekar, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    The BARC-TIFR Pelletron Accelerator Facility has completed more than twenty six years of successful round-the-clock operation, serving diverse users from institutions within and outside DAE. The main accelerating structure and associated subsystems are housed in the accelerator tank under SF 6 gas medium. During maintenance of the accelerator, the SF 6 gas present in the accelerator tank is transferred in the four storage tanks located on the terrace of the building open to outside environment. These four storage tanks (with ∼ 1/4th of the main tank volume each) are ∼ 4.27 m in diameter and ∼ 10 m in height each and are supported on RCC ring beams which are monolithically connected with the RCC structure below. Over the years, the anchor bolts and the base plates of support structure of storage tanks were found corroded and the foundation RCC ring beam indicated a few corrosion cracks. Health assessment of relevant structures and components were carried out. Considering the limitations of existing anchorage and also giving due considerations for reparability and replaceability, a new anchorage system was designed. The entire refurbishment and retrofitting works pertaining to the four SF 6 gas storage tanks was executed in a time bound manner to comply with the then PASC (Particle Accelerator Safety Committee) recommendations successfully, without disrupting the operations of the round-the-clock running Pelletron Accelerator facility. In addition, the thickness measurements for the storage tanks were performed. The relief valves and rupture disc assemblies across the storage tanks were replaced and reinstalled after introducing appropriate manual valves as suggested by the PASC. A new test set up was fabricated to perform pneumatic testing at the recommended pressure off-line for these relief valves and rupture disc assemblies prior to reinstallation. This paper describes the comprehensive rehabilitation and retrofitting procedures that were carried out at the

  18. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Sudo, Katsuko; Sato, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. → GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. → GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. → A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. → We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  19. Genistein promotes DNA demethylation of the steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) promoter in endometrial stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, Hiroshi, E-mail: hmatsukura.epi@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Matsushima, Yuko; Kanno, Jun [Division of Cellular and Molecular Toxicology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masaaki [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Sudo, Katsuko [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Animal Research Center, Tokyo Medical University, 6-1-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Sato, Noriko, E-mail: nsato.epi@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Genistein (GEN) is a phytoestrogen found in soy products. {yields} GEN demethylated/unsilenced the steroidogenic factor 1 gene in endometrial tissue. {yields} GEN thus altered mRNA expression in uteri of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. {yields} A high-resolution melting assay was used to screen for epigenetic change. {yields} We isolated an endometrial cell clone that was epigenetically modulated by GEN. -- Abstract: It has recently been demonstrated that genistein (GEN), a phytoestrogen in soy products, is an epigenetic modulator in various types of cells; but its effect on endometrium has not yet been determined. We investigated the effects of GEN on mouse uterine cells, in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of GEN for 1 week induced mild proliferation of the endometrium in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, which was accompanied by the induction of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) gene expression. GEN administration induced demethylation of multiple CpG sites in the SF-1 promoter; these sites are extensively methylated and thus silenced in normal endometrium. The GEN-mediated promoter demethylation occurred predominantly on the luminal side, as opposed to myometrium side, indicating that the epigenetic change was mainly shown in regenerated cells. Primary cultures of endometrial stromal cell colonies were screened for GEN-mediated alterations of DNA methylation by a high-resolution melting (HRM) method. One out of 20 colony-forming cell clones showed GEN-induced demethylation of SF-1. This clone exhibited a high proliferation capacity with continuous colony formation activity through multiple serial clonings. We propose that only a portion of endometrial cells are capable of receiving epigenetic modulation by GEN.

  20. Interaction of intense electromagnetic fields with SF6 molecules and clusters in supersonic expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, V.J.T.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring SF 6 cluster formation and inhibition in pulsed supersonic expansion in the presence of intense electromagnetic radiation is presented. The characterization of the expansion of SF 6 molecules was done and, the extension of the collision region was determined. An improved unidimensional theory of supersonic expansion showed good agreement with the experimental results. The spectra of multiphoton absorption of SF 6 molecules in supersonic jet and the average energy absorved by each molecule were determined. The absorption spectra of molecule in the collision region present absorption maxima different from those obtained in the collisionless region. The results, if compared with the literature data, show good agreement, with a small difference in the spetra corresponding to the collisionless region. This difference was observed, for the first time in the multiphoton absorption and is attribuited to cluster formation in the jet. A new technique for measuring cluster formation in the supersonic jet, based on determination of the spatial distribution of the energy of molecules in the jet after passing through a skimmer located in the collision region is shown. The inhibition of cluster formation, due to the incidence of intense electromagnetic radiation from a CO 2 -TEA pulsed laser in the initial collision region of the jet, causes a second expansion in the skimmer. The results obtained show that this method can lead to a new isotope separation process. All the parts of the experimental set up, for example, high vacuum system, pulsed valve and pyroelectric detector, were developed and constructed specially for the experiment. (Author) [pt

  1. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapuyt, François; Vanacker, Veerle; Schlunegger, Fritz; Van Oost, Kristof

    2017-12-01

    Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM) algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1) the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2) the horizontal and (3) the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through time. Although

  2. Investigation of the far asymmetric region in 252Cf(sf)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    1997-01-01

    A twin Frisch-gridded ionization chamber has been used to measure the fission fragment mass, kinetic-energy and angular correlations for 252 Cf(sf). In total 2.5 x 10 8 events were collected. The focus was in the far asymmetric mass region, where enhancements in the yield had been found earlier. It could be shown, that these findings are due to false events, coming from either close geometries not properly taking into account the angular-dependent energy loss in the sample and backing, from a too large angular cone selected in case of studies employing ionization chambers, or even from poor target qualities. (orig.)

  3. An Improved SF6 System for the FXR Induction Linac Blumlein Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHope, W; Kihara, R; Griffin, K L; Ong, M; Ross, T

    2007-01-01

    The now-mature FXR (Flash X-Ray) radiographic facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will be briefly described with emphasis on its pulsed power system. The heart of each accelerating cell's pulse forming Blumlein is it's sulfur hexafluoride-based triggered closing switch. FXR's recent upgrade to a recirculating SF 6 gas reclamation system will be described and the resulting accelerator performance and reliability improvements documented. This was accompanied by a detailed switch breakdown study on FXR's Test Stand and the recent analysis of the resulting statistics will be shown

  4. Unravelling earth flow dynamics with 3-D time series derived from UAV-SfM models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Clapuyt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately assessing geo-hazards and quantifying landslide risks in mountainous environments are gaining importance in the context of the ongoing global warming. For an in-depth understanding of slope failure mechanisms, accurate monitoring of the mass movement topography at high spatial and temporal resolutions remains essential. The choice of the acquisition framework for high-resolution topographic reconstructions will mainly result from the trade-off between the spatial resolution needed and the extent of the study area. Recent advances in the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-based image acquisition combined with the structure-from-motion (SfM algorithm for three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction make the UAV-SfM framework a competitive alternative to other high-resolution topographic techniques. In this study, we aim at gaining in-depth knowledge of the Schimbrig earthflow located in the foothills of the Central Swiss Alps by monitoring ground surface displacements at very high spatial and temporal resolution using the efficiency of the UAV-SfM framework. We produced distinct topographic datasets for three acquisition dates between 2013 and 2015 in order to conduct a comprehensive 3-D analysis of the landslide. Therefore, we computed (1 the sediment budget of the hillslope, and (2 the horizontal and (3 the three-dimensional surface displacements. The multitemporal UAV-SfM based topographic reconstructions allowed us to quantify rates of sediment redistribution and surface movements. Our data show that the Schimbrig earthflow is very active, with mean annual horizontal displacement ranging between 6 and 9 m. Combination and careful interpretation of high-resolution topographic analyses reveal the internal mechanisms of the earthflow and its complex rotational structure. In addition to variation in horizontal surface movements through time, we interestingly showed that the configuration of nested rotational units changes through

  5. Single-site approximation for the s-f model of antiferromagnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masao; Nolting, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    For the s-f model of an antiferromagnetic semiconductor, the effect of the antiferromagnetic ordering of the localized spins on the conduction-electron state is investigated over a wide range of exchange strengths by combining the effective-medium approach with the Green's function in the 2x2 sublattice Bloch function representation. The band splitting due to the reduced magnetic Brillouin zone occurs below the Neel temperature. There is a marked effect of the thermal fluctuation of the antiferromagnetically ordered localized spins on the conduction electron at the energies near the top (bottom) of the lower- (higher-) energy subband

  6. What factors influence the health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by the SF-12v2 Health Survey and the Health Assessment Questionnaire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dise...... to differences in demographic, lifestyle, and disease- and treatment-related factors than the SF-12. The established clinical value and feasibility of the HAQ highlights its advantages over the SF-12 in describing health status in RA.......OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle......, and disease- and treatment-related factors in patients with RA. METHODS: In RA patients from 11 Danish centers, clinical and patient-reported data, including the HAQ and SF-12, were collected. Three multiple linear regression models were estimated, with the HAQ, SF-12 physical component score (PCS), and SF-12...

  7. Advances in robust fractional control

    CERN Document Server

    Padula, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents design methodologies for (robust) fractional control systems. It shows the reader how to take advantage of the superior flexibility of fractional control systems compared with integer-order systems in achieving more challenging control requirements. There is a high degree of current interest in fractional systems and fractional control arising from both academia and industry and readers from both milieux are catered to in the text. Different design approaches having in common a trade-off between robustness and performance of the control system are considered explicitly. The text generalizes methodologies, techniques and theoretical results that have been successfully applied in classical (integer) control to the fractional case. The first part of Advances in Robust Fractional Control is the more industrially-oriented. It focuses on the design of fractional controllers for integer processes. In particular, it considers fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controllers, becau...

  8. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  9. Semi-synthesis of a HGF/SF kringle one (K1) domain scaffold generates a potent in vivo MET receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Claire; Bérénice Leclercq; Mougel, Alexandra; Adriaenssens, Eric; Paquet, Charlotte; Raibaut, Laurent; Ollivier, Nathalie; Drobecq, Hervé; Marcoux, Julien; Cianférani, Sarah; Tulasne, David; de Jonge, Hugo; Melnyk, Oleg; Vicogne, Jérôme

    2015-03-01

    The development of MET receptor agonists is an important goal in regenerative medicine, but is limited by the complexity and incomplete understanding of its interaction with HGF/SF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor). NK1 is a natural occurring agonist comprising the N-terminal (N) and the first kringle (K1) domains of HGF/SF. In the presence of heparin, NK1 can self-associate into a "head to tail" dimer which is considered as the minimal structural module able to trigger MET dimerization and activation whereas isolated K1 and N domains showed a weak or a complete lack of agonistic activity respectively. Starting from these structural and biological observations, we investigated whether it was possible to recapitulate the biological properties of NK1 using a new molecular architecture of isolated N or K1 domains. Therefore, we engineered multivalent N or K1 scaffolds by combining synthetic and homogeneous site-specifically biotinylated N and K1 domains (NB and K1B) and streptavidin (S). NB alone or in complex failed to activate MET signaling and to trigger cellular phenotypes. Importantly and to the contrary of K1B alone, the semi-synthetic K1B/S complex mimicked NK1 MET agonist activity in cell scattering, morphogenesis and survival phenotypic assays. Impressively, K1B/S complex stimulated in vivo angiogenesis and, when injected in mice, protected the liver against fulminant hepatitis in a MET dependent manner whereas NK1 and HGF were substantially less potent. These data reveal that without N domain, proper multimerization of K1 domain is a promising strategy for the rational design of powerful MET agonists.

  10. TRAC-PF1/MOD 1 independent assessment: Semiscale MOD-2A feedwater-line break (S-SF-3) and steam-line break (S-SF-5) tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1985-11-01

    The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 independent assessment project at Sandia is part of an overall effort funded by the NRC to determine the ability of various systems codes to predict the detailed thermal/hydraulic response of LWRs during accident and off-normal conditions. As part of this effort, calculations for Semiscale Mod-2A test S-SF-3, a feedwater-line break test, and S-SF-5, a steam-line break test, were performed with TRAC-PF1/MOD1. Most aspects of both the S-SF-3 and S-SF-5 steady-state calculations were found to be in good agreement with data. However, the need for a better steam separator model was identified from the S-SF-3 calculation. Overall, the qualitative behavior of both transients was calculated reasonably well; however, there were some discrepancies in the prediction of the quantitative behavior. The results for the S-SF-3 transient calculation indicate that the primary-to-secondary heat transfer degradation began too early. This was possibly due to overprediction of entrainment in the steam generator boiler, leading to an incorrect calculation of the secondary-side fluid distribution during the steady state. However, there was insufficient data to verify this. Results for the S-SF-5 transient calculation indicate that the primary-side fluid temperature response to a steam-line break was in reasonable agreement with data but the pressure response did not coincide with the data. Uncertainties in the data are sufficient to prevent us from determining the exact cause of this discrepancy, but there is indirect evidence that the calculated rate of phase change in the pressurizer was incorrect. 16 refs., 73 figs., 13 tabs

  11. Fractional Reserve in Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Valkonen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is aimed to provide understanding of the role of the fractional reserve in the mod-ern banking system worldwide and particularly in Finland. The fractional reserve banking is used worldwide, but the benefits of this system are very disputable. On the one hand, experts say that the fractional reserve is a necessary instrument for the normal business and profit making. On the other hand, sceptics openly criticize the fractional reserve system and blame it for fiat money (money n...

  12. On matrix fractional differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Adem Kılıçman; Wasan Ajeel Ahmood

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the matrix fractional differential equations and to find the exact solution for system of matrix fractional differential equations in terms of Riemann–Liouville using Laplace transform method and convolution product to the Riemann–Liouville fractional of matrices. Also, we show the theorem of non-homogeneous matrix fractional partial differential equation with some illustrative examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new methodology. The main objec...

  13. Measuring health-related quality of life: psychometric evaluation of the Tunisian version of the SF-12 health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Moheddine; Chakroun, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12) was developed as a shorter alternative to the SF-36 for use in large-scale studies as an applicable instrument for measuring health-related quality of life. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Tunisian version of the SF-12. A stratified representative sample (N = 3,582) of the general Tunisian population aged 18 years and over was interviewed. SF-12 summary scores were derived using the standard US algorithm. Factor analysis was used to confirm the hypothesized component structure of the SF-12 items. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency, and construct validity was investigated with "known groups" validity testing and via convergent and divergent validity. SF-12 summary scores distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between groups of respondents on the basis of gender, age, education and socioeconomic status, thus providing evidence of construct validity. Mean scores in the total sample were 50.11 (SD 8.53) for the physical component summary (PCS) score and 47.96 (SD 9.82) for the mental component summary (MCS) score. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency and acceptable convergent validity for both summary scores. Cronbach's α coefficient for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between groups of respondents on the basis of gender, age, education and socioeconomic status. In addition, no floor or ceiling effects at baseline were observed. The PCA confirmed the two-factor structure of the SF-12 items. Items belonging to the physical component correlated more strongly with the PCS-12 than those with the MCS-12. Similarly, items belonging to the mental component correlated more strongly with the MCS-12 than those with the PCS-12. The findings suggest that the SF-12 appears to be a valid and reliable measure that can be used for measuring of population health

  14. Taste and chemical characteristics of low molecular weight fractions from tofuyo - Japanese fermented soybean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioe, Hanifah Nuryani; Kinjo, Ayano; Yasuda, Shin; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2018-06-30

    Tofuyo, a Japanese traditional food, is a fermented soybean curd manufactured in Okinawa region. Due to its original cheese-like flavor, the current study was designed to evaluate the sensory and chemical characteristics of three stepwise ultrafiltration fractions, using 10,000, 3000 and 500 Da membranes and further chromatographic fractions from tofuyo. The results showed that umami, sweet and salty were the characteristic tastes of all fractions, with umami intensity evaluated for the fraction with MW less than 500 Da (F-500) as the most prominent among the three fractions. Subsequent Sephadex G-25 SF fractions and RP-HPLC fractions were subjected to sensory and chemical analyses. The tastiest fraction contained sodium chloride, sugars, organic acids, umami and sweet free amino acids, at concentrations above their thresholds. The abundant presence of umami and sweet free amino acids with certain concentrations of sodium chloride and glucose might provide the typical savory taste of tofuyo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractional Hopfield Neural Networks: Fractional Dynamic Associative Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yi-Fei; Yi, Zhang; Zhou, Ji-Liu

    2017-10-01

    This paper mainly discusses a novel conceptual framework: fractional Hopfield neural networks (FHNN). As is commonly known, fractional calculus has been incorporated into artificial neural networks, mainly because of its long-term memory and nonlocality. Some researchers have made interesting attempts at fractional neural networks and gained competitive advantages over integer-order neural networks. Therefore, it is naturally makes one ponder how to generalize the first-order Hopfield neural networks to the fractional-order ones, and how to implement FHNN by means of fractional calculus. We propose to introduce a novel mathematical method: fractional calculus to implement FHNN. First, we implement fractor in the form of an analog circuit. Second, we implement FHNN by utilizing fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, and further analyze its attractors. Third, we perform experiments to analyze the stability and convergence of FHNN, and further discuss its applications to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. The main contribution of our work is to propose FHNN in the form of an analog circuit by utilizing a fractor and the fractional steepest descent approach, construct its Lyapunov function, prove its Lyapunov stability, analyze its attractors, and apply FHNN to the defense against chip cloning attacks for anticounterfeiting. A significant advantage of FHNN is that its attractors essentially relate to the neuron's fractional order. FHNN possesses the fractional-order-stability and fractional-order-sensitivity characteristics.

  16. Intestinal complications following accelerated fractionated X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauer-Jensen, M.; Poulakos, L.; Osborne, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Due to paucity of suitable animal models, it has been difficult to study the development of long-term intestinal complications following fractionated irradiation. We recently developed a model which allows multiple radiation exposures of a short segment of rat ileum without the need for repeated surgery. In the present series, this model was used to study the influence of shortening the total treatment time (accelerated fractionation) on development of radiation enteropathy. Male rats were orchiectomized and a short segment of distal ileum was transposed to the scrotum. Starting 3 weeks after surgery, the scrotum containing the intestinal segment was X-irradiated with 20 fractions of 2.8 Gy (total dose 56 Gy). Two fractionation schedules were compared: one fraction per day (total treatment time 26 days) and 3 fractions per day (total treatment time 7 days). Actuarial survival curves were obtained, and the degree of radiation injury was assessed 2, 8 and 26 weeks after the last radiation exposure using a semiquantitative histopathologic scoring system. There was no mortality from acute radiation injury in either treatment group. All animals of the 1-fraction/day group survived the observation period (26 weeks). In the 3-fraction/day group, there was significant mortality due to intestinal obstruction, and cumulative mortality at 26 weeks was 100%. Radiation injury, as assessed by the histopathologic scoring system, was also more pronounced in this group than in the 1-fraction/day group. We conclude that shortening the total treatment time significantly increases the severity of late intestinal complications. Our data are suggestive of an association between acute mucosal damage and chronic radiation injury of the small intestine. (orig.)

  17. The random continued fraction transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Charlene; Kempton, Tom; Verbitskiy, Evgeny

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a random dynamical system related to continued fraction expansions. It uses random combinations of the Gauss map and the Rényi (or backwards) continued fraction map. We explore the continued fraction expansions that this system produces, as well as the dynamical properties of the system.

  18. How Weird Are Weird Fractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuffelbeam, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A positive rational is a weird fraction if its value is unchanged by an illegitimate, digit-based reduction. In this article, we prove that each weird fraction is uniquely weird and initiate a discussion of the prevalence of weird fractions.

  19. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  20. On fractional Fourier transform moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their

  1. Hypo fractionated conformal irradiation of patients with malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboziada, M.A.; Abo-Kresha, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of a conformal irradiation in short fractionation scheme of 49.5 Gy in 15 fractions in an overall time of 3 weeks, in terms of overall survival (OAS) and progression free survival (PFS) rates in brain glioma patients. Patients and methods: A prospective study was conducted on 54 brain glioma patients and was carried out in the Radiation Oncology Department, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut University during the period from April 2006 till June 2009. Patients were treated by hypo fractionated conformal irradiation (49.5 Gy/15 fractions/3 weeks). Results: The median follow up was 23 months (range: 9-39 months). Two-year OAS and PFS rates were 68% and 60%, respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 50 years, poor performance status [Karnofasky score of >40- 50 years and glioblastoma pathology were the only independent prognostic factors that were associated with poor OAS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively), and PFS (p = 0.027 and p = 0.011, respectively). Conclusion: Hypo fractionated conformal radiotherapy was as effective as the conventional radiotherapy, with time sparing for patients, and for radiation oncology centers. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy may be considered the radiotherapy regimen of choice in clinical practice for patients with gliomas

  2. Anisotropic etching of silicon for application in micro machine using plasma of SF6/CH4/O2/Ar and SF6/CF4/O2/Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes B, C.; Moshkalyov, S.A.; Swart, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the reactive ion etching of silicon using SF 6 /CH 4 (CF 4 )/O 2 /Ar gas mixtures containing fluorine for MEMS applications. Etch rates and anisotropy of etch profiles were examined as a function of gas composition, material of electrode, and RF power. Etch depths were measured using a profilometers, and etch profiles were analyzed by scanning electron microscope. As a mask material, an aluminium film deposited by evaporation, was used. High anisotropy of etching of 0.95 was achieved at etch depths up to 20-30 micrometers and etch rates of approximately 0.3-0.6 μm/min. Highly anisotropic etching is based on a mechanism that enhance the ion bombarding and protects the sidewalls due to polymerization and/or oxidation mechanisms in order to avoid the lateral etch. However, under the anisotropic etching conditions, considerable damages of the etched surfaces (roughness formation), were observed. After etching experiments, wet / dry cleaning procedures were applied to remove surface residues resulting from the reactive ion etching and to improve the etched surface morphology. (Author)

  3. Fractional dynamic calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogically organized, this monograph introduces fractional calculus and fractional dynamic equations on time scales in relation to mathematical physics applications and problems. Beginning with the definitions of forward and backward jump operators, the book builds from Stefan Hilger’s basic theories on time scales and examines recent developments within the field of fractional calculus and fractional equations. Useful tools are provided for solving differential and integral equations as well as various problems involving special functions of mathematical physics and their extensions and generalizations in one and more variables. Much discussion is devoted to Riemann-Liouville fractional dynamic equations and Caputo fractional dynamic equations.  Intended for use in the field and designed for students without an extensive mathematical background, this book is suitable for graduate courses and researchers looking for an introduction to fractional dynamic calculus and equations on time scales. .

  4. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  5. Full Genome Sequence and sfRNA Interferon Antagonist Activity of Zika Virus from Recife, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Donald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV in the Americas has transformed a previously obscure mosquito-transmitted arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family into a major public health concern. Little is currently known about the evolution and biology of ZIKV and the factors that contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Determining genomic sequences of clinical viral isolates and characterization of elements within these are an important prerequisite to advance our understanding of viral replicative processes and virus-host interactions.We obtained a ZIKV isolate from a patient who presented with classical ZIKV-associated symptoms, and used high throughput sequencing and other molecular biology approaches to determine its full genome sequence, including non-coding regions. Genome regions were characterized and compared to the sequences of other isolates where available. Furthermore, we identified a subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA in ZIKV-infected cells that has antagonist activity against RIG-I induced type I interferon induction, with a lesser effect on MDA-5 mediated action.The full-length genome sequence including non-coding regions of a South American ZIKV isolate from a patient with classical symptoms will support efforts to develop genetic tools for this virus. Detection of sfRNA that counteracts interferon responses is likely to be important for further understanding of pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.

  6. Streptococcus iniae SF1: complete genome sequence, proteomic profile, and immunoprotective antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-cun Zhang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS, 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control.

  7. Design and fabrication of resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector for SF6 gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jason; Choi, Kwong-Kit; DeCuir, Eric; Olver, Kimberley; Fu, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The infrared absorption of SF6 gas is narrowband and peaks at 10.6 μm. This narrowband absorption posts a stringent requirement on the corresponding sensors as they need to collect enough signal from this limited spectral bandwidth to maintain a high sensitivity. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency for more efficient signal collection. Since the resonant approach is applicable to narrowband as well as broadband, it is particularly suitable for this application. We designed and fabricated R-QWIPs for SF6 gas detection. To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced according to precise specifications. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniform, and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm. Additionally, the substrates of the detectors must be completely removed to prevent the escape of unabsorbed light in the detectors. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma etching processes were developed. Due to submicron detector feature sizes and overlay tolerance, we used an advanced semiconductor material lithography stepper instead of a contact mask aligner to pattern wafers. Using these etching techniques and tool, we have fabricated focal plane arrays with 30-μm pixel pitch and 320×256 format. The initial test revealed promising results.

  8. SfM for Orthophoto to Generation: A Winning Approach for Cultural Heritage Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chiabrando

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3D detailed models derived from digital survey techniques have increasingly developed and focused in many field of application. The high detailed content and accuracy of such models make them so attractive and usable for large sets of purposes in Cultural Heritage. The present paper focuses on one of the main techniques used nowadays for Cultural Heritage survey and documentation: the image matching approach or Structure from Motion (SfM technique. According to the low cost nature and the rich content of derivable information, these techniques are extremely strategic in poor available resources sectors such as Cultural Heritage documentation. After an overview of the employed algorithms and used approaches of SfM computer vision based techniques, the paper is focused in a critical analysis of the strategy used by two common employed software: the commercial suite Agisoft Photoscan and the open source tool MicMac realized by IGN France. The experimental section is focused on the description of applied tests (from RPAS data to terrestrial acquisitions, purposed to compare different solutions in various featured study cases. Finally, the accuracy assessment of the achieved products is compared and analyzed according to the strategy employed by the studied software.

  9. Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003: Compatibility with agrochemicals and storage stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marcela Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Colombian isolate of Spodoptera frugiperdanucleopolyhedrovirus Sf NPV003 was formulated as a powder by microencapsulating it with a methacrylic acid polymer, which increased the photostability of the virus. In order to generate recommendations for the use of this biopesticide, the objective of this study was to establish in vitro compatibility with chemicals (insecticides and fungicides and to determine the product stability during 15 months at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C. The virus was compatible with eight chemicals tested, with an insecticidal activity greater than 80%. When the biopesticide was stored at 8 °C, 18 °C and 28 °C, the insecticidal activity and the content of contaminants were within acceptance limits established for each property. Results indicated that microencapsulated Sf MNPV can be stored at temperatures below 28 °C, thus ensuring product quality for at least 17 months, enough time for its distribution and use.

  10. FFMPD scales: Comparisons with the FFM, PID-5, and CAT-PD-SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Cristina; Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    A series of 8 Five Factor Model Personality Disorder (FFMPD) scales have been developed to assess, from the perspective of the Five Factor Model (FFM), the maladaptive traits included within DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. An extensive body of FFMPD research has accumulated. However, for the most part, each study has been confined to the scales within 1 particular FFMPD Inventory. The current study considered 36 FFMPD scales, at least 1 from each of the 8 FFMPD inventories, including 8 scales considered to be from neuroticism, 8 from extraversion, 5 from openness, 8 from agreeableness, and 7 from conscientiousness. Their convergent, discriminant, and structural relationship with the FFM was considered, and compared with the structural relationship with the FFM obtained by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) and the Computerized Adaptive Test-Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF). Support for an FFM structure was obtained (albeit with agreeableness defining 1 factor and antagonism a separate factor). Similarities and differences across the FFMPD, PID-5, and CAT-PD-SF scales were highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF6 at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G; Hernandez-Avila, J L; Basurto, E

    2010-01-01

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF 6 are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF 6 over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  12. Dynamic SIMS utilizing SF{sub 5}{sup +} polyatomic primary ion beams for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Christine M.; Roberson, Sonya; Gillen, Greg

    2004-06-15

    The behavior of various biodegradable polymer films (e.g. polylactic acid, polyglycolic acid and polycaprolactone) as well as some model drugs (theophylline and 4-acetamidophenol) under dynamic SF{sub 5}{sup +} primary ion bombardment is explored. A series of polylactic acid films containing varying concentrations of 4-acetamidophenol are also analyzed under similar conditions. The resultant molecular depth profiles obtained from these polymer films doped with drug show very little degradation in molecular signal as a function of SF{sub 5}{sup +} primary ion dose, and it was found that the molecular ion signals of both polymer and drug remained constant for ion doses up to {approx}5x10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the polymer film/Si interface was well defined which may imply that sputter-induced topography formation was not a significant limitation. These results suggest that the structure of the biodegradable polymers studied here which all have the common main chain structural unit, R-CO-O-R, allows for a greater ability to depth profile due to ease of bond cleavage. Most importantly, however, these results indicate that in these particular polymer systems, the distribution of the drug as a function of depth can be monitored.

  13. High magnetic field measurement utilizing Faraday rotation in SF11 glass in simplified diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Premananda; Shukla, Rohit; Venkateswarlu, D

    2017-04-01

    With the commercialization of powerful solid-state lasers as pointer lasers, it is becoming simpler nowadays for the launch and free-space reception of polarized light for polarimetric applications. Additionally, because of the high power of such laser diodes, the alignment of the received light on the small sensor area of a photo-diode with a high bandwidth response is also greatly simplified. A plastic sheet polarizer taken from spectacles of 3D television (commercially available) is simply implemented as an analyzer before the photo-receiver. SF11 glass is used as a magneto-optic modulating medium for the measurement of the magnetic field. A magnetic field of magnitude more than 8 Tesla, generated by a solenoid has been measured using this simple assembly. The measured Verdet constant of 12.46 rad/T-m is obtained at the wavelength of 672 nm for the SF11 glass. The complete measurement system is a cost-effective solution.

  14. Streptococcus iniae SF1: Complete Genome Sequence, Proteomic Profile, and Immunoprotective Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-cun; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive bacterium that is reckoned one of the most severe aquaculture pathogens. It has a broad host range among farmed marine and freshwater fish and can also cause zoonotic infection in humans. Here we report for the first time the complete genome sequence as well as the host factor-induced proteomic profile of a pathogenic S. iniae strain, SF1, a serotype I isolate from diseased fish. SF1 possesses a single chromosome of 2,149,844 base pairs, which contains 2,125 predicted protein coding sequences (CDS), 12 rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Among the protein-encoding CDS are genes involved in resource acquisition and utilization, signal sensing and transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense against host immune response. Potential virulence genes include those encoding adhesins, autolysins, toxins, exoenzymes, and proteases. In addition, two putative prophages and a CRISPR-Cas system were found in the genome, the latter containing a CRISPR locus and four cas genes. Proteomic analysis detected 21 secreted proteins whose expressions were induced by host serum. Five of the serum-responsive proteins were subjected to immunoprotective analysis, which revealed that two of the proteins were highly protective against lethal S. iniae challenge when used as purified recombinant subunit vaccines. Taken together, these results provide an important molecular basis for future study of S. iniae in various aspects, in particular those related to pathogenesis and disease control. PMID:24621602

  15. Decomposition of SF6-R134a effluents by RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Avinash V.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of recovery achieved by open or closed loop extraction of RPC exhaust gases is in the range of 90-95% under optimum conditions. For a large detector setup operating on one volume change per day basis, a 5% loss amounts to discharging 50 kg of R134a and 0.5 kg of SF 6 into atmosphere every day. The emissions are equivalent to create nearly 50 000 m 3 of carbon dioxide daily. The gas emissions need to be completely converted to safer compounds. The gases such as R134a and SF 6 are stable compounds. In order to decompose these, the mixture is first activated by adding of 50% oxygen and 2% argon and under typical RF plasma conditions of 13.56 MHz, 1 Torr pressure and 0.2 W/cm 2 power density. The chemical reaction takes place on the surface of a silicon electrode. The product of the reaction is mainly SiF 4 (gas), which is further hydrolyzed to form HF solution and silicon hydroxide sludge. More than 90% of the effluent gas mixture can be effectively removed by this method.

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant surface modification toward a new silk-fibroin (SF)-L-Cysteine material for skin disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Frederico; Granadeiro, Luíza; Mouro, Claudia; Gouveia, Isabel C.

    2016-02-01

    A novel dressing material - silk fibroin fabric (SF)-L-Cysteine (L-Cys) - is here developed to be used as standard treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD), which combines comfort, thermic, and tensile strength properties of silk materials with antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of L-Cys. A careful understanding about the linking strategies is needed in order not to compromise the bioavailability of L-Cys and deplenish its bioactivity. Durability was also addressed through washing cycles and compared with hospital requirements, according to international Standard EN ISO 105-C06:2010. The present research also analyze the interactions between Staphylococcus aureus and SF-L-Cys under simulating conditions of AD and demonstrated the effectiveness of a double covalent grafting, with the importance of SF tyrosine (Tyr) covalent linkage with L-Cys (SF-g-L-Cys/Tyr-g-L-Cys) even after several washing cycles, twenty five, whereas for a disposable application a single covalent mechanism of grafting L-Cys proved to be sufficient (SF-g-L-Cys). Results showed effective antimicrobial activities exhibiting higher inhibition ratios of 98.65% for SF-g-L-Cys after 5 washing cycles, whereas 97.55% for SF-g-L-Cys/Tyr-g-L-Cys after 25 washing cycles, both at pH 9.5 grafting strategy. Furthermore, it is also reported a non-protumoral effect of L-Cys. A new advance is herein achieved at the world of medical antimicrobial textiles tailored to address wound moisture environment and exudate self-cleaning, which may open novel applications as complementary therapy for AD disease.

  17. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiaotian [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: swa001@126.com; Zhang Shiying [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fan Shen [Computer and Information School, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo 315100 (China)

    2007-01-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function {lambda}(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W{sub H}{sup (j)}(t)

  18. Nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaotian; Zhang Shiying; Fan Shen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of non-Gaussian stationary increment processes, named nonhomogeneous fractional Poisson processes W H (j) (t), which permit the study of the effects of long-range dependance in a large number of fields including quantum physics and finance. The processes W H (j) (t) are self-similar in a wide sense, exhibit more fatter tail than Gaussian processes, and converge to the Gaussian processes in distribution in some cases. In addition, we also show that the intensity function λ(t) strongly influences the existence of the highest finite moment of W H (j) (t) and the behaviour of the tail probability of W H (j) (t)

  19. Membrane Assisted Enzyme Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Linfeng

    to the variation in size of the proteins and a reasonable separation factor can be observed only when the size difference is in the order of 10 or more. This is partly caused by concentration polarization and membrane fouling which hinders an effective separation of the proteins. Application of an electric field...... across the porous membrane has been demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce concentration polarization and membrane fouling. In addition, this technique can also be used to separate the proteins based on difference in charge, which to some extent overcome the limitations of size difference...... of proteins on the basis of their charge, degree of hydrophobicity, affinity or size. Adequate purity is often not achieved unless several purification steps are combined thereby increasing cost and reducing product yield. Conventional fractionation of proteins using ultrafiltration membranes is limited...

  20. Fraction Reduction in Membrane Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraction reduction is a basic computation for rational numbers. P system is a new computing model, while the current methods for fraction reductions are not available in these systems. In this paper, we propose a method of fraction reduction and discuss how to carry it out in cell-like P systems with the membrane structure and the rules with priority designed. During the application of fraction reduction rules, synchronization is guaranteed by arranging some special objects in these rules. Our work contributes to performing the rational computation in P systems since the rational operands can be given in the form of fraction.

  1. Thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, T.V.; Privalov, V.E.; Stepanenko, atM.A.

    1979-08-01

    Research on the nature of thermochemical transformations of anthracite fractions and the possibility of increasing their activity and identifying conditions for their use in the electrode pitch process is described. From research done on different anthracite fractions processed at varying temperatures it was concluded that accumulations of condensates from heating anthracite fractions occur significantly slower in comparison with pitch. As a result the electrode pitch process is prolonged. Thermal treatment of an anthracite fraction causes the formation and accumulation of condensates and promotes thermochemical transformations. Lastly, the use of thermally treated anthracite fractions apparently intensifies the electrode pitch process and improves its quality. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  3. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  4. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  5. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  6. Toward lattice fractional vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-09-01

    An analog of fractional vector calculus for physical lattice models is suggested. We use an approach based on the models of three-dimensional lattices with long-range inter-particle interactions. The lattice analogs of fractional partial derivatives are represented by kernels of lattice long-range interactions, where the Fourier series transformations of these kernels have a power-law form with respect to wave vector components. In the continuum limit, these lattice partial derivatives give derivatives of non-integer order with respect to coordinates. In the three-dimensional description of the non-local continuum, the fractional differential operators have the form of fractional partial derivatives of the Riesz type. As examples of the applications of the suggested lattice fractional vector calculus, we give lattice models with long-range interactions for the fractional Maxwell equations of non-local continuous media and for the fractional generalization of the Mindlin and Aifantis continuum models of gradient elasticity.

  7. Performance comparison of optimal fractional order hybrid fuzzy PID controllers for handling oscillatory fractional order processes with dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Pan, Indranil; Das, Shantanu

    2013-07-01

    Fuzzy logic based PID controllers have been studied in this paper, considering several combinations of hybrid controllers by grouping the proportional, integral and derivative actions with fuzzy inferencing in different forms. Fractional order (FO) rate of error signal and FO integral of control signal have been used in the design of a family of decomposed hybrid FO fuzzy PID controllers. The input and output scaling factors (SF) along with the integro-differential operators are tuned with real coded genetic algorithm (GA) to produce optimum closed loop performance by simultaneous consideration of the control loop error index and the control signal. Three different classes of fractional order oscillatory processes with various levels of relative dominance between time constant and time delay have been used to test the comparative merits of the proposed family of hybrid fractional order fuzzy PID controllers. Performance comparison of the different FO fuzzy PID controller structures has been done in terms of optimal set-point tracking, load disturbance rejection and minimal variation of manipulated variable or smaller actuator requirement etc. In addition, multi-objective Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) has been used to study the Pareto optimal trade-offs between the set point tracking and control signal, and the set point tracking and load disturbance performance for each of the controller structure to handle the three different types of processes. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Local progression and pseudo progression after single fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain metastases. A single centre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Verbeek-de Kanter, A.; Mast, M. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Molenaar, R. [Diaconessenhuis, Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Vecht, C. [Medical Centre Haagladen, The Hague (Netherlands). Dept. of Neurology; Struikmans, H. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kal, H.B.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The 1-year local control rates after single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm diameter are less than 70%, but with fractionated SRT (FSRT) higher local control rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare our treatment results with SRT and FSRT for large brain metastases. Materials and methods: In two consecutive periods, 41 patients with 46 brain metastases received SRT with 1 fraction of 15 Gy, while 51 patients with 65 brain metastases received FSRT with 3 fractions of 8 Gy. We included patients with brain metastases with a planning target volume of > 13 cm{sup 3} or metastases in the brainstem. Results: The minimum follow-up of patients still alive was 22 months. Comparing 1 fraction of 15 Gy with 3 fractions of 8 Gy, the 1-year rates of freedom from any local progression (54% and 61%, p = 0.93) and pseudo progression (85% and 75%, p = 0.25) were not significantly different. Overall survival rates were also not different. Conclusion: The 1-year local progression and pseudo progression rates after 1 fraction of 15 Gy or 3 fractions of 8 Gy for large brain metastases and metastases in the brainstem are similar. For better local control rates, FSRT schemes with a higher biological equivalent dose may be necessary. (orig.)

  9. Local progression and pseudo progression after single fraction or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large brain metastases. A single centre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggenraad, R.; Verbeek-de Kanter, A.; Mast, M.; Molenaar, R.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.; Vecht, C.; Struikmans, H.; Leiden Univ. Medical Centre; Kal, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The 1-year local control rates after single-fraction stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases > 3 cm diameter are less than 70%, but with fractionated SRT (FSRT) higher local control rates have been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare our treatment results with SRT and FSRT for large brain metastases. Materials and methods: In two consecutive periods, 41 patients with 46 brain metastases received SRT with 1 fraction of 15 Gy, while 51 patients with 65 brain metastases received FSRT with 3 fractions of 8 Gy. We included patients with brain metastases with a planning target volume of > 13 cm 3 or metastases in the brainstem. Results: The minimum follow-up of patients still alive was 22 months. Comparing 1 fraction of 15 Gy with 3 fractions of 8 Gy, the 1-year rates of freedom from any local progression (54% and 61%, p = 0.93) and pseudo progression (85% and 75%, p = 0.25) were not significantly different. Overall survival rates were also not different. Conclusion: The 1-year local progression and pseudo progression rates after 1 fraction of 15 Gy or 3 fractions of 8 Gy for large brain metastases and metastases in the brainstem are similar. For better local control rates, FSRT schemes with a higher biological equivalent dose may be necessary. (orig.)

  10. Understanding the relationship between the EQ-5D, SF-6D, HAQ and disease activity in inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Adams, Roisin

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The growth of economic analyses and in particular cost-utility analyses (CUA), which use the QALY as a measure of outcome, has heightened the interest in the methodologies used to calculate the QALY. The EQ-5D has produced quite different utility values from that of the SF-6D. This article seeks to understand these differences using a cohort of patients with inflammatory arthritis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the disease-specific measure, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) disability index (DI) and the preference-based measures, SF-6D, EQ-5D and European League Against Arthritis (EULAR) Disease Activity Score (DAS) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: Patients with RA and PsA (n = 504) attending a tertiary rheumatology referral centre completed the HAQ, SF-6D and the EQ-5D before starting biological therapy and again 12 months later. The SF-36 was converted into a utility using the preference-based SF-6D. Clinical outcomes such as the DAS, joint counts and laboratory measures were also recorded. We calculated single index utility scores from the preference-based instruments using UK population norms. We used regression analysis to derive a mapping function and calculated utility scores from the HAQDI and the DAS 28. RESULTS: The mean utility observed at baseline for RA was 0.43 for the EQ-5D and 0.54 for the SF-6D and for PsA was 0.49 for the EQ-5D and 0.57 for the SF-6D. The utility gain demonstrated by the EQ-5D was over twice that of the SF-6D. The EQ-5D scored 17% of the RA group as less than 0 (state defined as worse than death); 7% of this group remained less than 0 at follow-up. The distribution of the utility estimates was similar for both RA and PsA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings draw attention to the impact of states worse than death on the overall distribution for the EQ-5D derived utilities and how these impact on its use in practice. EQ-5D-derived QALY changes are over twice

  11. Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denekamp, J.; McNally, N.J.; Fowler, J.F.; Joiner, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m 2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1-1.2 if extensive reoxygenation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m 2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large Sensitizer enhancement ratio values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous. (author)

  12. Fractionated afterloading therapy in inoperable malignant tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparenberg, A.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of the method of afterloading the range of uses for fractionated interstitial brady-therapy could be broadened to include malignant cerebral tumours. The mean survival time of 33 female patients was calculated to be 8.3 months for the entire group and 11.3 months for cases not otherwise pretreated. Even though the age, tumour volume, target dose and Karnofsky index obviously tended to influence the survival time, such relationships could not be confirmed statistically. Using the method by Kaplan-Meier it was determined that 65% of the total study group were likely to survive beyond six months and 32% to survive for one year. A separate analysis of patients receiving no previous treatment showed these chances to be 75% and 44%, respectively. The advantages of this therapy are discussed on a comparative basis. (VHE) [de

  13. Short Form of Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS-SF): Reliability, Validity and Gender Invariance among Chinese Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Liu, Jing Dong

    2018-02-01

    Independent from noise exposure, noise sensitivity plays a pivotal role in people's noise annoyance perception and concomitant health deteriorations. The present study empirically investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale-Short Form (CNSS-SF), the widely used inventory measuring individual differences in noise perception. In total, 373 Chinese participants (age = 21.41 ± 3.36) completed the online, anonymous questionnaire package. Examination of the CNSS-SF's reliability (internal consistency), factorial validity through validation and cross-validation, nomological validity and measurement invariance across gender groups were undertaken. The Cronbach alpha coefficients and composite reliabilities indicated sufficient reliability of the CNSS-SF. Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), in two randomly partitioned groups of participants, substantiated the factorial validity of the scale. The nomological validity of the scale was also corroborated by the significant positive association of its score with the trait anxiety score. Measurement invariance of the CNSS-SF was also found across genders via multi-group CFA. Though not without limitations, findings from the present research provide promising evidence for the utility of the scale in measuring noise sensitivity among the Chinese population. The availability of the CNSS-SF can promote research related to environmental noise and health in China, as well as facilitate cross-cultural comparisons. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  14. Exome-wide association study identifies a TM6SF2 variant that confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlitina, Julia; Smagris, Eriks; Stender, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of liver disease. To elucidate the molecular basis of NAFLD, we performed an exome-wide association study of liver fat content. Three variants were associated with higher liver fat levels at the exome-wide significance level of 3.......6 × 10(-7): two in PNPLA3, an established locus for NAFLD, and one (encoding p.Glu167Lys) in TM6SF2, a gene of unknown function. The TM6SF2 variant encoding p.Glu167Lys was also associated with higher circulating levels of alanine transaminase, a marker of liver injury, and with lower levels of low...... knockdown of Tm6sf2 in mice increased liver triglyceride content by threefold and decreased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion by 50%. Taken together, these data indicate that TM6SF2 activity is required for normal VLDL secretion and that impaired TM6SF2 function causally contributes to NAFLD....

  15. Down-regulation of TM4SF is associated with the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma TM4SF members in gastric carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guanbao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of TM4SF members CD9, CD63 and CD82 in human gastric carcinoma. Methods By employing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD9, CD63 and CD82 in 49 paired tissue specimens of normal gastric mucosa and carcinoma. All tissues were obtained from patients who underwent curative surgery. Results All normal gastric epithelium and gastric ulcer tissues strongly expressed transcripts and proteins of CD9, CD63 and CD82 as compared with corresponding controls. We found a significant correlation between CD63 mRNA level and different pM statuses (P = 0.036. Carcinomas in M0 stage revealed a stronger expression of CD63 than carcinomas in M1 stage. Expression of CD9 protein was found significantly stronger in pN0, pM0 than in advanced pN stages (P = 0.03, pM1 (P = 0.013, respectively. We found the relationship between CD63 expression, gender (p = 0.09 and nodal status (p = 0.028, respectively. Additionally, advanced and metastasized tumor tissues revealed significantly down-regulated CD82 protein expression (p = 0.033 and p = 0, respectively, which correlated with the tumor pTNM stage (p = 0.001. Conclusion The reduction of CD9, CD63 and CD82 expression are indicators for the metastatic potential of gastric carcinoma cells. Unlike their expression in other tumor types, the constitutive expression of CD63 may indicate that this factor does play a direct role in human gastric carcinogenesis.

  16. A track-event theory of cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. In this work a simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose is developed from Poisson statistics. An event is defined by two double strand breaks (DSB) on the same or different chromosomes. An event is always lethal due to direct lethal damage or lethal binary misrepair by the formation of chromosome aberrations. Two different mechanisms can produce events: one-track events (OTE) or two-track-events (TTE). The target for an OTE is always a lethal event, the target for an TTE is one DSB. At least two TTEs on the same or different chromosomes are necessary to produce an event. Both, the OTE and the TTE are statistically independent. From the stochastic nature of cell kill which is described by the Poisson distribution the cell survival probability was derived. It was shown that a solution based on Poisson statistics exists for cell survival. It exhibits exponential cell survival at high dose and a finite gradient of cell survival at vanishing dose, which is in agreement with experimental cell studies. The model fits the experimental data nearly as well as the three-parameter formula of Hug-Kellerer and is only based on two free parameters. It is shown that the LQ formalism is an approximation of the model derived in this work. It could be also shown that the derived model predicts a fractionated cell survival experiment better than the LQ-model. It was shown that cell survival can be described with a simple analytical formula on the basis of Poisson statistics. This solution represents in the limit of large dose the typical exponential behavior and predicts cell survival after fractionated dose application better than the LQ-model.

  17. A track-event theory of cell survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Physics; Radiotherapy Hirslanden, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-01

    When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. In this work a simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose is developed from Poisson statistics. An event is defined by two double strand breaks (DSB) on the same or different chromosomes. An event is always lethal due to direct lethal damage or lethal binary misrepair by the formation of chromosome aberrations. Two different mechanisms can produce events: one-track events (OTE) or two-track-events (TTE). The target for an OTE is always a lethal event, the target for an TTE is one DSB. At least two TTEs on the same or different chromosomes are necessary to produce an event. Both, the OTE and the TTE are statistically independent. From the stochastic nature of cell kill which is described by the Poisson distribution the cell survival probability was derived. It was shown that a solution based on Poisson statistics exists for cell survival. It exhibits exponential cell survival at high dose and a finite gradient of cell survival at vanishing dose, which is in agreement with experimental cell studies. The model fits the experimental data nearly as well as the three-parameter formula of Hug-Kellerer and is only based on two free parameters. It is shown that the LQ formalism is an approximation of the model derived in this work. It could be also shown that the derived model predicts a fractionated cell survival experiment better than the LQ-model. It was shown that cell survival can be described with a simple analytical formula on the basis of Poisson statistics. This solution represents in the limit of large dose the typical exponential behavior and predicts cell survival after fractionated dose application better than the LQ-model.

  18. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest that the origin of the odd denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which governs quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics does not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  19. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. High-resolution topography using SfM-photogrammetry from UAV for coastal mudflat geomorphic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Morvan, Sylvain; Dussouillez, Philippe; Gardel, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The coast between the Amazon and the Orinoco river mouths comprises mud banks formed from the large muddy discharge of the Amazon and migrating westward under the influence of waves and currents. These banks are highly dynamic and strongly affected by complex hydro-bio-geochemical interactions that are also important in mangrove colonization of bare mudflats in the upper intertidal zone of these banks. The surface topography of these mud banks is further affected by physical and biological processes such as tidal channel incision and bioturbation. Surveying the morphology of these mudflats over large areas and at a high-resolution without perturbing their surface is a real challenge that cannot be accomplished using classical survey methods such as RTK-GPS or Total Stations. To overcome this hurdle, we conducted a SfM(Surface from Motion)-photogrammetry experiment over 1 ha of a large intertidal mudflat colonized by pioneer mangroves at the mouth of the Sinnamary estuary in French Guiana. We developed a topographic data acquisition system based on sub-vertical aerial photography from a UAV flying at low altitude (15 m), in order to produce images at 3 mm resolution. A light DJI F550 drone was used, with an automatic flight programming using GPS navigation and a flight plan designed on photogrammetric criteria. The payload was a lightweight (250 grams) Ricoh GR camera with an APS-C sensor of 16.2 Megapixel and including an intervalometer triggering function. The drone had a flight autonomy of 12 minutes thus covering entirely the surrounding mudflat platform. The landing procedure was conducted manually in order for the drone to land safely on a very narrow artificial ground base set up for our experiment. 3D-models and derived products were generated using Agisoft Photoscan Professionnal software. We produced a gridded Digital Surface Model (DSM) and an orthophoto in visible bands at 1 cm and 5mm pixel resolution respectively. The vertical accuracy of the DSM based

  1. SF-ROCKS: Reaching Out to Communities and Kids With Science in San Francisco

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Grove, K.; La Force, M. J.; Pestrong, R.; Dempsey, D. P.; Garcia, O.; Garfield, N.

    2002-12-01

    The SF-ROCKS program at San Francisco State University (SFSU), funded by a grant from the NSF-OEDG program, aims to increase the number of traditionally underrepresented students who enter college as geoscience majors through a multi-faceted collaborative watershed research project that provides teacher training, student education, and several tiers of mentoring relationships. In partnership with the San Francisco Unified School District and the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), SFSU Geosciences Department faculty guide urban high school students and their teachers in field-based research projects in the Islais, Yosemite, and Mission creek watersheds in southeastern San Francisco. SFSU and CCSF students assist teachers in the classroom and help to mentor their students. The collaborative program has a research base at SFSU and during the next several years will involve five high schools in communities that have highly diverse populations and ongoing environmental problems. Our goal with each high school is to focus earth and environmental science teachers on the geologic setting around their school, and to provide teachers and their students with relevant resources via teacher workshops, frequent interactions with college faculty and students, and an interactive web site and GIS database. During the summer of 2002, project scientists worked with 9th grade Integrated/Environmental Science teachers at Phillip and Sala Burton High School on a multi-layered, hands-on mapping and sampling partnership designed to identify and monitor environmental hazards and watershed characteristics in the Yosemite Creek watershed. The watershed - within which Burton High School is located - provides an interdisciplinary focus for collecting and analyzing rocks, soils, water chemistry and rainfall characteristics. SFSU faculty incorporated concepts and data from the project into ten watershed-theme lesson plans that are now part of the year-long Integrated Science curriculum at the

  2. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  3. Fractional variational calculus in terms of Riesz fractional derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, O P

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents extensions of traditional calculus of variations for systems containing Riesz fractional derivatives (RFDs). Specifically, we present generalized Euler-Lagrange equations and the transversality conditions for fractional variational problems (FVPs) defined in terms of RFDs. We consider two problems, a simple FVP and an FVP of Lagrange. Results of the first problem are extended to problems containing multiple fractional derivatives, functions and parameters, and to unspecified boundary conditions. For the second problem, we present Lagrange-type multiplier rules. For both problems, we develop the Euler-Lagrange-type necessary conditions which must be satisfied for the given functional to be extremum. Problems are considered to demonstrate applications of the formulations. Explicitly, we introduce fractional momenta, fractional Hamiltonian, fractional Hamilton equations of motion, fractional field theory and fractional optimal control. The formulations presented and the resulting equations are similar to the formulations for FVPs given in Agrawal (2002 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272 368, 2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 10375) and to those that appear in the field of classical calculus of variations. These formulations are simple and can be extended to other problems in the field of fractional calculus of variations

  4. Modelling altered fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicting requirements of hyperfractionation and accelerated fractionation used in radiotherapy, and the development of computer modelling to predict how to obtain an optimum of tumour cell kill without exceeding normal-tissue tolerance. The present trend is to shorten hyperfractionated schedules from 6 or 7 weeks to give overall times of 4 or 5 weeks as in new schedules by Herskovic et al (1992) and Harari (1992). Very high doses are given, much higher than can be given when ultrashort schedules such as CHART (12 days) are used. Computer modelling has suggested that optimum overall times, to yield maximum cell kill in tumours ((α/β = 10 Gy) for a constant level of late complications (α/β = 3 Gy) would be X or X-1 weeks, where X is the doubling time of the tumour cells in days (Fowler 1990). For median doubling times of about 5 days, overall times of 4 or 5 weeks should be ideal. (U.K.)

  5. Ozone depleting substances and gases HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. Consumption and emissions 2003; Ozonlagsnedbrydende stoffer og drivhusgasserne HFC'er PFC'er og SF6. Forbrug og emissioner 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander Poulsen, T.

    2005-07-01

    The evaluation includes a calculation of actual emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6} in Denmark. In this calculation of actual emissions, the release from stock of greenhouse gases in products has been taken into account, and adjustments have been made for imports and exports of the greenhouse gases in products. The evaluation has partly been prepared to enable Denmark to fulfil its international obligations to provide information within this area, and partly to follow the trend in consumption and emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (BA)

  6. Accessible solitons of fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Zhang, Yiqi [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that accessible solitons described by an extended Schrödinger equation with the Laplacian of fractional dimension can exist in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The soliton solutions of the model are constructed by two special functions, the associated Legendre polynomials and the Laguerre polynomials in the fraction-dimensional space. Our results show that these fractional accessible solitons form a soliton family which includes crescent solitons, and asymmetric single-layer and multi-layer necklace solitons. -- Highlights: •Analytic solutions of a fractional Schrödinger equation are obtained. •The solutions are produced by means of self-similar method applied to the fractional Schrödinger equation with parabolic potential. •The fractional accessible solitons form crescent, asymmetric single-layer and multilayer necklace profiles. •The model applies to the propagation of optical pulses in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media.

  7. Test of Blanc's law for negative ion mobility in mixtures of SF6 with N2, O2 and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa, G; Urquijo, J de

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the mobility of negative ion species drifting in mixtures of SF 6 with N 2 , O 2 and air. The pulsed Townsend experiment was used for this purpose. The conditions of the experiment, high pressures and low values of the reduced electric field, E/N, ensured that the majority species drifting in the gap was SF 6 - , to which the present mobilities are ascribed. The extrapolated, zero field mobilities for several mixture compositions were used to test them successfully with Blanc's law. Moreover, the measured zero field SF 6 - mobilities in air could also be explained in terms of the measured mobilities for this ionic species in N 2 and O 2

  8. Assessment of Eco-friendly Gases for Electrical Insulation to Replace the Most Potent Industrial Greenhouse Gas SF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Mohamed; Franck, Christian M

    2018-01-16

    Gases for electrical insulation are essential for the operation of electric power equipment. This Review gives a brief history of gaseous insulation that involved the emergence of the most potent industrial greenhouse gas known today, namely sulfur hexafluoride. SF 6 paved the way to space-saving equipment for the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Its ever-rising usage in the electrical grid also played a decisive role in the continuous increase of atmospheric SF 6 abundance over the last decades. This Review broadly covers the environmental concerns related to SF 6 emissions and assesses the latest generation of eco-friendly replacement gases. They offer great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from electrical equipment but at the same time involve technical trade-offs. The rumors of one or the other being superior seem premature, in particular because of the lack of dielectric, environmental, and chemical information for these relatively novel compounds and their dissociation products during operation.

  9. Psychometric Properties and Structural Validity of the Short Version of the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ-SF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Manrique Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Personality Belief Questionnaire- Short Form (PBQ-SF is an assessment instrument of personality beliefs based on the cognitive theory that states that these are characterized by a specific pattern of dysfunctional thoughts. The objective of this study was to establish the psychometric properties and structural validity of the PBQ-SF questionnaire in Colombian adults from 18 to 35 years old. To carry out the above and with permission of the author the validation process was initiated following a thorough and rigorous process that led to a final version of the PBQ-SF applied to 1423 persons born in Colombia and living in nine Colombian cities. Analysis of internal consistency among the items (Cronbach´s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis and calculus of goodness of fit estimators were performed. It was found that the Internal consistency of the domains varied from 0,65 for avoidant disorder up to 0,83 for paranoid disorder.

  10. Use of the SF-8 detection spectrophotometer for measuring absorption spectra of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlin, V.P.; Barbanel', Yu.A.

    1975-01-01

    Three versions of the use of the SF-8 spectrophotometer for high-temperature measurements are described: 1) based on the standard optical scheme at temperatures of up to 400 0 C; 2) based on a modified one-wave scheme; 3) based on a modified twin-wave scheme. The external heater used in the schemes 2 and 3 ensures that measurements can be performed at temperatures of up to 1000 0 C. In order to obtain the spectra of thin-layer samples vessels with an insert are used. For operation of the spectrophotometer according to the schemes 2 and 3 te heater may in principle be replaced by a cryostat or some other external device

  11. Critical current oscillations in S/F heterostructures in the presence of s-d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.V.; Ryzhanova, N.V.; Pugach, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    Josephson current is investigated in the superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It was shown that the current exhibited damping oscillations as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness. Previous theories based on Usadel or Eilenberger equations have predicted that the damping length and oscillation period divided by 2π were the same for weak ferromagnetic spacer. This contradicts past experiments. A new calculation of the Josephson current is proposed. The Gorkov equations are solved taking into account s-d scattering in ferromagnet. It is shown that the oscillation period depends only on the exchange magnetic field in the spacer, whereas the damping length is connected to the ferromagnetic mean free path. The concordance with the former experiment allows one to conclude that s-d scattering as a pair-breaking mechanism plays a significant role in the proximity effect in S/F heterostructures

  12. Assessment of potential perturbations to Posiva's SF repository at Olkiluoto from the ONKALO Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Neall, F.B.

    2007-06-01

    Although the site of the proposed spent fuel repository at Olkiluoto in southwest Finland has been extensively investigated over the last fifteen years, Posiva decided to construct a rock characterisation facility (RCF) at the site to collect more detailed information on the host rock. The data provided by the ONKALO RCF will support the detailed repository design and safety assessment (SA) and will allow construction and disposal methods to be tested under relevant in situ conditions. ONKALO has been so designed that it can act as access routes and auxiliary rooms for the SF repository and so may be in use for the entire operational phase of the repository (currently up to 100 years). Extensive experience from deep mining suggests that such an extended period of operation could have a major impact on both the host rock formation and any nearby facilities, such as the SF repository, and, consequently, Posiva decided to investigate potential perturbations to the repository caused by the existence of ONKALO. A preliminary assessment was carried out in 2003, before construction of the RCF began, and this was recently partially updated in early 2006. This current report represents the most recent update of these reports and has the primary aims of: checking if the previous reports have missed any essential issues; evaluating whether the identified issues have been treated in an appropriate manner; updating the reports in the light of new information. This is carried out based on data from ONKALO itself and on improved understanding of some of the perturbation mechanisms identified in the original studies along with a consideration of newly identified processes. This report differs from the previous studies in addressing the issues in a more SA-oriented manner (for example, focussing the examination of potential perturbations on a re-worked FEP list), allowing the work reported here to be more easily dovetailed with future SA studies on the Olkiluoto repository

  13. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Sensors and Application on Detecting SF6 Decomposing Products: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have aroused enormous focus on a wide range of engineering fields because of their unique structure. One of the most promising applications is gas adsorption and sensing. In electrical engineering, graphene-based sensors are also employed as detecting devices to estimate the operation status of gas insulated switchgear (GIS. This paper reviews the main synthesis methods of graphene, gas adsorption, and sensing mechanism of its based sensors, as well as their applications in detecting SF6 decomposing products, such as SO2, H2S, SO2F2, and SOF2, in GIS. Both theoretical and experimental researches on gas response of graphene-based sensors to these typical gases are summarized. Finally, the future research trend about graphene synthesis technique and relevant perspective are also given.

  14. Safety Test Report for the PWR S/F Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Koo, K. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S.; Bang, K. S.; Park, H. Y.; Jang, S. Y

    2008-10-15

    This is contract report conducted by KAERI under the contract with NETEC for safety test for the PWR S/F dry storage system. Leak Test was performed after drop test and turn-over test, the measured leakage rate was lower than allowable leakage rate. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the dry storage system is maintained. In the seismic test, the moving of the model was measured at SRTH seismic response of 0.4 g and 0.8 g. Therefore the seismic test results can be used fully to the test data for verification of the seismic analysis. In the thermal test, the direction of the inlet and outlet of the air has no effect on the heat transfer performance. The passive heat removal system of the horizontal storage module was designed well.

  15. Internal rotation in trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride: CF3SF5 by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Eizi; Kawasima, Yoshiyuki; Ajiki, Ken

    2017-12-01

    Trifluoromethylsulfur pentafluoride CF3SF5, which has been attracting much attention because of its unusually large global warming potential, was investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in order to determine the twelve-fold potential barrier to internal rotation in this molecule. We have found the V12 value to be close to zero. Relaxation among internal-rotation and overall-rotation levels was found inhomogeneous, resulting in distributions quite different from thermal in low-temperature molecular beam, which might affect significantly thermodynamic properties of the molecule. Rotational spectra of the 13C species and the 34S species were also observed in natural abundance, leading to the rs Csbnd S bond length of 1.8808 (7) Å.

  16. Gray QB-sing-faced version 2 (SF2) open environment test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bobbitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Negron, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This report details the design upgrades incorporated into the new version of the GrayQbTM SF2 device and the characterization testing of this upgraded device. Results from controlled characterization testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) R&D Engineering Imaging and Radiation Lab (IRL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) is presented, as well as results from the open environment field testing performed in the E-Area Low Level Waste Storage Area. Resultant images presented in this report were generated using the SRNL developed Radiation Analyzer (RAzerTM) software program which overlays the radiation contour images onto the visual image of the location being surveyed.

  17. A formulation of spiral inflector design and its application to SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Shida, Y.; Ohshiro, Y.; Fujita, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, N.; Nishiguchi, M.

    1992-07-01

    Ion trajectories through a spiral inflector are analyzed. In the case of a uniform magnetic field, it is shown that the central trajectory can be expressed as a simple analytical form, which includes all the inflector types already known. By using a curvilinear coordinate along the central trajectory, the equations of motion of non-central ions are modified to describe the ion motion in the transverse and longitudinal planes. A method is presented to expand the electric potential around the central trajectory to calculate the electric field to be used in the equations of motion. In the method, an electric potential thus obtained is used instead of the electric field, which guarantees the energy conservation of the ions through the inflector. Numerical studies have been carried out for design of an inflector for the SF cyclotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. (author)

  18. Development of heavy-ion beams at the INS 176-cm SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kenji; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Tanabe, Tetsumi; Sakurada, Yuzo; Yamazaki, Tsutomu.

    1982-10-01

    Heavy-ion beams at the INS SF cyclotron have been developed since the first beam was obtained in 1974. Multiply-charged heavy ions of gaseous material lighter than Ne have been successfully accelerated. An internal ion source for solid material has been made and high-intensity beams of sup(6,7)Li 3 + have been obtained. A pulsed arc power supply of the current-regulator type was constructed by using a tetrode. Two models of the PIG source of the self-heated cold-cathode type have been made and one of them is now in use. Some of the cyclotron components were also improved for efficient use of heavy-ion beams. (author)

  19. Fractional Calculus and Shannon Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Cattani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An explicit analytical formula for the any order fractional derivative of Shannon wavelet is given as wavelet series based on connection coefficients. So that for any 2(ℝ function, reconstructed by Shannon wavelets, we can easily define its fractional derivative. The approximation error is explicitly computed, and the wavelet series is compared with Grünwald fractional derivative by focusing on the many advantages of the wavelet method, in terms of rate of convergence.

  20. Fractional variational principles in action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleanu, Dumitru [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Art and Sciences, Cankaya University, 06530 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, PO Box MG-23, R 76900, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: dumitru@cankaya.edu.tr

    2009-10-15

    The fractional calculus has gained considerable importance in various fields of science and engineering, especially during the last few decades. An open issue in this emerging field is represented by the fractional variational principles area. Therefore, the fractional Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton equations started to be examined intensely during the last decade. In this paper, we review some new trends in this field and we discuss some of their potential applications.

  1. Fractional quiver W-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taro; Pestun, Vasily

    2018-04-01

    We introduce quiver gauge theory associated with the non-simply laced type fractional quiver and define fractional quiver W-algebras by using construction of Kimura and Pestun (Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1072-1; Lett Math Phys, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11005-018-1073-0) with representation of fractional quivers.

  2. On the Fractional Mean Value

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinabadi, Abdolali Neamaty; Nategh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This work, dealt with the classical mean value theorem and took advantage of it in the fractional calculus. The concept of a fractional critical point is introduced. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of a critical point is studied and an illustrative example rele- vant to the concept of the time dilation effect is given. The present paper also includes, some connections between convexity (and monotonicity) with fractional derivative in the Riemann-Liouville sense.

  3. SF Box--a tool for evaluating the effects on soil functions in remediation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchko, Yevheniya; Norrman, Jenny; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy

    2014-10-01

    Although remediation is usually aimed at reducing the risks posed by contaminants to human health and the environment, it is also desirable that the remediated soil within future green spaces is capable of providing relevant ecological functions, e.g., basis for primary production. Yet while addressing a contamination problem by reducing contaminant concentration and/or amounts in the soil, the remedial action itself can lead to soil structure disturbances, decline in organic matter and nutrient deficiencies, and in turn affect a soil's capacity to carry out its ecological soil functions. This article presents the Soil Function Box (SF Box) tool that is aimed to facilitate integration of information from suggested soil quality indicators (SQIs) into a management process in remediation using a scoring method. The scored SQIs are integrated into a soil quality index corresponding to 1 of 5 classes. SF Box is applied to 2 cases from Sweden (Kvillebäcken and Hexion), explicitly taking into consideration uncertainties in the results by means of Monte Carlo simulations. At both sites the generated soil quality indices corresponded to a medium soil performance (soil class 3) with a high certainty. The main soil constraints at both Kvillebäcken and Hexion were associated with biological activity in the soil, as soil organisms were unable to supply plant-available N. At the Kvillebäcken site the top layer had a content of coarse fragment (ø > 2 mm) higher than 35%, indicating plant rooting limitations. At the Hexion site, the soil had limited amount of organic matter, thus poor aggregate stability and nutrient cycling potential. In contrast, the soil at Kvillebäcken was rich in organic matter. The soils at both sites were capable of storing a sufficient amount of water for soil organisms between precipitation events. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  5. The reliability and validity of Chinese version of SF36 v2 in aging patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Aishu; Chen, Sisi; Zhu, Lianlian; Shi, Lingmin; Cai, Yueli; Zeng, Jingni; Guo, Wenjian

    2017-08-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a major public health problem worldwide, seriously limits health-related quality of life (HRQOL). How to evaluate HRQOL in older patients with CHF remains a problem. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form version 2 (SF-36v2) in CHF patients. From September 2012 to June 2014, we assessed QOL using the SF-36v2 in 171 aging participants with CHF in four cardiology departments. Convergent and discriminant validity, factorial validity, sensitivity among different NYHA classes and between different age groups, and reliability were determined using standard measurement methods. A total of 150 participants completed a structured questionnaire including general information and the Chinese SF-36v2; 132 questionnaires were considered valid, while 21 patients refused to take part. 25 of the 50 participants invited to complete the 2-week test-retest questionnaires returned completed questionnaires. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total SF-36v2 was 0.92 (range 0.74-0.93). All hypothesized item-subscale correlations showed satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity. Sensitivity was measured in different NYHA classes and age groups. Comparison of different NYHA classes showed statistical significance, but there was no significant difference between age groups. We confirmed the SF-36v2 as a valid instrument for evaluating HRQOL Chinese CHF patients. Both reliability and validity were strongly satisfactory, but there was divergence in understanding subscales such as "social functioning" because of differing cultural background. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity of SF-36v2 in aging patients with CHF were acceptable.

  6. Validation of Catquest-9SF-A Visual Disability Instrument to Evaluate Patient Function After Corneal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Margareta; Armitage, W John; Byström, Berit; Montan, Per; Samolov, Branka; Stenvi, Ulf; Lundström, Mats

    2017-09-01

    Catquest-9SF is a 9-item visual disability questionnaire developed for evaluating patient-reported outcome measures after cataract surgery. The aim of this study was to use Rasch analysis to determine the responsiveness of Catquest-9SF for corneal transplant patients. Patients who underwent corneal transplantation primarily to improve vision were included. One group (n = 199) completed the Catquest-9SF questionnaire before corneal transplantation and a second independent group (n = 199) completed the questionnaire 2 years after surgery. All patients were recorded in the Swedish Cornea Registry, which provided clinical and demographic data for the study. Winsteps software v.3.91.0 (Winsteps.com, Beaverton, OR) was used to assess the fit of the Catquest-9SF data to the Rasch model. Rasch analysis showed that Catquest-9SF applied to corneal transplant patients was unidimensional (infit range, 0.73-1.32; outfit range, 0.81-1.35), and therefore, measured a single underlying construct (visual disability). The Rasch model explained 68.5% of raw variance. The response categories of the 9-item questionnaire were ordered, and the category thresholds were well defined. Item difficulty matched the level of patients' ability (0.36 logit difference between the means). Precision in terms of person separation (3.09) and person reliability (0.91) was good. Differential item functioning was notable for only 1 item (satisfaction with vision), which had a differential item functioning contrast of 1.08 logit. Rasch analysis showed that Catquest-9SF is a valid instrument for measuring visual disability in patients who have undergone corneal transplantation primarily to improve vision.

  7. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  8. Cell survival and radiation induced chromosome aberrations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Braselmann, H.

    1986-01-01

    Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated in whole blood with 0.5-4.0 Gy of 220 kVp X-rays and the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in 1st or 2nd division metaphases discriminated by fluorescence plus giemsa staining. Using the empirical distributions of aberrations among cells, cell survival and transmission of aberrations were investigated. Considering both daughter cells, we found that 20% of fragments and 55% of dicentrics or ring chromosomes are lost during the 1st cell division; i.e. cell survival rate from 1st to 2nd generation is mainly influenced by anaphase bridging of these two-hit aberrations. Cell survival to 2nd mitosis was calculated considering this situation and compared with the survival derived from the fraction of M1 cells without unstable aberrations. The resulting shouldered survival curves showed significantly different slopes, indicating that cell reproductive death is overestimated in the latter approach. (orig.)

  9. Short-term irradiation of the glioblastoma with high-dosed fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkelbein, W.; Bruggmoser, G.; Schmidt, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1984-01-01

    Compared to surgery alone, postoperative radiotherapy leads with glioblastomas (grade IV gliomas) to a significant improvement of the therapeutic results. The prolongation of survival time, however, is to a large extent compensated by the therapy itself (it normally implicates hospitalisation). Therefore, we tested the efficiency of rapid course irradiation with high fractions. 70 patients were treated daily with individual fractions of 3.5 Gy, 4 to 6 fractions per week. The entire dose amounted to 31.5 to 38.5 Gy. The average survival time was 33.5 weeks corresponding to the survival time known from the combined surgical and radiotherapeutical treatment of glioblastomas. An effective increase in therapy-free survival time seems possible, especially when the entire focal dose does not exceed 35 Gy. It is remarkable that the patients with the maximum exposure did not have the longest survival times and rates. Living conditions for the patients were similar to those with conventional fractioning, or even better. Rapid course irradiation with high fractions and a limited total dose (35 Gy) presently is - apart from the accelerated superfractioning - a successful measure to prolong the therapyfree survival time for patients with grade IV gliomas. (orig.) [de

  10. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Omidvari, Speideh

    2009-09-16

    The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female). The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4) and 10.2 (SD = 4.4) years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS); Cronbach's alpha for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.001). In addition, correlations between the SF-12 scales and single items showed that the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12 score, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales more correlated with the MCS-12 score lending support to its good convergent validity. Finally the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 57.8% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to

  11. The response of mouse skin and lung to fractionated x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Hornsey, S.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between total dose and number of fractions has been investigated for damage to lung and skin in mice. Single doses and various numbers of fractions have been given and the results are analysed in two ways: (i) by comparing the fractionated treatment with a single dose. With this approach, and assuming that the observed damage to lung and skin is the result of cell killing, it is estimated that the ratio of initial to final slope of the cell survival curve is about 7:1; (ii) by measuring the additional dose required when the number of fractions is doubled. These results are roughly fitted by a single-hit times multitarget survival-curve model, with the ratio of slopes about 3:1. It is concluded from this discrepancy that the two-component model is an inadequate description of the survival curve for the cells of either skin or lung. (author)

  12. Survival and infectivity of chicken ascarid eggs in soil after exposure to an egg-degrading microfungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Meyling, Nicolai V.

    The microfungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been shown to kill high numbers of chicken ascarid (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) eggs in vitro but it is not known if surviving eggs may be infective. Unembryonated ascarid eggs (predominantly A. galli) were therefore isolated from faeces and added...... to sterilised (S) or non-sterilised (N) soil in Petri dishes that were either treated with P. chlamydosporia (F) or left untreated (C) during incubation at 22°C for 35 days. Egg recovery was estimated before (day 0) and after (day 35) treatment. Thereafter, each of four groups of parasite-free egg-laying hens...... was exposed to the soil from one of the four treatments in the feed over 12 days. The hens were necropsied day 42 post first exposure. The number of surviving eggs was most substantially reduced in SF soil and SF hens had statistically lower worm burdens (both parasites) compared to SC, NC and NF hens...

  13. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  14. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  15. Clinical significance of estimation of changes in serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Peidong; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with chronic nephritis. Methods: Serum SF (with RIA) and serum VEGF, HGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 30 patients with chronic nephritis both before and after a course of transfusion of RBC and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion the serum SF levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels were clinically useful for the progress, prognosis and judgement of chronic nephritis. (authors)

  16. A global model for SF6 plasmas coupling reaction kinetics in the gas phase and on the surface of the reactor walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokkoris, George; Panagiotopoulos, Apostolos; Gogolides, Evangelos; Goodyear, Andy; Cooke, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Gas phase and reactor wall-surface kinetics are coupled in a global model for SF 6 plasmas. A complete set of gas phase and surface reactions is formulated. The rate coefficients of the electron impact reactions are based on pertinent cross section data from the literature, which are integrated over a Druyvesteyn electron energy distribution function. The rate coefficients of the surface reactions are adjustable parameters and are calculated by fitting the model to experimental data from an inductively coupled plasma reactor, i.e. F atom density and pressure change after the ignition of the discharge. The model predicts that SF 6 , F, F 2 and SF 4 are the dominant neutral species while SF 5 + and F - are the dominant ions. The fit sheds light on the interaction between the gas phase and the reactor walls. A loss mechanism for SF x radicals by deposition of a fluoro-sulfur film on the reactor walls is needed to predict the experimental data. It is found that there is a net production of SF 5 , F 2 and SF 6 , and a net consumption of F, SF 3 and SF 4 on the reactor walls. Surface reactions as well as reactions between neutral species in the gas phase are found to be important sources and sinks of the neutral species.

  17. Tracking plasma cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katrin; Oehme, Laura; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Zhang, Yang; Niesner, Raluca; Hauser, Anja E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cells play a crucial role for the humoral immune response as they represent the body's factories for antibody production. The differentiation from a B cell into a plasma cell is controlled by a complex transcriptional network and happens within secondary lymphoid organs. Based on their lifetime, two types of antibody secreting cells can be distinguished: Short-lived plasma cells are located in extrafollicular sites of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node medullary cords and the splenic red pulp. A fraction of plasmablasts migrate from secondary lymphoid organs to the bone marrow where they can become long-lived plasma cells. Bone marrow plasma cells reside in special microanatomical environments termed survival niches, which provide factors promoting their longevity. Reticular stromal cells producing the chemokine CXCL12, which is known to attract plasmablasts to the bone marrow but also to promote plasma cell survival, play a crucial role in the maintenance of these niches. In addition, hematopoietic cells are contributing to the niches by providing other soluble survival factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on the factors involved in plasma cell differentiation, their localization and migration. We also give an overview on what is known regarding the maintenance of long lived plasma cells in survival niches of the bone marrow. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  18. The Mounting process and dielectric tests of the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6(220 Kv); Montaje y pruebas dielectricas de la estacion blindada en gas SF6 (220 kV) 'Parque Caballero'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decoud, Carlos; Bobadilla, Alberto [ANDE - Administracion Nacional de Electricidad, Assuncion (Paraguay)

    2001-07-01

    This document approaches the aspects referring to the mounting and also dielectric tests for the Parque Caballero armored substation in SF6. This type of installation represents a innovation regarding substations in urban centres. The most relevant items in relation to the mounting process are shown in a summarized way, as well as the aspects related to dielectric tests executed during the substation commissioning.

  19. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  20. Unwrapping Students' Ideas about Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca M.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Kazemi, Elham; Lind, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Supporting students to develop an understanding of the meaning of fractions is an important goal of elementary school mathematics. This involves developing partitioning strategies, creating representations, naming fractional quantities, and using symbolic notation. This article describes how teachers can use a formative assessment problem to…